VIDEO: The Home Front in Jefferson County Then-Virginia, September-October, 1862 Click Here. TRT: 12:07.
flickr 114 images Click Here.
Let us pause in life’s pleasures and count its many tears, while we all sup sorrow with the poor. There’s a song that will linger forever in our ears: “Oh! hard times, come again no more.”
The first in this series of short videos described the perilous time for Confederate cavalryman J.E.B. Stuart and his men at a seldom used river crossing. The second video of the series covered from September 22nd thru September 28, 1862 in Jefferson County, then-Virginia from
the viewpoints of Heros Von Borck and George Neese, two Confederate cavalryman, and Charles Fuller, a private from upstate New York who was on picket near Harper’s Ferry. This, the third of the series, covers the Jefferson County home front through September-October, 1862, a
for roughly 7,000 wounded men all across the county and region, the destruction of railroads by Confederates, intermittent Federal incursions into the County, that were met with counter-attacks by the Confederate cavalry pickets. When there was peace, it was readily
embraced and enjoyed by all. As Cavalryman and County native, John Opie wrote: “To say that the soldiers enjoyed this long period of rest during the delightful fall of 1862, after the arduous campaign through which we had passed, hardly expresses it.”
The Antietam/Sharpsburg battle left about 7,000 men strewn across the County desperately needing care.
Abner Hard from Illinois found Col. William Magill of the 1st Georgia Regulars at a house two miles from Shepherdstown. He wrote: “A few miles further on at a farm-house we found Colonel Magill and other rebel officers, suffering from severe wounds. The Colonel had an arm amputated at the shoulder, which, for the want of proper care, was alive with maggots. After dressing their wounds we learned that the Colonel had been educated at West Point, and was a classmate of General Pleasanton.”
Fanny Aglionby and her son, Frank, continued to spend long days caring for wounded at their Elk Branch Church in Duffields. They were assessing also the $1475 in damage done to their farm and property located where the Battle of Shepherdstown was fought just a few days before.
Dr. Mason in Charles Town had given one of the Ambler girls 50 dollars in gold to buy drugs in Baltimore, which she carried back and safely through the Federal pickets at Harper’s Ferry well hidden in her hoops.
Christine Fouke, one wrote, “stood out as the Florence Nightingale of this County,” and her nieces brought her buttermilk for soldiers at the Carter House Hotel and at Mr. Edward Campbell’s drugstore in Charles Town. John Fairbairn of the Third South Carolina Regiment, wrote her the 24th of June, 1863: “Probably you have forgotten me, but I have never forgotten you and the numbers of people in your kind town. .
I was in the room (at Carter House) as you go in, entrance from the front. I sat in an arm chair day and night . . . and I’m tendering
you the sincerest thanks for your kindness to me and (to) the noble lady who gave me a bottle of Wister’s Balsam Wild Cherry, for my cough . . . also Miss Straith, the daughter of Doctor Straith . . . I believe candidly that to you and to her I owe my present existence.”
(Fairbairn, sadly, would be killed the following year, July 2nd, at Gettysburg).
The Edge Hill Cemetery stone for Lieutenant Gill of North Carolina is for a man cared for by the Griggs family in their house, then on the site of today’s Wright-Denny School. After he died from wounds, and Miss Griggs wrote his family, his sister, Pamela Gill, wrote Miss Griggs from Henderson, North Carolina October 20, 1862: “Mother still feels unequal to the task of writing and therefore begged me . . to write and try to tell you how grateful she was that her darling had met with such kindness at your hands. . .”
A ghastly account of the Charles Town family of Mrs. Graham Wilson concerning James Timberlake, who was brought wounded to Charles Town. A “Mrs. Forrest” was nursing him. After his wound was dressed, she sat by him, a lamp nearby throwing a light on his bed. During the night she saw blood spurt high in the air from his wound. There was no time to get a doctor, so she sat the rest of the night with her thumb in the broken artery. She saved his life, but some years later he died from the effects of his war experiences.
A “Mrs. Lefevre” went as a girl with her mother carrying food to the old Methodist Church in Charles Town. Andrew Selden carried luxuries with his grand-mother for those in the little one-story brick building, adjoining the old bank of Charles Town, the Board room, and watched the removal of a man’s leg as he lay motionless on the Board table.
On a lighter note in Shepherdstown, a half-starved soldier sat down to dine at a home on north Princess Street. He looked at what was on his plate and exclaimed in a drawl: “Well goll-durn you Mr. Hog-Jall! I’d know’d you anywhere, even if you were in your Sunday suit!”
Felix Warren wrote to “The Ladies of Shepherdstown:” “May the blessings of an unseen hand; Upon this place attend; For they indeed have proved to us; To be the soldier’s friend; Fathers, Mothers Sisters dear; For us count do not more; For they have eas’d our painful wounds; Whilst weltering in our gore.”
About thirty-nine men from Jefferson County homes were present for duty and well positioned while their commander rested – to visit in the
WILLIAM H. ENGLE;
EDWARD LAWRENCE HENSEL;
JOHN FREDERICK KEPLINGER;
GEORGE F. BURKE;
GEORGE HENRY KIMES;
JOHN NEWTON KIMES;
CHARLES HENRY KNOTT;
JOHN J. LEMEN;
THOMAS T. LEMEN;
WILLOUGHBY N. LEMEN;
ROBERT RION LUCAS;
JAMES MASON MARSHALL;
PHINEAS PATRICK MARSHALL;
WILLIAM A. MORGAN;
DAVID H. MYERS;
JOHN W. MYERS;
ROBERT LEWIS OSBOURN;
NATHANIEL HITE WILLIS;
JAMES TRURO SHEPHERD;
JAMES EPHRAIM WATSON;
JOHN J. WATSON;
MAYBERRY GOHEEN SMALL
All that remained between the greatest pleasure – a month at The Bower for Stuart’s headquarter’s staff – were some run-ins with some ridin’-for-hot-leather bluecoats.
Related Local links:
A Limb For A Life – George Wunderlich, Executive Director, The National Museum of Civil War Medicine describes how even more amputations would have saved yet many more lives.
Ambler, Lucy J. “Care of the Sick and Wounded in the War Between The States.” Spirit of Jefferson, January 22, 1941.
Bates, Robert L. (1958). “The Story of Smithfield (Middleway), Jefferson County, West Virginia 1729-1905.” Self-published. pp. 96-97.
“During the rest of the autumn the cavalry of both armies was rendered almost useless by an epidemic called “greased heel,” among the horses.” – Crowninshield, Benjamin W.; Gleason, Daniel H. L. (1891) “A history of the First regiment of Massachusetts cavalry volunteers.” Cambridge, MA: Riverdale Press. Print.
Crowninshield, p. 16.
Hard, Abner, M.D. (1868). “History of the Eighth Cavalry Regiment Illinois Volunteers.” Aurora, Ill.: self-published. pp. 190-192. Print.
Hard, Abner, M.D.(1868). “History of the Eighth Cavalry Regiment Illinois Volunteers.” Google Books. 15 August 2006 Web. 18 July 2012. pp. 190-192.
September 29th, a reconnoissance in force was made, General Pleasanton commanding. Colonel Farnsworth being unwell our brigade was under the command of Colonel Williams, of the First Massachusetts Cavalry. . . . The command, as in most cases, was divided into squads which took different roads. The First Massachusetts Cavalry woke up a rebel battery, and about one hundred of the regiment were hotly pursued by the enemy, who followed them on “double quick” until they came to our regiment when the pursuit suddenly ended. The result of this day’s work was the capture of a few soldiers, the paroling of about five hundred sick and wounded, the transferring several of our men to our own hospitals and s safe return to camp without loss, after having discovered the enemy’s position.
A few miles further on at a farm-house we found Colonel Magill and other rebel officers, suffering from severe wounds. The Colonel had an arm amputated at the shoulder, which, for want of proper care, was alive with maggots. After dressing their wounds we learned that the Colonel had been educated at West Point, and was a classmate of General Pleasanton.
September 30th one squadron, under Captain Waite, went to Shepherdstown to act as escort for the Provost Marshal, where they had a lively skirmish. A man belonging to Company B, made such a sudden dash on a rebel picket that he barely escaped by leaving his pistol and sabre.
It became necessary that a reconnoissance should be made in the direction of Martinsburg, to see what had become of the retreating army of Lee. Our army, or a large portion of it, was encamped in the vicinity of Sharpsburg. General Pleasanton, in command of the cavalry corps, was directed to execute this perilous duty, and if possible reach the town. Selecting the Eighth Illinois, a portion of the Eighth Pennsylvania, and one battery of Regular Artillery, he crossed the Potomac at Shepherdstown, at an early hour on the morning of the 1st of October, the Eighth Illinois being in the advance. We had proceeded but two or three miles when the advance guard, under command of Captain Forsythe, came upon tho enemy’s cavalry. The Captain, with a furious charge, such as he was in the habit of making, gallantly dispersed their advance, but finding them in too strong force to be easily driven, a section of the artillery was brought forward and forced them to retire, which they did very reluctantly, stoutly contesting every part of the road to Martinsburg, a distance of seven or eight miles.
On approaching the town our troops were ordered to make a dash into it, which they did, capturing a number of the enemy, releasing some of our men held as prisoners of war, securing a quantity of plunder and driving a large force of them out of the place. It was about one o’clock when we entered and took possession. During the forenoon the rebel cavalry manifested that stubbornness and confidence which is always inspired by the consciousness of superior numbers. Our forces sustained a loss of several wounded but none killed. We killed one or two of their number. Numerous bodies of the enemy had been seen at a distance during the day, and while we remained in possession of the town they still lingered, keeping up a constant on fire our pickets and advanced posts. Our prisoners showed by their conduct that they had very little idea of being obliged to re-cross the Potomac with us. From the inhabitants, some of whom were union at heart, we learned that a large force was encamped about us; and we afterwards ascertained that during all this time, up to four o’clock in the afternoon, the commander of the rebels was engaged concentrating his forces ready to “gobble up” our entire command whenever we attempted to return. However we had a word to say on that subject.
At about four o’clock P.M., General Pleasanton having gained all the information possible of the situation of the rebel army, made preparations to return. This move called for more military skill, caution and courage than it had required to advance. We were twelve miles from Shepherdstown, the nearest ford, with a force not to exceed eight hundred men, (our regiment being very much reduced at that time,) and with an opposition of five or six times our number on all sides, well acquainted with the country, of which we were comparatively ignorant.
On withdrawing, the Eighth Illinois was placed in the rear of the column, the rear guard being commanded by Major Medill. Scarcely had our pickets left their post before the rebel cavalry came pouring along in pursuit. The streets were filled and completely blockaded with them. A section of our artillery, placed on a slight eminence just outside of town, and trained to bear on a bridge, with a few well directed shots held the enemy in check for a short time, and created considerable confusion in their ranks. This enabled our advance to move some distance ahead, when the artillery was withdrawn, leaving Captain Clark, with his squadron, in the extreme rear. Ere long those in the front discovered that the enemy had taken advantage of Captain Clark’s position and were sending terrific showers of shot into the midst of his gallant little band. The Captain sent word to Major Medill that it would be impossible for him to hold out much longer, when one squadron of the Eighth Pennsylvania was placed in a commanding position to assist in repulsing the enemy; but their commander seeing the situation of affairs, and knowing that it would be a warmly contested point, abandoned his position without firing a shot. We then placed two pieces of artillery in position and opened fire upon the rebels to protect Captain Clark. It was, however, like firing against a tornado. The enemy by passing on either side of the road were enabled to rush madly on, seemingly determined to surround us at all hazards. Our artillery was obliged to fall back to prevent being captured.
Major Medill ordered his squadron commanders to form their men on the side of the road facing the rear “as quick as ever God would let them.” Captain Southworth’s squadron was on the right facing towards the advancing rebels. He scarcely had his men in line before they were upon him, but a couple of volleys from their carbines, at short range, checked the pursuit for a sufficient length of time, to allow Captain Clark’s squadron to pass and take a new position, when the two squadrons, together with that of Captain Farnsworth, discharged such effective volleys into their very faces that they were repulsed and held at bay until the artillery could be placed in proper position, which sent such volleys of cannister into their midst they were compelled to yield the field, leaving their dead and wounded behind them.
It was now dark, and after holding our position a short time, until it was thought the enemy did not propose another attack, the General withdrew his forces, and we were not molested again on our return to the Potomac, which we safely crossed a little before midnight.
General Pleasanton complimented the regiment very highly for the coolness and courage displayed, and also Major Medill for the manner in which he commanded his men. The discipline which our men had undergone, was here fully displayed by our squadrons baiting from a swift march and delivering their fire as regularly and coolly as on the parade ground, and by taking one position after another while retreating before a superior force and under a severe fire, in a manner which would not have been excelled by any troops in the world.
Official reports showed the enemy’s loss to have been one hundred and fifty, of which number forty were killed and buried on the field. The Eighth Illinois lost but sixteen men, twelve wounded and four missing. The rebel commander was very much chagrined at not having captured the regiment, and is said to have remarked that ” he could never give any satisfactory reason for not having done so.” The reason was, we are happy to inform him, our men would not let him accomplish his object.
Hard, pp. 190-192.
Opie, John N. (1899). “A Rebel Cavalryman With Lee, Stuart, and Jackson.” Chicago, IL: W. B. Conkey Co. Print.
Opie, John N. (1899). “A Rebel Cavalryman With Lee, Stuart, and Jackson.” Google Books. 19 July 2008. Web. 24 Dec. 2010.
The cavalry was camped west of Shepherdstown, and picketed the south side of the Potomac, while the enemy occupied the north side. I was as yet undecided what regiment I would join, but was a visitor to two. Every day I rode into Shepherdstown, sometimes alone, but frequently with a companion or two. On one occasion I rode with a young friend, B. B. Ranson, into the town, when some people crossed over the river under a flag of truce. Riding down to the ford to see what it meant, we found a lieutenant and three privates belonging to Colonel (afterward General) Rosser’s regiment, Fifth Virginia, who had just been paroled. We were asked by them where the cavalry was camped, when we offered to show them the way. When about half way through the town, the lieutenant asked me to carry a bottle, which was wrapped up in paper, saying, “It is eight-year-old whiskey, sent by General VanHorn on McClellan’s staff, to Colonel Rosser. They were at West Point together.” Of course, I took the bottle, and, as I was a patriotic boy, and somewhat thoughtful of others, I at once began to consider the propriety of my allowing the whiskey to reach Rosser. I reasoned in this way: Now Rosser is a brave, dashing fellow by nature. Will he not become reckless if he drinks this whiskey? Will he not, in all probability, sacrifice his regiment and lose his own life in a useless encounter with the enemy if he drinks a quart of eight-year old whiskey? Then, too, it may contain poison; who knows? I finally concluded that it was our patriotic duty to prevent him from getting the liquor. I, therefore, having reached this eminently proper conclusion, kicked Ranson on the foot, looked at the bottle and nodded my head; whereupon he, having reached the same conclusion, also nodded his head, and, simultaneously, we stuck spurs into our horses and charged the atmosphere towards camp. The lieutenant and his men having no firearms, could only raise their tuneful voices and shout and swear at us. When we reached the forks of two roads, one leading to the camp and the other to Charlestown, we concluded to take the latter, as, by going into camp, we would be interrupted in our praiseworthy design of destroying Rosser’s whiskey. After getting out of sight, not having that useful instrument, a corkscrew, we, finally and with great difficulty, burglarized the bottle. We each took a pull; we got upon a hill and took another good pull; at a bend in the road, we took a long pull; you see, it was eight years old. We arrived upon the verge of a forest, and we again sampled the poison, congratulating each other upon having saved Rosser and the Fifth Regiment.
We then proceeded, but presently we began to entertain grave and serious doubts as to the road. We discussed this question, with great verbosity, until we arrived in front of a large white house, located in a beautiful grove of native oaks, running from which to the road was a straight tanbark walk.
We halted and hallooed two or three times, when, presently, there appeared on the walk and leisurely sauntered down to the old-fashioned stile, a great, strapping, red-headed man, who evidently was not at Sharpsburg. “What do you want?” said he. “I want to know where this road goes, my friend,” said I. “This road don’t go anywhere,” he replied. I sternly said to the man, who had evidently recently read the “Arkansas Traveler,” and desired to play it on us, “I have asked you where this road goes, and I want a polite answer.” “I have been living here, sir, for twenty years, and this road has not gone anywhere yet,” was his reply. I drew my self-cocking six-shooter, and I suppose, from my not cocking it, the rustic, not being aware that it was unnecessary, was not in the least alarmed, for he replied, “You d—d fool, you, I just told you that I have been living here for twenty years, and this road has not gone anywhere yet.” My patience having become exhausted, I raised my pistol, and, looking the impudent rascal in the eyes, I deliberately fired at an imaginary object about three feet from his left ear. This was more than the “Arkansas Traveler” could stand, so he whirled, and, as he whirled, I again fired, and no kangaroo ever made leaps in the air as did that terrified citizen; off like a rocket, up the walk, he ran, darkening the atmosphere with tanbark, while I fired salute after salute, in order to increase his velocity. On the porch was a fat red-headed girl, working her right arm up and down like a pump-handle, jumping about in a frantic manner, shouting at the top of her voice, “Run, pap! Run, pap!” Ranson and I were laughing ourselves into hysterics, when, finally, pap fell against the porch, and, breathless from exhaustion and fright, he managed to gasp, “Bring my rifle here, Sal! Bring my rifle here, Sal!” Sal disappeared into the house, when, I observing to Ranson that he would shoot to kill, we hastily galloped away. I venture the assertion that the next man who wanted to know which way that road went received a satisfactory reply.
Opie, pp. 84-85.
On October 1st, General Pleasanton, with a large body of cavalry and a battery of horse-artillery, crossed over at Shepherdstown to reconnoitre, and gradually pressed our cavalry, under Wm. H. F. Lee, back to Martinsburg. Lee’s force consisted of one brigade, which was handled very roughly by Pleasanton’s superior force. During the morning I rode in front of a Federal vidette, and, shaking my saber at him, challenged him to a contest. The man deliberately got down off his horse, and, taking aim from a small tree, fired his gun at point-blank range.
I felt the wind from the ball, which barely grazed me, and, not having a carbine, was unable to return the compliment, and, had I charged him, others, who were close at hand, would have come to his assistance; I therefore rode on.
At Martinsburg, while skirmishing on the suburbs with the enemy’s sharpshooters, General Stuart, accompanied by his aid, Walter Q. Hullihen, now an Episcopal minister, rode up. The General asked me to what command I belonged. I replied to none, that I had not yet decided what regiment to join, and asked him which one he would advise me to join. I was struck with his politic answer. Not wishing to make any invidious distinction, he said, “Any of them; all of them are good; but remain with me to-day.” I did so, but the enemy still pressing us back, our men retired up the Winchester road; when, finally, General Stuart, having brought up his forces from various points, determined to take the offensive.
He said to me, “Go over to the Tuscarora road (which was west of the ‘pike, and also leading into Martinsburg), and tell General Hampton my orders are for him to press the enemy with vigor on his road, and that I will attack at once. Go ‘a-kiting,’ sir, and meet me in Martinsburg with General Hampton.” Now, I did not know, at the time, that “go a-kiting” was a proverbial and favorite expression of his, and the way I rode across that country was a sight to behold. Up hill and down, over fences and ditches, I did go “a-kiting,” sure enough, never once halting or drawing rein; in fact, I thought that the fate of the Confederacy depended upon my rapidity.
I found General Hampton, and delivered the order, and that gallant cavalryman, with his Southern boys, charged everything before him. We broke several regiments, and the enemy did not rally until we reached Martinsburg. Here they attempted to reform and make a stand, but we charged again, right into their midst, and again disordered them. Once, when near Shepherdstown, they made a halt behind their artillery; but by this time, it was so dark and dusty, one could not recognize the man in front of him. We halted and planted a battery of artillery on an eminence and opened fire in the direction of the enemy, who presently retired across the river. Here I again met General Stuart, and informed him that I had ruined my horse, which could scarcely walk; in fact, my ride across the country, together with the several charges made with Hampton’s men, had entirely disabled him. The General’s reply was very unsatisfactory: “Get another one, and try it agin.”
Opie, pp. 88-92 .
To say that the soldiers enjoyed this long period of rest during the delightful fall of 1862, after the arduous campaign through which they had passed, hardly expresses it. They received, too, at this time, good and plentiful rations—that is, for Confederate soldiers—and, consequently, they recuperated both mentally and physicallymorally. The soldier is a peculiar institution, but, as a general thing, he shows himself true to the nature of the great majority of the human race. In danger he calls on his Maker; in safety he refers to the devil; to-day he prays, and to-morrow he swears; in the morning he is pious, in the evening he is otherwise; on his way to battle he decorates the landscape with the playing cards which he throws out of his pocket or haversack. He swears he will never take another drink, never touch another card, never swear another oath. He prays and prays, and tries in every way to bribe the Almighty with promises and deceive himself with good resolutions. When the battle is over the innocent rascal deposits his good resolutions in his cartridge box, only to be referred to in the next battle. He then hunts for a pack of cards, procures apple brandy, and swears as much as ever, and frequently goes to sleep without saying his prayers. Well, the poor fellow has little enjoyment in this life, and he must in some way break the dull monotony, so he plays “seven-up,” “euchre,” and “draw-poker,” smokes, chews and generally drinks. He kills more of the enemy sitting around the camp-fires, in his imagination, than he does in battle. He is really a big baby with several guardians. His officers think and act for him; the quartermaster clothes him; or, rather, should do so, and the commissary is expected to feed him; he is, therefore, a being without responsibility or care. He discusses and “cusses” his officers, from the general down to the fourth corporal. He knows who of his comrades can be depended upon to stand up to the rack, and who of them will take the back track. He is magnanimous toward the weak or sick, and he loves fair play; but he buries his best friend, rejoicing that it is the other fellow instead of himself. Another curious fact about the soldier is that when he begins to get pious and prayerful, he almost invariably becomes nervous and superstitious. The daredevil spirit in him departs, and he becomes prudent and over-cautious. This recalls an incident that happened at Gettysburg. General Early met a well-known chaplain running to the rear, whom he halted and thus addressed. “Aren’t you Parson ?” “Yes,” said the chaplain. “Well, sir, you have been preaching about the road to heaven for a long time, and now, when you have come to the jumping-off place, you turn your back and run like hell.” The poor chaplain did not like the idea of entering heaven riding upon a cannon ball.
Opie, pp. 95-96.
Series I – Volume XIX – Chapter XXXI in Two Parts:
Official records of the Union and Confederate armies
Volume XIX – in Two Parts. 1887. (Vol. 19, Chap. 31)
Chapter XXXL – Operations in Northern Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. Sep 3-Nov 14, 1862.
Part I – Reports, September 3-November 14, 1862.
Part II – Reports, September 20-November 14; Correspondence, etc., Sept 3-Nov. 14
Part II – Operations in Northern Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania . Sept. 3 – Nov 14, 1862. Reports, September 20-November 14; Correspondence, etc., Sept 3-Nov. 14 Digital Library. Cornell University. 28 August 2004 Web. 10 July 2011.
Wittenberg, Eric, “Lt. Col. Charles Jarvis Whiting.” civilwarcavalry.com 18 February 2009 Web. 25 February 2013.
The account of the “Mr. Hog-Jall” incident is a family tradition of Mrs. Florence Wright, told to Mr. Surkamp.
“List of field officers, regiments, and battalions in the Confederate States army, 1861-1865 United States.” War Department. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. Print.
“List of field officers, regiments, and battalions in the Confederate States army, 1861-1865 United States.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010.
William J. Magill Lt. Col., Colonel 1st Georgia Regulars, p. 81.
Magill died September 17, 1890 in Duval, Florida in Dade County
floridamemory.com 18 October 2000 Web. 26 February 2013.
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 26 February 2013.
Gills from North Carolina. “Search For Soldiers.” nps.gov 13 April 1997 Web. 26 February 2013.
“West Virginia–Jefferson County–Middleway”
Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record/Historic American Landscapes Survey. loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 26 February 2013.
William O. Macoughtry Diary and Account Books, 1798-1878. unc.edu 27 April 1997 Web. 27 February 2013.
Image Credits/Flickr Set:
Methodist Episcopal Church, South Charles Town, Jefferson County, W. Va. (013054).
wvhistoryonview.org 9 October 2012 Web. 26 February 2013.
Carter House in Charles Town, W. Va. (037965)
wvhistoryonview.org 9 October 2012 Web. 26 February 2013.
Charles Jarvis Whiting
Wittenberg, Eric, “Lt. Col. Charles Jarvis Whiting.” civilwarcavalry.com 18 February 2009 Web. 25 February 2013.
Post Civil War Era Carte De Visite “Hoop Dress Sisters – part III” robswebstek.com 29 April 2011 Web. 27 February 2013.
Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 10, Issue: 57, (Feb., 1855). pp. 289-310. Print.
Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 29 May 2011.
p. 289 en route carriage horses.
Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections Of the War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 36, Issue: 213, (Feb., 1868). pp. 273-291. Print.
Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 29 May 2011.
p. 285 . writing on wooden marker.
p. 290 writing home.
amazon.com 12 December 1998 Web. 28 February 2013.
Chisholm, J. J. (1864). “A Manual of Military Surgery, for the use of surgeons in the Confederate States army; with explanatory plates of all useful operations.” Richmond, VA: Columbia, Evans and Cogswell. Print.
Chisholm, J. J. (1864). “A Manual of Military Surgery, for the use of surgeons in the Confederate States army; with explanatory plates of all useful operations.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 16 Feb. 2011.
p. 579. Shoulder wound.
Plate 13 (detail)
dressed upper arm p. 584.
artery (tied) detail p. 584.
Family greeting wounded soldier – Harper’s Weekly, February 25, 1865.
soldier resisting amputation or other surgery (Illustration) – Harpers’ New Monthly
Guernsey, Alfred H., Henry Mills. (1894). “Harper’s pictorial history of the Civil War.” Vol. 1. Chicago, IL.: Puritan Press Co. Print.
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