To Be More Than Equal 3 – Martin Delany to Africa summer, 1859

Martin Delany to Africa – To Be More Than Equal 1 –
youtu.be/oHBTnaDgMvY

Martin Delany – To Be More Than Equal 1 Credits 17:19
youtu.be/AJ0Ch2XvlEM

Martin Delany to Africa – To Be More than Equal 2, Enthralls West Africa – summer, 1859
youtu.be/AiSi7oDRM0k

Martin Delany to Africa – To Be More Than Equal 2 Credits 38:59
youtu.be/EqQYMkiKrgk

Martin Delany to Africa – To Be More Than Equal 3 19:52 (end of voice and some music fade out
youtu.be/UnDvxC0dEcM

Martin Delany to Africa – To Be More Than Equal 3 Credits 34:19
youtu.be/66yJR6mvWKE

This is a 3-part of a series about Martin Delany, born in 1812 in Charles Town, then Virginia going on to be the first African-American field officer in the U.S. Army, organizer in 1859 of a year long scientific expedition in West Africa, Harvard educated physician, co-editor of The North Start with Frederick Douglass, author of several books including one of the very first important novels by an African-American. It was called “Blake: The Huts of American,” the story of a traveling insurrectionist serialized in the Anglo-African magazine in 1858-1860. After Lincoln met him in February, 1865 in the White House, the President immediately sent a memo to his Secretary of War, stating: “Do not fail to have an interview with this most intelligent and extraordinary black man.”

With Sonny Luckett as Martin Delany

Made possible with the generous, community-minded support of American Public University System (apus.edu) to encourage fact-based discussion into the foundational issues from which our nation has evolved.

BEGIN MRD 3
Flickr file – 20230205820af53f52d861a6cef0e5fc51d4c8dfb37f8576eb1e58fd91a47a815c47ad23

Piano Introduction is “Lamplight” by Vandaliariver.com
0:00-0:45

(Dahomean women warrior song) “The enemy is on the tip of my machete.” Delany wrote his rich, do-gooder friends in England to not even THINK about sending money to the Dahomey.
(Dahomean women warrior song continued) “we’re going to cut him into small pieces.” (Delany) “For the sake of humanity” he wrote. Dahomey was notoriously focused on war, slave hunts, mass human sacrifice and beheadings. Farming and trades were scorned in favor of conquests and plunder from twice-a-year slave hunts, their source of money. 5,000 elite, fierce women warriors formed the core. Martin Delany planned his trip for mid-August, 1859 to Abeokuta – the walled city that protected against slavers. He postponed. A mass human sacrifice was done in July in which the Dahomeans used the blood of 2,000 victims to fill a ditch with enough blood “to float a canoe” Every August this “Grand Custom” used this blood to “water the graves” of past Kings.

0:47 – Dahomean women singing – Channel 4 is a British public broadcast service. Lupita Nyong’o Meets Real Warrior Women Nov 3, 2019 youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=M0TGKiMiZ68 over images 1-20 to 2:19 ;

1:18 – Kodo Spirit of Taiko over images 8-20 to 2:22
Apr 2, 2013 – micky2be gaming youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=5L6h-s5VSmU&list=RDEM7zjT2fDk… ;

1:18 – machete strikes over images 8-20 to 2:22
Machete (Hit, Slash, Deploy) Mar 9, 2021 Better FX youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=H85PnJ1OAvo&list=PLNxmz91tz4v…

Images 1-6 – Channel 4 is a British public broadcast service. Lupita Nyong’o Meets Real Warrior Women
Nov 3, 2019 youtube.com www.youtube.com/watch?v=M0TGKiMiZ68
Image 2
Image 3
Image 4
Image 5
Image 6
Images 7-13 – Credit Chris Hellier/Getty Images
Images 14 – Credit Chris Hellier/Getty Images
Image 15 – Credit Chris Hellier/Getty Images
Image 16 – Credit Chris Hellier/Getty Images
Image 17 – Credit Chris Hellier/Getty Images
Image 18 – Credit Chris Hellier/Getty Images
Image 19 – Credit Chris Hellier/Getty Images
Image 20 – Forbes, Frederick E. (1851), “Dahomey and the Dahomans.” Vol. 1 London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans,
library.si.edu
library.si.edu/digital-library/book/dahomeydahomansb00forb
Amazon facing p. 23
archive.org
archive.org/details/dahomeydahomansb00forb/page/n41/mode/…
Image 21 – Forbes, Frederick E. (1851), “Dahomey and the Dahomans.” Vol. 1 London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, library.si.edu facing page 81
archive.org
archive.org/details/dahomeydahomansb00forb/page/81/mode/1…

Delany responding to the news of the 1859 Grand Custom:

On subsidizing the King of Dahomi: There is some talk by Christians and philanthropists in Great Britain of subsidizing the King of Dahomi. I hope for the sake of humanity, our race, and the cause of progressive civilization, this most injurious measure of compensation for wrong, never will be resorted to nor attempted.

To make such an offering just at a time when we are about to establish a policy of self-regeneration in Africa, which may, by example and precept, effectually check forever the nefarious system, and reform the character of these people, would be to offer inducements to that monster to continue, and a license to other petty chiefs to commence the traffic in human beings, to get a reward of subsidy.

Delany, Martin R. (1861). “OFFICIAL REPORT OF THE NIGER VALLEY EXPLORING PARTY.” New York, T. Hamilton. p. 58. hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015003702209&vie….

2:29 – Sona Jobarteh & Band Kora from West Africa over images 22-34 to 3:52
Hochschule für Musik FRANZ LISZT Weimar
Sonah Jobarteh – Acoustic Guitar/ Kora/ Vocals
Maurice Brown – Acoustic Guitar
Andi McLean – Electric Bass/ BVs
Mouhamadou Sarr – Djembe/ Congas/ Calabash/ BVs
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ig91Z0-rBfo

After the Dehomeans cooled off, Delany with his cook and guide, William Johnson, both on horseback started for Abeokuta. But then a civil war all over Yoruba drove them back to Lagos. “At least,” Delany wrote. “the climate was delightful.” Every person should rise early in Africa, as the air is then coolest, freshest, and purest; the sight and song of the numerous birds to be seen and heard, produce a healthful influence upon the mental and physical system.

Image 22 – After the Dehomeans cooled off, Delany with his cook and guide, William Johnson, both on horseback started for Abeokuta – Apple Maps – CAVALIER YOROUBA YORUBA HORSE AND RIDER – NIGERIA christies.com www.christies.com/en/lot/lot-5572505 ;
Image 23 – But then a civil war all over Yoruba drove them back to Lagos – Martin Delany – Martin R. Delany MOLLUS-Mass Civil War Photograph Collection Volume 74
usahec.org emu.usahec.org/alma/multimedia/174166/74_3659L.jpg ; Apple Maps ; Two native American men mounted on horses, in silhouette, gazing off into the distance, c1904. Photograph by Edward Curtis (1868-1952)
Image 24 – “At least, Delany wrote: “The climate was delightful.” Same sources as Image 23

2:51 – soft waves and seagulls over images 25-30 to 3:52
Softest Beach Sounds from the Tropics – Ocean Wave Sounds for Sleeping, Yoga, Meditation, Study – Lounge V Films – Relaxing Music and Nature Sounds
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=B1T06UhcX0Q

Image 25 – “Every person should rise early in Africa, as the air is then coolest, freshest, and purest;” – The Africa We Don’t See on Tv · January 26, 2018 – Ivory Coast facebook.com
www.facebook.com/theafricawedontseeontv/photos/pcb.150683… ; Two native American men mounted on horses, in silhouette, gazing off into the distance, c1904. Photograph by Edward Curtis (1868-1952). – Image ID: D98CRF ; Martin R. Delany MOLLUS-Mass Civil War Photograph Collection Volume 74
usahec.org emu.usahec.org/alma/multimedia/174166/74_3659L.jpg – All images in Image 25 AND – CAVALIER YOROUBA YORUBA HORSE AND RIDER – NIGERIA christies.com
www.christies.com/en/lot/lot-5572505
Image 26 – “the sight and song of the numerous birds to be seen and heard,” – Same sources as Image 25
Image 27 – “produce a healthful influence upon the mental and physical system.” – Same sources as Image 26.

Bathing
Bathing should be strictly observed by every person at least once every day. Each family should be provided with a large sponge, or one for each room if not for each person, and free application of water to the entire person, from head to foot, should be made every morning.

Early Rising—Breezes
Every person should rise early in Africa, as the air is then coolest, freshest, and purest; besides the effect upon the senses, the sight and song of the numerous birds to be seen and heard, produce a healthful influence upon the mental and physical system. The land and sea-breezes blow regularly and constantly from half-past three o’clock p.m. till half-past ten o’clock a.m., when there is a cessation of about five hours till half-past three again.[Pg 322]

Never Sultry
The evenings and mornings are always cool and pleasant, never sultry and oppressive with heat, as frequently in temperate climates during summer and autumn. This wise and beneficent arrangement of Divine Providence makes this country beautifully, in fact, delightfully pleasant; and I have no doubt but in a very few years, so soon as scientific black men, her own sons, who alone must be more interested in her development than any other take the matter in hand, and produce works upon the diseases, remedies, treatment, and sanitary measures of Africa, there will be no more contingency in going to Africa than any other known foreign country. I am certain, even now, that the native fever of Africa is not more trying upon the system, when properly treated, than the native fever of Canada, the Western and Southern States and Territories of the United States of America.

Delany, Martin R. (1861). “OFFICIAL REPORT OF THE NIGER VALLEY EXPLORING PARTY.” New York, T. Hamilton;
catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001610366

Leaving Cape-Coast Castle – noon, September 20th. I took a spoonful dilution of sulphate of quinine 3x daily. The trip resumes. . . . Bees! Ever busy on every blossom! . . . air being freighted with fragrance; laden with “tons of beeswax” carried on their heads.

Delany, Martin R. (1861). “OFFICIAL REPORT OF THE NIGER VALLEY EXPLORING PARTY.” New York, T. Hamilton.
“air being freighted with fragrance” from the flowers and aroma of the exuberant, rich, rank growth of vegetable matter. . . encountered many persons laden with “tons of beeswax” carried on their heads . . .bees are seen ever busy on every blossom, gathering their store, leaving laden with the rich delicacies of the blooming flowers
p. 20 – hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015003702209&vie…

Image 28 – Leaving Cape-Coast Castle – noon, September 20th – Cape Coast Castle, and Forts William, Victoria, and McCarthy, Gold Coast, mid-19th century. [Drawings of Western Africa, University of Virginia Library, Special Collections, MSS 14357, no 7]
slaveryandremembrance.org
slaveryandremembrance.org/articles/article/?id=A0103
Image 29 – I took a spoonful dilution of sulphate of quinine 3x daily – Martin R. Delany
MOLLUS-Mass Civil War Photograph Collection Volume 74
usahec.org emu.usahec.org/alma/multimedia/174166/74_3659L.jpg ; Quinine sulphate bottle 1860-1910 in London collection.sciencemuseumgroup.org.uk collection.sciencemuseumgroup.org.uk/objects/co189273/qui… ; Medicine spoon 1701-1850 in Europe collection.sciencemuseumgroup.org
collection.sciencemuseumgroup.org.uk/objects/co130448/med… ; Picture of red blood cells infected with malaria parasites. The parasites look like rings inside the cells. SOURCE: CDC/Steven Glenn, Laboratory & Consultation Division emedicinehealth.com www.emedicinehealth.com/malaria/article_em.htm
Image 30 – The trip resumes – Apple Maps ; Two native American men mounted on horses, in silhouette, gazing off into the distance, c1904. Photograph by Edward Curtis (1868-1952) ; Martin R. Delany – MOLLUS-Mass Civil War Photograph Collection Volume 74
usahec.org emu.usahec.org/alma/multimedia/174166/74_3659L.jpg and ahec.armywarcollege.edu
ahec.armywarcollege.edu/

3:33 – single bee sounds over images 31-35 to 3:51
BEES BUZZING | Sound Effect [High Quality] May 30, 2016 Sound Effects
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=oHGt91cTSy4

Image 31 – Bees! Ever busy on every blossom! – Bees in slow motion – shot on iPhone at 240fps
Jan 2, 2018 Flow Hive youtube.com www.youtube.com/watch?v=dUNFNhF8V1o
Image 32 – Same source as Image 31
Image 33 – Same sources as Image 31
Image 34 – SOME FLOWER PLANTS FOUND IN RURAL NIGERIA pinterest.com
www.pinterest.com/pin/361554676316253631/
& SOME FLOWER PLANTS FOUND IN RURAL NIGERIA
www.skyscrapercity.com/threads/flowers-plants-of-nigeria…. ; Pollinators in Africa p. 7
sanbi.org www.sanbi.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/pollinafricabook… ; Tribal Women African Batik Art by Dom Z – culturesinternational.com culturesinternational.com/products/african-batik-art-trib…

Native Plants of Nigeria and Their Scientific Names
Rogon Daji – Ampelocissus africana
African White Mahogany – Turraeanthus africana
Purple Plume Grass – Bothriochloa bladhii
Thollon’s Strophanthus – Strophanthus thollonii
Nganda Coffee – Coffea canephora
West African Piassava Palm Raphia vinifera
Ube – Dacryodes edulis
Yohimbe Pausinystalia johimbe
Light Bosse – Guarea cedrata
African Corkwood Tree – Musanga cecropioides
worldatlas.co
www.worldatlas.com/articles/native-plants-of-nigeria.html

3:51 – horses trot misc. over image 35 to 4:00
3:55 – over loping banjo by Shana Aisenberg over images 35-36 to 4:13
4:13 – Shana Aisenberg fast twleve-string guitar over image 37-41 to 4:46

Martin Delany William Johnson – He saw hundreds of acres in unbroken tracts of Indian white corn. Every day some of the boys of all sizes may be seen dashing along a road or over a plain at fearful speed on horseback. They are great vaulters and ankle-springers. The houses are built of unburnt clay which hardens in the sun, covered with a beautiful thatch-long, peculiar grass. Great affection exists between husband and wife, the women being mostly restricted to household work, trading, gathering in the fields, and aiding in carrying, whilst the men principally do the digging, planting, chopping, and other hard work. The children are also passionately beloved.

To Be More Than Equal 2 – Martin Delany to Africa 1859 by Jim Surkamp

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Martin Delany to Africa – To Be More Than Equal 1 by Jim Surkamp June, 2021 video link: https://youtu.be/oHBTnaDgMvY

Martin Delany to Africa – To Be More Than Equal 1 summer, 1859 by Jim Surkamp June, 2021 Credits video link: https://youtu.be/AJ0Ch2XvlEM

Martin Delany to Africa – To Be More Than Equal 2 summer, 1859 by Jim Surkamp June, 2021 Credits video link: https://youtu.be/AiSi7oDRM0k

Martin Delany to Africa – To Be More Than Equal 2 summer, 1859 Credits video link https://youtu.be/EqQYMkiKrgk

Martin Delany to Africa – To Be More Than Equal 3 summer, 1859 video link: https://youtu.be/UnDvxC0dEc

Martin Delany to Africa – To Be More Than Equal 3 summer, 1859 Credits video link: https://youtu.be/66yJR6mvWKE

Flickr – 137 images https://www.flickr.com/photos/jimsurkamp/albums

THESE BEGINNING-T0-END, SEQUENCED IMAGES ARE FROM THE LINKED TO VIDEO WITH THIS SCRIPT. THE SCRIPT’S TEXT IS COMPLETE AND IS BROKEN DOWN TO MATCH TO THE IMAGE SHOWN WITH IT DURING THE VIDEO. – JS

SOURCE: Delany, Martin R. (1861). “OFFICIAL REPORT OF THE NIGER VALLEY EXPLORING PARTY.” New York, T. Hamilton https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001610366

This is the second part a 3-part of a series about Martin Delany, born in 1812 in Charles Town, then Virginia going on to be the first African-American field officer in the U.S. Army, organizer in 1859 of a year long scientific expedition in West Africa, Harvard educated physician, co-editor of The North Start with Frederick Douglass, author of several books including one of the very first important novels by an African-American. It was called “Blake: The Huts of American,” the story of a traveling insurrectionist serialized in the Anglo-African magazine in 1858-1860. After Lincoln met him in February, 1865 in the White House, the President immediately sent a memo to his Secretary of War, stating: “Do not fail to have an interview with this most intelligent and extraordinary black man.”

With Sonny Luckett as Martin Delany and Dr. Momodou Darboe narrating

Made possible with the generous, community-minded support of American Public University System (apus.edu) to encourage fact-based discussion into the foundational issues from which our nation has evolved.

Land Ho! “The arrival of Martin Robison Delany in Liberia is an era in the history of African emigration, an event doubtless that will long be remembered by hundreds of thousands of Africa’s exiled children.” Richard Blackett – The Journal of Negro History
Vol. 62, No. 1 (Jan., 1977), pp. 1-25 (25 pages) Published By: The University of Chicago Press p. 15 – as quoted from The Liberian Herald approx. July 12, 1859 – jstor.org
https://www.jstor.org/stable/2717188?read-now=1&refreqid=excelsior:0176342a6a76eee8dfe11072629f097c&seq=15#page_scan_tab_contents%22%20rel=%22noreferrer%20nofollow

“Persons from all parts of the country came to Monrovia to see this great man.” – Martin R. Delany and Robert Campbell: Black Americans in Search of an African Colony
Richard Blackett – The Journal of Negro History p. 15 – jstor.org

Ridiculed and ignored in America for speaking, embraced by the thousands here for speaking – how strange.

:00 – Lamplight by Vandaliariver.com over intro images to :39 :00 – FX birds, seagulls, ocean waves over images 1-7 to :44
:00 – Waterdogs 4 by Cam Millar (cammillar.com) over images 1-7 to :44

Images 1-5 – fair use images from Master and Commander The Far side of the World directed by Peter Weir – youtube.com https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0k-0BzXV8w4
Image 6. Map of the West Coast of Africa from Sierra Leone to Cape Palmas, including the colony of Liberia Contributor Names: Ashmun, J. (Jehudi), Young, J. H. (James Hamilton), Finley, A. (Anthony). Created / Published: Philad[elphi]a [Pa.] : A. Finley, 1830. loc.gov
https://www.loc.gov/item/96680499/
Image 7. fair use images from Master and Commander The Far side of the World directed by Peter Weir – youtube.com

:45 – syncopation, cheering crowds and singing over images 8-20 to 3:24

Image 8. fair use images from Master and Commander The Far side of the World directed by Peter Weir – youtube.com
Image 9: “The arrival of Martin Robison Delany in Liberia is an era in the history of African emigration, an event doubtless that will long be remembered by hundreds of thousands of Africa’s exiled children.” The Journal of Negro History Vol. 62, No. 1 (Jan., 1977), pp. 1-25 (25 pages)
Published By: The University of Chicago Press p. 15
Image 10
Image 11
Image 12
Image 13
Image 14: Ridiculed and ignored in America for speaking, embraced by the thousands here for speaking – how strange. – Douglass fighting a mob in Indiana – Douglass, Frederick. (1881). “Life and times of Frederick Douglass,” Hartford, CT: Park publishing. p. 285 – hathitrust.org https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015018652357&view=1up&seq=291&q1=Indiana
Image 15: Image in color of gala event in French influenced West Africa
Crowder, Michael. (1977). “West Africa: An Introduction to Its History.” London: Longman Group, Ltd. p. 110
Image 16

“The regeneration of the African race can only be effected by its own efforts, the efforts of its own self and whatever aid may come from other sources; and it must, in this venture succeed, as God leads the movement and His hand guides the way.” – Delany, Martin R. (1879). “The Origin of Races and Color,” Baltimore, MD: Black Classic Press. p. 94 books.google.com

Be thou like the noble Ancient — Scorn the threat that bids thee fear; Speak! — no matter what betide thee; Let them strike, but make them hear! Be thou like the first Apostles — Be thou like heroic Paul; If a free thought seek expression, Speak it boldly! speak it all ! Face thine enemies — accusers; Scorn the prison, rack, or rod! And, if thou hast Truth to utter. Speak! and leave the rest to God. Truth and Freedom by William Gallagher – 1861

Image 17: “Face thine accusers, scorn the rack and rod and, if thou hast truth to utter, . . Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Photographs and Prints Division, The New York Public Library. (1930 – 1969). digitalcollections.nypl.org https://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47df-a10b-a3d9-e040-e00a18064a99
Image 18: ahec.armywarcollege.edu
Image 19: ahec.armywarcollege.edu
Image 20. River crossing Africa – Crowder, Michael. (1977). “West Africa: An Introduction to Its History.” London: Longman Group, Ltd. p. 110

2:12 – Sona Jobarteh & Band Kora from West Africa over images 21-43 to 4:48

Images 21 & 22 Hochschule für Musik FRANZ LISZT Weimar – Sonah Jobarteh – Acoustic Guitar/ Kora/ Vocals/ Maurice Brown – Acoustic Guitar = Andi McLean – Electric Bass/ BVs – Mouhamadou Sarr – Djembe/ Congas/ Calabash/ BVs – www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ig91Z0-rBfo

Delany wrote: Saturday, July 10th, 1859I landed on the beach at Grand Cape Mount, Robertsport, amid the joyous acclamations of the numerous natives who stood along the beautiful shore, Delany, Martin R. (1861). “OFFICIAL REPORT OF THE NIGER VALLEY EXPLORING PARTY.” New York, T. Hamilton; https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001610366https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015003702209&view=1up&seq=26&q1=Robertsport
Just north is the homeland of Shango, Delany’s grandfather, the Mandinko chief. Grandma Grace Peace told the Delany children how Shango was captured and shipped to America. A whipper tried to whip Shango in order to as Delany said: “leave him completely broken, as humble as a dog, as spiritless as a kitten.” Delany wrote that he personally observed on his trip in 1839 to Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas an example of exceeding cruelty and should be read or not read accordingly. THIS IS A VERY IMPORTANT FACT OF HISTORY BY A CREDITABLE SOURCE WHO IS BLACK. Not for children or teens . Delany, Martin R. (1859-1861 serialized). “Blake; or, The huts of America, a novel.” With an introd. by Floyd J. Miller. Boston: Beacon Press. books.google.com p. 175 https://books.google.com/books?id=0ZV2AAAAQBAJ&pg=PT226&lpg=PT226&dq=as+s” rel=”noreferrer nofollow

Shango was killed in a fierce fight with the other man. Grandma Graci Peace passed on this story to Martin. But Mandinko tribes always have a griot or story-rememberer to pass on their history.

Observing the countryside, Delany wrote that he wondered why the coffee bean farmers didn’t plant their trees further, say twenty feet, apart. The History of Coffee, Part 1: Africa and Arabia
by Judy Fleisher June 04, 2017 scribblerscoffee.com
https://scribblerscoffee.com/blogs/news/the-history-of-coffee-part-1-africa

Image 23 – Old map of the Coast of West Africa from Sierra Leone to Cape Palmas including the colony of Liberia, compiled chiefly from the surveys and observations of the late Rev. J. Ashmun https://www.loc.gov/resource/g8882c.lm000002
Image 24 – Old map of the Coast of West Africa from Sierra Leone to Cape Palmas including the colony of Liberia, compiled chiefly from the surveys and observations of the late Rev. J. Ashmun https://www.loc.gov/resource/g8882c.lm000002
Image 25 – Hillside view of Robertsport, Liberia Date 8 February 2009, 10:31:58 Author mjmkeating https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robertsport
Image 26 – Mandinko Dancing by Woman Attribute shaunamullally https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandinka_people#/media/File:Mandinka_Dancing,_Women’s_Cultural_Celebration,_Gambia_2006.jpg
Image 27 – Hillside view of Robertsport, Liberia Date 8 February 2009, 10:31:58 Author mjmkeating https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robertsport
Image 28 – flora of Liberia by Dr. Otto Stapf; 28 coloured illustrations by Sir Harry Johnston, 24 botanical drawings by Miss Matilda Smith https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:MandingoMap-1906_with_color.png
Image 29 – Mandingo chief – Mayer, Brantz. (1854). “Captain Canot; or Twenty years of an African slaver: an account of his career and adventures on the coast, in the interior, on shipboard, and in the West Indies.” New York, NY: D. Appleton & Co. frontispiece https://www.gutenberg.org/files/23034/23034-h/23034-h.htm
Image 30 Jefferson County Courthouse, Charles Town,. WV Deed Room
Image 31 – Sunday morning by Winslow Homer – 1877 Cincinnati Art Museum, Cincinnati, OH artsandculture.google.com https://artsandculture.google.com/asset/sunday-morning-in-virginia-winslow-homer-american-b-1836-d-1910/LAGM6vILPVXXuQ?ms={“x”:0.652,”y”:0.44665664913598807,”z”:10,”size”:{“width”:0.696,”height”:0.5980465815176559}}
Image 32 – Shipped back in net – The Underground Railroad – The National Park Service – 1998 – Washington, D.C.: Dept of the Interior p. 21 Musee d’L’Homme; slave ship – Mariners’ Museum, Newport News, Va. https://archive.org/details/undergroundrailr00unit/page/21/mode/1up
33a Image – 33a. Mayer, Brantz. (1854). “Captain Canot; or Twenty years of an African slaver: an account of his career and adventures on the coast, in the interior, on shipboard, and in the West Indies.” New York, NY: D. Appleton & Co. frontispiece https://www.gutenberg.org/files/23034/23034-h/23034-h.htm 33b. Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 11, Issue: 63, (Aug., 1855). p. 289 – Tim Longbow – https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015056090072&view=1up&seq=299
Image 34. – Martin Delany – ahec.armywarcollege.edu
Image 35 – – Martin Delany – ahec.armywarcollege.edu
Image 36 – Mandiken chief – Mayer, Brantz. (1854). “Captain Canot; or Twenty years of an African slaver: an account of his career and adventures on the coast, in the interior, on shipboard, and in the West Indies.” New York, NY: D. Appleton & Co. frontispiece https://www.gutenberg.org/files/23034/23034-h/23034-h.htm
Image 37a – Mandiken chief – Mayer, Brantz. (1854). “Captain Canot; or Twenty years of an African slaver: an account of his career and adventures on the coast, in the interior, on shipboard, and in the West Indies.” Image 37b – Sunday Morning in Virginia by Winslow Homer – 1877 – Cincinnati Art Museum – https://www.gutenberg.org/files/23034/23034-h/23034-h.htm
Image 38 – Sona Jobarteh & Band Kora from West Africa https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ig91Z0-rBfo
Image 39 – Sona Jobarteh & Band Kora from West Africa https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ig91Z0-rBfo
Image 40 – Griot Kora performer Sona Jobarteh

Observing the countryside, Delany wrote that he wondered why the coffee bean farmers didn’t plant their trees further, say twenty feet, apart. Delany, Martin R. (1861). “OFFICIAL REPORT OF THE NIGER VALLEY EXPLORING PARTY.” New York, T. Hamilton, Niger Valley p. 22 https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015003702209&view=1up&seq=32&q1=coffee
Wednesday July 13, 1859
Arriving at Monrovia
Learning the 23rd Psalm
https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Psalm 23&version=KJV
(spoken on video in background) The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want.
He maketh me to lie down in green pastures: he leadeth me beside the still waters.
He restoreth my soul: he leadeth me in the paths of righteousness for his name’s sake.
Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil:
for thou art with me; thy rod and thy staff they comfort me.
Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies:
thou anointest my head with oil; my cup runneth over. Surely, goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life:
and I will dwell in the house of the Lord for ever)
At Monrovia’s missionary schools, the classes are being rigidly prosecuted
(Forever and ever Amen (in Yoruba))
The missionaries seem to be doing a good work,
there being many earnest and faithful laborers among them of both sexes, black and white, and many native teachers
They are shrewd, intelligent, and industrious, with high conceptions of the Supreme Being. Delany quotes unnamed missionary in Monrovia

Image 41 – The History of Coffee, Part 1: Africa and Arabia by Judy Fleisher June 04, 2017 https://scribblerscoffee.com/blogs/news/the-history-of-coffee-part-1-africa” rel=”noreferrer nofollow Martin Robison Delany – https://ahec.armywarcollege.edu
Image 42 – A coffee farmer, Francois Dadi Serikpa, from Gnamagnoa in Côte d’Ivoire, joined Nestlé’s Nescafé Plan 10 years ago https://www.itrealms.com.ng/2020/10/nestle-boosting-coffee-production-in.html
Image 43 – A coffee tree planted in an adequate life zone, allowing for strong, healthy growth. Credit: Alvaro Llobet
Image 43a – Historical Map of Africa by J. Bartholomew, F.R.G.S. John Bartholomew (1831 – 1893) was a Scottish cartographer, born in Edinburgh. http://legacy.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/africa_1885.jpg

4:09 – FX ocean waves over images 44-45 to 4:23
4:09 – seagulls over images 44-48 to 4:35

Image 44 – fair use images from Master and Commander The Far side of the World directed by Peter Weir https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=master+and+commander+far+side+of+the+world
Image 45 – The Africa We Don’t See on Tv Ivory Coast facebook.com https://www.facebook.com/theafricawedontseeontv/photos/pcb.1506835356109083/1506835136109105/?type=3&theater
Image 46 – Map of the West Coast of Africa from Sierra Leone to Cape Palmas, including the colony of Liberia by Ashmun, J. (Jehudi), Young, J. H. (James Hamilton), Finley, A. (Anthony) – Philad[elphi]a [Pa.] : A. Finley, 1830. https://www.loc.gov/item/96680499/

2:53 – Sona Jobarteh & Band Kora from West Africa over images 21-43 to 4:48, resumes 47-69 5:06-7:05

Image 47 – Map of the West Coast of Africa from Sierra Leone to Cape Palmas, including the colony of Liberia by Ashmun, J. (Jehudi), Young, J. H. (James Hamilton), Finley, A. (Anthony) –
Philad[elphi]a [Pa.] : A. Finley, 1830. https://www.loc.gov/item/96680499
Image 47a – Liberia and its vicinity. Monrovia to Cape Palmas https://www.loc.gov/resource/g8880.lm000009/?r=0.021,0.371,1.218,0.636,0
Image 48a – Ashmun Street with houses and a church, Monrovia, Liberia. Created / Published 1893. https://www.loc.gov/item/2002695198/ Image 48b. – Map of the West Coast of Africa from Sierra Leone to Cape Palmas, including the colony of Liberia Philad[elphi]a [Pa.] : A. Finley, 1830. https://www.loc.gov/item/96680499
Image 49 – Ashmun Street with houses and a church, Monrovia, Liberia. Created / Published 1893. https://www.loc.gov/item/2002695198
Image 50 – Monrovia street – Project Canterbury Handbooks on the Missions of the Episcopal Church.
Liberia New York: The National Council of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 1928. http://anglicanhistory.org/africa/lb/missions1928
Image 51 – Crayon, Porte. “On Negro Schools” Harper’s New Monthly September 1874 p. 459
The Great Scholar – https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.b000541503&view=1up&seq=479
Image 52 – Crayon, Porte. “On Negro Schools” Harper’s New Monthly September 1874 p. 458 Charley reading book – https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.b000541503&view=1up&seq=478
Image 53 – Crayon, Porte. “On Negro Schools” Harper’s New Monthly September 1874 p. 461 woman at chalkboard – https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.b000541503&view=1up&seq=481
Image 54 – Crayon, Porte. “On Negro Schools” Harper’s New Monthly September 1874 p. 460
older collegian https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.b000541503&view=1up&seq=480

Images 55-58 are identical to images 52-54 in the video but with different perspectives

Image 59 – At Monrovia’s missionary schools, the classes are being rigidly prosecuted. The missionaries seem to be doing a good work, – Martin Robison Delany https://ahec.armywarcollege.edu/
Image 60 – Forever and ever Amen (in Yoruba)https://depositphotos.com/stock-photos/black-man-praying.html
Image 61 – there being many earnest and faithful laborers among them of both sexes http://anglicanhistory.org/africa/lb/missions1928/
Image 62 – and many native teachers – Crayon, Porte. “On Negro Schools” Harper’s New Monthly September 1874 woman at chalkboard p. 461 https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.b000541503&view=1up&seq=481
Image 63 – They are shrewd, intelligent, and industrious, with high conceptions of the Supreme Being, The Thankful Poor by Henry Ossawa Tanner – 1894 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Thankful_Poor
Image 64 – Martin Delany – https://ahec.armywarcollege.edu

“As soon as you can convince them that there is a mediator in Jesus Christ to whom you may talk, but cannot see, you make Christians of them. Many flee violence at home in favor of the peace-loving individuality of being a Christian.”

Image 65 – http://ee.umc.org/what-we-believe/ask-the-umc-when-was-the-first-african-american-bishop-elected
Image 66 – http://anglicanhistory.org/africa/lb/missions1928/
Image 67 – “as soon as you can convince them that there is a mediator in Jesus Christ to whom you may talk, but cannot see, you make Christians of them.” Crayon, Porte. “On Negro Schools” Harper’s New Monthly September 1874 School’s Out Hurrah p. 457 https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.b000541503&view=1up&seq=477
Image 68 – “Many flee violence at home in favor of the peace-loving individuality of being a Christian.” Golah hut – Project Canterbury Handbooks on the Missions of the Episcopal Church. Liberia
New York: The National Council of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 1928. http://anglicanhistory.org/africa/lb/missions1928/
Image 69 – Same source as Image 68 http://anglicanhistory.org/africa/lb/missions1928

6:25 – FX mumbling hear hear over images 70-73 to 6:40
6:25 – FX applause over images 70-73 to 6:40

Images 70-73 & 76 – Montage Group of men and one woman from loc.gov collection Liberia
starting extreme upper left hand corner moving clockwise 1. Edward Morris, 2. James Skivring Smith 3. John Hanson, 4. unidentified woman, 5. Urias A. McGill, 6. James B. Yates, 7. Edward J. Roye, 8. C. H. Hicks, (to viewer’s left of Roye, same row), 9. James M. Priest, 10. Alfred Francis Russell, 11. Philip Coker https://www.loc.gov/collections/daguerreotypes/?q=American+Colonization+Society
Image 71
Image 72
Image 73
Image 74
Image 75
Image 76
Image 77
Image 78
Image 79
Image 80
Image 81
Image 82
Image 83
Image 84
Image 85
Image 86
Image 87

The fundamental principle of every nation is self-reliance, with the ability to create their own ways and means: without this, there is no capacity for self-government . In this short review of public affairs, it is done neither to disparage nor underrate the gentlemen of Liberia with whom, from the acquaintance I have made with them in the great stride for black nationality, I can make common cause, and hesitate not to regard them, in unison with ourselves, a noble band of brothers.Delany, Martin R. (1861). “OFFICIAL REPORT OF THE NIGER VALLEY EXPLORING PARTY.” New York, T. Hamilton p. 24 https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015003702209&view=1up&seq=34&q1=self-government

Image 88 – PAN AFRICAN FLAG Pan-African Culture Club (facebook)

King Cotton shapes history on three continentsA history of the British cotton industry by Claire Hopley https://britishheritage.com/history/history-british-cotton-industry

7:36 – Family Bonds by Cam Millar over image 89-95 to 8:49

Image 89a (Images 89a-89q – all have the same background: Asoke linen https://youramba.com/blogs/news/50891267-history-and-glossary-of-african-fabrics )
Image 89b.
Image 89c
Image 89d
Image 89e
Image 89f
Image 89g
Image 89h
Image 89i
Image 89j
Image 89k
Image 89l
Image 89m
Image 89n
Image 89o


89q. TITLE: the brainchild of the white slavers of the American Colonization Society, such as Bushrod Washington, but instead in Egba under the laws of Egba chieftains, joining the cotton farmers, becoming then the world capital of the Free Kingdom of Cotton. Jamaican-born, Robert Campbell, a partner with Delany in this enterprise, wrote: “There is certainly no more industrious people anywhere and I challenge all the world besides to produce a people more so, or capable of as much endurance. Those who believe, among other foolish things, that the Negro is accustomed lazily to spend his time basking in the sunshine, like black-snakes or alligators, should go and see the people they malign.” A pilgrimage to my motherland. An account of a journey among the Egbas and Yorubas of Central Africa, in 1859-60. by Robert Campbell https://www.loc.gov/resource/gdclccn.05014430/?sp=9

Image 89p
Image 89q
Image 89r – Reversed image of painting of Supreme Court Justice Bushrod Washington (1762–1829) in the National Portrait Gallery, Washington, D.C. Date 1828 https://npg.si.edu/object/npg_NPG.2017.80
Image 89s
image 90 – Sagbua Okukenu became the first Alake of Egbaland, ruling between August 8, 1854 to August 31, 1862.[3] Prior to the appointment of the Sagbua Okukenu in 1846, Shomoye was installed as regent for one year, between 1845 and 1846, and following the demise of Oba Okukenu in 1862 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alake_of_Egbaland_
Image 91 – Rotating Blue Marble NASA Observatory https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=laiVuCmEjlg
Image 92 – The Blue Marble – Next Generation shows incredible detail of the Earth https://www.nasa.gov/images/content/136038main_bm_swath.jpg
Image 93 – https://www.wealthresult.com/agriculture/lucrative-cotton-farming-nigeria
Image 94 – Rotating Blue Marble NASA Observatory https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=laiVuCmEjlg
Image 95 – National Humanities Center Resource Toolbox – The Making of African American Identity: Vol. I, 1500-1865 – Robert Campbell A Pilgrimage to My Motherland An Account of a Journey among the Egbas and Yorubas of Central Africa in 1859-60 https://www.loc.gov/resource/gdclccn.05014430/?st=gallery

9:28 – Olatunji over images 96-105 to 10:06
Babatunde Olatunji – Drums of Passion Live ’85 Archives World Music youtube.com

Image 96 – Drummer Men, A Yoruba Culture from Nigeria is a painting by Chioma Kanu fineartamerica.com https://fineartamerica.com/featured/drummer-men-a-yoruba-culture-from-nigeria-chioma-kanu.html
Image 97 – Same as Image 95 source
Image 98 Same as Image 9 source
Image 99 – Same as Image 95 source
Image 100 – Same as Image 95 source
Image 101 – Same as Image 95 source
Image 102 – Same as Image 95 source
Image 103 – Same as image 95 source
Image 104 – Same as image 95 source
Image 105 – “A pilgrimage to my motherland. An account of a journey among the Egbas and Yorubas of Central Africa, in 1859-60.” https://www.loc.gov/resource/gdclccn.05014430/?sp=9 – Kente linen https://youramba.com/blogs/news/50891267-history-and-glossary-of-african-fabrics

10:07 – Sona Jobarteh & Band Kora from West Africa over images 106-119 to 10:53 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ig91Z0-rBfo

Image 106 – Nigeria: As CBN Targets 300,000 Cotton Farmers https://kohantextilejournal.com/nigeria-as-cbn-targets-300000-cotton-farmers/

107-118 Linens https://youramba.com/blogs/news/50891267-history-and-glossary-of-african-fabrics

” . . . the natives cultivating it for the manufacture of cloths for their own consumption. Its exportation is, therefore, capable of indefinite extension.”

Image 107 – ADINKRA – the natives cultivating it for the manufacture
Image 108 – ADIRE – of cloths for their own consumption
Image 109 – BATIK
Image 110 – EWEIts exportation is, therefore, capable
Image 111 – KHASA of indefinite extension.
Image 112 – KENTE
Image 113 – KORHOGO
Image 114 – KUBA
Image 115 – MANJAKA
Image 116 – BROCADE
Image 117 – AFRICAN TIE-DYED
Image 118 – AFRICAN PRINTS
Image 119 – Kente fabric/cotton – youramba.com – cotton kohantextilejournal.com

10:55 – Rule Britannia by U. S. Army Strings over images 120-121 – 11:10 wikipedia.org

Image 120 – Royal_Coat_of_Arms_of_the_United_Kingdom wikipedia.org https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Royal_Coat_of_Arms_of_the_United_Kingdom_ – Kente fabric youramba.com
Image 121 – Same as 120.

He (Delany) read in the August 13th issue of the West African Herald: “King Dahomey is about to make the great Custom in honor of the late King Ghezo. Determined to surpass all formal monarchs, a great pit has been dug which is to contain human blood enough to float a canoe. Two thousand persons will be sacrificed on this occasion. The king has sent his army to make some excursions at the expense of some weaker tribes. The younger people will be sold into slavery. The older persons will be killed. Whole villages are taken. For Dahomey’s 5,000 celibate, enslaved, machine-like Amazonian warriors, Abeokuta was an object of their frenzied hatred, because Abeokuta defeated them in a war and even captured a general and made off with the sacred umbrella of the late King Gezo (Ghezo). King Ghezo died, some believed, because he defied a prophecy that if he invaded Abbeokuta – a “safe city against slavers” – he would pay the price. He tried. He was defeated. He died in 1858.

Image 122 – he read in the August 13th issue of the West African Herald: The West African Herald masthead
the first African-owned newspaper in West Africa, in 1858. It was circulated at first to only about 300 subscribers – 2/3 of them Africans – and endured for sixteen years, stimulating a proliferation of African-owned newspapers later in the 19th century. pbagalleries.com

11:16 – Alice Bort, Laura First, Ardyth Gilbertson over images 123-124 to 11:24
11:24 – KODO over images 123-135 to 12:27 – KODO World Tour 51:30-51:56 – youtube.com
12:47 – Shana Aisenberg (shanasongs.com) banjo over images 136-137 to 13:15

Image 123 – tapestry depicting several kings of Dahomey and their regnal years
Ivana Madzarevic – Own work wikipedia.org
Image 124 – King Dahomey is about to make the great Custom in honor of the late King Ghezo. – 124a – tapestry depicting several kings of Dahomey and their regnal years
IvanaMadzarevic – Own work wikipedia.org https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_of_Dahomey ; 124b Français: Le roi Ghézo et le prince royal Bâhadou. English: King Ghezo and the Royal Prince Badohou. Date 1 January 1863 Source Le Tour du monde, volume 7 [1] Author Valentin Foulquier (1822–1896) commons.wikimedia.org https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Le_Tour_du_monde-07-p085.jpg
Image 125 – Determined to surpass all formal monarchs – victims for sacrifice – From The history of Dahomy, an inland Kingdom of Africa 1793 – New York Public Library Author Archibad Dalzel wikipedia.org https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dahomey#/media/File:Victims_for_sacrifice-1793.jp
Image 126 – a great pit has been dug which is to contain human blood enough to float a canoe. Two thousand persons will be sacrificed on this occasion. newspaper clipping The Constitution Cork Advertiser Friday November 2, 1860 – bahamianology.com https://bahamianology.com/800-slaves-sacrificed-in-tribute-on-the-death-of-gezo-the-great-slave-king-of-dahomey-1858/
Image 127 – The king has sent his army to make some excursions at the expense of some weaker tribes. People are taken as slaves.
Image 128 – The younger people will be sold into slavery. bahamianology.com https://bahamianology.com/800-slaves-sacrificed-in-tribute-on-the-death-of-gezo-the-great-slave-king-of-dahomey-1858/
Image 129 – The older persons will be killed – Portrait of an Old Man by Gerard Bhengu artnet.com http://www.artnet.com/artists/gerard-bhengu/portrait-of-an-old-man-72jjIqIC6DCqzbdNsbvPng
Image 130 – Whole villages are taken – Portrait of an Old Man by Gerard Bhengu – artnet.com ; Captured Africans Liberated from a Slaving Vessel, East Africa, 1884 ; Martin Delany ahec.armywarcollege.edu https://ahec.armywarcollege.edu
Image 131 – For Dahomey’s 5,000 celibate, enslaved, machine-like Amazonian warriors, Abeokuta was an object of their frenzied hatred, because Abeokuta defeated them in a war and even captured a general. – Forbes, Frederick E. (1851), “Dahomey and the Dahomans.” Vol. 1 London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, library.si.edu https://library.si.edu/digital-library/book/dahomeydahomansb00forb
Image 132 – and made off with the sacred umbrella of the late King Gezo (Ghezo). – Ghezo, King of Dahomey Date 1851 Source From Dahomey and the Dahomans – New York Public Library [1] Author Forbes, Frederick E. wikipedia.org https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghezo
Image 133 – ornaments and skulls Ghezo, King of Dahomey Date 1851
Source From Dahomey and the Dahomans – New York Public Library [1] Author Forbes, Frederick E. facing p. 81 archive.org https://archive.org/details/dahomeydahomansb00forb/page/n369/mode/1up?view=theater
Image 134 – human sacrifice – Source From Dahomey and the Dahomans – New York Public Library [1] Author Forbes, Frederick E. facing p. 80 archive.org https://archive.org/details/dahomeydahomansb00forb/page/80/mode/2up?view=theater
Image 135 – King Ghezo died, some believed, because he defied a prophecy that if he invaded Abbeokuta – a “safe city against slavers” – he would pay the price. – King Ghezo – bahamianology.com https://bahamianology.com/800-slaves-sacrificed-in-tribute-on-the-death-of-gezo-the-great-slave-king-of-dahomey-1858/ – ornaments and skulls Ghezo, King of Dahomey Date 1851
Source From Dahomey and the Dahomans – New York Public Library [1] Author Forbes, Frederick E. facing p. 81 archive.org https://archive.org/details/dahomeydahomansb00forb/page/n369/mode/1up?view=theater
Image 136 – He tried. He was defeated. He died in 1858 – Same source as image 132

SOURCE:

THE POLITICS OF COMMERCIAL TRANSITION: FACTIONAL CONFLICT IN DAHOMEY IN THE
CONTEXT OF THE ENDING OF THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE by Robin Law
University of Stirling York University, Ontario p. 227
https://dspace.stir.ac.uk/bitstream/1893/280/1/politics-of-commercial-transition.pdf

12:44 – banjo by Shana Aisenberg images 137-138 to 13:14

“Farewell, farewell my loving friends, farewell. . . The jasmine smells of Africa are tonight less fragrant than my scented memory of soft honey-suckled summer’s night breezes in Virginia long ago, and awaking to the mockingbird.”

Image 137
Image 138
Image 139 – The Banjo Player by William Sidney Mount 1856 – The Long Island Museum of American art, History and Carriages, Stony Brook, United States artsandculture.google.com https://artsandculture.google.com/asset/the-banjo-player-mount-william-sidney/WAFqaiSKzQ1JlA?hl=en

To Be More Than Equal 1 – Martin Delany to Africa by Jim Surkamp

To Be More Than Equal 1 – Martin Delany to Africa by Jim Surkamp June, 2021 video link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oHBTnaDgMvY

Flickr – 24 images https://www.flickr.com/photos/jimsurkamp/albums/72157719653461986

THESE BEGINNING-T0-END, SEQUENCED IMAGES ARE FROM THE LINKED TO VIDEO WITH THIS SCRIPT. THE SCRIPT’S TEXT IS COMPLETE AND IS BROKEN DOWN TO MATCH TO THE IMAGE SHOWN WITH IT DURING THE VIDEO. – JS


:00 – FX ocean waves and seagulls over images 1 & 3 to :39

1a. TITLE: TO BE MORE THAN EQUAL
1b. TITLE: MARTIN ROBISON DELANY 1812-1885
Vintage Print of Clipper ship Lightning Boston Donald McKay
pinterest.com
www.pinterest.com/pin/863213453575919187/visual-search/

  1. Vintage Print of Clipper ship Lightning Boston Donald McKay
    pinterest.com
    www.pinterest.com/pin/863213453575919187/visual-search/
  2. Vintage Print of Clipper ship Lightning Boston Donald McKay
    pinterest.com
    www.pinterest.com/pin/863213453575919187/visual-search/
  3. Vintage Print of Clipper ship Lightning Boston Donald McKay
    pinterest.com
    www.pinterest.com/pin/863213453575919187/visual-search/

**

I leave you here and journey on. And if I never more return – Farewell.


:33 – Ardyth Gilbertson, Alice Bort, Laura First over image 5 to :39
:39 – FX hissing over image 6 to :45
:39 – Fair Harvard (FAIR HARVARD) over images 6-7 to 1:07
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=r-SjMwBG1mk

  1. 5a. Ship at sea
    fair use images from Master and Commander The Far side of the World directed by Peter Weir – youtube.com
    www.youtube.com/results?search_query=master+and+commander…
    5b. Martin Delany
    ahec.armywarcollege.edu
    ahec.armywarcollege.edu/

MRD Harvard
6a. video @ :23 Many Homes of Harvard Medical School
hms.harvard.edu
hms.harvard.edu/about-hms/history-hms
6b. Harvard logo
pinterest.com
www.pinterest.com/pin/480337116490842077/7.

7. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. – 1853 Daguerrotype of Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr by Josiah Haws – images courtesy of Harvard University Library Date between circa 1850 and circa 1856 Source P1973.54 Harvard University Library Weissman Preservation Center wikipedia.org https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oliver_Wendell_Holmes_Sr.#/media/File:Oliver_Wendell_Holmes_Sr_daguerreotype.jpeg



1:07 – Ardyth Gilbertson, Alice Bort, Laura First over images 8-12 to 1:58
1:07 – seagulls over images 8-11 to 1:33.

  1. Ship at sea
    fair use images from Master and Commander The Far side of the World directed by Peter Weir – youtube.com
    www.youtube.com/results?search_query=master+and+commander…

His expulsion just because of skin color convinced him that the power of reason and merit alone did not in fact determine the country’s esteemed leaders.

  1. TITLE New York and Brooklyn 1850s
    geographicguide.com
    www.geographicguide.com/united-states/nyc/antique/19th-ce…

**
So, scraping just a few hundred dollars, he rented a crew and ship to go back to Africa,

  1. African under palm tree on shore
    The African Dream Come True
    web.archive.org
    web.archive.org/web/20110501040918/http://www.libraries.w…

**
where his grandfather, Shango, had returned several generations before.

TEXT SOURCE The African Dream Come True
web.archive.org
web.archive.org/web/20110501040918/http://www.libraries.w…

  1. Montage Delany harbor
    11a. Baltimore Harbor 1850 by Fitz Hugh Lane
    oceansbridge.com
    www.oceansbridge.com/shop/artists/l/la-lan/lane-fitz-hugh…
    11b. Martin Delany
    U.S. Army Heritage and Education Center
    /ahec.armywarcollege.edu
    ahec.armywarcollege.edu/

**
MRD:
“I sailed from New York May 24th, 1859 in the fine barque Mendi, Captain McIntyre, vessel and cargo owned by Johnson, Turpin, and Dunbar, three enterprising colored gentlemen of Monrovia, Liberia, all formerly of New York City.

  1. Frederick Douglass in 1856 (age 38)
    commons.wikimedia.org National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
    commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Frederick_Douglass_ambrot…(1856).jpg

**
His critics including Frederick Douglass, were legion.
“You must stay here and fight for freedom,” they told him.


1:58 – The Battle 13 fair use from soundtrack of Master and Commander The Far Side of the World directed by Peter Weir over images 13-18 to 2:28 youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=GAXJ7jek5-4&list=RDfA6ucF8-BF…

1:58 – FX ocean waves over images 13-18 to 2:28

**

  1. TITLE: “Farewell . .”
    ship at sea foam
    fair use images from Master and Commander The Far side of the World directed by Peter Weir – youtube.com
    www.youtube.com/results?search_query=master+and+commander…
  2. TITLE: “. .to the land of the bloodhound and chain, . “
    ship at sea foam
    fair use images from Master and Commander The Far side of the World directed by Peter Weir – youtube.com
    www.youtube.com/results?search_query=master+and+commander…
  3. TITLE: “. . my path is away over the fetter-less main!”
    ship at sea foam

    fair use images from Master and Commander The Far side of the World directed by Peter Weir – youtube.com
    www.youtube.com/results?search_query=master+and+commander…
  4. TITLE: Martin had forty-six days in the mid-Atlantic to penetrate his personal, distant horizons
    ship with sunset
    fair use images from Master and Commander The Far side of the World directed by Peter Weir – youtube.com
    www.youtube.com/results?search_query=master+and+commander…
  5. TITLE: from his own 46 years of non-stop living,
    ship with sunset
    fair use images from Master and Commander The Far side of the World directed by Peter Weir – youtube.com
    www.youtube.com/results?search_query=master+and+commander…

NO #18

2:28 – Corrs play Toss the Feathers over images 19a-19g to 3:25

19a.TITLE: Music Credit: “Toss The Feathers” by the Corrs (MTV Unplugged Version) youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=_edkn7Qd9Zg

Born 1812 Charles Town Va…to Chambersburg, Pa 1812-1822 to Pittsburgh 1831 becomes a leader, leecher and doctor … Winter, 1839 – He goes South with Free Papers and doctoring … 1848-1849 – Newspaper Editor, Organizer, Doctor

19b. Mid-Atlantic Region in the United States
Google Earth Pro

19c. TITLE: Born 1812 Charles Town Va
Google Earth Pro

19d.TITLE: to Chambersburg, Pa 1812-1822
Google Earth Pro

19e. TITLE: to Pittsburgh 1831 becomes a leader, leecher and doctor
Google Earth Pro

19f. TITLE: Winter, 1839 – He goes South with Free Papers and doctoring
www.google.com/maps
www.google.com/maps/place/Fort+Towson,+OK+74735/@34.01480…

19g. TITLE: 1848-1849 Newspaper Editor, Organizer, Doctor
The North Star masthead
wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_North_Star_(anti-slavery_newspaper)
google.com/maps
www.google.com/maps/@40.9225363,-78.0687666,70556m/data=!…

. . . beginning that one day on a street in Charles Town, Virginia when his mother Pati accepted from a big-hearted traveling peddler, “The New York Primer for Spelling and Reading.” Martin listened intently as his four older brothers and sisters lay out the secret to young Martin. to how to arrange a word and the sound you make with each word, and caring not a fig that it all was illegal for those with dark skin.

To Be More Than Equal – The Many Lives of Martin R. Delany 1812-1885 https://web.archive.org/web/20110311052746/http://www.libraries.wvu.edu/delany/home.htm
  1. TITLE: beginning that one day on a street in Charles Town, Virginia
    20a-20c.
    Dressing for Carnival by Winslow Homer – The Metropolitan Museum of Art
    artsandculture.google.com
    artsandculture.google.com/asset/dressing-for-the-carnival…

20d. Charles Town, Va 1852 by S. Howell Brown
loc.gov
www.loc.gov/resource/g3893j.la001393/?r=0.835,0.638,0.065…

21. TITLE: when his mother Pati
Pati Delany
Dressing for Carnival by Winslow Homer – The Metropolitan Museum of Art
artsandculture.google.com
artsandculture.google.com/asset/dressing-for-the-carnival…

  1. TITLE: accepted from a big-hearted traveling peddler
    The Story Teller of the Camp by Eastman Johnson – 1861-1866
    Reynolda House Museum of American Art
    commons.wikimedia.org
    commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Storyteller_of_the_Camp_(Maple_Sugar_Camp)_by_Eastman_Johnson.jpg
  1. TITLE: The New York Primer for Spelling and Reading.
    The New York Primer Second Book
    Martin Delany Learns To Read
    web.archive.org
    web.archive.org/web/20110501030520/http://www.libraries.w…
  1. 24.TITLE: Martin listened intently as his four older brothers and sisters lay out the secret
    to young Martin.
    Sunday Morning in Virginia by Winslow Homer – 1877 Cincinnati Art Museum Credit line: John J. Emery Fund
    commons.wikimedia.org
    commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Winslow_Homer_-_Sunday_Mo…

24.TITLE: Martin listened intently as his four older brothers and sisters lay out the secret to young Martin
Sunday Morning in Virginia by Winslow Homer – 1877 Cincinnati Art Museum Credit line: John J. Emery Fund – commons.wikimedia.org https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Winslow_Homer_-_Sunday_Morning_in_Virginia.jpg

25.TITLE: to how to arrange a word
three children. one older woman – Sunday Morning in Virginia by Winslow Homer – 1877 Cincinnati Art Museum Credit line: John J. Emery Fund commons.wikimedia.org

26. The New-England primer enlarged. For the more easy attaining the true reading of English. To which is added, the Assembly of divines catechism Alphabet – G-M
digitalcollections.nypl.org
digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/37c97d70-73ab-0130-d7ec…

27. TITLE: and caring not a fig that it was all illegal Sunday Morning in Virginia by Winslow Homer – 1877 Cincinnati Art Museum Credit line: John J. Emery Fund commons.wikimedia.org

28.TITLE: for those with dark skin Cover of Virginia law 1819
The Revised Code of the Laws of Virginia: Being a Collection of All Such Acts of the General Assembly, of a Public and Permanent Nature as are Now in Force; with a General Indes. To which are Prefixed, the Constitution of the United States; the Declaration of Rights; and the Constitution of Virginia. Published Pursuant to an Act of the General Assembly, Entitled “An Act Providing for the Re-publication of the Laws of this Commonwealth,” Passed March 12, 1819…NOTE 1849 Title 54, Chapter 198; “Assembling of negroes. Trading by free negroes,” Section 31; in the Code of Virginia https://bpscurriculumandinstruction.weebly.com/uploads/1/0/1/3/10131776/ps_grade_5_unit_4_slave_codes.pdf


3:50 – FX giggling over images 30-31 to 3:55

**
They didn’t care. It was fun. It was POWER.


29.TITLE: They didn’t care. It was FUN!
Sunday Morning in Virginia by Winslow Homer – 1877 Cincinnati Art Museum John J. Emery Fund commons.wikimedia.org

30.TITLE: It was POWER
Sunday Morning in Virginia by Winslow Homer – 1877 Cincinnati Art Museum John J. Emery Fund commons.wikimedia.org

3:55 – FX wagon sounds over image 32 to 4:01
4:02 – Waterdogs 3 by Cam Millar (cammillar.com) over images 33-43 to 4:48

**

Pati packed all they could into a wagon saying it was a trip to kin in Martinsburg, but which continued on north across the the ferry at Williamsport, Maryland, and continuing further north into Pennsylvania – a Free State – and Chambersburgthe Promised Land of Knowledge that replaced, instead, the hell of NO!-ledge. From that day forth, Martin read, grew, acted. The longer his legs, the vaster he could stride the face of the globe. The longer his arms, the furthest star he could hold in his hand. Sometimes SCORCHED, Sometimes illumined . . . Until a day in 1875 he reached for a star within another Universe of stars. Firey anger blasted back And Martin fell back forevermore into our every daywith just a sun and a moon. His hope wanted something perfect. that humanity – the part that he met – SCORNED.

31. TITLE: Patty (Pati) packed all they could into a wagon saying it was a trip to kin in Martinsburg
Patty (Pati) Delany
Dressing for Carnival by Winslow Homer – The Metropolitan Museum of Art
artsandculture.google.com
artsandculture.google.com/asset/dressing-for-the-carnival…

32. TITLE: but which continued on north across the the ferry at Williamsport, Maryland,
The school of the holy road
Charles Town, Old Virginia, From Pike 3/4 of a Mile South of Town 1884/08/01
Description:'(71)D.119; August 1, 1884, Friday 5-20 pm. clear sun; Bonfire
Biscoe, Thomas Biscoe – West Virginia & Regional Collection
wvhistoryonview.org 9 October 2010 Web. 10 July 2015.
wvhistoryonview.org/catalog/028385
Collection url
wvhistoryonview.org/?utf8=%E2%9C%93&search_field=all_…

www.flickr.com/photos/jimsurkamp/17338387698/stats/

    34.TITLE: and continuing further north into Pennsylvania – a Free State – and Chambersburg
    The school of the holy road
    Charles Town, Old Virginia, From Pike 3/4 of a Mile South of Town 1884/08/01
    Description:'(71)D.119; August 1, 1884, Friday 5-20 pm. clear sun; Bonfire
    Biscoe, Thomas Biscoe – West Virginia & Regional Collection
    wvhistoryonview.org 9 October 2010 Web. 10 July 2015.
    wvhistoryonview.org/catalog/028385
    Collection url
    wvhistoryonview.org/?utf8=%E2%9C%93&search_field=all_…

    35.TITLE: – the Promised Land of Knowledge
    The school of the holy road
    Charles Town, Old Virginia, From Pike 3/4 of a Mile South of Town 1884/08/01
    Description:'(71)D.119; August 1, 1884, Friday 5-20 pm. clear sun; Bonfire
    Biscoe, Thomas Biscoe – West Virginia & Regional Collection
    wvhistoryonview.org 9 October 2010 Web. 10 July 2015.
    wvhistoryonview.org/catalog/028385
    Collection url
    wvhistoryonview.org/?utf8=%E2%9C%93&search_field=all_…

    36.TITLE: that replaced, instead, the hell of NO!-ledge.
    The school of the holy road
    Charles Town, Old Virginia, From Pike 3/4 of a Mile South of Town 1884/08/01
    Description:'(71)D.119; August 1, 1884, Friday 5-20 pm. clear sun; Bonfire
    Biscoe, Thomas Biscoe – West Virginia & Regional Collection
    wvhistoryonview.org 9 October 2010 Web. 10 July 2015.
    wvhistoryonview.org/catalog/028385
    Collection url
    wvhistoryonview.org/?utf8=%E2%9C%93&search_field=all_…

37.TITLE: From that day forth, Martin read
37a. The school of the holy road
Charles Town, Old Virginia, From Pike 3/4 of a Mile South of Town 1884/08/01
Description:'(71)D.119; August 1, 1884, Friday 5-20 pm. clear sun; Bonfire
Biscoe, Thomas Biscoe – West Virginia & Regional Collection
wvhistoryonview.org 9 October 2010 Web. 10 July 2015.
wvhistoryonview.org/catalog/028385
Collection url
wvhistoryonview.org/?utf8=%E2%9C%93&search_field=all_…

    38.TITLE: grew
    38a. The school of the holy road
    Charles Town, Old Virginia, From Pike 3/4 of a Mile South of Town 1884/08/01
    Description:'(71)D.119; August 1, 1884, Friday 5-20 pm. clear sun; Bonfire
    Biscoe, Thomas Biscoe – West Virginia & Regional Collection
    wvhistoryonview.org 9 October 2010 Web. 10 July 2015.
    wvhistoryonview.org/catalog/028385
    Collection url
    wvhistoryonview.org/?utf8=%E2%9C%93&search_field=all_…
    38b. boy with book Harpers Weekly
    www.alamy.com/stock-photo-1800s-1870s-young-african-ameri…

    39.TITLE: acted
    39a. The school of the holy road
    Charles Town, Old Virginia, From Pike 3/4 of a Mile South of Town 1884/08/01
    Description:(71)D.119; August 1, 1884, Friday 5-20 pm. clear sun; Bonfire
    Biscoe, Thomas Biscoe – West Virginia & Regional Collection
    wvhistoryonview.org 9 October 2010 Web. 10 July 2015.
    wvhistoryonview.org/catalog/028385
    Collection url
    wvhistoryonview.org/?utf8=%E2%9C%93&search_field=all_…
    39b. The Lord is my Shepherd by Eastman Johnson – 1863 The Smithsonian American Art Museum
    artsandculture.google.com
    artsandculture.google.com/asset/the-lord-is-my-shepherd/f…

    40.TITLE: The longer his legs, the vaster he could stride the face of the globe.
    40a. Martin Delany, c. 1847. Called the father of Black Nationalism, this rare image captures Delany, already an abolitionist, writer, publisher, and journalist at this point in his life. Courtesy of Floyd Thomas.
    heinzhistorycenter.org
    www.heinzhistorycenter.org/blog/collection-spotlight/rare…
    40b. Blue Marble NASA rotate_320
    NASAEarth Observatory
    youtube.com
    www.youtube.com/watch?v=laiVuCmEjlg

41.TITLE: the furthest star he could hold in his hand.

41a. carolyn gabb saved to “hands” pinterest.com
www.pinterest.com/pin/567031409315465671/
41b. Hubble Captures Giant Star on the Edge of Destruction
nasa.gov
www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2021/hubble-captures-giant-s…

        •  

 

42.TITLE: Sometimes SCORCHED
Neighboring Star’s Bad Behavior: Large and Frequent Flares
by Pat Brennan, NASA’s Exoplanet Exploration Program April 23, 2021
exoplanets.nasa.gov
exoplanets.nasa.gov/news/1680/neighboring-stars-bad-behav…


 

4:48 – Mallets, Voice and Organ by Steve Reich over images 44-46 to 5:12

:20 Steve Reich Music for Mallet instruments, Voices and Organ Ananda Blatt – youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=uXtQYgIiDXE

5:12 – Waterdogs 4 by Cam Millar (cammillar.com) over images 46-51 to 5:39

43-46.TITLE: Sometimes illumined
Animation/Fractals
43-46a. Simpsons contributor at English Wikipedia – Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons by Franklin.vp using CommonsHelper.
Used Zom-B’s library with my own code and a golden gradient (similar to the default gradient used in Ultra Fractal). Each scene is 6x supersampled to remove sharp edges. Took… a while to render Links to Java source code: Zom-B version project directory containing DoubleDouble class, adjustments made by Simpsons Contributor to keep max iteration and anti-aliasing factor at more conservative values for faster rendering. New golden gradient added. Includes animated gif encoder. Zom-B version Mandelbrot zoom with center at (-0.743643887037158704752191506114774, 0.131825904205311970493132056385139) and magnification 1 .. 3.18 × 1031 created using my own Java program, using: Double-double precision (self-written library), Adaptive maxiter depending on the inverse square root of the magnification Adaptive per-pixel antialiasing strength depending on the maximum iteration of nearby pixels (15x AA max), (during antialiasing phase, maxiter is quadrupled), Iteration smoothing, New warm gradient which also gives clearer details, applied to the base-2 log of the smoothed iteration number, Modified periodicity checking algorithm from Fractint, for significant speedup, Main cardioid and period-2 bulb checking for another speedup, Multi-threaded calculation 136 hours calculation time on two PC’s (6 cores combined)
wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fractal#/media/File:Mandelbrot_sequ…
43-46b. Ananda Blatt – random animation with minimalist music by composer Steve Reich from 1973. (amateur powerpoint animation).
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=uXtQYgIiDXE

47.TITLE: Until a day in 1875, he reached for a star within another Universe of stars. Firey anger blasted back

48. TITLE: And Martin fell back into our every day.

  1. 49.TITLE: with just a sun and a moon
    49a. The school of the holy road
    Charles Town, Old Virginia, From Pike 3/4 of a Mile South of Town 1884/08/01
    Description:'(71)D.119; August 1, 1884, Friday 5-20 pm. clear sun; Bonfire
    Biscoe, Thomas Biscoe – West Virginia & Regional Collection
    wvhistoryonview.org 9 October 2010 Web. 10 July 2015.
    wvhistoryonview.org/catalog/028385
    Collection url
    wvhistoryonview.org/?utf8=%E2%9C%93&search_field=all_…
    49b. The Lord is my Shepherd by Eastman Johnson – 1863 The Smithsonian American Art Museum
    artsandculture.google.com
    artsandculture.google.com/asset/the-lord-is-my-shepherd/f…

  1. 50.TITLE: His hope wanted something perfect
    Martin R. Delany 1870s-1880s
    South Carolina during Reconstruction / by Francis Butler Simkins
    hathitrust.org
    babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015012056464&vie…

  1. 51.TITLE: that humanity – the part that he met – SCORNED
    Martin R. Delany 1870s-1880s
    South Carolina during Reconstruction / by Francis Butler Simkins
    hathitrust.org
    babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015012056464&vie…

END “MARTIN DELANY TO AFRICA 1859 PART 1”

What Jeb Sang To Flora by Jim Surkamp with Terry Tucker

by Jim Surkamp on September 12, 2014 in CivilianConfederateJefferson CountyWartime

Made possible with the generous support of American Public University System, providing an affordable, quality, online education. The video and post do not reflect any modern-day policies or positions of American Public University System, and their content is intended to encourage discussion and better understanding of the past. More:

VIDEO: What Jeb Stuart Sang to Flora With Terry Tucker. Click Here. TRT: 11:13.
Flickr Set: Click Here. 30 photos.

What_Jeb_Sang_To_Flora_TITLE_FINAL_FINAL


What JEB Sang To Flora by Jim Surkamp with Terry Tucker

William.Blackford


JEB Stuart, the famed Confederate Civil War cavalryman, sang well and often even in the saddle, well, especially in the saddle. William Blackford, his closest confidant, wrote: “The gayer he was the more likely it was we were to move soon”

39_Terry Tucker
Sunset_Two_Swallows_TITLE

Terry Tucker sings verse 1:
When the swallows homeward fly,
When the roses scatter’d lie,
When from neither hill nor dale,
Chants the silv’ry nightingale,
In these words my bleeding heart,
Would to thee its grief impart.
When I thus thy image lose,
Can I, oh! can I e’er know repose?
Can I, oh! can I e’er know repose?

Flora.Cooke.Stuart
guitar171


And he sang for his beloved wife, Flora. Before the war he sang; she sang and played the piano or guitar.

Jefferson_Barracks_MO_Civil_War_TITLE


Flora Cooke was born on January 3rd, 1836, at Jefferson Barracks, outside St. Louis, Missouri. Her father was a native

woman_horseback_with_soldier_Flora


Virginian, her mother from Philadelphia. Flora not only played the piano and the guitar, she rode horseback and could shoot. She planned to visit her parents at Fort Riley in the Kansas Territory, where her father was commander. During the troop

stuart5
Flora_Stuart_typhoid_fever


review at Fort Riley, however, her equestrian skills seduced young Lieutenant J.E.B.Stuart, fresh from West Point. They soon married in 1855. Their first child, Flora, was born in September, 1857. When the Civil War broke out and Stuart joined the

St_George_Cooke


Confederate army, Flora’s father, Philip St. George Cooke, remained with the Union, ultimately becoming a General. So they renamed their second child, a son born in 1860, to be “James E. B. Stuart Jr.”

December 12, 1861: Stuart asks Flora for the words to “When Swallows Homeward Fly.”

Eastman_Johnson_Stuart_Writing


“Send me the words of “When the Swallows (Homeward Fly)” & “The Dew is on the Blossom.” . . . those songs which so much remind me of you.”

signature


He would write to Flora the following year:

Jeb_Flora_No_Words


Indeed I often ask myself in surprise why it is that any one girl can absorb my soul’s affection as you do. But I find a ready answer. In the fresh remembrance of that smile, that trusting look, that little finger’s potential crook, that put Polk to flight and conquered me. Ah my sweet one, I wish every conquest was so sweet to the vanquished. And how about the

J.E.B.Stuart.Painting.Cape_.book_.cover_


Vanquisher, you little, matter-of-fact importune queen that gloried in the conquest of Bvt 2nd Lieut of horse, and now in a lapse of a few years lord it over a Major General of Cavalry. How do you bear the transition? – from the Bower October 26, 1862.

Stuart_Bower_1
ASDII.SCD


Stuart always the ringleader at festivities, set up a still-famous ball at the home of the Dandridges called the Bower, set for Wednesday October 7th 1862 aided by Sweeney and his musical stars. And Stuart gave himself the starring role, singing “When Swallows Homeward Fly”

white_swan_Audobon
bird-silhouette-stencil-template-swan-7

Terry Tucker sings verse 2:

When the white swan southward roves,
To seek at noon the orange groves,
When the red tints of the west,
Prove the sun is gone to rest,
In these words my bleeding heart,
Would to thee its grief impart.
When I thus thy image lose,

humiliation.dhs_.PRCW_.9.725


Can I, oh! can I e’er know repose?
Can I, oh! can I e’er know repose?

Stuart_Ride_Around_Twenty_Years


But the gaiety was near the precipice on the eve of a dangerous mission to take over 1,000 cavalry men unmolested around the full army of Federal General George McClellan still resting over the river in Maryland and Pennsylvania. William Blackford wrote of Stuart’s deep foreboding at the outset of the mission. He clearly sensed the nearness of tragedy. Their beloved five-year-old daughter, Flora, was deathly ill, and she would die of typhoid fever in 28 days. Stuart wrote Flora for a daguerreotype of their daughter a week before her passing. Love burns brighter at the feet of oblivion.

Terry Tucker – 2:
Can I, oh! can I e’er know repose?
Can I, oh! can I e’er know repose?

May 11, 1864 – Repose Comes

shot.on.horse.B&L.Vol1.p.546


Stuart was to have said during the war: “All I ask of fate is that I may be killed leading a cavalry charge” – a wish somewhat granted on May 11, 1864 at Yellow Tavern with a bullet fired by a retreating private in a Michigan unit.

mourning_dhs_Strother_Feb_1868_P288


Flora and her two surviving children raced by private train and reached Ashland, Virginia finding there that the tracks had been torn up by the Union troops. A group of sympathetic Confederate cavalrymen gave them their ambulance which the group

Rev_Joshua_Peterkin_NAMED


drove through a rainstorm. Near death, Stuart was by that time praying with Rev. Peterkin, who he then asked to sing with him the song, “Rock of Ages.”

Howard_Pyle_Decoration_Day
tumblr_mc9bjvhe3a1rd3evlo1_1280


Flora arrived at the home of Stuart’s doctor and brother-in-law, Charles Brewer, at 11:30 PM but too late, about four hours after Stuart had died. As was the custom, Flora Stuart wore black thereafter in public. What remained to keep was a lock of JEB’s hair that she kept until dying when she was in her mid-eighties in 1923. The sacred lock became their son’s.

Obit_Flora_Stuart_FIXED
JEB_Stuart_Jr_findagrave
Swallow_Sheet_Music_One_Page


Terry Tucker sings verse 3:
My poor heart, why do you cry,
Once also you in peace will lie!
All things on this earth must die;
Will then we meet, you and I?
My heart asks with boding pain
Will faith join us once again?
After today’s bitter parting pain.

Stuart_Gravesite
Sunset_Two_Swallows_TITLE

References:

When the swallows homeward fly (Franz Wilhelm Abt)
traditionalmusic.co.uk 1 February 2001 Web. 5 September 2014.

When Swallows Homeward Fly
1852, Franz Abt (1819–1885) [Stratton Military Band Journal]
Gen. J.E.B. Stuart was an excellent singer and was known to serenade the ladies in town with this beautiful song accompanied with his personal musicians, the Sweeney brothers. Franz Abt was a German songwriter and conductor whose style was so natural that people assumed he used authentic folk songs for his works. He composed over 600 works.
otbrass.com 18 August 2000 Web. 5 September 2014.

Peggy Vogtsberger. “This Fine Music.” (NOTE: This program first appeared in an article in Volume 10, No. 4 of The Cannoneer. Sources: Burke Davis, “The Swinging Sweeneys,” The Iron Worker, Autumn, 1969, contributed by Wes Rine. Bob Trout confirmed the dates and information). The linked music is believed to be, but not with certainty, the music played by Sweeney’s orchestra.-JS.
civilwarscholars.com 9 JUne 2011 Web. 5 September 2014.

“Send me the words of when the swallows & The Dew is on the blossom. Passing away & Napolitain those songs which so much remind of you.” – J.E.B. Stuart to Flora Cooke Stuart, December, 1861
from:
Caroline Moseley. “’Those Songs Which So Much Remind Me of You’: The Musical Taste of General J.E.B. Stuart.” American Music, Vol. 9, No. 4 (Winter, 1991), pp. 384-404.
jstor.org 6 September 2011 Web. 5 September 2014.

p. 392.

Blackford, William W. (1945). “War Years with Jeb Stuart.” New York, NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons. Print.

Blackford, William W. (1945). “War Years with Jeb Stuart.” Google Books. 19 July 2008. Web. September 5, 2014.
pp. 89-90. – “The gayer he was the more likely it was we were to move soon.”
More:

“Letters of General J.E.B. Stuart to his Wife, 1862,” ed. Bingham Duncan, Emory University Publications, Series I, 1943: 28.

Letters of General J.E.B. Stuart to his Wife, 1862,” ed. Bingham Duncan. 6whitehorses.com 19 October 2012 Web. September 5, 2014.

“I regard it as a foregone conclusion,” said Stuart, “that we shall ultimately whip the Yankees. We are bound to believe that, anyhow; but the war is going to be a long and terrible one, first. We’ve only just begun it, and very few of us will see (Page 123) the end. All I ask of fate is that I may be killed leading a cavalry charge.” The remark was not a boastful or seemingly insincere one. It was made quietly, cheerfully, almost eagerly, and it impressed me at the time with the feeling that the man’s idea of happiness was what the French call glory, and that in his eyes there was no glory like that of dying in one of the tremendous onsets which he knew so well how to make. His wish was granted, as we know. He received his death-wound at the head of his troopers. – Eggleston, George Cary. (1875). “A Rebel’s Recollections.” New York, NY: Hurd & Houghton. Print.

Eggleston, George Cary. (1875). “A Rebel’s Recollections” Documenting the American South, University of North Carolina Library. 22 Aug. 2008 Web. 28 Dec. 2010. – p. 123.
More:

Von Borcke, Heros. (1867). “Memoirs of the Confederate war for independence.” Philadelphia. PA: J. B. Lippincott & Co. Print.

Von Borcke, Heros. (1867). “Memoirs of the Confederate war for independence.” Internet Archives archive.org 9 August 2002 Web. 20 April 2014.

Heros Von Borcke remembers Flora singing a ballad to Stuart in camp, Von Borcke Vol. 1. p. 48.
More:

Image Credits:

Title: [General Jeb Stuart] / Gurney & Son, photo, N.Y.
Creator(s): J. Gurney & Son, photographer
Date Created/Published: N.Y. : J. Gurney & Son, Photographic Artists, 707 Broadway ; [between 1861 and 1864].
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. September 5, 2014.

When the swallows homeward fly
dc.lib.unc.edu 11 August 2013 Web. September 5, 2014.

Silhouette of a swan in flight
milliande-printables.com 22 March 2009 Web. September 5, 2014.

General JEB Stuart: A Large Lock of His Sandy Brown Hair
The hair was removed from his head on the night of his death by his wife Flora and saved for their son JEB Stuart, Jr. Flora had rushed to be beside her husband, but arrived only to see him in death at the house of Dr. Charles Brewer. Word of her husband being wounded in battle reached her at Beaver Dam Station via messenger due to the telegraph wires being cut by Union General Sheridan’s troops. Flora and their two children raced by private train and reached Ashland, finding that the tracks had been torn up by the Union troops. A group of sympathetic and loyal wounded Confederate cavalrymen gave them their ambulance which the group drove through a growing rainstorm. Throughout the journey Flora would receive erroneous word that her husband was doing well, only slightly wounded, giving her hope she would reach him in time. Finding the bridge at the Chickahominy River destroyed, blocking them from easy access to Richmond, they forded the river a mile downstream delaying their arrival at the Brewer home until 11:30 P.M. Her husband had died almost four hours earlier, receiving Confederate President Jefferson Davis as one of his last guests. The lock is accompanied by her original hand written note, “Hair of your dear father cut off. May 1864.” A priceless memory of the greatest cavalry officer in American history.
thecivilwarparlor.tumblr.com 14 September 2012 Web. September 5, 2014.

Flora Cooke Stuart
11/11/2007
findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. September 5, 2014.

Capt James Ewell Brown Stuart, II
Added by: SheWalksTheseHills
findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. September 5, 2014.

Rock of Ages Louise Homer (contralto); Alma Gluck (soprano vocal) start at 1:07 1:51 very end (not used).
loc.gov 5 December 1998 Web. September 5, 2014.

Philip_St._George_Cooke
wikipedia.org 2 December 2003 Web. September 5, 2014.

Little Flora
Birth: Sep. 15, 1857
Kansas, USA
Death: Nov. 3, 1862
Added by: stars&bars
11/11/2007
findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. September 5, 2014.

Flora Stuart (daughter) tombstone
Added by: stars&bars
11/11/2007
findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. September 5, 2014.

Jefferson_Barracks_Military_Post
wikipedia.org 2 December 2003 Web. September 5, 2014.

The Corps of Cadets circa 1850 (not used)
wikipedia.org 2 December 2003 Web. September 5, 2014.

Vivandieres: Part 3
Fortune after Hippolyte Lalaisse, Paris, c.1855. Hand-coloured lithograph.
vam.ac.uk 20 November 1996 Web. September 5, 2014.

Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 36, Issue: 213, February, 1868. Print. –
More:

Strother, David H. (February, 1868). “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harpers Magazine. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014.

p. 273 – men dining (not used)

p. 288 – mourning – woman arriving, man pointing direction

p. 290 – hand writing letter by candlelight

Fort Sumter, South Carolina, APril, 1861
Currier & IUves Lithograph
nps.gov 20 April 1997 Web. September 5, 2014.

Elisabeth Nourse (American painter, 1860-1938) Mother and Baby
bjws.blogspot.com 10 June 2010 Web. September 5, 2014.

Rev. Joshua Peterkin
added by George Seitz
findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. September 5, 2014.

Flora Cooke Stuart
Added by: stars&bars
11/11/2007
findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. September 5, 2014.

Date: Sunday, May 13, 1923. Paper: Richmond Times Dispatch (Richmond, VA) Page: 1
genealogybank.com 11 October 2008 Web. September 5, 2014.

Flora Cooke Stuart (1836–1923)
Contributed by Catherine M. Wright
encyclopediavirginia.org 11 September 2010. Web. 4 September 2014.

Plate 98 White-bellied Swallow – John James Audubon
Artist: John James Audubon
Style: Naturalism
Series: Birds of America 1827-1838.
wikiart.org 11 August 2013. Web. 4 September 2014.

Nachtigall (Luscinia megarhynchos)-2CC BY-SA 3.0 (not used)
Nachtigall_(Luscinia_megarhynchos).jpg: J. Dietrich derivative work: Bogbumper (talk) – Nachtigall_(Luscinia_megarhynchos).jpg
Singing Nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos), in Berlin, Germany
wikipedia.org 15 December 2005 Web. 4 September 2014.

Common nightingale (not used)
csupomona.edu 7 June 2004. Web. 4 September 2014.

Swallow-Birds
youtube.com 4 January 2012 Web. 4 September 2014.

The Showdown: Harry Gilmor and “Dent” Summers, Oct. 7, 1863 by Jim Surkamp

by Jim Surkamp on September 15, 2014 in CivilianConfederateJefferson CountyUnionWartime

The Showdown of Harry Gilmor and “Dent” Summers – October 7, 1863, Summit Point, WV

VIDEO: The Showdown of Harry Gilmor and Dent Summers Oct., 1862 by J.Surkamp. Click Here. TRT: 24:48

Flickr Set: Click Here. 39 images.

Made possible with the generous, community-minded support of American Public University system, offering a quality, affordable, online education. Interpretations in civilwarscholars.com videos and posts do not in any way reflect modern-day policies and positions of American Public University System. More. . .

1_Harry_Gilmore_frontispiece_book


(Harry Gilmor:) Settling myself in the saddle, I dashed in among the blue jackets, cutting and thrusting right and left, and parrying a blow when necessary.

2_affair.of.outposts.B&L.1.p127


(George D. Summers:) “Here they are boys by God, we’ve got them now!”

Aquilla_Gallion_semblance


(Aquilla S. Gallion:) “Come on you da*ned rebel, I’ll soon fix your flint.”

Unionist_semblance_DHS_Strother


(Union man:)
We met a man whom I knew to be a Unionist, but, expecting to capture the party ahead of me before they could reach Charlestown in my rear, I let him pass. What a change it would have made in subsequent events had I taken him along with us!

Summary:

Gilmor_Summary_TITLE_1

How Confederate Marylander Harry Gilmor, who once bragged he “shot apples off the heads of my friends,” went looking for trouble that Wednesday, October 7th, 1863, venturing to Charlestown, recently made WEST Virgina, trailing about 20 Federal cavalrymen across the countryside to Smithfield (also called Middleway), then hi-tailing back to Charlestown chasing these Federals on their return to their camp. Then, having been thwarted, and giving up the chase and retiring to a spring near Summit Point, Gilmor suddenly finds his men attacked by another, larger Federal cavalry force coming from the other, western direction. The result: a fierce battle in front of the White House Farm near Summit Point. Gilmor finds himself face-to-face with another, equally brave cavlaryman, George Denton, nicknamed “Dent” Summers, who was charging right at him.

Chapterettes:
1. The Hunt Begins;
2. The Union Man Gilmor Let Go Sounds the Alarm in Charlestown, Prompting Col. Simpson to Send For Help;
3. Gilmor’s Men Race, But Fail To Block the Federals From Getting Back Into Charlestown;
4. Gilmor’s Men Retreat Back to White House Farm Near Summit Point. They Don’t Know That a Second Cavalry Force Was Already In The Land Looking for Them, Commanded By Capt. George “Dent” Summers;
5. “Dent” Summers Last Stand;
6. Gilmor’s Getaway

The_Hunt_Begins_Chap_1_TITLE


1.The Hunt Begins:

Gilmor_Simpson_Pickets_1_Hunt_beginsTITLE_FINAL


When Gilmor’s cavalry moved towards Charlestown early on October 7th, 1862, Federal picket lines, commanded by Col. Benjamin Simpson of the 9th Maryland Infantry, encircled Charles Town.

Gilmor describe what happened, in his postwar book beginning October 6th. Gilmor road a stately black horse he captured in Pennsylvania. When they camped, kept his bloodhound about to signal approaching strangers while he slept wrapped up in a thick baggy-style English robe.

Gilmor wrote:

The Hunt_Begins_TITLE_FINAL


I camped in the woods on William Washington’s place, and, being determined not to go back without some game, sent scouts to watch the road leading out of Charles Town. I had not slept more than two hours when I learned that cavalry had gone up the road leading to Smithfield. The men were soon mounted, and, striking out across the country, we got into the road in the rear of this squad, and followed on their trail to Smithfield.

Middleway Pike facing west, about halfway
@39.3035897,-77.9176457,17z

2. The Union Man Gilmor Let Go Sounds the Alarm in Charlestown, Prompting Col. Simpson to Get Help:

Chapterette_2_Unionist_5_All_TITLE


Gilmor:
Soon after reaching the turnpike we met a man whom I knew to be a Unionist, but, expecting to capture the party ahead of me before they could reach Charles Town in my rear, I let him pass. What a change it would have made in subsequent events had I

Gilmor_3_(2a)_Middleway_high_ground_charge_street_level


view from hill
@39.305276,-77.970917,3a,90y,261.2h,90t
taken him along with us! We continued at a trot until we gained the hill immediately above Smithfield, when I closed up the column, drawing sabres, charged into the town, expecting to find the enemy there; but to my chagrin, learned that they had passed through without halting, taking the road to Summit Point, and were now a considerable distance ahead.

Gilmor_3_(2a)_Middleway_high_ground_charge_street_level_BEST_from_town


road from hill view from town
@39.305597,-77.982258,3a,75y,5.27h,90t

3. Gilmor’s Men Race But Fail To Block the Federals From Getting Back Into Charlestown:

Chase_Gilmor_Chapterette_3_TITLE

Gilmor:
I followed on at a good swinging trot, with four or five well mounted men in advance, until we got nearly to Summit Point, when my scouts returned, saying the enemy had passed through that place also a short time previous, and were now on the road back to Charles Town.

Gilmor_4_(2b)_nearly_to_SP_street_level


view approaching Summit Point
@39.263369,-77.966048,3a,75y,124.94h,90t

My horses were by this time much jaded, and some hardly able to keep up; still, determined not to abandon the enterprise, I struck across the fields, hoping to cut them off before they could reach Charles Town. In this I did not succeed; but three of my men ran into their rear guard just as they were entering the place. One of them, Charles Forman, was captured.

(Seventeen-year-old Charles O. Foreman, of Company A, the Virginia 12th Cavalry, lived in 1860 in Jefferson County, VA. in the household his parents, 61-year old farmer, Jacob, and 51-year old Eliza, with two sisters and a brother. He would be exchanged the following May).

I dismounted half my men, put them in position, and tried to draw out the enemy, but they had their own plan in view, and refused to follow. This made me rather suspicious, so putting twelve men under Captain Blackford as a rear guard,

Facing Charlestown on Route 51 approaching Davenports’
@39.289699,-77.883774,3a,75y,105.16h,90t

4. Gilmor’s Men Retreat Back to White House Farm Near Summit Point. They Don’t Know That a Second Cavalry Force Was Already In The Land Looking for Them, Commanded By Capt. George “Dent” Summers:

Chapterette_4_Head_back_White_House_Farm_TITLE
Chapterette_4_They_Dont_Know_TITLE


Gilmor:
I started for Summit Point and camp. I had reached the “White House,” owned by Mr. Morrow, two miles from Summit Point, had halted to let the men dismount and get water from the large spring about fifty yards off, and was the only mounted man left in

1280px-White_House_Farm
lilac-bush


the road. I had ridden up to the yard fence, and was talking to the ladies, when I heard a voice exclaim, “Here they are boys by God, we’ve got them now!” At the same instant a bullet whistled through a lilac bush between the ladies and myself.

I wheeled around and saw the head of a cavalry column on the rocky hill above, and between me and Summit Point. Here was a perilous position. Seeing only the first section of fours, I knew not how many were behind them. I could not retreat, and therefore determined to make the best light possible under the circumstances.

5. “Dent” Summers Last Stand:

Chapterette_5_Last_Stand_Gilmor_TITLE


(27-year-old George Denton Summers enlisted near his home in Hancock, Maryland in 1862. He lived with his widowed mother, Mary, and his younger siblings: Nathaniel, Alice, Elizabeth, Sarah, and Levi).

Gilmor:

White_House_farm_stable_Named


I ordered ten of my men who had carbines to get behind the ruins of an old stone stable, and fight them to the last. Seeing my horses without their riders, the others thought we were apprized of their coming, and had prepared an ambuscade; and though Captain Summers, whom I recognized, begged, implored, and cursed them, they would not charge, but stood still on the hill, popping away at us with their carbines. One of my men Ford, from Baltimore came up with a rifle and putting his hand on my thigh, asked what he should do. I told him to get behind the stone wall, and take a good aim every time he fired, “all right,

Ford_Gilmor_B&L_1_P_598
B&L.3.393.Farnsworth


Major.” Just as he spoke the word a ball pierced his head, killing him instantly. At that moment Captain Summers. who I must say was a brave man, spurred his horse down the hill, and engaged me with his pistol, firing wildly, for I saw he was much excited. I reserved my fire till he came within twenty paces, steadied my horse with the bit, took a long sure aim, and Summers fell from his horse. The ball entered the side of his nose, and came out back of his head. By this time nine of my men had mounted, and, as the sharpooters had been doing good work.

Jas_McIntire_Service_TITLE


(Lieutenant James McIntire, who joined up barely ten days before without even being mustered in formally, was killed by Gilmor’s men).

Gilmor:
I thought I could risk a charge, but it was unnecessary to give the order, for I heard Reed or Bosley say, “come, boys it’s a shame to leave the major there by himself;” and by the time I had returned the pistol and drawn my sabre, the boys were at my

Gilmor_6_(4d)_gained_the_hill_Oct_7_1863


side, so on we went. When we gained the hill top, I saw, to my amazement, that there were about sixty before me, but, as there was a good post and rail fence on either side, they could show no more front than my ten men. To whip the foremost was to whip
all. As I passed by the stone stable I ordered the rest to mount and follow. Captain Summers was lying across the road. I was

stream.scow.shot.down.B&L.3.p.114


obliged to jump my horse over his dead body; four others lying near were either dead or wounded. Settling myself in the saddle, I dashed in among the blue jackets, cutting and thrusting right and left, and parrying a blow when necessary. They were from Michigan and Maryland, and for a while fought well.

Gilmor then saw who was most likely 46-year old Lt. Aquilla S. Gallion, who came from Harford County, Maryland:

Aquilla_Gallion_semblance


Observing an officer fighting like a Turk and cheering his men on, I made for him. He was a man of my own size, wore a very heavy beard, and looked, I thought very savage as he yelled out, “Come on you damned rebel, I’ll soon fix your flint.” This promised good sport. I closed with him, making a powerful front cut, which he parried, and at the same instant made a right cut at my neck. By bringing my sabre down in time, my side caught the blow.

duel.on.horses.B&L.2.p274


Now I had the advantage. Quick as a flash I cut him across the cheek, inflicting a large gash, and he fell to the ground. I gave him in charge of one of my men, and then followed after my first ten, who had pushed the column back two hundred yards while the lieutenant and I were busy with our affair. The latter soon after escaped by jumping a stone wall and running into a thick woods.

White House Farm
39° 15′ 5″ N, 77° 56′ 45″ W
39.251389, -77.945833

6. Gilmor Gets Away:

rally.pike.b&l.2.p675
Gilmor_6_(4e)_Oct_7_1863


We soon got them on the run, nor did we give them time to stop and reform until they had passed through and beyond Summit Point.

Syummit_Point_1862_TITLE


Summit Point intersection where the chase, either continued to the east over the railroad track or south towards the Virginia border.
@39.25139,-77.955602,3a,75y,270h,86.31t

We had taken eighteen prisoners, and were unable to pursue them farther until my men had come up, for the federals had formed and turned upon the two or three men who were still in pursuit, but by the time they had pushed these back again to Summit Point I had dismounted ten or fifteen men, who easily checked them. We charged again, took five more prisoners, and the rest made their escape. After collecting my prisoners and men, I left by a private route for the Upper Valley, with twenty three prisoners and twenty nine horses, leaving four of their dead and three wounded on the field. My loss was one man killed, three wounded, and one taken prisoner.

Of Gilmor’s prisoners, three would die the following summer of diarrhea at Andersonville prison in Georgia, noted for its

Andersonville1
Duckwall_Andersonville_Named


unhealthy conditions. Nineteen-year-old William Duckwall from Pierce town, Clermont County, Ohio, is buried at Andersonville.

Ganoe_John_W_findagrave


Also buried there is John W. Ganoe was a 23-year-old laborer, the eldest of eight children, living at the home of his parents in Bath (Berkeley Springs) in Morgan County, VA. His father, Richard, was a plasterer, his mother’s name was Nancy.

Gilmor:
I reached camp safely with everything I had captured. It seems the Unionist went immediately to Charles Town and gave information of what he had seen, and Summers followed me all the way round. A sad affair it turned out for him, but “such are the fortunes of war”. Captain Summers was highly esteemed by his commanding officers, as shown by a long article, highly complimentary to him, that appeared a few days after. The same paper also alleged that I had murdered him! Indeed! Then not a few were murdered on both sides. – Gilmor, pp. 107-111.

Report of George Duncan Wells:

wellsgd5


Cole’s cavalry, placed under my orders by the brigadier-general commanding, were sent to Charlestown that night, and the next morning scouted out the Summit Point and Smithfield road, bringing in the bodies of our killed. They report seeing no enemy. It would seem that the rebel force consisted of two companies (Captains Baylor aud Morrow) Twelfth Virginia Cavalry and Gilmor’s entire battalion . . . Our loss was: Capt. George D. Summers, Company F, Cavalry, Second Maryland Regiment, [Potomac Home Brigade,] killed [and 1 man killed and 4 wounded]. I think Colonel Simpson’s disposition and management of his small force very judicious. The loss of Captain Summers is greatly to be deplored. – G. WELLS, Chapter XLI, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 29, pp. 210-211.

Harry_W_Gilmor_Side_View


In February, 1865, a man burst in on Gilmor in his second floor room in a rooming house in Moorefield, West Virginia grabbing Gilmor’s pistols on a chair. Gilmor said “Who the devil are you!!?” from his bed. The reply: “Major Young of General Sheridan’s scouts.”

king050
Mentoria_Strong_Gilmor


For several years after the war, Harry Gilmor lived in New Orleans, where he married Miss Mentoria Strong. Upon his return to Maryland, he was elected colonel of cavalry in the Maryland National Guard. He also served as Baltimore City Police Commissioner from 1874 to 1879. He was a member of the Society of the Army and Navy of the Confederate States in Maryland and

Gilmor_NARA_Large_Head
Gilmor_Tombstone_Loudon_Cemetery


it’s Vice-President in 1882. Harry Gilmor died in Baltimore on March 4, 1883 at the age of forty-five. He was interred on “Confederate Hill” in Loudoun Park Cemetery.

The burial place of George Denton Summers, though he was praised, remains a mystery to this day, even to his modern family. His mother and two brothers moved to Canton, Missouri to start a new life and a new set of memories.

Canton_Missouri_Apple_map
Howard_Pyle_Decoration_Day
39_new set of memories

References:

Gilmor’s statement: “I shoot apples off the heads of my friends.”is in Gilmor’s roster entry in Armstrong, R. L. (1992). “The 7th Virginia Cavalry.” Lynchburg: Va: H. E. Howard, Inc. Print. p. 153.

Armstrong, R. L. (1992). “The 7th Virginia Cavalry.”
bainesbooks.com 16 September 2010 Web. 2 September 2014.

Official Report G. WELLS, Chapter XLI, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 29,
Official records of the Union and Confederate armies
Part I – Operations in North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. August 4-December 31, 1863. Reports Digital Library. Cornell University. 28 August 2004 Web. 10 July 2011.
pp. 210-211.

Gilmor, Harry. (1866). “Four Years in the Saddle.” New York, NY: Harper & Brothers. Print.

Gilmor, Harry. (1866). “Four Years in the Saddle.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 28 Jan. 2010. pp. 107-111.
More:

L. Allison Wilmer, J.H. Jarrett, Geo. W.F. Vernon. (1898). “History and roster of Maryland volunteers, war of 1861-5.” Baltimore, MD: Press of Guggenheimer, Weil & co. Print.

L. Allison Wilmer, J.H. Jarrett, Geo. W.F. Vernon. (1898). “History and roster of Maryland volunteers, war of 1861-5.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 28 Jan. 2010.
pp. 557-559.

Gilmor’s “splendid black horse, captured during a raid into Pennsylvania”
“always carried with him a thick English robe, in the baggy style, so that he could get into it and thus lie down in the woods and sleep. He was always with a favorite bloodhound who gave timely notice of the approach of strangers.” – Captured with Captain Young under Gen. Sheridan went to Moorefield, WV to a rooming house. When the landlayd said only family were inside, they entered and carefully opening a door on the second floor found Gilmor and — undressed and awake in a bed along with a cousin, at which Young grabbed Gilmor’s pistols from a chair. Gilmor said “Who the devil are you!!?” Major Young of General Sheridan’s scouts.”
From West Virginia. The Capture of the Guerilla Harry Gilmor
Date: Thursday, February 9, 1865 Paper: Sun (Baltimore, MD) Volume: LVI Issue: 71 Page: 1.
genealogybank.com 11 October 2008 Web. 5 September 2014,

Not used:
Newcomer, C. Armour. (1895). “Cole’s Cavalry, or, Three years in the saddle in the Shenandoah Valley.” Baltimore, MD: Cushing. Print.

Newcomer, C. Armour. (1895). “Cole’s Cavalry, or, Three years in the saddle in the Shenandoah Valley.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 May 2011.
More:

NARA M384. Compiled military service records of volunteer Union soldiers belonging to units organized for service from the State of Maryland.
Roll: 0098
Military Unit: Second Potomac Home Brigade, Infantry, Al-Whi
Given name: William M
Surname: Duckwall
Age: 19
Year: 1861; Captured Oct. 7th, 1863 Summit Point, died August 28th, 1864, diarrhea, at Andersonville, GA. Interred at Andersonville National Cemetery.
fold3.com footnote.com(fold3.com) 21 October 2010 Web. 30 August 2014.

William Duckwall age 17 in 1860:
NARA M653. Eighth Census of the United States, 1860 population schedules.
Roll: 0944
State: Ohio
County: Clermont
Minor Civil Division: Pierce Township
Page: 31
fold3.com footnote.com(fold3.com) 21 October 2010 Web. 30 August 2014.

NARA M384. Compiled military service records of volunteer Union soldiers belonging to units organized for service from the State of Maryland.
Roll: 0099
Military Unit: Second Potomac Home Brigade, Infantry, Al-Whi
Given name: John W
Surname: Ganoe
Age: 22
Year: 1861
Captured Oct. 7th, 1863 Summit Point, died August 24th, 1864, of “disease,” at Andersonville, GA.
fold3.com footnote.com(fold3.com) 21 October 2010 Web. 30 August 2014.

John W. Ganoe was a 21-year-old laborer, the eldest of eight children, living at the home of his parents in Bath (Berkeley Springs) in Morgan County, VA. His father, Richard, was a plasterer, his mother’s name was Nancy.
NARA M653. Eighth Census of the United States, 1860 population schedules.
Roll: 1364
State: Virginia
County: Morgan
Minor Civil Division: District No 3 Town Of Bath
Page: 52.
fold3.com footnote.com(fold3.com) 21 October 2010 Web. 30 August 2014.

NARA M384. Compiled military service records of volunteer Union soldiers belonging to units organized for service from the State of Maryland.
Roll: 0105
Military Unit: Second Potomac Home Brigade, Infantry, Al-Whi
Given name: Samuel
Surname: Whorton
Age: 32
Year: 1861
Captured Oct. 7, 1863 at Summit Point; died May 17, 1864 at Andersonville, GA.
fold3.com footnote.com(fold3.com) 21 October 2010 Web. 30 August 2014.

Samuel Whorton was a thirty-year-old laborer; with 28-year-old Louisa and they had two children: three-year-old Charles and a two-month old baby girl in 1860.
NARA M653. Eighth Census of the United States, 1860 population schedules.
Roll: 1364
State: Virginia
County: Morgan
Minor Civil Division: District No 3 Town Of Bath
Page: 48
fold3.com footnote.com(fold3.com) 21 October 2010 Web. 30 August 2014.

NARA M384. Compiled military service records of volunteer Union soldiers belonging to units organized for service from the State of Maryland.
Roll: 0100
Military Unit: Second Potomac Home Brigade, Infantry, Al-Whi
Given name: Simon
Surname: Hoffmann
Age: 33
Year: 1861;
Captured Oct. 7, 1863 at Summit Point; paroled in the fall of 1864.
fold3.com footnote.com(fold3.com) 21 October 2010 Web. 30 August 2014.

NARA M384. Compiled military service records of volunteer Union soldiers belonging to units organized for service from the State of Maryland.
Roll: 0101
Military Unit: Second Potomac Home Brigade, Infantry, Al-Whi
Given name: James
Surname: McIntire (Enrolled Sept. 26, 1863, for three years in Charlestown, WV)
Age: [Blank]
Year: 1863
fold3.com footnote.com(fold3.com) 21 October 2010 Web. 30 August 2014.

NARA M324. Compiled service records of Confederate soldiers from Virginia units, labeled with each soldier’s name, rank, and unit, with links to revealing documents about each soldier.
Roll: 0117
Military Unit: Twelfth Cavalry (Tenth Virginia Cavalry)
Given Name: Charles O
Surname: Foreman
Age: [Blank]
Year: 1864; Charles O. Foreman of the Co. A of the 12th Virginia Cavalry was captured Oct. 7, 1863 on the outskirts of Charlestown, Va.; ordered imprisoned at Fort McHenry October 10, 1863 by Gen. Tyler at Charlestown, Va.; sent to Point Lookout, Nov. 1st, 1863; exchanged May 3rd, 1864.
fold3.com footnote.com(fold3.com) 21 October 2010 Web. 30 August 2014.

Seventeen-year-old Charles O. Foreman lived in 1860 in Jefferson County, VA. in the household his parents, 61-year old farmer Jacob, and 51-year old Eliza, with two sisters and a brother.
NARA M653. Eighth Census of the United States, 1860 population schedules.
Roll: 1355
State: Virginia
County: Jefferson
Minor Civil Division: [Blank]
Page: 135
fold3.com footnote.com(fold3.com) 21 October 2010 Web. 30 August 2014.

1850 United States Federal Census about George D Summers
Name: George D Summers
Age: 17
Birth Year: abt 1833
Birthplace: Maryland
Home in 1850:District 2, Washington, Maryland
Gender: Male
Family Number: 750
Household Members:
Name Age
Nathaniel Summers 60
Mary Summers 44
Sylvester Summers 22
George D Summers 17
Lancelot W Summers 13
Darius Summers 11
Alice V Summers 1
Martha E W Summers 6
Sarah M Summers 4
Louisana Summers 2
Nathaniel Summers 0
search.ancestry.com 10 July 1998 Web. 5 September 2014.

“Denton” Summers
NARA M653. Eighth Census of the United States, 1860 population schedules.
Roll: 0483
State: Maryland
County: Washington
Minor Civil Division: Hancock District
Page: 181
fold3.com footnote.com(fold3.com) 21 October 2010 Web. 30 August 2014.

Nine Summers family members interred, including Denton’s sister, Sarah.
Seavolt Rd
Hancock
Washington County
findagrave.com 26 July 2003 Web. 4 September 2014.

U.S. National Cemetery Interment Control Forms, 1928-1962 about Samuel Worton
Name: Samuel Worton
Death Date: 17 May 1864
Cemetery: Andersonville National Cemetery
Burial Location: Andersonville, Georgia
Interment Control Forms, 1928–1962. Interment Control Forms, A1 2110-B. Records of the Office of the Quartermaster General, 1774–1985, Record Group 92. The National Archives at College Park, College Park, Maryland.
search.ancestry.com 10 July 1998 Web. 5 September 2014.

A list of the Union soldiers buried at Andersonville (1866). New York: Tribune association. Print.

A list of the Union soldiers buried at Andersonville.” (1866). Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 28 Jan. 2010.

Image Credits:

Black Ben Davis apple
Beach, S. A.; Booth, N. O.; Taylor, O. M. (1905). “The apples of New York, Vol. 1.” Albany, NY: J. B. Lyon. Print.

Beach, S. A.; Booth, N. O.; Taylor, O. M. (1905). “The apples of New York, Vol. 1.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 28 Jan. 2010.
p. 76.

Gilmor, Harry. (1866). “Four Years in the Saddle.” New York, NY: Harper & Brothers. Print.

Gilmor, Harry. (1866). “Four Years in the Saddle.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 28 Jan. 2010.
frontispiece.

NARA M384. Compiled military service records of volunteer Union soldiers belonging to units organized for service from the State of Maryland.
Roll: 0099
Military Unit: Second Potomac Home Brigade, Infantry, Al-Whi
Givenname: Aguilla S
Surname: Gallion
Age: 44
Year: 1861
fold3.com footnote.com(fold3.com) 21 October 2010 Web. 30 August 2014.

I have found Aquilla and his family in several census records and I also found
his Civil War information. In the census for 1850 in Harford County it looks
like he is living near his brothers James and Alexander.
From: myboylefamilyetc.
archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com 4 April 2008 Web. 2 September 2014.

Gallion Family in 1860
NARA M653. Eighth Census of the United States, 1860 population schedules.
Roll: 0476
State: Maryland
County: Harford
Minor Civil Division: 2nd District Halls X Roads
Page: 240
fold3.com footnote.com(fold3.com) 21 October 2010 Web. 30 August 2014.

Maj._Harry_Gilmor_C.S.A
commons.wikimedia.org 15 September 2004 Web. 2 September 2014.

White House Farm and the death of Capt. Summers
Posted on July 7, 2013 by Robert Moore
cenantua.wordpress.com 6 March 2008 Web. 2 September 2014.

Curt Mason’s images of White House Farm
whitehousefarmwv.org 31 March 2002 Web. 2 September 2014.

White House Farm
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 2 September 2014.

Brown, Howell S. “Map of Jefferson County, Virginia From Actual Surveys With Farm Limits, 1852.” Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society Vol. XLV. (1979): pp. 1-7. Print.

Brown, S. Howell. (1852). “Map of Jefferson County, Virginia from actual survey with the farm limits.” United States. The Library of Congress: American Memory. “Maps Collection.” loc.gov 27 Oct. 2009 Web. 2 Sept. 2010.
More:

Lewis_Washington
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 2 September 2014.

White House Farm springhouse
google.com/maps 8 February 2005 Web. 5 September 2014.

Tombstone John W. Ganoe
findagrave.com 26 July 2003 Web. 4 September 2014.

Photo originally shared by lynholman “George D. Summers, Post No, 13 WV G.A.R.
trees.ancestry.com 26 February 2004 Web. 5September 2014.

Tombstone of Mary Summers, Denton’s mother in Canton, Missouri.
Added by: Linda Trumblee – 12/18/2005
findagrave.com 26 July 2003 Web. 4 September 2014.

Stone for James McIntire
Source Information:
Ancestry.com. Headstones Provided for Deceased Union Civil War Veterans, 1879-1903 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2007.
Original data: Card Records of Headstones Provided for Deceased Union Civil War Veterans, ca. 1879-ca. 1903; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M1845, 22 rolls); Records of the Office of the Quartermaster General, Record Group 92; National Archives, Washington, D.C.
search.ancestry.com 10 July 1998 Web. 5 September 2014.

“Unionist” (In the Introduction of the post)
Strother, David Hunter; Artists Excursion (W1995.030.016)
images.lib.wvu.edu 20 November 1999 Web. 25 August 2014.

Fattori, Giovanni (1825-1908) “Black Horse in the Sun.”

Hordle Hercules
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 2 September 2014.

Beall-Air
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 2 September 2014.

Camp Fire by Winslow Homer
Owner/Location: Metropolitan Museum of Art – New York, NY (United States – New York)
Dates: 1877-1878
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 20 June 2014.

Union Soldiers Accepting a Drink
Eastman Johnson – circa 1865
Owner/Location: Carnegie Museum of Art – Pittsburgh, PA (United States – Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania).
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 20 June 2014.

Man in a Cornfield
Eastman Johnson – Date unknown
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 20 June 2014.

Union battery taken by surprise
“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 1.” (1887). Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co. Print.

“Battles and Leaders Vol. 1.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010.
p. 598.
More:

Diarrhea (Multiple_rotavirus_particles) (not used)
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 2 September 2014.

Baltimore Skyline in the 1870s
Library of Congress loc.gov (ghostsofbaltimore.org)
loc.gov/pictures 17 January 2010 Web. 1 September 2014.

King, Edward. (1875) “The Great South; A Record of Journeys in Louisiana, Texas, the Indian Territory, Missouri, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland: Electronic Edition.” Illustrated by Champney, James Wells. Hartford, Conn.
American Publishing Co. Orint.

“These boats, closely ranged in long rows by the levée.” [Page 52.]
King, Edward. (1875) “The Great South; A Record of Journeys in Louisiana, Texas, the Indian Territory, Missouri, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland: Electronic Edition.”
docsouth.edu 20 June 2002 Web. 2 September 2014.

(1887). “History of Lewis, Clark, Knox, and Scotland counties, Missouri from the earliest times.” St. Louis : The Goodspeed Publishing Co.

(1887). “History of Lewis, Clark, Knox, and Scotland counties, Missouri from the earliest times.” cdm.sos.mo.gov/ 2 April 2008 Web. 1 September 2014.

At the Well by Winslow Homer
Owner/Location: Private collection
Dates: circa 1887
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 20 June 2014.

Harry Gilmor Side view
Added by: Garver Graver
findagrave.com 26 July 2003 Web. 4 September 2014.

Mentoria Strong Gilmor
Added by: ron baublitz; 5/17/2013
findagrave.com 26 July 2003 Web. 4 September 2014.

Decoration Day by Howard Pyle
howardpyle.blogspot.com 27 April 2011 Web. 5 September 2014.

The Lively Odyssey of the “John Brown” Courthouse by Jim Surkamp

by Jim Surkamp on September 19, 2014 in CivilianConfederateEnslavementJefferson CountyPre 1858UnionWartime

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VIDEO: The Lively Odyssey of the “John Brown”Courthouse Click Here. TRT: 15:31.
Flickr images: Flickr Images: Click Here.
41 images.

Made possible with the generous support of American Public University System, providing an affordable, quality, online education. The video and post do not reflect any modern-day policies or positions of American Public University System, and their content is intended to encourage discussion and better understanding of the past. More:

Summary:

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From its creation in 1836, this storied courthouse was the focus of the world during the trial of the John Brown raiders in October-November, 1859; then a casualty of shells and minie balls October 18, 1863, then again August 22nd, 1864, and scavenged constantly by souvenir-hunting Union passers-through, reducing it to a roofless, nearly floorless wreck in 1865 – as one wrote “a cesspool from which hope would spring eternal.” In a herculean effort of defiance and grit, the townspeople scraped together some $20,000 to build it again and eventually would get all the county legal functions back into this courthouse from the new opulent, magisterial courthouse built in Shepherdstown by Rezin Davis Shepherd. Then it achieved greatness by having its second treason trial – said to be the only American courthouse with that pedigree – with the trial of miners leader, Bill Blizzard and many others, in 1922.

The Lively Odyssey of the “John Brown” Courthouse

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Charles Washington loved his town – Charlestown. He promised his neighbors: “Make me a new county and I’ll give you a site for a courthouse.” So Charles died in 1799 and Jefferson County was born in 1801; and a small, commodious courthouse went up on the northeast corner of the public square of Charlestown. A bigger, ”born-again” courthouse went up in 1836. Mssrs. Lackland,

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Douglass, and Kennedy helped to buy a $200 parcel just to the north owned by Andrew Hunter, a lawyer. This symbol of town pride reigned as the B&O railroad brought business to the region from Baltimore and Ohio – until the trial in 1859 of John

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Brown for high treason for his raid on the federal armory in Harper’s Ferry. A nation tearing, but not quite divided was riveted on the downstairs courtroom where wounded, but unbending Brown spoke his cause – right up to his death.

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The county’s written memory – deeds, wills, marriages, records – all were whisked away to safety in Lexington, Virginia by County Clerk Thomas A. Moore as the war began.

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Blueocoats and graycoats all swept over the county, shooting, galloping, ducking, raiding pigpens, hayfields, kitchen pantries, as the local, enslaved blacks either caught a ride out following the bluecoats or stayed even closer to the farms and homes they’d help to maintain and build.

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1863: The Courthouse almost lost

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On October 18, 1863, Confederate General John Imboden surrounded the town with his some 2,000 men and eight pieces of artillery

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Imboden shelled the courthouse when its occupiers, some 375 volunteers in the Union’s 9th Maryland infantry regiment, refused to surrender.

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The proud courthouse would fall with the South into ruin. On October 18th, 1863, Confederate General John Imboden surprised a Union garrison, commanded by Lt. Col. Benjamin Simpson in Charlestown.

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(Simpson testified later:)
“I went out and saw a man approaching on horseback with a flag of truce in his hand. ‘Halt! What do you want?’ – ‘General Imboden demands the unconditional surrender of the town.’ ‘If he wants it tell him to come and take it.’ In about five minutes, the gentleman came back. ‘General Imboden requests that you remove all the women and children from the houses in the vicinity of the courthouse and jail, as he intends to shell the town.’ ‘This shall be done, but it will take about an hour. You must think we are foolish.’

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17_a third shot


A shell struck one corner of it and glancing from against the log pailisade exploded. Every shot they fired struck the courthouse. A third shot entered it and exploding in the palisade of the upper story wounded the adjutant (who later died) and one private. There were from ten to twenty shells struck and exploded in the courthouse and around it.

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Simpson reported 250 – or about half – of his men were “wounded, killed, or missing.”

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August 21st-22nd, 1864: Federals are routed back again through Charlestown

Sunday, August 21st, 1864: (James E. Taylor), an artist with General Sheridan’s Army, dined at Sarah Bell’s Sappington Hotel, near the courthouse and after checking his stabled horses, he noticed the Union infantry marching past. “We passed to the courthouse to view the 6th and 8th Corps after their arduous work in holding Early in check on the Smithfield Pike. It would

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require an inspired pen to truly picture the intensified emotion and gloomy silence that pervaded the ranks of the muskateers as they moved by the old temple of justice in the growing night – all in marked contrast to their elastic steps on a bright

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morning a few days earlier, when – with waving banner, martial music and voices that inspired the song – “John Brown’s Body is a harbinger of victory.”

Monday, August 22nd, 1864, Sappington Hotel:
“We could hear the clatter of horses tearing like mad down the Pike and whistling minies splashing against the courthouse wall. Shells began exploding about, the enemy having gotten a battery in position on the west end of town. We whirled wildly away and down a side street in preference to joining the stampeding bluecoats on the bullet-swept street.

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General Anderson’s infantry and General Fitzhugh Lee’s cavalry were driving General Wilson and Alfred N. Duffie’s cavalry divisions from the town and established a line beyond it.

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The courthouse and the county were a ruin in 1865.

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When the war ended and soldiers on both sides limped or wandered home and, blacks either struggled with their new freedom in an unsympathetic, impoverished South or started anew in the North, the courthouse in Charlestown stood a defiled ruin of shattered lifeways, a broken bridge to the past.

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Northern writer John Trowbridge arrived in Charlestown in the fall of 1865 and visited the site of the courthouse:

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A short walk up into the centre of the town took us to the scene of John Brown’s trial. It was a consolation to see that the jail had been laid in ashes, and that the court-house, where the mockery of justice was performed, was a ruin abandoned to rats and toads. Four mossy white brick pillars, still standing, supported a riddled roof, through which God’s blue sky and gracious sunshine smiled. The main portion of the building had been literally torn to pieces. In the floorless hall of justice, rank weeds were growing. Names of Union soldiers were scrawled along the wall. No torch had been applied to the wood-work, but the work of destruction had been performed by the hands of hilarious soldier-boys ripping up floors and pulling down laths and joists to the tune of ‘John Brown’ – the swelling melody of the song and the accompaniment of crashing partitions, reminding the citizens who thought to have destroyed the old hero, that his soul was marching on.

25_Shepherdstowns brand new courthouse


Useless as a keeper of the sacred records, the County Courthouse was officially moved to Shepherdstown’s brand-new courthouse, built from the generous coin of Rezin Davis Shepherd.

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Image courtesy Lloyd Osterdorf Estate
Charlestown’s old courthouse “stood naked, disgraced,” reflecting the Town’s broken spirit. The courthouse and jail had been picked over for four years by Union soldiers and souvenir-hunters, leaving just the bare walls of the stone courthouse.

An 1869 visitor from Chicago walked down Charlestown’s streets: “The ruined courthouse and jail have been despoiled by soldiers to make quarters and tens of thousands of men have marched through Charlestown singing ‘John Brown’s Body lies mouldering in the grave, his soul is marching on.’ The courthouse maintains its walls and outlines; and the four brick and plastered Doric columns are still standing. But the roof is reduced to a few beams. The whole interior is torn out. and the edifice now only has one floor, a cellar, and, to speak truthfully, the cesspool of all the vagrants of the village. To look into the interior is to feel revolted, yet to say: ‘This place is accursed.’”

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But pride and hope spring eternal, even from a cesspool. Charlestown’s town pride was lit by a scheme of Shepherdstown leaders to buy up and forever prevent the old courthouse from rising again from the ashes. (With) that move blocked, Charlestown’s artisans and leaders scraped together a plan to rebuild their courthouse at half of what they believed was the price for the Shepherdstown structure, trying to keep the budget for their courthouse at less than $20,000. And they succeeded, coming in at $18,500.

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Then in August, 1871, with the State Legislature siding with returning the county seat to Charlestown, Charlestown worked and plastered and sawed, hammered and poured and painted – until on December 21st, 1872, Mr. Woodman of the Howard Watch & Clock Company of Boston eased the beautiful clock onto the courthouse cupola, aided by a handsome, deep-toned bell, courtesy of the Troy Manufacturing Company.

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“Our church-going friends,” wrote Mr. (John S.) Gallaher, the editor of The Virginia Free Press, “will have an opportunity of noting the time for preparing for church on time by the clear, distinct tones of the clock.”

Fed up with the droves of tourists wanting to see the John Brown courtroom, the new building was designed so that it had offices on the first floor in its place.

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Moreover, for almost the next four decades, the elegant courtroom upstairs was used as only one of three circuit stops for the state Supreme Court of Appeals.

A visitor in September, 1894, wrote: Charles Town, WV (Named now made into two words-JS) contrasts most favorably with Harper’s Ferry, being as neat and thrifty as the other is shabby. Of course, you drive at once to the courthouse which is, partly, the building in which John Brown was tried. The walls cover the same space, and the pillars in front are in the same position, although higher; and walking through the lower hall to the rear, you can pass over the very space John Brown’s mattress lay. But all the lower floor is now devoted to offices and the courtroom is up one flight.

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Standing in the doorway was a pleasant-looking gentleman, apparently forty-five years of age, smoking a corn-cob pipe and, in it, the fragrant, natural-leaf.

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The 20th Century

As time went on, business went on. The courthouse grew bigger, adding an annex in 1910. A young “Bud” Morgan remembered Charles Town in the nineteen-teens. (He wrote): A great sight each summer day was the row of Confederate veterans, sitting on the east end of the courthouse wall. About twelve to fifteen of them gathered there every day – some in tattered uniforms, some missing an arm or a leg, but all happy and cheerful, joking and kidding with all who passed by.

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They were the most highly honored and respected men in the County. I was a favorite with them because some had served in the 1st Virginia cavalry, of which my grand-father, William A. Morgan, was colonel.

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At another celebrated treason trial in this building – that of miner-leader, Bill Blizzard in 1922 – the town’s women demurely vied with news reporters for the prized 150 seats in the courtroom.

Juries still give verdicts there. The gavel still drops, and lives of all kinds are thus changed forever at the Jefferson County Courthouse.

39_Juries still give verdicts there

References:

1. Howe, Henry. (1852). “Historical Collections of Virginia.” Charleston, S.C.: W. R. Babcock. Print.

Howe, Henry. (1852). “Historical Collections of Virginia.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 12 Feb. 2012.
pp. 341-343.

2. “‘They Are Coming!: Testimony at the Court of Inquiry on Imboden’s Capture of Charles Town,” edited by Paul E. Barr, Jr., and Michael P. Musick. Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society. Vol. LIV. (December, 1988).

3. October 18, 1863 – Battle of Charlestown, Va.

Volume XXIX – in Two Parts. 1890. (Vol. 29, Chap. 41); Chapter XLI – Operations in North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. August 4-December 31, 1863. Digital Library. Cornell University. 28 August 2004 Web. 10 July 2011.

Part I – Reports
3a. Report of Union Col. George D. Wells
p. 487.

3b. Report of Union Lt. Col. Benjamin L. Simpson (states his loss is 250 (“killed, wounded, and missing”). Digital Library. Cornell University. 28 August 2004 Web. 10 July 2011.
p. 489.

3c. Report of Confederate Brig. Gen. John D. Imboden (states he captured “numbering 400 and 500 men & officers”). Digital Library. Cornell University. 28 August 2004 Web. 10 July 2011.
p. 490.

4. August 21st, 1864 – Battle of Charlestown, WVa.

Series I – Volume XLIII – Chapter LV in Two Parts: Official records of the Union and Confederate armies

Part I – Operations in Northern Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. August 4-December 31, 1864. Reports, Union and Confederate Correspondence, etc. Digital Library. Cornell University. 28 August 2004 Web. 10 July 2011.

Part II – Operations in Northern Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. August 4-December 31, 1864. Union and Confederate Correspondence, etc. Digital Library. Cornell University. 28 August 2004 Web. 10 July 2011.
More:

5. Sanders, (Hon.) David H. “The Story of the Jefferson County Courthouse.” The Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society. (December, 1996). Vol. LXII, Print.

6. Trowbridge, John T. (1866). “The South: a tour of its battlefields and ruined cities, a journey through the desolated states, and talks with the people: being a decription of the present state of the country – its agriculture – railroads – business and finances.” Hartford, Conn., L. Stebbins. Print.

Trowbridge, John T. (1866).” The South: a tour of its battlefields and ruined cities, a journey through the desolated states, and talks with the people: being a decription of the present state of the country – its agriculture – railroads -business and finances.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 12 Feb. 2012.
– pp. 69-73.
– More:

(p. 69) The Trip to Charlestown

“One morning I took the train up the Valley to Charles Town, distant from Harper’s Ferry eight miles.

“The railroad was still in the hands of the government. There were military guards on the platforms, and about an equal mixture of Loyalists and Rebels within the cars. Furloughed soldiers, returning to their regiments at Winchester or Staunton, occupied seats with Confederate officers just out of their uniforms. The strong, dark, defiant self-satisfied face typical of the second-rate ‘chivalry’ and the good-natured, shrewd inquisitive physiognomy of the Yankee speculator going to look at Southern lands, were to be seen side-by-side in curious contrast. There also rode the well-dressed wealthy planter, who had been to Washington to solicit pardon for his treasonable acts, and the humble freedman returning to the home from which he had been driven by violence, when the war closed and left him free. Mothers and daughters of the first families of Virginia sat serene and uncomplaining in the atmosphere of mothers and daughters of the despised races late their slaves or their neighbors, but now citizens like themselves, free to go and come and as clearly entitled to places in the government train as the proudest dames of the land.

“We passed through a region of country stamped all over by the devastating heel of war. For miles not a fence or cultivated field was visible. ‘It is just like this all the way up the Shenandoah Valley,’ said a gentleman at my side, a Union man from Winchester. ‘The wealthiest people with us are now the poorest. With hundreds of acres they can’t raise a dollar. Their slaves have (p. 70) left them and they have no money, even if they have the disposition to hire the freed people.’

“I suggested that farms, under such circumstances should be for sale at low rates. ‘They should be, but your Southern aristocrat is a monomaniac on the subject of owning land. He will part with his acres about as willingly as he will part with his life. If the Valley had not been the best part of Virginia, it would long ago have been spoiled by the ruinous system of agriculture in use here. Instead of tilling thoroughly a small farm, a man fancies he is doing a wise thing by half-tilling a large one. Slave labor is always slovenly and unproductive. But everything is being revolutionized now. Northern men and northern methods are coming into this Valley as sure as water runs downhill. It is the greatest corn, wheat and grass country in the world. The only objection is that in spots the limestone crops out a good deal. There was scarcely anything raised this season except grass; you could see hundreds of acres of that, waving breast-high without a fence.’

“At the end of a long hour’s ride, we arrived at Charles Town, chiefly of interest to me as the place of John Brown’s martyrdom. We alighted from the train on the edge of boundless unfenced fields, into whose melancholy solitudes the desolate streets emptied themselves – rivers to that ocean of weeds. The town resembled to my eye some unprotected female sitting, sorrowful on the wayside, in tattered and faded apparel, with unkempt tresses fallen negligently about features which might once have been attractive.”

“On the steps of a boarding house I found an acquaintance whose countenance gleamed with pleasure ‘at sight,’ as he said, ‘of a single loyal face in that nest of secession.’ He had been two or three days in the place waiting for luggage which had been miscarried.

“‘They are all Rebels here – all rebels!’ he exclaimed as he took his cane and walked with me. ‘They are a pitiable poverty-stricken set, there is no money in the place, and scarcely anything to eat. We have for breakfast salt-fish, (p.71) fried potatoes and treason. Fried potatoes, treason, and salt-fish for dinner. At supper, the fare is slightly varied, and we have treason, salt-fish potatoes, and a little more treason. My landlady’ s daughter is Southern fire incarnate; and she illustrates Southern politeness by abusing Northern people and the government from morning ‘till night, for my especial edification. Sometimes I venture to answer her, when she flies at me, figuratively speaking, like a cat. The women are not the only out-spoken Rebels, although they are the worst. The men don’t hesitate to declare their sentiments, in season and out of season.’

“My friend concluded with this figure: ‘The war feeling here is like a burning bush with a wet blanket wrapped around it. Looked at from the outside, the fire seems quenched. But just peep under the blanket and there it is, all alive and eating, eating in. The wet blanket is the present government policy; and every act of conciliation shown the Rebels is just letting in so much air to feed the fire.’

Description of the courthouse:
“A short walk up into the centre of the town took us to the scene of John Brown’s trial. It was a consolation to see that the jail had been laid in ashes, and that the court-house, where the mockery of justice was performed, was a ruin abandoned to rats and toads. Four mossy white brick pillars, still standing, supported a riddled roof, through which God’s blue sky and gracious sunshine smiled. The main portion of the building had been literally torn to pieces. In the floorless hall of justice, rank weeds were growing. Names of Union soldiers were scrawled along the wall. No torch had been applied to the wood-work, but the work of destruction had been performed by the hands of hilarious soldier-boys ripping up floors and pulling down laths and joists to the tune of ‘John Brown’ – the swelling melody of the song and the accompaniment of crashing partitions, reminding the citizens who thought to have destroyed the old hero, that his soul was marching on.”

“It was also a consolation to know that the court-house and the jail would probably never be rebuilt, the county seat having been removed from Charles Town to Shepherdstown” – (p. 72) ‘forever’ say the resolute loyal citizens of Jefferson County, who refuse to vote it back again.

“As we were taking comfort, reflecting how unexpectedly at last justice had been done at that court-house, the townspeople passed on the sidewalk, ‘daughters and sons of beauty,’ for they were mostly a fine-looking, spirited class; one of whom, at a question which I put to him, stopped quite willingly and talked with us. I have seldom seen a handsome young face, a steadier eye, or more decided pose and aplomb, neither have I ever seen the outward garment of courtesy so plumply filled out with the spirit of arrogance. His brief replies spoken with a pleasant countenance, yet with short, sharp downward inflections, were like pistol shots. Very evidently the death of John Brown, and the war that came swooping down the old man’s path to avenge him, and to accomplish the work wherein he failed, were not pleasing subjects to this young southern blood. And no wonder. His coat had an empty sleeve. The arm which should have been there had been lost fighting against his country. His almost savage answers did not move me; but all the while I looked with compassion at his fine young face, and that pendant idle sleeve. He had fought against his country; his country had won; and he was of those who had lost, not arms and legs only, but all they had been madly fighting for, and more, – prosperity, prestige and power. His beautiful South was devastated, and her soil drenched with the best blood of her young men. Whether regarded as a crime or a virtue, the folly of making war upon the mighty North was now demonstrated, and the despised Yankees had proved conquerors of the chivalry of the South. ‘Well may your thoughts be bitter,’ my heart said, as I thanked him for his information.

“To my surprise he seemed mollified, his answers losing their explosive quality and sharp downward inflection. He even seemed inclined to continue the conversation and as we passed we left him on the sidewalk looking after us wistfully, as if the spirit working within him had still no word to say different from any he had yet spoken. What his (p. 73) secret thoughts were, standing there with his dangling sleeve, it would be interesting to know.

“Walking through town we came to other barren and open fields on the further side. Here we engaged a bright young colored girl to guide us to the spot where John Brown’s gallows stood. She led us into the wilderness of weeds waist-high to her as she tramped on, parting them before her with her hands. The country all around us lay utterly desolate without enclosures, and without cultivation. We seemed to be striking out into the rolling prairies of the West, except that these fields of ripening and fading weeds had not the summer freshness of the prairie-grass. A few scattering groves skirted them; and here and there a fenceless road drew its winding, dusty line away over the arid hills. ‘This is about where it was, ’ said the girl, after searching some time among the tall weeds. ‘Nobody knows now just where the gallows stood. There was a tree here, but that has been cut down and carried away, stump and roots and all, by folks that wanted something to remember John Brown by. Every soldier took a piece of it, if it was only a little chip.’ So widely and deeply had the dying old hero impressed his spirit upon his countrymen; affording the last great illustration of the power of Truth to render even the gallows venerable, and to glorify an ignominious death.

“I stood on the spot the girl pointed out to us, amid the gracefully drooping golden rods, and looked at the same sky old John Brown looked his last upon, and the same groves and the distant Blue Ridge, the sight of whose cerulean summits, clad in Sabbath tranquility and softest heavenly light, must have conveyed a sweet assurance to his soul.

“Then I turned and looked at the town, out of which flocked the curious crowds to witness his death. Over the heads of the spectators, over the heads of soldiery surrounding him, his eye ranged until arrested by one strangely prominent object. There it still stands on the outskirts of the town, between it and the fields – a church (Zion Episcopal Church – ED) pointing its silent finger to heaven and recalling to the earnest heart those texts of Scripture from (p. 74) which John Brown drew his inspiration and for the truth of which he willingly gave his life.

“I had the curiosity to stop at this church on our way back to the town. The hand of ruin had smitten it. Only the brick walls and zinc-covered spire remained uninjured. The belfry had been broken open, the windows demolished. The doors were gone. Within, you saw a hollow thing, symbolical. Two huge naked beams extended from end-to-end of the empty walls which were scribbled over with soldiers’ names, and with patriotic mottoes interesting for proud Virginians to read. The floors had been torn up and consumed in cooking soldiers’ rations, and the foul and trampled interior showed plainly what use it had served. The church, which overlooked John’s Brown’s martyrdom, and under whose roof his executioners assembled afterwards to worship, not the God of the poor and the oppressed, but the god of the slaveholder and the aristocrat had been converted into a stable.”

7. A. M. S. Morgan, (1988). “Charles Town, 1912-1924: A Boy’s Eye-view of Charles Town and Its People.” Charles Town, WV: self-published. Print.

A. M. S. Morgan, (1988). “Charles Town, 1912-1924: A Boy’s Eye-view of Charles Town and Its People.” books.google.com December, 2004 Web. 2 September 2014.

Image Credits:

1. Charles Washington and site of his home Happy Retreat images posted by Michael Gavin
findagrave.com 26 July 2003 Web. 4 September 2014.

2-3. Images of Harpers Ferry (used in video), Charlestown, Va.
Howe, Henry. (1852). “Historical Collections of Virginia.” Charleston, S.C.: W. R. Babcock. Print.

Howe, Henry. (1852). “Historical Collections of Virginia.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 12 Feb. 2012.
Harpers Ferry – p. 334.
Charlestown – p. 342.

4. (used in video) Andrew Hunter
wvculture.org 2 March 2000 Web. 1 Oct. 2011.

5. Sketched by Porte Crayon, reproduced from Leslie’s Illustrated Weekly. Brown is pictured lying on a stretcher, still recovering from the sword wound inflicted by Israel Green. wvculture.org 2 March 2000 Web. 1 Oct. 2011.

Home page of David Hunter Strother Collection:
West Virginia Regional and History Collection
images.lib.wvu.edu 20 November 1999 Web. 25 May 2014.

6. Strother, David Hunter; John Brown on Trial, Oct. 26, 1859, Charleston, Va. (W1995.030.394pg29)
images.lib.wvu.edu 20 November 1999 Web. 25 May 2014.

7. Strother, David Hunter; Charleston, Va. The Execution of John Brown, December 2nd 1859 (W1995.030.374). images.lib.wvu.edu 20 November 1999 Web. 25 May 2014.

8. (used in video) The Trial Of John Brown, At Charlestown, Virginia, For Treason And Murder, Harper’s Weekly, 12 November 1859 – Porte Crayon (David Hunter Strother), Harper’s Weekly, November 12, 1859

9. (used in video) Courthouse Charlestown, Va., 1859 – Frank Leslie’s illustrated newspaper, v. 8, no. 207 (1859 Nov. 19), p. 383.

10. (used in video) [Rappahannock River, Va. Fugitive African Americans fording the Rappahannock]
Digital ID: (digital file from original neg.) Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540. loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

11. (used in video) Five generations on Smith’s Plantation, Beaufort, South Carolina
Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540
loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

12-14. 9th Maryland soldiers, p. 39; courthouse, p. 28 (Lloyd Osterdorf Estate); Lt. Col. Simpson, p. 21.
“‘They Are Coming!’: Testimony at the Court of Inquiry on Imboden’s Capture of Charles Town,” in “Jefferson County Historical Magazine,” LIV, Dec. 1988, Paul E. Barr, Jr., and Michael P. Musick, eds.

August 21-22, 1864 – Battle of Charlestown, WV.

15. Alfred_N._Duffié
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

16. (used in video) Sketch of Engagement at Charlestown, Va., Sunday Aug. 21st, 1864
baylor.edu 9 May 1997 Web. 20 June 2014.

17. James_H._Wilson
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

18. Richard_H._Anderson
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

19. (used in video) Marching
youtube.com 4 January 2012 Web. 4 September 2014.

20. (used in video) John Brown’s body / J. Weldon Norris Chorale [sound recording]
J. Weldon Norris Chorale; Place of Publication/Creation: Washington, D.C.; Published/Created: 2003. Type of Material: sound recording-musical; Publisher: unpublished; Form: sound recording.Physical Description: 1 digital audiotape: Note: Stand alone recording specifically for IHAS; Permissions note: This recording of “John Brown’s Body” made here with permission from the James Weldon Norris Chorale. loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

21. (used in video) Title: Gardner’s photographic sketch book of the war.
Other Title: Photographic sketchbook of the war
Creator(s): Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882.,
Related Names: Waud, Alfred R. (Alfred Rudolph), 1828-1891 , artist
Date Created/Published: Washington : Philp & Solomons, [1866]
Medium: 2 v. : ill. ; 32 x 43 cm. loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014. p. 98 – Sheridan lying on the ground
p. 108 – horse halt

22. (detail of Union guards) Confederate prisoners at Fairfax Courthouse, Virginia
memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

23. File:Frank Blackwell Mayer – Independence (Squire Jack Porter) – Google Art Project.jpg
commons.wikimedia.org 15 September 2004 Web. 20 April 2014.

24. Returning home after the war
artsbma.org 14 May 1998 Web. 2 September 2014.

25. Dinah, Portrait of a Negress
Eastman Johnson (American painter, 1824-1906)
b-womeninamericanhistory19.blogspot.com 20 December 2011 Web. 2 September 2014.
AND
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 20 June 2014.

26. Denis Diderot – Making the Bell mold
Fonte des Cloches (Manufacturing Bells)
(France , c. 1770s). Diderot Pictorial Encyclopedia of Trades and Industry, Vol. 2.

27. (used in video) Image of man writing
Self-Portrait In this self-portrait, Eastman Johnson labors over a desk in a warmly lit room, most likely his Manhattan studio on Washington Square. The painting’s dark palette and quiet mood recall seventeenth-century Dutch genre paintings, whose style Johnson absorbed while studying at The Hague in the Netherlands. Some of the small framed paintings in the background were probably acquired during the artist’s time abroad, and the canvas itself is an artifact from that period of his life: x-radiographs reveal that Johnson painted this work over a copy of a Dutch portrait. Artist: Eastman Johnson, American, 1824-1906. Medium: Oil on canvas; Dates: ca. 1865-1870; Dimensions: 9 3/4 x 7 13/16 in. (24.8 x 19.9 cm): Signature: Signed lower left: “E. Johnson” 2 September 2014. brooklynmuseum.org 18 June 2012 Web.

28. John_Townsend_Trowbridge
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

29. WV State Capitol early 1870s
Courtesy Julius Jones
wvculture.org 2 March 2000 Web. 1 Oct. 2011.

30. John Shannon Gallaher
Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.” Richmond, VA: B. F. Johnson Publishing. Print.

Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.”Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011.
p. 153.
More:

31. (used in video) Side view of a well-dressed man, 1890s
Pierce Bartlett
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

32. Older William A. M. Morgan
wvhistoryonview.org 9 October 2010 Web. 2 September 2014.

33. (used in video) Jefferson County Courthouse, 1930s
loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

34. Soldiers singing
“McClellan Is Our Man”
Harper’s Weekly, August 2, 1862 P. 492
sonofthesouth.net start date unavailable Web. 2 September 2014.

35. Image of young “Bud” Morgan (used in video)
A. M. S. Morgan, (1988). “Charles Town, 1912-1924: A Boy’s Eye-view of Charles Town and Its People.” Charles Town, WV: self-published. Print.

A. M. S. Morgan, (1988). “Charles Town, 1912-1924: A Boy’s Eye-view of Charles Town and Its People.” books.google.com December, 2004 Web. 2 September 2014.

Chewy Morsel #5 – 10-Year-Old “Danske” Slays With Her Poetic Pen by Jim Surkamp

by Jim Surkamp on April 19, 2016 in Jefferson County

Danske_Inspired_Write_Montage
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The hewn timbers still smoking of her childhood home nearby, 54-year-old Henrietta Bedinger Lee, her 20-year-old daughter, “Netta” and the 54-year-old, freed family servant, Peggy Washington, sought refuge at Poplar Grove, where the widow of Henrietta’s brother, Caroline (or Carrie) lived with her children Minnie (Mary) Danske (Caroline), step-daughter Virginia (“Diddie”) and freedman 49-year-old Abram Dixon.

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Precocious ten-year-old Danske – the one born with “ink in her blood to write,” was likely stunned by the sight of her neighbors and next-of-kin suddenly bereft of home and past, standing on their porch.

Henry_Bedinger


Caroline (whose nickname “Danske” or “little Dane” came from being born in Denmark when her fathered ambassador’d there), had already announced to herself and the world. In a hasty hand, she had written: “Poetic numbers swelling from my soul will have their vent for it is my destiny to write.“

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Gen. David Hunter
Earlier that July 19th, 1864 as the work of burning homes was winding down, Federal Captain Franklin G. Martindale, the one given the order to burn Henrietta’s home by Federal General David Hunter, made a spectacular error in judgement by personally approaching Henrietta to say he was sorry for incinerating her blessed childhood home and to offer his pity.:

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Benjamin_Franklin_Bedinger_MD+younger

Henrietta wrote a relative:
Henrietta Bedinger Lee
Benjamin Franklin Bedinger
I was standing on the lawn gazing at the awful conflagration for all the outbuildings were burning at the same time. Then with the most self important and swaggering step Martindale approached me and dared to offer me his pity. “I scorn your pity,” I cried “You talk of pity, after such an act as this, it is mockery indeed, the qualities of mercy and pity are strangers to your heart.”

She continued:
But dear it would make this letter too long to tell you all the burning words that fell from my tongue, let it suffice to say I was warm enough to give it to him in round numbers I assure you. One lady said to one “What did you say to that man? He went away looking like a whipped dog.” Well he was a whipped dog.

Bedford_1864_Hotchkiss_Map_marked


But my home, my blessed lovely home! The fire ran from base to dome, and as the all devouring pitiless flames snapped each wire; the bell of that dear home tolled out its dirge.

What is it now? The blackened walls, the frightful skeleton of what was once so fair looms up against the sky and the wind as it sighs around the ruin whispers: “Man’s inhumanity to man, Makes countless thousands mourn” The trailing vines are scorched and dead! The flowers bloom there no more; and the bright silver streams, which so added to its beauty and grace glide in its desolation murmuring a perpetual requiem for that dead home.

The “ink ran” in Aunt Henrietta’s blood too.

Danske carefully listened to her heart and went to her pen:

When, on September 19th, 1862, Poplar Grove was the center of random artillery shelling from Federal batteries on Maryland’s Ferry Hill, all of Danske’s family hurried and became safely ensconced in their cellar.

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But eight-year-old Danske stayed behind despite the family’s pleadings to join them in the room below. Finally she closed her reading matter, R. M. Ballantyne’s ‘Coral Island’ and remarked: ‘Now I can tell my descendants that I finished a book during a battle!’

portrait_girl_Danske_brightened


Danske, now almost two years later and worn by war, pondered her next of kin in her own home, clawed by war with fresh wounds and no home. Danske wrote in a hasty hand:

Browne,_Henriette_-_A_Girl_Writing;_The_Pet_Goldfinch_-_Google_Art_Project_Matte

To Hunter:

David_Hunter


O cruel serpent. King of scorpions thou.
Curse on thy barb’rous act!
May never the Goddess of Pity send her smile
Upon thy blasted heart!
Behold on yonder verdant hill a house once stood.
It was the house of love, of peace and glee.
How soon that home was rendered desolate
By whom? Oh Hunter ’twas by thee!

JubalEarly
image005-1

After this and after Confederate General Jubal Early burned most of the structures of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania in a failed attempt to obtain ransomed compensation for the Lees and two other families, President Lincoln sidelined Gen. Hunter, forbade such home burnings, and ordered Gen. Phil Sheridan to burn in the “breadbasket” Shenandoah Valley, all means of creating and storing food and food itself whether it be grain or could walk four footed down the Valley Pike. But, Lincoln also wrote, no homes.

portrait_girl_Danske_brightened

Made possible with the generous, community-minded support of American Public University System. Views in these posts and related videos do not reflect in any way the modern-day policies of the University. More:

References:

Henry B. Lee (1849-1901)
1860 Census Jefferson County, Shepherdstown, P. 79.

Memories of Serena K. Dandridge, daughter of Danske Dandridge, granddaughter of Caroline Bedinger – Duke Manuscript Division, Perkins Collection, Dandridge Papers

The Letters of Henrietta Bedinger Lee – Shepherd University Library.

U. S. Federal Mortality Schedule Index, 1850-1889
Abram Dixon fell from a tree in Uvilla, West Virginia, January, 1880, aged 65 years.

Image Credits:

Danske Dandridge, Carrie Bedinger, Mary (Minnie) Bedinger – Duke University Perkins Collection – Dandridge Collection

Henrietta Lee, Nettie Lee, Harry Lee – Lucy Tonacci, Goldsborough Collection.

Likeness of Abram Dixon – David Hunter Strother Collection, West Virginia University Library.

Likeness of Peggy Washington – King, Edward. (1875). “The Great South; A Record of Journeys in Louisiana, Texas, the Indian Territory, Missouri, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland:” Illustrated by Champney, James Wells. Hartford, Conn. American Publishing Co. Print.

David Hunter, Jubal Early – wikipedia.org

Henriette Brown: Enfant écrivant (ca 1860)

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Chewy Morsel #8 – A Riddle You Can Solve

by Jim Surkamp on May 20, 2016 in Jefferson County

Chewy Morsel #8 A Riddle You Can Solve

Bill_Grantham

So. There is a house built in 1773 but it was torn down in 1929. And its latest generation of the owners is sitting on the porch of a house.

And the porch looks VERY much the same as the porch of the razed house – it was called Tudor Hall – when Federal General James H. Wilson and his staff were staying there in August 20, 1864 according to an eyewitness, named James E. Taylor.

James_E_Taylor_P_229_Tudor_Hall_porch

Question for you –

Is this porch of a house called Tudor Hall, as it looked in the 1980s . . . the same

PTDC2065 (1)

porch of a house on the same property called Tudor Hall by the person who sketched it in this drawing in 1864?

Taylor_P_227_Tudor_hall_Cropped

And, is this porch for the same house – the artist said it is Tudor Hall – where Federal General James Wilson and his staff were lingering?

Jamesharrisonwilson

How is that possible?

The answer is from Bill Grantham in his video interview:

Bill_Grantham

The original Tudor Hall (which is not what you’re seeing. The original house was torn down in 1929 and rebuilt in 1930). It is built out of a large portion of what was salvaged out of the original house. All of the woodwork in Tudor Hall is 1820s woodwork. The windows are not. I just found that they are 1920s or 1930s windows. The front porch which I’m sitting on was left standing – jacked up. (They) tore down the house and (built) the house back up in accordance – to make it look decent (and) correct with the front porch. That’s basically how they did it.

NOTE: In Taylor’s drawing of Tudor Hall, he draws a different roof to the porch that appears in the two photographs of same. Taylor in his work in Jefferson County has a pattern of liberty-taking in visual detail. Elsewhere in his collection, he misportays the home of Charles Washington Happy Retreat and in th edetail of the tower of the R.D. Shepherd town building in Shepherdstown, than what is known to be their actual details. – JS

Made possible with the generous, community-minded support of American Public University System. Views in these posts and related videos do not reflect in any way the modern-day policies of the University. More at: http://apus.edu

References:

Bill Grantham

Series I – Volume XLIII – Chapter LV in Two Parts: Official records of the Union and Confederate armies – See more at: http://

Part II – Operations in Northern Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. August 4-December 31, 1864. Union and Confederate Correspondence, etc. Digital Library. Cornell University. 28 August 2004 Web. 10 July 2011.

Miller, Francis Trevelyan. (1911). “The photographic history of the civil war.” Volume 4. New York, NY: The Review of Reviews Co.

Miller, Francis Trevelyan. (1911). “The photographic history of the civil war.” Volume 4. Internet Archives 1997 Web. 10 May 2016.
p. 281.

Image Credits:

James E. Taylor

Adams, Julia D. (1990).”Between the Shenandoah and the Potomac: Historic Homes of Jefferson County, West Virginia.” Jefferson County Historical Society. p. 109.

Chewy Morsel #1 – Where “The Rebel Yell” First Got Yelled by Jim Surkamp

by Jim Surkamp on January 12, 2016 in Jefferson County

Rare Footage of Civil War Veterans Doing the Rebel Yell.
https://web.archive.org/web/20160729022932if_/https://www.youtube.com/embed/s6jSqt39vFM?feature=oembed

Whether it was a yell heard in clashes in ancient Scotland or from a Commanche on the Plains, the spine-chilling yell that became known as the “Rebel Yell” – the one that historian Shelby Foote described as “a foxhunt yip mixed up with sort of a banshee squall” – was first ululated around July 18-19, 1861 on a road a little east of Winchester, Va. en route to Berry’s Ferry and en route to the first major engagement of the Civil War at Manassas/Bull Run

Opie_Yella


Or so contended John N. Opie, a young cavalryman with the Virginia 6th Cavalry with that group and with J.E.B., Stuart’s First Virginia Cavalry in its nascent state. He wrote:

. . . our disgruntled army moved towards the Blue Ridge Mountains. We were all completely at a loss to comprehend the meaning of our retrograde movement, until a general order was read, informing us that we were marching to the relief of Beauregard at Manassas, where a great battle was imminent. At this news, the whole army set up a continuous yell. It was the first Rebel yell, which afterward became so familiar to friend and foe. – Opie, p. 25.

Made possible with the generous, community-minded support of American Public University System. Views in these posts and related videos do not reflect in any way the modern-day policies of the University. More:

Reference:

Opie, John N. (1899). “A rebel cavalryman with Lee, Stuart, and Jackson.” Chicago, W. B. Conkey company. Print.

Opie, John N. (1899). “A rebel cavalryman with Lee, Stuart, and Jackson.” hathitrust.org 19 September 2008 Web. 6 January 2016.

Newton Baker’s Remarkable Son (Pt. 4 of 4) by Jim Surkamp

by Jim Surkamp on February 1, 2016 in Jefferson County

1865

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April_1865_moon


Weather: rainy all day

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33. APRIL 23, 1865 – WINCHESTER, VA. – NEWTON D. BAKER GIVES THE OATH OF ALLEGIANCE AND IS PAROLED TO GO HOME. ON FEBRUARY 21, 1865, HIS COUSIN, JAMES MARTIN BILLMYER, AS THE REGIMENT’S ACTING ADJUTANT SINCE FEB. 12th, APPROVED PAYMENT TO BAKER OF $3,300 FOR THE DEATH ON AUG. 19th, 1864 OF HIS HORSE, THE VALUE OF WHICH, BILLMYER RECORDED “WAS APPRAISED BY THE REGULARLY APPOINTED BOARD AT THE TIME OF MUSTERING INTO SERVICE.”

The_Shepherdstown-Bakers_1850s

Elias died in May, 1867, still Shepherdstown’s postmaster. Mrs. Baker assumed the post until April, 1869. Newton finished his studies, begun before the war at Wittenberg College, first being

John_Quigley_named_dated

mentored by his esteemed neighbor Dr. John Quigley, then graduating from the University of Maryland’s Medical School in 1868. Dr. Quigley conveyed his patient load to the young Dr. Baker who soon left to start a family in Martinsburg.

Elias Baker was devoted to the Union, received an appointment from President Lincoln as postmaster at Shepherdstown, and retained the Federal office throughout the War. Son Newton Baker, as a member of the Cavalry commanded by Jeb Stuart, fought at Gettysburg, was captured, and exchanged to fight again at Richmond. . . but had a tolerant attitude that was one of his strongest qualities. He felt that the War ended with Lee’s surrender and he was willing to accept the Northern victory. . . . When the Civil War ended Newton D. began to read the entire Encyclopaedia Britannica in an attempt to compensate for the college education that had been interrupted by four years with Stuart’s cavalry. The country doctor found his practice too preoccupying and lost himself in darkest Africa while working on the A’s. – Cramer pp. 13-15; pp. 19-20.

baker-newton-young

His son Newton D. Baker Jr. was born in Martinsburg December 3rd, 1871, eschewed on becoming a doctor like his dad. Wrote one biographer, Newton Jr.:
As a boy Baker was Puck with a book; he was the “angel child” who did not play baseball and seldom visited the swimming hole. . . Newton Jr. was told that an award of Hulme’s History of England would be given if he read the whole of the Britannica; he accepted the challenge and earned the prize. As he grew older Baker was certain that his father, through stimulating conversation and suggestions for reading, had much the greatest influence on his early education. . . . In later life he was to be included in the list of former newsboys who made good. Lawyer Baker denied that he ever carried papers and observed that he had never sold anything “except advice, such as it is.” He was small, dark-haired, and brown-eyed, with, in Brand Whitlock’s phrase, a sensitive face and the ideals of a poet. In manhood he finally achieved a height of five feet six inches, wore a size 14 shirt and collar, and weighed 125 pounds.

He graduated from Johns Hopkins in 1892, received his law degree from Washington and lee University. He went north as he joked “as a carpet bagger in reverse,” advocated progressive policies and became Cleveland’s mayor, continuing his climb into the world of public policy.

Newton Junior became known as a thinker, a powerful orator, and a progressive who fought manifestations of anti-Semitism, and as a result fiercely disputed with car-maker Henry Ford. Baker wrote:

Man seems to me incapable of greatness except when conditioned by beliefs which he has attained so passionately that he subordinates all other considerations to the service of his faith. Of course, the faith does not have to be formally religious, and whether or not if religious it be anthropomorphic, seems to me to make little difference. . . . But I find it very hard to imagine a stable social order or a helpful metaphysical order which does not have some stakes at which men are willing to be burned, and I think there are some stakes of that sort. . . .

When he was appointed and served as the country’s Secretary of War from 1916 to 1921, it was said that Baker was: “A civilian’s civilian, (he) saw the military as a necessity, but he had no awe of people in uniform, no romantic feelings toward them, and no dreams of glory….

800px-President_Woodrow_Wilson_portrait_December_2_1912

On the day President Woodrow Wilson announced Baker’s appointment as secretary of war, he admitted his ignorance of military matters. “I am an innocent,” he told reporters, “I do not know anything about this job.” But he had a sharp, analytical mind and considerable skill at administration.

Administration Building Newton D. Baker General Hospital Martinsburg, WV

The regional Veterans Affairs Hospital in Martinsburg bears his name and he is remembered.

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ONE FAMILY’S SLOG THROUGH WAR:

The recruits from the Baker-Billmyer-Lemen family were the children of the children of Johann Martin Billmyer 1767–1839, and Susanna Elizabeth NICODEMUS 1770–1835. Besides Newton’s mother, her siblings were brothers Conrad Billmyer (1797–1847) and John Joseph Billmyer (1802–1845); sisters, Elizabeth Billmyer Noll (1792-1873), Judith Billmyer Koontz (1795-1856), Susan Billmyer McQuilkin (1798-1873), and Esther Mary Billmyer Lemen (1800-1887). John Joseph Billmyer would marry Eliza Williamson Lemen Billmyer (1806-1886) and her siblings – sister Mary Jones (1811-1909), brother Jacob (1811-?), and brother Robert Lemen (1813-1898) – provided seven more recruits: two Confederate, two Confederate, and three Federal respectively – Snyder pp. 47-51; Service records.

The family patriarch:
Johann Martin BILLMYER
BIRTH 22 DEC 1767 • Frederick, Frederick, Maryland, USA
DEATH 19 FEB 1839 • Shepherdstown, Jefferson, West Virginia, USA. ancestry.com 28 October 1996 Web. 4 September 2012.

POW 5/31/63; Wounded 9/22/64
BAKER, NEWTON DIEHL: b. Washington County, Md. 10/3/41. 5’6″ fair complexion, brown hair, blue eyes. attended Wittenberg College one year. clerk Shepherdstown post office, Jefferson County. enlisted in the 1st Virginia Cavalry Charles Town 6/15/61 as Pvt. in Co. F. Present until detached to Gainesville 12/10/61. Captured Smithfield 5/31/63. Sent to Ft. McHenry. Exch. 6/63. Promoted 2nd Corp. Present until detailed as ordinance sgt of regt 11/15/63. Horse killed 8/19/64. Wounded in thigh Fishers Hill 9/22/64. Paroled Winchester 4/23/65. medical school 1868. surgeon for the B&O railroad. d. Martinsburg 1909. – Service Record; 1860 Census.

Besides Newton, cousins in the war fared variously, fighting for both north and south:

1. BILLMYER, JAMES M.: b. Va. 12/4/1836. 5’11’, fair complexion, brown hair, hazel eyes. Merchant, Shepherdstown PO, Jefferson Co. 1860 census. enl. Shepherdstown 4/18/61 Co. F as 1st Sgt. 1st Virginia Cav. Horse killed Bull Run 7/21/61. Present through 1/6/62. To 2nd Lt. Present through 5/1/62. Not re-elected. Re-enl. Pvt. Fredericksburg 8/1/63. Present through 8/64. Acting Adjutant of Regt. 2/12/65. Paroled Winchester 4/27/65. d. 2/20/1913. bur. Berkeley County. – Service Record; Snyder. 1860 Census; fold3.com 6 September 2011 Web. 1 December 2015.

WIA Five Forks 4/1/65.
2. BILLMYER, JOHN T.: b. Va. 1/11/32. 5’8′, fair complexion, dark hair, grey eyes. 1st Lt., Co. F. Deputy Sheriff, Vanclevesville PO, Berkeley Co. 1860 census. enl. Shepherdstown 4/18/61 as Sgt. 1st Virginia Cav. Present until detached with baggage trains 3/4/62. Present through 10/20/62. Elected 2nd Lt. To 1st Lt. Present until WIA Five Forks 4/1/65. Paroled Mt. Jackson 4/18/65. d. 3/26/74. bur. Elmwood Cem. Shepherdstown. – Service Record; Snyder, p. 48.

WIA (left thigh) Haw’s Shop 5/28/64.
3. BILLMYER, MILTON J.: b. Va. 10/10/34. Farmer, Jefferson Co. 6′, fair complexion, light hair, blue eyes. Captain, Co. F. 1st Virginia Cav., Vanclevesville PO, Berkeley Co. 1860 census. enl. Shepherdstown 4/18/61 as Pvt. Present through 7/1/61, appointed 1st Lt. Present through 10/12/62. elected Captain. Present until WIA (left thigh) Haw’s Shop 5/28/64. Absent wounded in Richmond hospital until furloughed for 30 days 7/14/64. Present Appomattox. Paroled Winchester 4/27/65. d. near Shepherdstown, W.Va. 8/31/07. bur. Elmwood Cem. – Service Record; Snyder, p. 48.

Captured Smithfield 5/31/63.
4. LEMEN, JOHN JAMES ALEXANDER: b. Va. 11/19/39. 5’7″. fair complexion, dark hair, grey eyes. Farmhand, Charles Town PO, Jefferson Co. 1860 census. enl. Shepherdstown Co. F. 4/18/61 as Pvt. 1st Virginia Cav. Present until captured 7/61. Exch. Present 9/62. Captured Smithfield 5/31/63. Sent to Ft. Monroe. Exch. 6/5/63. Present until absent sick in Richmond hospital 8/24/64. Released 6/30/64. d. 1/10/71. bur. Elmwood Cem. Shepherdstown, W.Va. – Service Record; Snyder, p. 48. 1860 Census.

WIA Aldie 6/17/63. POW Middleburg d. 6/20/63.
5. LEMEN, THOMAS THORNTON.: b. Va. 8/15/42. Student, Charles Town PO, Jefferson Co. 1860 census. enl. Co. F Shepherdstown 4/18/61 1st Virginia Cav. Pvt. Present until WIA Aldie 6/17/63. POW Middleburg d. 6/20/63. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown. – Service Record; Snyder, p. 48. 1860 Census. fold3.com 6 September 2011 Web. 1 December 2015.

6. LEMEN, WILLIAM THORNBURG: b. Va. 6/15/35. 5’10”. fair complexion, brown hair, grey eyes. Farmer, Charles Town PO, Jefferson Co. 1860 census. enl. Co. F 1st Virginia Cav. Shepherdstown 4/18/61. Present through 8/61, promoted 3rd Sgt. Present through 8/62, promoted 2nd Sgt. Promoted 1st Sgt 10/20/62. Present 10/63. Present through 8/64. Paroled Winchester 4/18/65. d. near Hedgesville, W.Va. 4/17/99. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va. – Service Record; Snyder, p. 48. 1860 Census.

Captured 4/65.
7. LEMEN, WILLOUGHBY: b. Va. 11/20/44. 5’10”. enlisted 4/18/61 Co. F, 1st Virginia Cav. under William A. Morgan. Present thru to 10/20/1862. Promoted to 1st Sgt. 1st Virginia Cav. Present thru 11/1863. Service records show name change from “William T. Lemen” to Willoughby N. Lemen 11-12-63. Captured 4/65. 12/28/64 promoted to Junior 2nd Lieut. Paroled 4/18/65. d. 7/19/1913. buried Elmwood Cem. – Tombstone Inscriptions, p. 170; Kenamond, p. 74; Service Record (pp. 15-28, start @ p. 15); Snyder, p. 48. 1860 Census.

8.MCQUILKIN, WILLIAM H.: b. Va. 1841. Laborer Charles Town enl. Co. F. Shepherdstown 4/18/61 as Pvt. 1st Virginia Cav. Fell ill with pneumonia and was granted sick furlough August 31st, 1861; sent to hospital December 26th, and died January 6th, 1862 at Manassas. – Service Record; Snyder, p. 48.; 1860 Census.

POW, paroled 4/18/65.
9. KOONTZ, THORNTON: b. Va. 12/16/21. enl. 4/18/61 Co. F, 1st Va. Cav. Sgt. Present through 4/62. Reassigned under Milton J. Billmyer. Pvt. substitute for Robert K. Wilson. POW paroled 4/18/65. d. 5/12/86. bur. Elmwood Cem. – Tombstone Inscriptions, p. 168. Service Record; Snyder, p. 47. 1860 Census.

10.NOLL, WILLIAM T.: Va. b. 10/2/32. enlisted Co. B, 1st Virginia Cav. Martinsburg 4/19/61, promoted to 2nd lieutenant. Present until 5-6/62 sick. Bay mare killed 8/21/64 Berryville, Va. Present 7/62-4/65. Paroled 4/18/65 Winchester. d. 2/27/03. – Service Record; Snyder, p. 47. 1860 Census.

11. LEMEN, WILLIAM MARTIN: b. Va. 12/6/31. enlisted Co. B, 1st Virginia Cav. Martinsburg 4/19/61. On daily duty attending to the sick. Present until 2/11/62 on furlough. On detached service with regimental medical dept. Paroled 4/26/65 Winchester. d. 5/2/03. Service Record; Snyder, p. 48. 1860 Census.

WIA (head) Winebrenner’s Cross Roads near Shepherdstown 9/64.
12.BILLMYER, ROBERT LEMEN: b. Va. 9/25/43, Student, 5’6″. fair complexion, brown hair, hazel eyes. Vanclevesville PO, Berkeley Co. 1860 census. enl. Shepherdstown 6/28/63. Pvt., Co. F. 1st Virginia Cav. Present through 12/63. Absent on detached service 1/25-2/28/64. Present through 8/64. WIA (head) Winebrenner’s Cross Roads near Shepherdstown 9/64. Present Appomattox 4/9/65 and carried flag of truce to the enemy. Paroled Winchester 4/18/65. He lived in the county after the war. d. near Shepherdstown, W.Va. 3/19/10. bur. Elmwood Cem. Service Record; Snyder, p. 47. 1860 Census.

POW. Paroled 4/21/65
13. JONES, JOHN REYNOLDS: b. 1844. enl. 8/20/64 Shepherdstown Co. F. 1st Va Cav. under M. J. Billmyer. POW. Paroled 4/21/65 Winchester. d. 1887. – Service Record; 1860 Census.

14. JONES, THOMAS J. or F.: b. 1839 record only confirms being in Co. F. of 1st Va Cavalry. d. 1923. fold3.com 6 September 2011 Web. 1 December 2015. – Service Record; 1860 Census.

15. WILLIAMSON, MATTHEW WHITE: b. 1845. enl. 8/13/1861 at New Market, Va. with Captain Morgan, Co. F 1st Va. Cavalry. Present sent on detached service 1/20/1864. Present 7-8/64. Paroled 5/9/1865. Winchester. d. 1930. Service Record; 1860 Census.

POW
16. WILLIAMSON, THOMAS LEMEN: b. 1847. Only record is being a prisoner of war, being in Co. F of the 1st Va. Cavalry and having been paroled 4/9/1865 at New Market, Va. Description: height 5’9”, hair: light, eyes: blue. d. 1875. Service Record; 1860 Census.

Federal sons:

Eliza Billmyer’s second brother, Robert Lemen (1813-1898) and his wife, Sarah Elizabeth Light (1816-1883), had three sons who went with the Federal Army’s First Maryland Cavalry: In Co. I, Peter (1840-1921); In Co. H, Jacob F. (1842-1922), and Thomas J. (1843-1908). – Snyder, pp. 50-51. The young men enlisted as:

17. LEMEN, PETER L.: b. 1840. 5’9.5” dark complexion, blue eyes, light hair. enl. 9/3/61 Camp Lamon, Williamsport, Md. for three years. Pvt. Capt. Russell’s Co. 1st Va. Cav.(later Co. I. First Md Cav.). 12/30/61 on detached service Williamsport, Md. 5-6/62 detailed at the Ferry at Williamsport on Potomac. 3/9/64 on detached service, clerk in the Provost Marshall’s office Baltimore City, Md. by order of Brig. Gen. Lockwood S.O. No. 61, Par 9. 9/3/64 mustered out, term of service expired. d. 1921. Service Record; 1860 Census.

POW 5-8/63
18. LEMEN, JACOB F.: b. 1842 enl. 9/6/61, mustered in 12/31/61 Williamsport, Md. Pvt. Capt. Zeller’s Co. 1st Reg’t Va. Volunteers (later Co. H. First Md Cav.). Present 1/61-4/63. POW 5-8/63. Present 9/63-12/64. Discharged 12/3/64 term of service expired. d. 1922. Service Record; 1860 Census.

19. LEMEN, THOMAS J.: b. 1843. enl. 9/3/61 Camp Lamon Pvt. Capt. Russell’s Co. 1st Va. Cav.(later Co. I. First Md Cav.) for three years. Present 3-4/62-8/63. Promoted to corporal. 3/26/64 Reduced to Pvt. Present 4/64. 9/3/64 mustered out, term of service expired. d. 1908. – Service Record; 1860 Census.

Special thanks to:
Snyder, Vivian P. (1999). Twenty First Cousins in the Civil War. Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society. Vol. LXV. pp. 47-51.

1. NEWTON BAKER’S “MOST” DIVIDED CLAN (Pt. 1 of 4) by Jim Surkamp
2. NEWTON BAKER “SEES THE ELEPHANT” MANASSAS, VA (Pt. 2 of 4) by Jim Surkamp
3. NEWTON BAKER’S LIFE IN THE FAMED FIRST VIRGINIA CAVALRY 1861-1865 (Pt. 3 of 4) (above) by Jim Surkamp
4. NEWTON BAKER’S REMARKABLE SON (Pt. 4 of 4) by Jim Surkamp

References (Generally listed as they pertain in the narrative – JS):

CONFEDERATE VIRGINIA TROOPS

1st Regiment, Virginia Cavalry
The 1st Cavalry Regiment completed its organization at Winchester, Virginia, in July, 1861. Unlike most regiments, the 1st contained twelve companies. The men were from the counties of Frederick, Berkeley, Rockbridge, Clarke, Washington, Augusta, Jefferson, Amelia, Loudoun, Rockingham, and Gloucester. After taking part in the Battle of First Manassas, the unit was brigaded under Generals J.E.B. Stuart, F. Lee, Wickham, and Munford. It participated in more than 200 engagements of various types including the Seven Days’ Battles and Stuart’s ride around McClellan. The regiment was active in the conflicts at Gainesville, Second Manassas, Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, Kelly’s Ford, Chancellorsville, Brandy Station, Gettysburg, Bristoe Station, The Wilderness, Todd’s Tavern, Spotsylvania, Bethesda Church, and Cold Harbor. Later it was involved in Early’s operations in the Shenandoah Valley, the defense of Petersburg, and the Appomattox Campaign. In April, 1862, it totaled 437 men, lost eight percent of the 310 engaged at Gettysburg, and had 318 fit for duty in September, 1864. The cavalry cut through the Federal lines at Appomattox and later disbanded. Only 1 man from this unit were present at the surrender. The field officers were Colonels R. Welby Carter, James H. Drake, William E. Jones, Fitzhugh Lee, William A. Morgan, and James E.B. Stuart; Lieutenant Colonels L. Tiernan Brien and Charles R. Irving; and Major Robert Swan. – Civil War Soldier Database nps.gov April 1997 Web. 10 May 2013.

Almanacs 1861-1865:

Richardson, David and Wynne, Chas. H. (1863).“Richardson’s Virginia & North Carolina almanac, for the year of Our Lord 1863: being the third after bissextile or leap year, the eighty-seventh of American independence, and the second of the Southern Confederacy.” Boles, J. Durelle, collector. GEU; West & Johnston, publisher; J. Durelle Boles Collection of Southern Imprints. GEU

Richardson, David and Wynne, Chas. H. (1863).“Richardson’s Virginia & North Carolina almanac, for the year of Our Lord 1863: being the third after bissextile or leap year, the eighty-seventh of American independence, and the second of the Southern Confederacy.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011.

Richardson, David and Wynne, Chas. H. (1864).“Richardson’s Virginia & North Carolina almanac, for the year of Our Lord 1864: being the third after bissextile or leap year, the eighty-seventh of American independence, and the second of the Southern Confederacy.” Boles, J. Durelle, collector. GEU; West & Johnston, publisher; J. Durelle Boles Collection of Southern Imprints. GEU

Richardson, David and Wynne, Chas. H. (1864).“Richardson’s Virginia & North Carolina almanac, for the year of Our Lord 1864: being the third after bissextile or leap year, the eighty-seventh of American independence, and the second of the Southern Confederacy.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011.

“The Old Franklin Almanac No. 2 for 1861.” Philadelphia, PA: Haslett & Winch.

“The Old Franklin Almanac No. 2 for 1861.” hathitrust.org 13 October 2008 Web. 10 December 2015.

Full moons date/times for Baltimore, 1861 –
1861:
1/26 12:01 PM
2/24 11:36 PM
3/26 9:08 AM
4/24/5:16 PM
5/24 12:59 AM
6/22 9:16 AM
7/21 6:59 PM
8/20 6:44 AM
9/18 8:54 PM
10/18 1:31 PM
11/17 8:00 AM
12:31 8:47 AM

Phelps, William W. (1861). “Almanac for the year 1861 being the thirty-second year of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.” (From April 6, 1830). Third edition revised and corrected. Salt Lake City, UT: Desert News office.

Phelps, William W. (1861). “Almanac for the year 1861 being the thirty-second year of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.” (From April 6, 1830). Third edition revised and corrected. Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011.
https://archive.org/stream/almanacforyear1861aphel#page/n0/mode/2up

1/26 9:39 AM;
2/24 9:17 PM;
3/26 6:49 AM;
4/24 2:57 PM;
5/31 4:59 AM;
6/29 7:14 PM;
7/29 12:25 PM;
8/28 5:57 AM;
9/26 10:58 AM;
10/26 2:28 AM;
11/25 3:41 AM;
12/24 2:25 PM.

Wakefield, C. (1862). “Wakefield’s western farmers’ almanac and account book.” Bloomington, Ill.: C. Wakefield, proprietor of Wakefield’s Family Medicines. Print.

Wakefield, C. (1862). “Wakefield’s western farmers’ almanac and account book.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 May 2011.

Blackford, William W. (1945). “War Years with Jeb Stuart.” New York, NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons. Print.

Blackford, William W. (1945). “War Years with Jeb Stuart.” Google Books. 15 August 2006. Web. 24 Dec. 2015.

Driver, Robert J. (1991). “1st Virginia Cavalry.” Lynchburg, Va.: H. E. Howard, Inc. Print.

Mosby, John S.; Russell, Charles W. (1917). “The memoirs of Colonel John S. Mosby.” Boston, Little, Brown, and Company. Print

Mosby, John S.; Russell, Charles W. (1917). “The memoirs of Colonel John S. Mosby.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 10 Sept. 2010. pp. 108-109.

“The War of the Rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies.” (1902). NOTE on authors: Robert N. Scott compiled and edited v. 1-18, 1880-87, and also collected the greater part of the material for v. 19-36, 1887-91. After his death in 1887 the work was continued by Henry M. Lazelle, 1887-89, and by a board of publication, 1889-99, consisting of George B. Davis, 1889-97, Leslie J. Perry, 1889-99, Joseph W. Kirkley, 1889-99, and Fred C. Ainsworth, 1898-99; from 1899-1901 edited by Fred C. Ainsworth and Joesph W. Kirkley. Gettysburg, Pa: Gettysburg National Historical Society. Print.

Volume XI – in Three Parts. 1884. (Vol. 11, Chap. 23)
Chapter XXIII – The Peninsular Campaign, Virginia. Mar 17-Sep. 2, 1862.
Part III — Correspondence, etc.

Headquarters Camp McIntosh
March 26, 1862 4 PM General J.E.B. STUART to General JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON, Commanding: GENERAL: at a point about 7 miles below this a large column of infantry was seen on the march this way at 2 p. in. Captain Gaither says he counted six regiments without seeing either end of the column; six regimental colors were counted. They were marching across the fields parallel to the railroad and in view of it. I immediately sent the First Virginia Cavalry (Jones) down to observe the enemy and report. . . It is probable they will camp near Weaversville tonight Most respectfully, your obedient servant, J. E. B. STUART, p. 402. Digital Library. Cornell University. 28 August 2004 Web. 10 July 2011.

HEADQUARTERS CAVALRY BRIGADE, March 27, 1862 4 PM. General J.E.B. STUART to General JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON: GENERAL: The enemy’s column has been in motion since 12, but at five minutes past 2 had not crossed the run near Warrenton Junction. They have baggage, say 450 wagons; scarcely any cavalry visible then. They are spreading about on Cedar Run to find fords. . . . so far as movements now indicate they are marching along the general direction of the railroad. Radford has been ordered to retire by way of Warrenton Springs, burning bridges, and to halt on the south bank Rappahannock. . . . Their progress must be very slow. In haste, J.E.B. STUART. – p. 406. Digital Library. Cornell University. 28 August 2004 Web. 10 July 2011.

HEADQUARTERS, Bealeton, March 27, [1862] 8.30 PM General J.E.B. STUART to General JOHNSTON: GENERAL: The enemy has camped at Warrenton Junction. He made a great to-do crossing and recrossing Cedar Run, firing artillery at a few vedettes, and the like, and has actually made 3 miles with his advance guard. . . . – J.E.B. STUART. pp. 406-407. Digital Library. Cornell University. 28 August 2004 Web. 10 July 2011.

Image of Slatersville Skirmish
Leslie, Frank; Moat, Louis Shepheard (c1895). “Frank Leslie’s illustrated history of the Civil War. The most important events of the conflict between the States graphically pictured. Stirring battle scenes and grand naval engagements … portraits of principal participants.” New York, NY: Mrs. F. Leslie. Print.

Leslie, Frank; Moat, Louis Shepheard (c1895). “Frank Leslie’s illustrated history of the Civil War. The most important events of the conflict between the States graphically pictured. Stirring battle scenes and grand naval engagements … portraits of principal participants.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 25 Sept. 2011.
p. 155. – Gallant charge of the sixth regiment, United States Regular Cavalry upon the Confederate Stuart’s Cavalry – The Confederates Scattered in Confusion and sought safety in the Woods May 9th, 1962. Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 25 Sept. 2011.

Waud, Alfred. “The First Virginia Cavalry.” Harpers Weekly – September 27, 1862, p. 612, p. 618.

Waud, Alfred. “The First Virginia Cavalry.” Harpers Weekly – September 27, 1862. sonofthesouth Web start date unavailable. Retrieved 24 January 2016.

Virga, Vincent. (1997). “Eyes of the Nation: A Visual History of the United States.”

Virga, Vincent. (1997). “Eyes of the Nation: A Visual History of the United States.” Google Books. 15 August 2006. Web. 24 Dec. 2015. p. 167.

Title
[The 1st Virginia Cavalry at a halt]
Waud, Alfred R. (Alfred Rudolph), 1828-1891, artist [1862 September] loc.gov 20 February 1999 Web. 25 May 2013.

Wauds grey mare, 1862
Digital ID: (digital file from original item) ppmsca 20381 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ppmsca.20381
Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ppmsca-20381 (digital file from original item) Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. loc.gov 20 February 1999 Web. 25 May 2013.

[Alfred Waud, full-length portrait, seated, holding a pencil and pad, facing left] Digital ID: (digital file from original, front) ppmsca 19623 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ppmsca.19623 Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ppmsca-19623 (digital file from original, front) LC-DIG-ppmsca-19624 (digital file from original, back). Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. loc.gov 20 February 1999 Web. 25 May 2013. print.

[Brandy Station], [Virginia]. Alfred R. Waud, artist for “Harper’s Weekly” (seated on a horse) at headquarters Army of the Potomac Digital ID: (digital file from original neg.) cwpb 03706 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cwpb.03706.Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-cwpb-03706 (digital file from original neg.) Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. loc.gov 20 February 1999 Web. 25 May 2013.

Kenamond, A. D. (1963). “Prominent Men of Shepherdstown During Its First 200 Years.” Charles Town, WV: A Jefferson County Historical Society. pp. 21-22.

Report of Brig. Gen. Jubal A. Early, C. S. Army, commanding Ewell’s division, of operations September 3-27. Volume XIX – in Part I. Operations in Northern Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania. September 3-November 14, 1862 (Vol. 19, Chap. 31), pp. 965-973. Cornell Digital Library. cornell.edu. 7 May 2008. Web. 29 May 2011.

Early’s division, recrossing the Potomac into Virginia, p. 972. Cornell Digital Library. cornell.edu. 7 May 2008. Web. 29 May 2011.

H.L. Snyder, Shepherdstown Register, September 22, 1921, September 22, 1927, July 31, 1924;

Clemens, footnote, p. 386.
Carman, Ezra A.; edited/annotated by Clemens, Thomas, G. (2010). “The Maryland Campaign of September 1862 Vol. 1: South Mountain.” New York and California: Savas Beatie. print.

REFERENCES OCT 1st, 1862:

The Impossible Autumn (Pt. 4) – 1862, Jefferson County, Va. by Jim Surkamp
civilwarscholars.com 20 June 2011 Web. 24 January 2016. More. . .
Report by Gen. Robert E. Lee on the October 1st Skirmish in Martinsburg, that was challenged in other reports by two participants (Hampton and Pleasonton): R. E. LEE, Chapter XIX, Official Record, Series I, Part 2, Vol. 19. – p. 12. Cornell Digital Library. cornell.edu. 28 August 2004 Web. 10 July 2011.

Confederate General Robert E. Lee wrote: The enemy’s cavalry, under General Pleasonton, with six pieces of artillery, drove back our pickets yesterday in front of Shepherdstown. The Ninth Virginia Cavalry, which was on picket, repulsed the enemy several times, by vigorous charges, disputing the ground, step-by-step, back to the main body. By the time his artillery reached him, Col. William H. F. Lee, who was in command of the brigade, was obliged to place it on the west bank of the Opequon, on the flank of the enemy as he approached Martinsburg. General Hampton’s brigade had retired through Martinsburg on the Tuscarora road, when General Stuart arrived and made disposition to attack. Lee’s brigade was advanced immediately and Hampton’s ordered forward. The enemy retired at the approach of Lee, along the Shepherdstown road, and was driven across the Potomac by the cavalry.

Federal Gen. Pleasonton’s report disagreeing with the description of his force being driven back in disarray to Shepherdstown on October 1st, 1862
Chapter XIX, Official Record, Series I, Part 2, Vol. 19. – pp. 10-12. Cornell Digital Library. cornell.edu. 28 August 2004 Web. 10 July 2011.

Report of Brig. Gen. Wade Hampton, C.S. Army, commanding Cavalry Brigade, pp. 12-14. Cornell Digital Library. cornell.edu. 28 August 2004 Web. 10 July 2011.

An account of R. L. T. Beale, a cavalryman of the nearby 9th Virginia Cavalry, on picket near Leetown when Pleasonton’s cavalry invaded Oct. 1, 1862:
Green food cut from the fields of growing corn was the only provision that could be obtained here for our horses, and in a short time it rendered very many of them unfit for service. It became necessary to establish a camp remote from the army for the treatment of the diseased horses. (The First Virginia Cavalry pickets): Our pickets on the Potomac while here grew quite friendly with those of the enemy. The two parties would leave their clothing on either shore and, meeting in the middle of the river, enjoy a bath together. Orders were issued forbidding the practice. About the middle of October, whilst we were on picket the Union cavalry under command of General Pleasonton, crossed the river in large force at early dawn, and vigorously attacked our outpost under Captain Waller, occupying a position just outside of Shepherdstown. in trying to reach a point for observation, were captured. Their advance, despite the efforts of Waller to check it, was so rapid that we barely had mounted when the columns of the enemy appeared on the hills half a mile in our front. One squadron, dismounted, was placed in ambush behind some large rocks on the left of the road, and the other was held back a hundred yards or so in the rear to await the onset. The enemy advanced rapidly and boldly, but before getting abreast of the ambuscade the dismounted men fired with but little effect. This fire, however, threw the Federal horsemen .into confusion, and, on seeing our mounted men charging, they broke and fled precipitately. We pursued at full speed for some distance, when a large body of dismounted men and two pieces of artillery were discovered, so posted as to command the road. The rally was then sounded, and our men reformed on their former ground.

(1st Virginia Cavalry gets involved-JS):
The relief regiment under Colonel J. M. Drake now reached us, and, though he was the senior officer (Incorrect: Drake was No. 2 behind Tiernan Brien commanding the 1st Virginia), he declined to interfere with the arrangements that had been made, and gladly aided in carrying them out, taking the position assigned his regiment on our right. The enemy, however, did not renew the attack, contenting himself with opening a brisk fire upon us with his artillery.

As we retired to Newcomer’s Mill, General Pleasonton moved down the road to Martinsburg. General Stuart, as soon as he was informed of what was occurring, dispatched General Wade Hampton by a circuitous route to occupy the road above Shepherdstown, while he, with a portion of our brigade, moved upon Martinsburg. General Pleasanton made a rapid retreat to avoid the snare.

Beale, R. L. T. (1899). “History of the Ninth Virginia cavalry, in the war between the states.” Richmond, Va: B. F. Johnson publishing company Print.

Beale, R. L. T. (1899). “History of the Ninth Virginia cavalry, in the war between the states.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 January 2016.
pp. 43-45.

REFERENCES MAY 28-JUNE 6, 1863:

Longacre, Edward G. (1986).”The Cavalry at Gettysburg – A Tactical Study of Mounted Operations during the Civil War’s Pivotal Campaign 9 June – 14 July 1863.” Rutherford, Madison, Teaneck, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. Print.

Debated reports by the Federals of incursions into the eastern Panhandle in late May, early June, 1863:
HDQRS. CAVALRY CORPS, ARMY OF THE POTOMAC, May 28, 1863. General S. WILLIAMS, A. A. G., Army of the Potomac: The following dispatch from General Gregg, at Bealeton: A scouting party, just in from Sulphur Springs, reports Stuart camped 4 miles from Culpeper, on the road to the Springs; Fitzhugh Lee, W. H. F. Lee, Hampton, and Field at Jefferson. **Rebel scouts numerous about Warrenton and the Springs. The force is represented as being very large. I think it advisable to send Bufords command that is available, some 900 men, and battery, to re-enforce Gregg, should Major-General Hooker consent, particularly as Buford reports rather poor grazing at Dumfries, while on the upper route it is good, and supplies easily obtained. The cavalry at Washington should be moved farther down, on the Orange road. The rebels always mean something when their scouts become numerous. A. PLEASONTON, Brigadier-General, Commanding Cavalry Corps. – p. 536. Cornell Digital Library. cornell.edu. 28 August 2004 Web. 10 July 2011.

CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. UNION. 593 HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE POTOMAC, June 1, 1863. Maj. Gen. H. W. HALLECK, General-in-Chief: The following is received from General Buford, at Warrenton Junction, to-day: A. reconnaissance returned late yesterday, satisfying me that there are no rebel troops on this side of the river, save those who have been here all winter. Sulphur Springs, Waterloo, and Orleans were visited yesterday. Another command penetrated as far as Gainesville, returning by New Baltimore and Warrenton. Nothing was heard except that some small parties belonging to Mosby were seen by negroes a few days since. Mosby has three companies, and his headquarters are supposed to be somewhere in Loudoun County. – p. 593. Cornell Digital Library. cornell.edu.28 August 2004 Web. 10 July 2011.

REFERENCES AUGUST 18-20, 1864:

August 7-November 28, 1864 – The Shenandoah Valley Campaign – Summary of the Principal Events – August 18, 1864 – Skirmish at Opequon Creek, Va. August 19, 1864 – Skirmish near Opequon Creek, on Berryville and Winchester Pike – Official Record, Series 1 – Volume 43 (Part I) Chapter LV, p. 8.

Spout Spring, Va. 1864 Map
baylor.edu 9 May 1997 Web. 28 October 2012.

THURSDAY, AUGUST 18-SATURDAY, AUGUST 20, 1864 – Encamped at Berryville, frequently skirmishing with the enemy’s cavalry. – Itinerary First Federal Cavalry Division Commanded by Bvt. Maj. Gen. Alfred T. A. Torbert, U.S. Army. – Official Record, Series 1 – Volume 43 (Part I) Chapter LV, – p. 90. Digital Library. Cornell University. 28 August 2004 Web. 10 July 2011.

Gallaher, Dewitt C. (1961). “ A Diary Depicting the Experience of Dewitt Clinton Gallaher in the War Between The States While Serving In the Confederate Army.” Charleston, WV: Privately Published. Print. pp. 10-11.

Patchen, Scott C. (2013). ”The Last Battle of Winchester: Phil Sheridan, Jubal Early and the Shenandoah Valley Campaign.” El Dorado Hills, CA.: Savas Beatie LLC. Print.

Patchen, Scott C. (2013). ”The Last Battle of Winchester: Phil Sheridan, Jubal Early and the Shenandoah Valley Campaign.” amazon.com 5 July 1994 Web. 15 January 2016.

Farrar, Samuel C. (1911). “The Twenty-second Pennsylvania cavalry and the Ringgold battalion, 1861-1865.” Pittsburgh, PA: The 22nd Pennsylvania Ringgold Cavalry Association. Print.

Farrar, Samuel C. (1911). “The Twenty-second Pennsylvania cavalry and the Ringgold battalion, 1861-1865.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 May 2011.

REFERENCES SEPTEMBER 22, 1864:

Map of the Line of entrenchments at Fisher’s Hill, Va., Aug. 13th to 17th, 1864. Battle of Fisher’s Hill, Sept. 22d., 1864. Creator: Hotchkiss, Jed., Capt. Publication Info: Washington: Government Printing Office. Print.

Map of the Line of Intrenchments at Fisher’s Hill, Va., Aug. 13th to 17th, 1864. Battle of Fisher’s Hill, Sept. 22d., 1864 baylor.edu 9 May 1997 Web. 28 October 2012.

Map – Battle-fields of Fisher’s Hill and Cedar Creek, Virginia. 22 Sept. 1864. 19 Oct. 1864. Prepared by Bvt. Lt. Col. G.L. Gillespie, Major of Engineers, U.S.A., From Surveys made under his direction By Order of Lt. Gen. P.H. Sheridan, and under the Authority of the Hon. Secretary of War and of the Chief of Engineers, U.S.A. 1873. baylor.edu 9 May 1997 Web. 28 October 2012.
(September 22 1864 events in which Newton Baker is wounded in the leg).

Maps of Fisher’s Hill, Virginia (1864)
The Battle of Fisher’s Hill. civilwar.org 19 December 2006 Web. 12 July 2013.

National Park Service Account:
About 1600 hours, Crook ordered his columns to face left and to charge. The soldiers charged down the side of the mountain, shouting at the tops of their lungs. The CS cavalry took to their horses and scattered. In their rush down the hill, Crook’s divisions lost all order; a mass of men funneled through the ravine of the Middle Fork of Tumbling Run past the Barbe House and closed on the Confederate infantry on “Ramseur’s Hill.” A second mass funneled to the right along an old road that penetrated to the rear of the Confederate positions. Grimes’s brigade of North Carolinians held out against Crook’s onslaught until Ricketts ordered his division forward. Hearing, more than seeing, that they were flanked, CS defenders along the remainder of the line began abandoning their entrenchments. Battle’s CS brigade was sent to the left to confront Crook but was misdirected into a ravine and missed the fighting altogether. Sheridan advanced his other divisions, the men attacking generally up the ravines. Early’s army was soon in full flight, abandoning equipment and 14 artillery pieces that could not be extricated from the works. Rear Guard Action at Prospect Hill (22 September): The CS army was a shambles but attempted to collect itself at the base of Round Hill on the Valley Pike. Generals Gordon, Ramseur, and Pegram and staff officers established a rear guard of artillery and infantry at Prospect Hill and held off the disorganized Union pursuit. During this action, Col. Alexander “Sandie” Pendleton, Stonewall Jackson’s favorite staff officer, was wounded; he died the following day in Woodstock. The CS army retreated to Narrow Passage, and the wagon train went on to Mt. Jackson. Darkness and confusion among the Union victors prevented effective pursuit. nps.gov April 1997 Web. 10 May 2013.

Biscoe, Thomas and Walter; Fisher’s Hill Battlefield (028447) West Virginia Historical Photographs Collection Home. wvu.edu 20 November 1999 Web. 25 May 2013.

Owner/Location: Metropolitan Museum of Art – New York, NY (United States – New York)
Dates: 1866
Artist age: Approximately 30 years old.
Dimensions: Unknown
Medium: Painting – oil on canvas
Entered by: Member Irene on 17 February 2013.
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 10 July 2015.

James M. Billmyer horse killed in Battle Bulls Run July 21, 1861. Valued 80.00. fold3.com 6 September 2011 Web. 1 December 2015.

County map of Virginia, and North Carolina.
“Entered according to act of Congress in the year 1860 by S. Augustus Mitchell, Jr. … for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.” Map no. 23 from: Mitchell’s new general atlas. Philadelphia : S. Augustus Mitchell, Jr., 1860. Prime meridian: Greenwich and Washington. Relief shown by hachures. This item is in the Map Collection of the Library of Virginia. Contributor: Mitchell, S. Augustus (Samuel Augustus); Original Format: Maps; Date: 1860; The Library of Congress: American Memory. “Maps Collection.” 27 Oct. 2009 Web. 10 Sept. 2010.

Volume XI – in Three Parts. 1884. (Vol. 11, Chap. 23)
Chapter XXIII – The Peninsular Campaign, Virginia. Mar 17-Sep. 2, 1862.
Part II — Reports, Jun 25-Sept 2.
Report Captain James M. Robertson, Batteries B and L, Second U.S. Artillery on Slatersville, May 9, 1862 (relevant excerpt):
. . . May 7, 1862, left camp near Williamsburg and followed the retreating enemy toward Richmond. The roads were very heavy, and in many places impassable for artillery. Several times during the day I was compelled to dismount my cannoneers, build causeways, and cut new roads through the woods. The roads on the 8th were much improved, and we met with no serious obstructions till about 1 p.m. on the 9th, when the enemy opened fire upon us from a concealed battery in our front. Lieutenant Wilson’s (the leading) section was at once put in position on the road, and Lieutenant Vincents (the center) section placed in position on the right. These two sections at once opened fire, judging the direction and distance by the enemy’s shot. Lieutenant Woodruff’s (the rear) section was now thrown about 200 yards to the left of the road, where the smoke could be seen rising from the enemy’s guns, and opened fire. Firing from the enemy soon ceased, and the battery advanced to Slatersville, near where the enemy’s guns stood. Several of our shell struck near the rebel guns, one passing entirely through a house and another killing a cavalry horse. Thirty-four shells were fired by my battery during the skirmish, fully one-third of them failing to explode. – p. 247. Official Record, Cornell Digital Library. cornell.edu 28 August 2004 Web. 10 July 2011.

Von Borcke, Heros. (1867). “Memoirs of the Confederate war for independence.” Philadelphia. PA: J. B. Lippincott & Co. Print.

Von Borcke, Heros. (1867). “Memoirs of the Confederate war for independence.” Internet Archives archive.org 9 August 2002 Web. 20 April 2014.
pp. 18-21.

Von Borcke wrote:
The Government stables were full of good horses, and I had no difficulty in finding an excellent chestnut mare, which afterwards carried me nobly on many a hard ride. At the earliest dawn of morning, on the 30th, an orderly reported to me with the mare in front of my hotel, and I jumped into the saddle, well equipped from head to foot, full of strength and buoyant in spirits, to ride forward to the field.

We trotted out of the city, and across the wooded plain through which runs the Brook turnpike, passing the extensive fortifications and the long lines of the Confederate army. . . . The scrutiny called forth my admiration. The men were all Virginians, whose easy and graceful seat betrayed the constant habit of horseback exercise, and they were mounted mostly on blooded animals, some of which the most ambitious Guardsman or the most particular ” swell ” in London would have been glad to show off in Hyde Park. Looking back across three eventful years to that morning’s march, I realize how little it was in my thought that my lot should be knit so closely with that of these brave fellows in fatigue and in fight, and that I should have to mourn the loss of, alas! so many who afterwards fell around me, in battle.

Report of Brig. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, Commanding Cavalry Brigade In Bivouac, May 10, 1862. pp. 570-574. Jas T. Shepherd 2nd Lt. Stuart Horse Artillery. Cornell Digital Library 28 August 2004 Web. 10 July 2011.

Jeb Stuart’s Wild Ride
By Ben Cleary June 13, 2012 12:30 pm nytimes 22 September 1996 Web. 20 January 2016.

[Private Archibald Magill Smith of Co. F, 1st Virginia Cavalry Regiment, and Co. D, 6th Virginia Cavalry Regiment, in uniform] (LOC) – Library of Congress. [between 1861 and 1865]. 1 photograph : quarter-plate ambrotype, hand-colored ; 9.5 x 11.5 cm (case). Purchased from: The Virginia Confederate, Waldorf, Maryland, 2013. Forms part of: Liljenquist Family Collection of Civil War Photographs (Library of Congress). The Library of Congress: American Memory. “Maps Collection.” 27 Oct. 2009 Web. 10 Sept. 2010.
Hackworth.

1st VA cavalry jacket, an early war jacket.

1st Regiment, Virginia Cavalry
Overview:
1st Cavalry Regiment completed its organization at Winchester, Virginia, in July, 1861. Unlike most regiments, the 1st contained twelve companies. The men were from the counties of Frederick, Berkeley, Rockbridge, Clarke, Washington, Augusta, Jefferson, Amelia, Loudoun, Rockingham, and Gloucester.

After taking part in the Battle of First Manassas, the unit was brigaded under Generals J.E.B. Stuart, F. Lee, Wickham, and Munford. It participated in more than 200 engagements of various types including the Seven Days’ Battles and Stuart’s ride around McClellan. The regiment was active in the conflicts at Gainesville, Second Manassas, Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, Kelly’s Ford, Chancellorsville, Brandy Station, Gettysburg, Bristoe Station, The Wilderness, Todd’s Tavern, Spotsylvania, Bethesda Church, and Cold Harbor. Later it was involved in Early’s operations in the Shenandoah Valley, the defense of Petersburg, and the Appomattox Campaign.

In April, 1862, The First Virginia Cavalry totaled 437 men, lost eight percent of the 310 engaged at Gettysburg, and had 318 fit for duty in September, 1864. The cavalry cut through the Federal lines at Appomattox and later disbanded. Only 1 man from this unit were present at the surrender. The field officers were Colonels R. Welby Carter, James H. Drake, William E. Jones, Fitzhugh Lee, William A. Morgan, and James E.B. Stuart; Lieutenant Colonels L. Tiernan Brien and Charles R. Irving; and Major Robert Swan. – – Civil War Soldier Database nps.gov April 1997 Web. 10 May 2013.

Modern-day map of route of Stuart’s ride around McClellan’s army.

Part of the map of the Military Department of Southeastern Virginia and Fort Monroe showing the approaches to Richmond and Petersburg
Creator Bureau of Topographical Engineers ; Abbot, H.L., Capt.
Publication Info Washington : Government Printing Office
Publication Date: 1891. baylor.edu 9 May 1997 Web. 25 May 2013.

June 13-15, 1862 Stuart – Ride around McClellan
Title Map to accompany the report of Brig. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, C.S. Army Commanding Pamunkey expedition to the enemy’s rear June 13, 14 and 15, 1862. Washington: Government Printing Office
Date: 1862/06/15
Publication Date: 1891. baylor.edu 9 May 1997 Web. 25 May 2013.

Map One hundred and fifty miles around Richmond
Contributor Names: Magnus, Charles.
Created / Published: New York : C. Magnus, [ca. 1863?]
The Library of Congress: American Memory. “Maps Collection.” 27 Oct. 2009 Web. 10 Sept. 2010.

Map of the seat of war around Richmond
Contributor Names: Butlers, B. F.; Gensoul, A. (Adrien); Pacific Map Depot.
The Library of Congress: American Memory. “Maps Collection.” 27 Oct. 2009 Web. 10 Sept. 2010.

The Official Record of the War of the Rebellion; Series I, Volume XI (11) in three parts; Part I. Reports. Chapter XXIII (23). Report No. 21 “Report of Brig. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, C. S. Army, commanding in Cavalry Brigade.” Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. Print. pp. 1036-1040.

The Official Record of the War of the Rebellion; Series I, Volume XI (11) in three parts; Part I. Reports. Chapter XXIII (23). Report No. 21 “Report of Brig. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, C. S. Army, commanding in Cavalry Brigade.” Cornell Digital Library cornell.edu 28 August 2004 Web. 10 July 2011.

Von Borcke, Heros from Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine, October, 1865. “Part II Memoirs of the Confederate War for Independence, by Heros Von Borcke, Chief of Staff to General J.E.B Stuart.” Vol. XCVIII. Edinburg, London, UK: William Blackwood & Sons. Print pp. 389-436.

Von Borcke, Heros from Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine, October, 1865. “Part II Memoirs of the Confederate War for Independence, by Heros Von Borcke, Chief of Staff to General J.E.B Stuart.” Google Books. 15 August 2006 Web. 18 April 2014. – p. 402.

Report of General Robert E. Lee, C.S. Army, commanding Army of Northern Virginia; Report of Brig. Gen. Wade Hampton, C.S. Army, commanding Cavalry Brigade. p. 12. Cornell Digital Library cornell.edu. 28 August 2004 Web. 10 July 2011.

wikipedia.org July 2001 Web. 10 May 2013:
Newton D. Baker Jr.
Battle of Meadow Bridge
Siege of Yorktown
Historic_Fairfax_County_Courthouse

REFERENCES: Family ties

George R. Lucas
Birth 4 AUG 1840 • Jefferson County, Virginia, USA
Death 13 JAN 1865 • Shepherdstown, Jefferson, West Virginia, USA.

1850 Census
Name George Lucas
Age 10
Birth Year abt 1840
Birthplace Virginia
Home in 1850 Shepherdstown, Jefferson, Virginia
Gender Male
Family Number 367
Household Members
Name Age
Louis Lucas 40
Ellen Lucas 32
George Lucas 10
Edward Lucas 8
Lewis Lucas 6
Franklin Lucas 2
Frances London 15
Catharine Reynders 18
ancestry.com 28 October 1996 Web. 4 September 2012.

George R. Lucas’ Service Record
fold3.com 16 September 2011 Web. 1 December 2015.

George R. Lucas’s father, Lewis Lucas was a boatmen with $2000 in real estate in 1850 and is shown on the Census tables as next to Prudence Conly hotel on Princess Street. – fold3.com 16 September 2011 Web. 1 December 2015.

Census – US Federal 1860
… Virginia › Jefferson › Shepherdstown › Page 81
Lucas, Lewis (b. ~1808) lived in Daniel Entler’s hotel as a constable of town alone. fold3.com 16 September 2011 Web. 1 December 2015.

Lewis Lucas
Birth 31 MAR 1806 • Virginia
Death 15 JUL 1878 • Jefferson, West Virginia, USA. ancestry.com 28 October 1996 Web. 4 September 2012.

Harpers Ferry Constitutionalist – June 5th, 1839.
Marriage. Capt. Lewis Lucas to Ellen Reynolds

Alexander Mason Evans M.D.
Birth 30 NOV 1842 • Hedgesville, West Virginia, USA
Death 16 OCT 1899 • Jefferson County, West Virginia, USA.

Name Mason Evans
Age 7
Birth Year abt 1843
Birthplace Virginia
Home in 1850 District 9, Berkeley, Virginia
Gender Male
Family Number 1464
Household Members
Name Age
Eveline Evans 38
Mason Evans 7
ancestry.com 28 October 1996 Web. 4 September 2012.

Harriot Lowndes SCOLLAY
1843–1911
Birth 11 MAY 1843 • Jefferson County, West Virginia, USA
Death 28 FEB 1911 • Middleway, Jefferson County, West Virginia, USA

Death of Father Samuel SCOLLAY(1781–1857)
11 Jan 1857 • Smithfield, Jefferson, Virginia. ancestry.com 28 October 1996 Web. 4 September 2012.

1860 Census Middleway – p. 56.
Scollay, Sarah P (b. ~1802)
Scollay, Harriet L (b. ~1843)
Scollay, Mary N (b. ~1845)
fold3.com 16 September 2011 Web. 1 December 2015.

Harriot Scollay Evans
Added by: Keith McDonald
Cemetery Photo – findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. 1 December 2015.

Image Credits – Newton Baker’s Remarkable Son:

Street Scene – Young men, Shepherdstown, 1866 – courtesy the Historic Shepherdstown Museum.

President_Woodrow_Wilson_portrait_December_2_1912
wikipedia.org 17 July 2001 Web. 12 July 2015.

Newton_Baker,_Bain_bw_photo_portrait
wikipedia.org 17 July 2001 Web. 12 July 2015.

young Newton D. Baker Jr.
Cramer, C. H. (1961). “Newton D. Baker, a biography.” Cleveland, OH: World Pub. Co. Print.

Cramer, C. H. (1961). “Newton D. Baker, a biography.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011.

Veterans Medical Center, Martinsburg, WV. 2015.

Confederate Service Records – Newton D. Baker, p. 22.