Andrew Leopold’s Forlorn Hope (2) – by Jim Surkamp With Author Steve French

5977 words

https://web.archive.org/web/20190710015230/https://civilwarscholars.com/2014/06/andrew-leopolds-forlorn-hope-2-by-jim-surkamp-with-author-steve-french/

About a young man from Sharpsburg and Shepherdstown who war changed into an avenging angel of death but who, at the foot of the gallows, found God.

Andrew Leopold Warmaker To Peacemaker With Steve French, Author “Rebel Chronicles,” contact: info-sfrench52@yahoo.com (Image of Andrew Leopold courtesy Horace Mewborn, Jr. co-author of the “43rd Battalion Virginia Cavalry: Mosby’s Command” for the H.E. Howard Virginia Regimental Series for Blue and Gray Magazine).

Flickr Set – 33 images Click Here.

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Flickr Set: Click Here. 28 Images

Related Links:

VIDEO: Andrew Leopold: From Bull To Run To God Pt. 2 by Jim Surkamp. Click Here. TRT: 13:49.

VIDEO: Andrew Leopold: From Bull To Run To God Pt. 3 by Jim Surkamp. Click Here. TRT: 11:41.

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Redmond Burke by El Merlo at findagrave.com
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Redmond Burke, Andrew Leopold, and Their Gang Descend on The River Towns:

Leopold is ordered by General Stuart to join Redmond Burke on “detached service” and, with a small team, stays behind in the Potomac River area from Berryville to Shepherdstown while the main Confederate Army moves further south. His job is to find conscripts, carry mail between homes and soldiers, steal horses and watch the movements of the Federal army. Leopold in carrying mail, is also enabled to determine the names of, and whereabouts of able-bodied men not enlisted in his Confederate army, such as Jacob Hudson and Charles Entler.

The Wayward Letter: (NOTE: correction in the montage, “D. S. Rentch” should be “D.L. Rentch”-JS)

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(One letter to be delivered that would cause much controversy was a “thank you” note to widow Lily Parran Lee in Shepherdstown. Gen. Stuart had been trying to order a new uniform while at The Bower. He had visited Mrs. Lee, a dear and trusted friend in Shepherdstown. Her husband, William Fitzhugh Lee, died at First Manassas/Bull Run wearing silver spurs Stuart had given him. It seems, according to the letter, that Daniel Rentch, a merchant in Shepherdstown, was commissioned and – did indeed have made – the famed cape that J.E.B. Stuart would wear in the war. It was delivered. In the letter Stuart tells Mrs. Lee to thank Mr. Rentch for the cape. Burke was carrying a letter between Stuart and Mrs. Lee, maybe this one).

Wednesday – November 19, 1862, Dam No. 4 on the Potomac River – Leopold’s First Victim:

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Fearing conscription, Unionist residents hastily relocated across the Potomac into the safety of Maryland. The large family of one Jim Dunn was making such a move across the river near the guard lock of Dam No. 4, wth some pickets from the 12th Pennsylvania Cavalry watching from the Maryland side. Burke’s and Leopold’s gang suddenly appeared and with gunfire broke up the moving, leaving most of Dunn’s family stuck still on the Virginia side. Dunn was stuck on the Maryland side. Dunn asked three local men – Theodore “Mort” Cookus, a farmer with land on the Virginia side, Charles Ridenour and William Colbert – ambling along on the towpath – to help get his family and cargo across the river. After over an hour, the four men re-crossed the Potomac to the Virginia side. Burke and Leopold and others attacked again:

Author French Recounts Leopold’s Firing On “Mort” Cookus:

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Suddenly Burke, Leopold, Hipsley and O’Brien appeared. Leopold shouted to Ridenour, “Halt you Yankee Son-of-a bitch!”. . . He (Ridenour) remembered Cookus crying out, “For God’s sake men, don’t shoot me!” Burke replied, “Surrender or we will surely kill you.” Then almost simultaneously, the captain and Leopold each fired once into the skiff. Cookus, now hit on the left side, jumped into the river. “After Cookus jumped out,” Ridenour later testified, “he swam twelve or fifteen feet and received three more shots. Every time the guns crack, he dodged his head under water. Capt. Burke says don’t kill him. Laypole says I will kill the son of a bitch.” And he did. Union Gen. George Gordon wrote: . . . a brave and plucky fellow named Cookus . . . plunged into the river and struck out vigorously for the Maryland shore. Two-thirds of the way across he was hit by a bullet and sank dead to the bottom of the river. – Gordon, p. 14.
– See more . . .

Cookus_Stone

Author Steve French:

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They are taken to Fort McHenry. The soldiers who are captured – they’re released very soon afterwards, paroled. And by January the first, 1863, they’re all back with Stuart at his camp near Fredericksburg, Virginia. That winter, as soon as he is exchanged and the others are exchanged, they’re back in the service – dispatched service – operating once again in the Shepherdstown/Berryville area, carrying mail back and forth between the citizens and armies, scouting and so on.

March 6, 1863 – Leopold – the Deserter’s Avenger in Shepherdstown:

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Author Steve French:
On the night of March the 6th, he comes into Shepherdstown with John O’Brien, and he’s hunting for a man named Jacob Hudson. He finds Hudson caring for his uncle at his house at Shepherdstown. And he knocks on the door with O’Brien. Evidently he doesn’t know Hudson, but Hudson has been talking about him around town. When Hudson opens the door, Leopold asks for Hudson – “Is Hudson in the house?” – Hudson immediately becomes scared and he runs toward the back door and he is shot down. George Brantner, who was a former Confederate soldier, he’s seated right in that room, cannot tell whether it was Leopold or O’Brien who shot the young man, but he sure identifies him later on, because Leopold met Brantner at the door and (Leopold) told him he had mail for him. Leopold will come down the street that night. He will tell one resident (Federal postmaster Elias Baker on German Street-JS) here in the town that he did shoot a man up the street and then they will leave the mail here and head back for camp.

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March 15-16, 1863 – Leopold Avenges Again at the Bridgeport, MD Ferry:
Author French:

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Ten days later, on the night of March 15th & 16th, Leopold and a group of men go to Sharpsburg, Maryland, and, in Sharpsburg that night they steal six horses from an oyster wagon, parked outside of a local tavern. After midnight on the 16th, they return to try to get across the river. They go to Bridgeport where the ferry is, directly behind me, and they knock on the door. They say they have a dispatch to take to Harper’s Ferry to (Federal) General Stevenson. The young man, Charles Entler and his friend Samuel Jones, that are in the office that night, sleeping in the office, refuse to answer the door. Finally, Leopold starts tearing the shutters off the windows and Charles decides to come out. Samuel Jones would later say he knew it was Leopold at the door, but he was too scared, too frightened to say a word. As Charles comes out the door, his brother, Luther, who is in the ferry house himself, walks outside; and, as soon as he gets outside, he hears a man shout at his brother:

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“By God, I’m Captain Leopold and I’ve been looking for you a long time.” Immediately the gunshot goes off, Luther turns, makes haste into his house to get his revolver. His brother, Charles, nineteen-years-old, runs off and dies in the road,

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going up towards Ferry Hill. Leopold and his men escape. Now, they’re wanted men. The Middletown Valley Register over in Maryland, a few days later, comes out with a long article about Leopold and his band and at the end of it says: “Leopold deserves a hempen collar.” So he’s a wanted man, not only by the authorities in Maryland, but by Union soldiers, especially Major General Robert Milroy, the famous “Grey Eagle,” who was headquartered at that time in Winchester.

April 21-22, 1863 south of Millwood, Va.- Leopold and his team are recaptured:

French continues:
Towards the end of April around April 21st, Union forces are sent out of Berryville and they go to Castleman’s Ferry. That night, they will capture Leopold, and, once again, some of the Burkes – Hipsley and some other men when they surround the house, and they threaten to burn it down, if the Confederates don’t come out.

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Author French continues:
They’re taken to Winchester and put in the Clarke County jail. While in that jail, one of Milroy’s citizen spies named Michael Graham from Woodstock, Virginia, talks to Leopold and find out what he wants. Leopold wants to either join the Union Army or be allowed to get out of jail and go to Ohio. In return he will tell Milroy who the scouts and spies are in the lower Shenandoah Valley. He will meet with Milroy, and Milroy will listen to all this, but Leopold plays his hand too fast, and tells Milroy what he needs to know beforehand.

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Leopold (Laypole, Leopole) is brought before Federal Major General Robert Milroy at Winchester, VA and begins bargaining:

Major-General SCHENCK, WINCHESTER, VA., April 25, 1863. Baltimore, Md.: Rebel [Andrew T.] Leopole, the last two days in irons, hoping for leniency, makes this statement:

Residence, Sharpsburg, Md. Enlisted in Confederate service two years ago, as ensign First Regiment Virginia (rebel) Cavalry, and remained in that regiment until Stuart’s appointment as brigadier, about a month after the first battle of Manassas, when I became ensign of his brigade, which I continued to be until last May, when I was transferred to the Virginia Cavalry as third lieutenant. I continued in that regiment until after the battle of Sharpsburg, in September last, when I was promoted to first lieutenant of Company D, same regiment, in which regiment I served until November 24 last, when I was captured at Shepherdstown. I remained a prisoner until January 6 last, when I was exchanged, and reported, as ordered, to General Stuart, at his headquarters, where I remained until January 13, acting as his couriers. On January 14, as ordered by him, I left for Castlemans Ferry, in command of 70 men, where I remained until last Tuesday, when, with 6 of my men, I was captured. My business there was to observe the movements of Federal forces, . . .

NOTE – At this point Leopold appears to be divulging intelligence on Confederate positions to Milroy in hope of leniency – JS:
and report to General Fitzhugh Lee, who is now between Markham Station and Manassas Gap Railroad and the Shenandoah River, about 2 miles east of the Blue Ridge, with the First, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, and Tenth Virginia Cavalry and two batteries. Regiments average about 350 men each. The locality of these troops is about 16 miles from Castlemans Ferry and 10 miles from Berrys Ferry. General Trimble, with three infantry brigades, is near Orleans, in Fauquier County. Lee’s and Trimble’s forces moved at the same time from Culpeper Court-House to their present position, where they arrived about two days before my capture. There are two other brigades one from Louisiana and the other from Virginia encamped between Sperryville and Little Washington. They belong to Trimble’s division. With each brigade is a battery, and a battalion of artillery besides, attached to the division. The brigades, I think, will average 1,900 men each. The two brigades near Sperryville came that far with the other brigades, and halted there. I saw Geueral Stuart on the 17th of this month between Salem and Jefferson, and learned from him that A. P. Hill, with a portion of his command, had left for the Valley by way of Hanover Junction, Charlottesville, and Staunton. I saw Hill’s baggage at Culpeper, and learned from the master of transportation that it was en route from Staunton. I heard General Stuart say that the Federal forces at Winchester would be captured as soon as the Shenandoah River became passable. I also learned from his general order book that Jones had been ordered to march to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and destroy certain trestle-work on that road. I am tired of fighting, and wish to take the oath of allegiance and retire into Ohio. I have always stood high with General Stuart, enjoyed his confidence, and, when at his headquarters, ate at his table.

Milroy concludes in this report:
The above statement is strongly corroborated by other circumstances and information. I recommend that Heintzelman be directed to ascertain the truth of the above statement, so far as it refers to Fitzhugh Lees and Trimbles forces and their locality. R. H. MILROY, Major-General. – Letter to Maj. General Robert C. Schenck from Maj. General R. H. Milroy. pp. 252-253.

Author French recaps:
They’re taken to Winchester and put in the Clarke County jail. While in that jail, one of Milroy’s citizen spies named Michael Graham from Woodstock, Virginia, talks to Leopold and finds out what he wants. Leopold wants to either join the Union Army or be allowed to get out of jail and go to Ohio. In return he will tell Milroy who the scouts and spies are in the lower Shenandoah Valley. He will meet with Milroy, and Milroy will listen to all this, but Leopold plays his hand too fast, and tells Milroy what he needs to know beforehand. So Milroy won’t agree to give him his freedom or allow him to switch sides and join the Union Army, but he will pack him to the prison at Fort McHenry.

Fort McHenry, MD – Leopold is not trusted, is tried after much delay and hanged:

French continues:

So Milroy won’t agree to give him his freedom or allow him to switch sides and join the Union Army, but he will pack him to the prison at Fort McHenry.

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Captain Joel Baker, the guard, comments that most of the prisoners of the group – there’s about eight or nine in the guard room – most of the prisoners are cultured gentlemen, but not Leopold. Baker would write that Leopold is not trusted by the other prisoners. They think he would sell them out for just a few cents.

Leopold is held in prison until mid-December, 1863, when he is put on trial by a military tribunal. He’s charged with a number of crimes, of being a guerrilla, murderer, violating an act of war, and being a spy. The tribunal is led by Col. W. W. Bates of the 8th New York heavy artillery. The Judge Advocate is Lieutenant Roderick Baldwin. Leopold will represent himself, but he will have the help of a local, Baltimore attorney, Milton Whitney Esq. who was well-known in Baltimore for many years.

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Author French continues:
The trial opens up. A lot of local residents come from here to Fort McHenry to testify, including Daniel Rentch, Luther Entler, Samuel Jones, other men from Shepherdstown and also General Milroy will appear. The trial will go – on and off – for probably three, almost four, weeks. They break for Christmas a while; they break for different witnesses to arrive. Finally, two charges are dropped, but he is still charged with being a guerrilla and murderer, both capital offences.

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His defense rests on that he wasn’t a guerilla, that he was a Confederate soldier, especially dispatched into this area by J.E.B. Stuart. Also, he refused to admit that he had murdered Charles Entler. He said he didn’t have anything more to do with the murder of that young boy than any of the judges on the tribunal; and, he said the shooting of Cookus was just part of a local skirmish. So he denied being a guerrilla; he denied being a murderer.

In his summation, Lt. Baldwin, the Judge Advocate, would say: we owe something to the people of the border who have been hounded from their home, who have been murdered at their doorstep. We need to protect them.

The verdict comes back. He is convicted of murder: the murder of Entler, the murder of Cookus – and he is convicted of being a guerilla. Afterwards, the verdict and the results of the trial – goes up through the chain of command. Finally, they reach that April, Judge Advocate Joseph Holt. Holt reviews all capital cases for Abraham Lincoln. In a four-page review, Holt will say this man has been convicted of these crimes and he deserves the death penalty. In late April, 1864, Abraham Lincoln will sign off on that.

French continues:
At that time, Leopold is taken from the guard room, shackled. He’s put in a cell, still in the inner fort, but not with the rest of the men on death row. During that month, there is a big escape from the guard room at Fort McHenry. William Boyd Compton leads the rest of the men in the escape and they all eventually get back to the Confederate lines.

On the evening of April the 22nd, Leopold will be informed by his chaplain, Doctor Reese, that his execution will be the next morning. He will meet with Reese that evening for prayer and communion. During the winter, Leopold would become a committed Christian. He studied the Bible frequently. He had another small book that he would study. They had prayer. Reese left for a while.

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About, five-thirty (AM), he would return. Once again, they would talk of the afterlife. Then he (Leopold) would go out under guard, get on the wagon atop his coffin, and he would ride to the execution site right outside the walls.

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Captain Robert Baylor of Charlestown was also a prisoner at Fort McHenry at the time. He was out on the grounds of the fort and as he passed Baylor, Leopold would wave to Baylor and said: “Tell the boys I remain true to the cause.” As they neared the execution site, he could see the soldiers of the fort lined up on three sides of the gallows. The gallows there could have four executions at the time.

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(Federal) Major General Lew Wallace was there, later on the author of “Ben Hur.” He was the commander-in-chief of the Eighth Corps Middle Department, and Brig. General W. W. Morris, the sixty-six year old commander of Fort McHenry was also there.

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He was helped off the wagon. The reporter for “The Baltimore American” said that “Leopold went up the steps firm and undaunted.” Once atop the scaffold, he was asked for any last words and Leopold pointed to Gen. Morris and said: “Old man, you’re the reason I’m here. But I’ll forgive and I’ll meet you in Heaven.” After that, he stepped back. The hood was put on his neck by Private Elijah Brown, and then the rope put around his neck.

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Just afterwards, Morris gave the signal, and then – Leopold dropped into eternity. He would hang there for about twenty minutes before the soldiers took him down. There were friends there in Baltimore, some of Leopold’s friends. They brought him back to Sharpsburg, where he was prepared for burial. A few days later, he was going to be brought to Shepherdstown to bury in the Soldier’s Cemetery. His plot will be right beside Redmond Burke, his old Captain. But he’s going to be brought across here by the undertaker, (with) of course his mother and sisters are with that group.

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They’re going to ride up this hill. At the Entler Hotel, there is a group of Unionists shouting at the undertaker to go back. Beforehand these same people had (gone) to the cemetery and warned the over four hundred mourners there to leave, but they ignored them. They go to the cemetery – once again – there’s a big crowd there. Lots of girls crying and so on. He is buried.

French continues:
Although maybe a year before, Leopold had been a hated person by most Confederates in this area because they heard that he was going to switch sides. By this time, he totally redeemed himself. His conversion to Christianity, his bravery on the scaffold had turned him into a local hero. Later on, that same day, the Unionists would strike. They would come back and would steal the undertaker’s hearse and his horses and ride away with them. Whether he was really guilty of every crime that he was accused is questionable. He wasn’t a guerilla. He was a member of the regular Confederate Cavalry and there’s some question, on the murder of Entler that it might have O’Brien did the shooting.

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Mary Louise Entler who lived her life from rebel wild cat to 92-year old wise woman in Shepherdstown at the time she died there March 27, 1932 who carried mail with Leopold and tried to save him, wrote: “His fault was recklessness. He did not stop to consider what might be his fate if caught in the Union lines, and he had run the gauntlet so often without being caught that he became heedless of danger.”

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References:

French, Steve. (2012). “Rebel Chronicles: Raiders, Scouts and Train Robbers of the Upper Potomac.” New Horizons Publishing Company. Print. info-sfrench52@yahoo.com

Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.” Richmond, VA: B. F. Johnson Publishing. Print.

Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011. pp. 131-134.

Beach, William H. (1902). “The First New York (Lincoln) Cavalry From April 19, 1861 to July 7, 1865.” New York, NY: The New York Cavalry Association. Print.

Beach, William H. (1902). “The First New York (Lincoln) Cavalry From April 19, 1861 to July 7, 1865.”
Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011.

On the afternoon of April 21, a scouting party went out with Captain Bailey in command. There were forty men detailed from several companies. Lieutenant Wyckoff was in the lead. The route was toward Millwood ferry; then around toward the right; then the party followed the narrow roads until it became dark and they were near to the river again. Here was a brief halt and the men were told to eat anything they had. As they had not expected to be out long and had not brought anything with them, this part of the service was omitted. After a short rest they moved on up the river road, being told to make as little noise as possible. A short ride and another halt. Wyckoff came to the front and asked for a volunteer to cross the river with him in a small row boat. Corporal Anthony Fiala of Company E responded. The night was very dark. The two went down to the boat. The lieutenant told Fiala to go into the front of the boat and lie down with his carbine ready to fire at a moment’s notice, he himself taking the oars. Nearing the opposite side, Fiala was told to catch hold of a limb of a tree that hung over the water. Wyckoff asked in a low voice: ”Are you there, Sam?” And Sam answered : “Yes, master, I’m here. Everything is all right, and I want to see you.” A few minutes’ low talk and the boat recrossed the river. The men mounted their horses, and dividing into two parties, forded the river and crossed the Blue Ridge. Precaution had been taken to avoid any surprise in case the colored man proved unreliable, or his scheme was discovered by the enemy. Artillery and infantry were to protect the crossing. The two parties, making a detour, surrounded the house to which they had been directed by the colored man. They wrapped at the door. There was some commotion within. The inmates were directed to open the door, and warned that the house would be burned if any shots were fired. The notorious Captain Leopold and seven of his partisan rangers who were staying there for the night, were taken captives. – pp. 218-219.

References to Samuel Barnhart and Elias Baker
Kenamond, A. D. “Prominent Men of Shepherdstown 1862-1962.” A Jefferson County Historical Society Publication. 1963.

Title: The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. ; Series 1 – Volume 25 (Part II); Author: United States. War Dept., John Sheldon Moody, Calvin Duvall Cowles, Frederick Caryton Ainsworth, Robert N. Scott, Henry Martyn Lazelle, George Breckenridge Davis, Leslie J. Perry, Joseph William Kirkley.

Major-General SCHENCK, WINCHESTER, VA., April 25, 1863. Baltimore, Md.: Rebel [Andrew T.] Leopole, the last two days in irons, hoping for leniency, makes this statement:

Residence, Sharpsburg, Md. Enlisted in Confederate service two years ago, as ensign First Regiment Virginia (rebel) Cavalry, and remained in that regiment until Stuart’s appointment as brigadier, about a month after the first battle of Manassas, when I became ensign of his brigade, which I continued to be until last May, when I was transferred to the Virginia Cavalry as third lieutenant. I continued in that regiment until after the battle of Sharpsburg, in September last, when I was promoted to first lieutenant of Company D, same regiment, in which regiment I served until November 24 last, when I was captured at Shepherdstown. I remained a prisoner until January 6 last, when I was exchanged, and reported, as ordered, to General Stuart, at his headquarters, where I remained until January 13, acting as his couriers. On January 14, as ordered by him, I left for Castlemans Ferry, in command of 70 men, where I remained until last Tuesday, when, with 6 of my men, I was captured. My business there was to observe the movements of Federal forces, . . .

NOTE: At this point Leopold appears to be divulging intelligence on Confederate positions to Milroy in hope of leniency – JS:
and report to General Fitzhugh Lee, who is now between Markham Station and Manassas Gap Railroad and the Shenandoah River, about 2 miles east of the Blue Ridge, with the First, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, and Tenth Virginia Cavalry and two batteries. Regiments average about 350 men each. The locality of these troops is about 16 miles from Castlemans Ferry and 10 miles from Berrys Ferry. General Trimble, with three infantry brigades, is near Orleans, in Fauquier County. Lee’s and Trimble’s forces moved at the same time from Culpeper Court-House to their present position, where they arrived about two days before my capture. There are two other brigades one from Louisiana and the other from Virginia encamped between Sperryville and Little Washington. They belong to Trimble’s division. With each brigade is a battery, and a battalion of artillery besides, attached to the division. The brigades, I think, will average 1,900 men each. The two brigades near Sperryville came that far with the other brigades, and halted there. I saw Geueral Stuart on the 17th of this month between Salem and Jefferson, and learned from him that A. P. Hill, with a portion of his command, had left for the Valley by way of Hanover Junction, Charlottesville, and Staunton. I saw Hill’s baggage at Culpeper, and learned from the master of transportation that it was en route from Staunton. I heard General Stuart say that the Federal forces at Winchester would be captured as soon as the Shenandoah River became passable. I also learned from his general order book that Jones had been ordered to march to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and destroy certain trestle-work on that road. I am tired of fighting, and wish to take the oath of allegiance and retire into Ohio. I have always stood high with General Stuart, enjoyed his confidence, and, when at his headquarters, ate at his table.

Milroy concludes in this report:
The above statement is strongly corroborated by other circumstances and information. I recommend that Heintzelman be directed to ascertain the truth of the above statement, so far as it refers to Fitzhugh Lees and Trimbles forces and their locality. H. H. MILROY, Major-General. – Letter to Maj. General Robert C. Schenck from Maj. General R. H. Milroy
ebooks.library.cornell.edu 19 July 2011 Web. 20 June 2014. pp. 252-253.

List_of_weapons_in_the_American_Civil_War
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

Image Credits:

Jacob Hudson born 1842 – apprentice carpenter in Walters (carpenter) household in Hainesville
NARA M653. Eighth Census of the United States, 1860 population schedules.
Roll: 1335
State: Virginia
County: Berkeley
Minor Civil Division: [Blank]
Page: 60.
footnote.com(fold3.com) 21 October 2010 Web. 20 May 2014.

Samuel Hudson (carpenter) In SamuelBarnhat’s residence, next to Anne Warner, (age 16) house on Princess Street, north, and Jacob Crow house, Charles Lambert a butcher
NARA M653. Eighth Census of the United States, 1860 population schedules.
Roll: 1355
State: Virginia
County: Jefferson
Minor Civil Division: Shepherdstown
Page: 100.
footnote.com(fold3.com) 21 October 2010 Web. 20 May 2014.

[Map of the northern part of Virginia and West Virginia, between the Blue Ridge and the Alleghany Front, south of the Potomac River and north of New Market]. by Jedediah Hotchkiss.
memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.
tiff size map.

Foraging Party
Harpers Weekly April 1, 1865
sonofthesouth.net start date unavailable Web. 20 June 2014.

Bummers (Foragers) by Edwin Forbes – The Library of Congress [between 1862 and 1864] | 1 drawing. | Forbes, Edwin, 1839-1895 DRWG/US – Forbes, no. 257 (A size) [P&P] | LC-DIG-ppmsca-21787 (digital file from original item) –
memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.
See more . . .

Shepherdstown, Va. 1862
This photograph was taken looking across the Potomac River at Shepherdstown, West Virginia from Ferry Hill plantation on the Maryland side. At various times before and after the Battle of Antietam both Confederate and Union troops had camped at Ferry Hill, which is situated three miles southwest of the town of Sharpsburg, Maryland.

At the bottom of the hill is a group of buildings known as Bridgeport and Lock 38 of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. Across the river (background) is the town of Shepherdstown. Extending across the river are the abutments of the bridge that once connected the two states. Burned in 1861, the bridge was not replaced for 10 years, during which time once again a ferry served the crossing. The gentleman standing on the hillside (foreground) is not identified, but may be the Reverend Robert Douglas, owner of Ferry Hill plantation at the time of the Civil War.

Ferry Hill was built by John Blackford c. 1813 and was a working farm until the 20th century. The large white house was used as a hotel, while down at the lock there was a feed store that was later converted into a bath house before it was destroyed in the 1936 flood. ID: wcco006; Creator: Bachrach, David
Original at the Library of Congress.
Notes: The image and description were provided by Maryland Digital Cultural Heritage
whilbr.org 4 October 2003 Web. 20 June 2014.

Jedediah Hotchkiss map [Northwest, or no. 1 sheet of preliminary map of Antietam (Sharpsburg) battlefield].
memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

Title: [Sharpsburg, Md. Principal street]
Creator(s): Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882, photographer
Date Created/Published: 1862 September.
Medium: 1 negative : glass, stereograph, wet collodion ; 4 x 10 in.
Summary: Photograph from the main eastern theater of the war, Battle of Antietam, September-October 1862.
memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

Map of the battle-fields of Harper’s Ferry and Sharpsburg
Title Map of the battle-fields of Harper’s Ferry and Sharpsburg
Creator Brown, S. Howell
Publication Info Washington : Government Printing Office
digitalcollections.baylor.edu 18 February 2012 Web. 20June 2014.

Sharpsburg Map – District No. 1 – 1877.
whilbr.org 4 October 2003 Web. 20 June 2014.

Milton Whitney
wiki.whitneygen.org 29 May 2007 Web. 20 June 2014.

Title: [Washington, D.C. Adjusting the rope for the execution of Wirz]
Creator(s): Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882, photographer
Date Created/Published: [1865 November 10]
memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

Robert_H._Milroy
Library of Congress description: “Gen. Milroy”
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

Two women (semblance of Mary Entler)
Crayon, Porte (Strother, D. H.). “The Mountains, Pt. V.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, Volume 45, Issue: 268, September 1872, pp. 502-516. Print.

Crayon, Porte. (September 1872). “The Mountains, Pt. V.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014. – See more . . .
p. 512.

Not used:

The ferry that operated between Shepherdstown and Bridgeport was first built and owned by Thomas Swearingen sometime before 1765. John Blackford married Thomas Swearingen’s daughter Sarah and purchased the ferry along with land around Bridgeport from the Swearingen family. The ferry was reinstated in the 1930s after the third toll bridge was destroyed by the 1936 flood and was in operation until the new James Rumsey Bridge was erected in 1939, which itself was replaced in 2004.

This photo appears to be from the time between the razing of the first toll bridge during the Civil War and the construction of the second toll bridge in 1871.
whilbr.org 4 October 2003 Web. 20 June 2014.

Not used:

Lt. Col. Willard W. Bates
8th Heavy Artillery – Civil War
dmna.ny.gov 30 January 2012 Web. 20 June 2014.

Not used:

Lock 38 Area
This photograph provides an excellent view of the downstream end of a bypass flume that carried water past the lock. To keep the current as minimal as possible, canals are built on a series of levels with locks serving to raise and lower boats where the canal level is changed. However, it is still necessary to maintain a steady supply of water to all parts of the canal and the bypass flumes serve this purpose. Typically located on the berm side (i.e. land vs. river side) of most locks, the flumes carried water past the lock, helping to maintain the water level even if one of the lock gates was closed. While some bypass flumes had sluice gates to facilitate the regulation of water flowing through the flumes, others had slots into which locktenders could place beams to completely or partially close them off.
whilbr.org 4 October 2003 Web. 20 June 2014.

Not used:

George W. Brantner 2nd Va. Infantry Co. B
NARA M324. Compiled service records of Confederate soldiers from Virginia units, labeled with each soldier’s name, rank, and unit, with links to revealing documents about each soldier. Roll: 0373; Military Unit: Second Infantry; Given Name: George W. Surname: Brantner; Age: 34; Year: 1861;
footnote.com(fold3.com) 21 October 2010 Web. 20 May 2014.

Not used:

Sharpsburg, Md. View with Episcopal church in distance
About This Item Obtaining Copies Access to Original
Title: [Sharpsburg, Md. View with Episcopal church in distance]
Creator(s): Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882, photographer
Date Created/Published: 1862 September.
memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

Not used:

Map of the state of Virginia containing the counties, principal towns, railroads, rivers, canals & all other internal improvements. Other Title: New map of Virginia, 1864
Contributor Names; West & Johnston; Created / Published
Richmond, Va. : West & Johnston, c1862, [1864]
memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

Reference Credits from the Leopold VIDEOs No. 2 & 3 not cited in image credits for this POST:

Goodhart, Briscoe. (1896).“History of the Independent Loudoun Virginia rangers. U.S. vol. cav. (scouts) 1862-65.” Washington, D.C.: Press of McGill & Wallace. Print.

Goodhart, Briscoe. (1896). “History of the Independent Loudoun Virginia rangers. U.S. vol. cav. (scouts) 1862-65.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011.

Stevenson, James H. (1879). “”Boots and saddles.” A history of the first volunteer cavalry of the war, known as the First New York (Lincoln) Cavalry, and also as the Sabre regiment. Its organization, campaigns and battles.” Harrisburg, PA: Patriot publishing company. Print.

Stevenson, James H. (1879). “”Boots and saddles.” A history of the first volunteer cavalry of the war, known as the First New York (Lincoln) Cavalry, and also as the Sabre regiment. Its organization, campaigns and battles.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011.
pp. 165-166.

p. 84. – April 22, Capt. Means, with twenty of the Rangers, accompanied by Lieut. Wykoff, ist New York Cavalry, and Lieut. Powell, with forty men of the 12th West Virginia Infantry, crossed the Shenandoah River at Snicker’s Ferry, and attacked a camp of Confederate cavalry, capturing Capt. Leopold and six men, and took them to Winchester.

p. 225. – Samuel C. Means mustered in at Harpers Ferry June 20, 1862, resigned on account of wounds.

Hotchkiss no. 43 – (1864) [Map of Loudoun County and part of Clarke County, Va., Jefferson County and part of Berkeley County, W. Va., and parts of Montgomery and Frederick counties, Md.]. memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

[Hawkins Zouaves; New York; General Dix; Colonel Hawkins; Herald]
Date: Thursday, May 7, 1863. Paper: Alexandria Gazette (Alexandria, VA) Page: 2.
This entire product and/or portions thereof are copyrighted by NewsBank and/or the American Antiquarian Society. 2004.
genealogybank.com. 11 October 2008 Web. 20 September 2014.

Date: Monday, December 1, 1862. Paper: Evening Star (Washington (DC), DC) Page: 2. genealogybank.com.
This entire product and/or portions thereof are copyrighted by NewsBank and/or the American Antiquarian Society. 2004.
genealogybank.com. 11 October 2008 Web. 20 September 2014.

Date: Thursday, May 26, 1864. Paper: Lowell Daily Citizen and News (Lowell, MA) Volume: XIV Issue: 2475 Page: 2
This entire product and/or portions thereof are copyrighted by NewsBank and/or the American Antiquarian Society. 2004.
genealogybank.com. 11 October 2008 Web. 20 September 2014.

Date: Saturday, May 28, 1864. Paper: New York Tribune (New York, NY) Volume: XXIV Issue: 7222 Page: 4
This entire product and/or portions thereof are copyrighted by NewsBank and/or the American Antiquarian Society. 2004.
genealogybank.com. 11 October 2008 Web. 20 September 2014.

Image Credits from the VIDEO not cited in image credits for this POST:

Brig. Gen.John Dunlap Stevenson
americancivilwar.com 21 January 1998 Web. 20 September 2014.

Strother, David Hunter; 1847 (W1995.030.387pg25a)
West Virginia Historical Art Collection
images.lib.wvu.edu 6 August 2004 Web. 20 September 2014.

Image Credits from Leopold VIDEO 3:

Judge_Joseph_Holt
Mathew Brady (1822–1896) Link back to Creator infobox template wikidata:Q187850
Brady National Photographic Art Gallery (Washington, D.C.) (1858 – ?), Photographer (NARA record: 1135962)
Record creator War Department. Office of the Chief Signal Officer. (08/01/1866 – 09/18/1947)
Date ca. 1860 – ca. 1865.

John Brown Riding on His Coffin to the Place of Execution. Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, December 17, 1859.
Periodicals Collection, West Virginia State Archives
wvculture.org 2 March 2000 Web. 1 Oct. 2011.

The Hanging of Hazlett and Stevens.
Boyd B. Stutler Collection, West Virginia State Archives
wvculture.org 2 March 2000 Web. 1 Oct. 2011.

[Fredericksburg, Va. Burial of Union soldiers]
Date Created/Published: 1864 May [19 or 20].
Medium: 1 negative (2 plates) : glass, stereograph, wet collodion.
Summary: Photograph from the main eastern theater of war, Grant’s Wilderness Campaign, May-June 1864. memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

Map of the city and county of Baltimore, Maryland. From actual surveys by Robert Taylor. Lith by Hunckel & Son. Taylor, Robert (Surveyor). CREATED/PUBLISHED
Baltimore, c1857.
memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

A Typical Court-Martial
9thbattalion.org 21 June 2011 Web. 20 September, 2014.

Title: [Washington, D.C. Reading the death warrant to Wirz on the scaffold]
Creator(s): Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882, photographer
Date Created/Published: [1865 November 10]
memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

Title: [Washington, D.C. Hooded body of Captain Wirz hanging from the scaffold]
Creator(s): Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882, photographer
Date Created/Published: [1865 November 10]. memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

Chaplain in the Woods
Miller, Francis Trevelyan. (1912). “The photographic history of the civil war in ten volumes.” Vol. 7. New York, NY: The Review of Reviews Co. Print.

Miller, Francis Trevelyan. (1912). “The photographic history of the civil war in ten volumes.” Vol. 7. Perseus Digital Library at Tufts University. 10 May 2008. Web. 16 Feb. 2011.
More. .