The Most “Civil Warred” Home – Unburned – in Jefferson County (1) – J. Surkamp.

5987 words

https://web.archive.org/web/20190710015149/https://civilwarscholars.com/2014/07/the-most-civil-warred-home-unburned-in-jefferson-county-1-j-surkamp/

Flickr Set – Click Here. 18 images.

The Dandridges at The Bower and The Rutherfords at their Charlestown home had Civil War generals and intrigues come right to their doorstep and even into their parlors, sleeping areas and barns; stories piled high.

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But what Confederate Generals J.E.B. Stuart, Stonewall Jackson had in common with Federal commanding General Ulysses S. Grant; General Philip Sheridan, and General Nathaniel Banks – are the first floor rooms of Thomas and Mary Rutherford’s home on Washington Street in Charles Town, WV, today the Carriage Inn. They all spent time there, having fun or plotting.

This is the story of The Rutherford House/Carriage Inn during the Civil War seen through the eyes mainly of Richard Duffield Rutherford, a ten-year-old in 1860, who got around quite a bit, mirroring the rhythms and terrors of daily life in Charlestown during The Troubles.

Summary:

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Thomas and Mary Rutherford and their eight children – alongside the war’s flailing claws – had a flag made for Stonewall Jackson to take into battle in 1861 at First Manassas/Bull Run; entertained at dinner Federal General Nathaniel Banks with Stonewall’s returned flag precariously hidden away in an upstairs hearth; enjoyed Sam Sweeney’s banjo as he sat beside Gen J.E.B. Stuart who was visiting and sharing momentos with the family of his ride around Gen. McClellan’s army in October, 1862. They cared for wounded in late 1862, one who died and they buried. Daughter Mary dodged a bullet fired at her upstairs window, all while our callow narrator, Richard, nosed around town, saw things, and above all daily milked their two cows, that he often had to roam to find, bribing thankful Federal pickets with pie.

Then the most historic two hours at Rutherford House/Carriage Inn was the meeting of Federal Generals Grant and Sheridan (almost two years to the day after the terrible Antietam/Sharpsburg battle), having surrounded the Rutherford home with a huge security cordon, and used new information smuggled into them by an African-American named Thomas Laws – correctly convincing them the time was propitious to attack Confederate General Jubal Early on the Opequon Creek.

A lasting memory after the war was, for Richard, – one night sky’s hideous glow in all directions from the burning barns and, in some cases, homes torched as part of General Sheridan’s punitive campaign through the Valley, the one where his orders from Grant were curt and cruel – so that, to periphrase, a crow flying overhead would have to carry its own rations.

Meantime the Rutherfords ate, starved, baked, sheltered, hid, entertained and prayed for the end – the real and final end – to this war that left their town changed forever, with a past obliterated and eclipsed.

Chapterettes:
1. Tom and Mary Rutherford thrive on political connections and railroad subsidies.
2. The Fissure Opens – John Brown nails the issue and is hanged.
3. July, 1861: The flag from “The Ladies of Jefferson County” & first time, face-to-face with Federals
4. Future Federal General Francis Barlow bemoans Charlestown.
5. A Rutherford relative teases the Federal pickets.
6. Sister Virginia recounts how the gift flag comes back to the Rutherfords.
7. February 27-28, 1862 Federal General Nathaniel Banks crossed the Potomac with 30,000 men.
8. A misunderstanding about “church” music at the Charlestown Presbyterian church
9. Tempers flash over stolen pigs, poultry and cows.
10.Young Richard Rutherford had much better luck with the Rutherford’s cows thanks to food bribes.
11.Gen. Banks dines with the Rutherfords.
12.“We don’t want him!” said the Confederates.

  1. Tom and Mary Rutherford thrive on political connections and railroad subsidies:
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In 1860 Thomas Rutherford had $36,000 in real estate and $6,000 in personal property, largely from the estate left his wife, Mary, by her father, Richard Duffield, who first built and leased the train depot near his home in 1839 to the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, that still stands in 2014. Their wealth was often in the form of United States dollars in the payments from the Baltimore and Ohio. Because their wealth was not in Virginia lands, enslaved persons or Confederate paper; the family still had about half their reported wealth ten years later in 1870. Their son-in-law, Cleon Moore, in fact, would build next door, becoming a lawyer for the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad after the war.

1859:

2. The Fissure Opens – John Brown nails the issue and is hanged

Richard Rutherford wrote of that day:
John Brown was hanged on December 2, 1859 in the morning. I was sitting on a wall fence back of the Episcopal Church. The rope was arranged, the black cap adjusted. The sheriff came down the steps of the scaffold. The signal was given, the rope cut, the body swung and in a few moments, it was all over. Everything was done quietly. In a few minutes he was pronounced dead. – Rutherford, p. 21.

1861:

3. July, 1861: The flag from “The Ladies of Jefferson County” & first time, face-to-face with Federals

Rutherford recalled:
My sister (Virginia) had raised money and presented to the Second Virginia regiment of that Brigade a handsome Virginia State Flag. (On the back side there was a banner “from the Ladies of Jefferson County”). This was their Brigade flag in this battle. – Rutherford, p. 24.

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In 1920 Mrs. Virginia Rutherford McMechem, Richard’s sister, wrote down the colorful history of the flag/banner:
The flag, which was ordered and made in Richmond for the 2nd Virginia Infantry of local enlistees, arrived in Winchester, Va. on the 17th July, just as the Brigade was about to leave for Manassas Junction on the 18th of July. The 1st (Stonewall) Brigade marched out of Winchester with the flag flying at the head of the Second Virginia Regiment. The purchase money was given me by Thomas Rutherford of Charles Town and several of his friends as a gift to the Regiment. Thomas Rutherford did not desire to appear so prominent in the matter, so it was allowed to go as from the Ladies of Jefferson County. On the 21st of July, date of 1st Manassas, this was the only flag carried into the battle by the First Brigade and the only Virginia flag in Jackson’s command, other troops being put under his command after he arrived on the field. – Virginia Rutherford McMecham, letter 1920.

Richard Rutherford’s first encounter with Federal soldiers:

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On July 17, 1861 – I was frightened never having seen a Yankee soldier before and thinking of them as some sort of desperate creature who would kill us all. (But) The Yankees rode into town but did not seem to disturb anyone. . .My father said it was just a scouting party. Shortly after (Federal) General Robert Patterson did advance with his army and camped around the town. They stayed with us for some time. Many of them came to the house for water and often asked for something to eat, which we always gave if we had anything left! I got pretty well acquainted with many of them. . .(One of Patterson’s staff officers stayed with the Rutherfords-JS): a Captain Phillips asked if he could have a room at our house, so we gave him a room. The next day he brought a soldier with him and gave orders to allow no one to trespass or disturb the property. We fixed a bed for the guard in the wash house in the yard. – Rutherford, pp. 24-25.

David Hunter Strother wrote:

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July 17 – Wednesday: west of Charles Town: At the ruin of the old Episcopal Church – the first built in the valley – the main column halted and detachments were sent forward to the right and left to inclose the town and capture the militia, which were reported to be assembled there. The army entered Charlestown with drums beating, colors flying, and all the pomp of a grand review. The streets were silent and deserted, the houses generally closed, and only a few negroes and children appeared to witness the “grand entree.” As the column passed, a Confederate flag was displayed from the upper window of a storehouse. The doors were instantly crushed in and the offensive emblem replaced by the Stars and Stripes. Otherwise everything was quiet. The sentiment of the army was conciliatory, while, from terror or sullen-ness, very few of the inhabitants showed themselves on the streets. – Strother, p. 156.
More . . .

4. Future Federal Major General Francis Barlow bemoans Charlestown:

Federal officer Francis Channing Barlow of the 12th New York militia arrived and stayed in Charlestown in July, 1861 and did not fight at First Manassas/Bull Run:
We are encamped close to the field where they say John Brown was hung, they point out the spot where his gallows was erected. I went into the Court house where John Brown was tried this morning. This town is like all Virginia towns, . . . slovenly, with occasionally some large and pleasant looking places. Last night, we had no supper. . .(This morning) we foraged about to four or five houses for breakfast without success; they saying that they were eaten out, stolen out by those who preceeded us. They are openly Secessionists here almost entirely, the women talk openly, freely, but good humoredly. – Barlow, p. 14.

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Barlow describes many men bathing in the Evetts Run near town:

(I) wiped my hands on my head, the brook which runs by our encampment being so dirtied, riled by the thousands quartered higher up that it dirties one more. . .Yet thousands of naked forms can be at this moment seen washing in it. Carlton Richards and I started for town. At the town pump in the most frequented part of town, close to the Courthouse, we took off our coats, shirts and stood entirely naked except trousers, stockings and shoes, washed and cleaned ourselves in the face of the multitude among soldiers of all climes. (Barlow to his brother Edward, from Charlestown, Va, July 18, 1861).- Barlow, p. 14.

5. A Rutherford relative teases the Federal pickets:

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The Yankees had a patrol that marched up and down the streets every night. No lights were to be allowed after ten o’clock. My Aunt Nancy Douglass from St. Louis was staying with us at the time. One night the lamp was burning in her room when the patrol passed. They called. “Lights out!” So Aunt Nancy picked up the lamp and held it outside the window at them. They all laughed and told us to turn it out. “Well,” she said, “you told me: ’Lights out’ so I thought you wanted it outside.” . . . – Rutherford, p. 25.

The night of July 21st was rather exciting as the First Battle of Bull Run was fought that day. Captain Phillips told my father of their defeat at Bull Run and that the Rebs were moving on Washington. It was a desolate looking country that we looked over the next morning – the large army of troops leaving, it looked quite dilapidated. Fences were all burned and trash heaped everywhere. – Rutherford, p. 25.

Rutherford wrote that the town undertaker found the body of a local man killed at the battle, named Frank Butler, awaiting him at his business.

6. Sister Virginia recounts how the gift flag comes back to the Rutherfords:

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October 30, 1861 – Due to confusion created by units carrying different flags after 1st Manassas the 30th October 1861 saw Governor Letcher present every Virginia regiment with a bunting flag. Colonel Allen returned the 2nd Virginia’s Flag to Charles Town for safe keeping. One afternoon in late 1861, Brigadier General Torbett of the U.S. Army was encamped around

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Charles Town with his Cavalry command. His Staff officers had pitched their tents in the beautiful grounds surrounding the Rutherford home and were lying all about on the grass. A little bare-footed colored girl came into the yard and wound her way among them, carrying a small package wrapped in a newspaper. Coming to a side door she handed the package to a member of the family saying, “Give this to Miss Ginny Rutherford”, and darted away. The Family never learned who the child was. Thomas Rutherford wrapped the flag carefully and put it under an iron hearth in the bed-room where it remained until after the close of the war. It would have been to them ample reason to the Federals for reducing the home to ashes. – Virginia Rutherford McMecham, letter 1920.

1862:

7. February 27-28, 1862 Federal General Nathaniel Banks crossed the Potomac with 30,000 men:

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8. A misunderstanding about “church” music at the Charlestown Presbyterian church:

Wrote Edwin Bryant of the 3rd Wisconsin Infantry Regiment:
Our sojourn in Charlestown was exceedingly disagreeable to the inhabitants. It annoyed them to have their churches occupied by Yankee soldiers; and the little organ was kept in full blast in one of the churches occupied by a part of the Third, while a hundred or more stout lungs vented the song, then new and expressive of the northern feeling: “John Brown’s body lies a-mouldering in the grave, But his soul is marching on.’

The boys of the regiment determined to keep that song going constantly during our stay in Charlestown; and though we staid there several days they came near keeping good the resolve. The song and the throats of the singers were rather worn-out and ragged for sometime after. It is to be feared that the organ was a little wheezy, too. – Bryant, pp. 40-41.

Federal officer David Hunter Strother (who knew the locals well) describes the minister’s grief:

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I saw Mr. Dutton flying along the street and hailed him. He greeted me and said he was going to see about the occupation of his church. I went with him and found Colonel [Thomas H.] Ruger’s Wisconsin men in occupation and taking up the carpets. The preacher was for getting out the pulpit furniture, Bibles, and candelabras. Presently looking toward the organ he saw a platoon of rugged-looking fellows around the organ and fumbling with the music books of the choir. He looked in agony at the prospective destruction and desecration. A moment after, the books were all open and fifty accordant voices rose in a thrilling anthem that filled the church with solemn music. The alarmed clergyman paused a moment. His face became calm and solemn. He turned to the officer in command: “You need not move the furniture from the pulpit, Sir. It will be safe, I feel assured. . . .” (The Reverend W. B. Dutton was the Presbyterian minister at Charles Town from 1849 to 1874).
Strother, p. 5.

9. Tempers flash over stolen pigs, poultry and cows:

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While here, the commanders were besieged with complaints from the citizens. Their geese, turkeys and chickens disappeared. They murmured that “private property was not respected.” The orders were strict enough; and officers did not countenance their violation. But so it was, everywhere that soldiers marched a great mortality prevailed among poultry, pigs and sheep. The women were most indignant and most outspoken. They took such revenge as bitter tongues and prayers that we might be exterminated could afford them. One well-to-do farmer protested against his corn and grain being taken as he had a large number of negroes dependent on him for support. In a week he was doing his own chores, milking with his own hands his last cow, and as woe-begone a secessionist as could be found anywhere. His slaves had left him; and his stock and poultry had joined the Union side, too. – Bryant, pp. 40-41 in Charlestown with Gen. Banks; spring, 1862.

The amount of pig and chicken stealing was very considerable and all the way from the Ferry I saw soldiers with slaughtered sheep and hogs, carrying their whole quarters upon their bayonets. There was a good deal of fence burning (but) there was no wanton acts of destruction. – Strother diaries, p. 6.

10. Young Richard Rutherford had much better luck with the Rutherford’s cows thanks to food bribes:

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He wrote: We kept two cows during the war and I did the milking. I would turn them out every day and as there were no fences left, they would get pasture all round the town. It was my job to find them in the evening and bring them home. The pickets were on Hunter’s Hill and at first refused to let me go after them, but I soon found a way to bribe them. My mother would fix up a plate of cornbread or pie or almost anything in the eating line, and armed with food and a crock of clabber, I would march up to the pickets and while they were eating I would get the cows. One of them told me to bring them some more of that feed and I could go anywhere I wanted. – Rutherford, p. 32.

We could get nothing in the way of clothing except gray cloth made by the factories in the county, so everyone dressed in gray. No one who did not actually live in or around Charlestown can realize the trying times we suffered during the four years of war. – Rutherford, p. 33.

Federal General Nathaniel Banks with a large army, takes up residence nearby:

Gen. Banks made his headquarters also at Mr. Hunter’s house and one of his staff, Captain Shriver (Captain Robert C. Shriber of the 39th New York Infantry Regiment-JS), had a room at our house. He also sent a soldier, Jack White, to guard the property. A very nice and decent fellow, so he had his meals with the family and stayed with us even after the army advance to Winchester. – Rutherford, p. 27.

11. Gen. Banks dines with Rutherfords:

On March 10, 1862 (Monday)
Gen. Banks, the day he left, sent his headquarters wagons off early in the morning, expecting to leave soon himself, but being delayed until night, my father told Captain Shriver to invite the General and his staff over to supper with us. The invitation was accepted and very much appreciated by them if judged by the way they ate and their thanks afterward. They left about nine o’clock. – Rutherford, p. 27.

In late May, 1862, General Stonewall Jackson, hoping to culminate his victorious Valley Campaign against Gen. Banks by capturing Harper’s Ferry, failed to do so and retreated back through Charlestown, with a funny incident at the Rutherford house:

12. “We don’t want him!” said the Confederates:
In late May, 1862, Federal soldier Jack White (possibly “John White,” a private in the 39th New York Infantry Regiment under Captain Robert Shriber-JS) re-visited the Rutherfords as Confederate General Stonewall Jackson was driving White’s Federal army under Gen. Banks northward out of the Valley into Maryland. White got ensnared when arriving soldiers under Jackson happened to “look in on” the Rutherford household. Jackson’s men stayed in the area briefly, then leaving upon getting orders of Federal armies forming further south.

Richard Rutherford recalled:
One morning we were all sitting at the breakfast table and suddenly heard shooting on skirmish lines getting closer and closer. Poor Jack White was about through and got up and started to go – but my father told him to finish. In a few minutes men of Jackson’s line, came around the house. Some looked in the window and called out: “Hello there, Yank!” We went to the door and my father spoke to them, telling how White had taken care of the property for some months and could have easily gotten away, but that he (father Thomas Rutherford) had made him stay for breakfast. They said at once: “We don’t want him. . .” So White got on his horse and rode away unmolested. – Rutherford, pp. 27-28.

References:

Interview with descendant Don Amoroso, Shepherdstown, WV July 9, 2014.

General Grant to Gen. Halleck – order stating “a crow would have to carry its own provender” on July 14, 1864:
OFFICIAL RECORDS: Series 1, vol 40, Part 3 (Richmond, Petersburg); Chapter LII. CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. – UNION.
If the enemy has left Maryland, as I suppose he has, he should have upon his heels veterans, militiamen, men on horseback, and everything that can be got to follow to eat out Virginia clear and clean as far as they go, so that crows flying over it for the balance of this season will have to carry their provender with them. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014. p. 223.

1. Tom and Mary Rutherford thrive on political connections and railroad subsidies:

Richard Duffield was paid $2500 in compensation for the railroad’s right-of-way through his land. Duffield used the money to build the depot with the railroad’s blessing, as the railroad preferred to use its capital for the line and to make use of such private depots wherever it could. The depot housed the B&O station master’s living and working quarters. –
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

Source Citation: Year: 1860; Census Place: Charlestown, Jefferson, Virginia; Roll: M653_1355; Page: 797; Image: 147; Family History Library Film: 805355.
Source Information: Ancestry.com. 1860 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2009. Images reproduced by FamilySearch.
Original data: 1860 U.S. census, population schedule. NARA microfilm publication M653, 1,438 rolls. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.

1860 United States Federal Census about Thomas Rutherford
Name: Thomas Rutherford
$36,000 real estate; $6,000 personal property
Age in 1860: 53
Birth Year: abt 1807
Birthplace: Virginia
Home in 1860: Charlestown, Jefferson, Virginia
Gender: Male
Household Members:
Name Age
Thomas Rutherford 53
Mary E Rutherford 45
Ellen D Rutherford 19
Virginia Rutherford 16
Mary Rutherford 12
Drusilla Rutherford 5
Thomas Rutherford 11
Richard Rutherford 10
search.ancestry.com 10 July 1998 Web. 20 June 2014.
search.ancestry.com

Source Citation: Year: 1870; Census Place: Grant, Jefferson, West Virginia; Roll: M593_1689; Page: 555B; Image: 536; Family History Library Film: 553188.
Source Information: Ancestry.com. 1870 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2009. Images reproduced by FamilySearch.
Original data: 1870 U.S. census, population schedules. NARA microfilm publication M593, 1,761 rolls. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.

1870 United States Federal Census about Thomas Rutherford
Name: Thomas Rutherford
$15,000 real estate; $3,000 personal property
Age in 1870: 63
Birth Year: abt 1807
Birthplace: West Virginia
Home in 1870: Grant, Jefferson, West Virginia
Race: White
Gender: Male
Post Office: Charles Town
Household Members:
Name Age
Thomas Rutherford 63
Mary E Rutherford 55
Thomas Rutherford 20
Richard Rutherford 19
Drucilla D Rutherford 15
Madison Taylor 30
Mary Ford 20
Maggie Dickson 20
search.ancestry.com 10 July 1998 Web. 20 June 2014.

2. The Fissure Opens – John Brown nails the issue and is hanged.

Recollections of Richard D. Rutherford. (December, 1993). “The Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society.” Volume LIX. Edited by Cecil D. Eby. Charles Town, WV: Jefferson County Historical Society. Print. pp. 17-41.

3. July, 1861: The flag from “The Ladies of Jefferson County” & First time face-to_face With Federals:

Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 33, Issue: 194, July, 1866. pp. 137-160. Print.

Strother, David H. (July, 1866). “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harpers Magazine. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014.
More . . .

Virginia Rutherford McMechem’s account in 1920 of the flag they made for Stonewall Jackson:
This flag was made in Richmond, Virginia by George C. Ruskeil Manufacturers for the 2nd Virginia Regiment in the Spring of 1861 under the direction of Daniel B. Lucas of Charles Town. The companies composing the Second Regiment mostly belonged to Jefferson and Clark Counties. The flag arrived in Winchester, Va. on the 17th July, just as the Brigade was about to leave for Manassas Junction on 18th of July. The 1st (Stonewall) Brigade marched out of Winchester with the flag flying at the head of the Second Virginia Regiment. The purchase money was given me by Thomas Rutherford of Charles Town and several of his friends as a gift to the Regiment. Thomas Rutherford did not desire to appear so prominent in the matter, so it was allowed to go as from the Ladies of Jefferson County. On the 21st of July, date of 1st Manassas, this was the only flag carried into the battle by the First Brigade and the only Virginia flag in Jackson’s command, other troops being put under his command after he arrived on the field. Soon after 1st Manassas Thomas J. Jackson was appointed Major General and took command of the First Division of the Army of Northern Virginia; the Stonewall Brigade still holding its own, as the First Brigade of the Division. Colonel James Walkinson Allen succeeded Jackson as its commander and not long afterward was killed at Gaines Mill on the 27th June 1862. Due to confusion created by units carrying different flags after 1st Manassas the 30th October 1861 saw Governor Letcher present every Virginia regiment with a bunting flag. Colonel Allen returned the 2nd Virginia’s Flag to Charles Town for safe keeping. Latter one afternoon in late 1861, Brigadier General Torbett of the U.S.Army was encamped around Charles Town with his Cavalry command. His Staff officers had pitched their tents in the beautiful grounds surrounding the Rutherford home and were lying all about on the grass. A little bare footed colored girl came into the yard and wound her way among them, carrying a small package wrapped in a newspaper. Coming to a side door she handed the package to a member of the family saying, “Give this to Miss Ginny Rutherford”, and darted away. The Family never learned who the child was. Thomas Rutherford wrapped the flag carefully and put it under an iron hearth in the bed-room where it remained until after the close of the war. There were other treasures there also, which if they had been found by U.S.Soldiers, would have been to them ample reason for reducing the home to ashes. In 1920 Mrs. Virginia Rutherford McMechen wrote down the colourful history of the banner. Subsequently the flag came into possession of her niece, Miss Emily T. Rutherford of Baltimore, Md, who presented it to the Virginia Military Institute in January 1959. In 1976 this historic flag came into the care of Mrs. June Cunningham, VMI Museum Director. The museum has provided it with a climate-controlled atmosphere while awaiting funds for professional restoration. In 1985 Mrs. Lise Putnam Liddell of Houston, Texas generously provided the funds for restoration. It was restored by Ms. Becky Sudsbury of the Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts in Winston Salem, North Carolina. A proper case has been constructed for the flag and it is held proudly at the VMI Museum. 2ndvirginiacsa.tripiod.com 16 May 2013 Web 20 June 2014.

4. Future Federal General Francis Barlow bemoans Charlestown:

Barlow, Francis C. (2004) “Fear Was Not In Him: The Civil War Letters of Major General Francis C. Barlow, U.S.A.,” ed. Christian G. Samito. New York, NY: Fordham University Press. Print.

The sources of the following chapterettes are already-mentioned:
5. A Rutherford relative teases the Federal pickets;
6. Sister Virginia recounts how the gift flag comes back to the Rutherfords;
7. February 27-28, 1862 Federal General Nathaniel Banks crossed the Potomac with 30,000 men.

8. A misunderstanding about “church” music at the Charlestown Presbyterian church

Bryant, Edwin E. (1891). “History of the Third regiment of Wisconsin veteran volunteer infantry 1861-1865.” Cleveland, OH: Arthur H. Clark company. Print.

Bryant, Edwin E. (1891). “History of the Third regiment of Wisconsin veteran volunteer infantry 1861-1865.” Internet Archives archive.org 9 August 2002 Web. 20 April 2014.

Our sojourn in Charlestown was exceedingly disagreeable to the inhabitants. It annoyed them to have their churches occupied by Yankee soldiers; and the little organ was kept in full blast in one of the churches occupied by a part of the Third, while a hundred or more stout lungs vented the song, then new and expressive of the northern feeling: “John Brown’s body lies a-mouldering in the grave, But his soul is marching on.’

The boys of the regiment determined to keep that song going constantly during our stay in Charlestown; and though we staid there several days they came near keeping good the resolve. The song and the throats of the singers were rather worn-out and ragged for sometime after. It is to be feared that the organ was a little wheezy, too.

While here, the commanders were besieged with complaints from the citizens. Their geese, turkeys and chickens disappeared. They murmured that “private property was not respected.” The orders were strict enough; and officers did not countenance their violation. But so it was, everywhere that soldiers marched a great mortality prevailed among poultry, pigs and sheep. The women were most indignant and most outspoken. They took such revenge as bitter tongues and prayers that we might be exterminated could afford them. One well-to-do farmer protested against his corn and grain being taken as he had a large number of negroes dependent on him for support. In a week he was doing his own chores, milking with his own hands his last cow, and as woe-begone a secessionist as could be found anywhere. His slaves had left him; and his stock and poultry had joined the Union side, too. – Bryant, pp. 40-41 in Charles Town with Gen. Banks; spring, 1862.

Thomas H.Ruger
Thomas H. Ruger, had graduated with honors at West Point, in 1854, and served as lieutenant of engineers, entrusted with important work under Beauregard, while that officef was in the United States army. He had resigned the service six years before. – wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

A VIRGINIA YANKEE IN THE CIVIL WAR THE DIARIES OF DAVID HUNTER STROTHER (1961). Edited with an Introduction by Cecil D. Eby, Jr. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. Print.

A VIRGINIA YANKEE IN THE CIVIL WAR THE DIARIES OF DAVID HUNTER STROTHER (1961). Edited with an Introduction by Cecil D. Eby, Jr. Internet Archives archive.org 9 August 2002 Web. 20 April 2014.

February 28, 1862: I left the staff at General Banks’ request and returned to Charles Town. I saw Mr. Dutton flying along the street and hailed him. He greeted me and said he was going to see about the occupation of his church. I went with him and found Colonel [Thomas H.] Ruger’s Wisconsin men in occupation and taking up the carpets. The preacher was for getting out the pulpit furniture, Bibles, and candelabras. Presently looking toward the organ he saw a platoon of rugged-looking fellows around the organ and fumbling with the music books of the choir. He looked in agony at the prospective destruction and desecration. A moment after, the books were all open and fifty accordant voices rose in a thrilling anthem that filled the church with solemn music. The alarmed clergyman paused a moment. His face became calm and solemn. He turned to the officer in command: “You need not move the furniture from the pulpit, Sir. It will be safe, I feel assured. . . .” (The Reverend W. B. Dutton was the Presbyterian minister at Charles Town from 1849 to 1874).
Strother, p. 5.

In 1851 the congregation moved to the current location on East Washington Street. The present sanctuary was built and soon thereafter the manse was built next door for the Pastor and his family. ctpres.org 21 December 1999 Web. 20 June 2014.

The sources of the following chapterettes are already-mentioned:
9. Tempers flash over stolen pigs, poultry and cows;
10.Young Richard Rutherford had much better luck with the Rutherford’s cows thanks to food bribes;
11.Gen. Banks dines with the Rutherfords;
12.“We don’t want him!” said the Confederates.

Image Credits:

Images of Thomas Rutherford and group image of Mary E., and sons Thomas and Richard, circa 1870s – courtesy Don Amoroso.

The Execution of John Brown; John Brown
David Hunter Strother Collection West Virginia Historical Art Collection West Virginia Regional History Collection WVU Library.
wvu.edu 20 November 1999 Web. 25 May 2014.

a. Strother, David Hunter; Charleston, Va. The Execution of John Brown, December 2nd 1859 (W1995.030.374)
images.lib.wvu.edu 20 November 1999 Web. 25 May 2014.

b. Strother, David Hunter; John Brown (W1995.030.394pg20b)
images.lib.wvu.edu 20 November 1999 Web. 25 May 2014.

“Virginia Rutherford McMecham” (semblance)
David Hunter Strother Collection West Virginia Historical Art Collection West Virginia Regional History Collection WVU Library.
wvu.edu 20 November 1999 Web. 25 May 2013.

St. George’s Chapel 1862
Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 33, Issue: 194, July, 1866. Print.

Strother, David H. (July, 1866). “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harpers Magazine. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014.
p. 137.
More. . .

Flags
2ndvirginiacsa.tripod.com 16 May 2013 Web 1 July 2014.

Soldiers bathing, North Anna River, Va.–ruins of railroad bridge in background
Creator(s): O’Sullivan, Timothy H., 1840-1882, photographer
Date Created/Published: 1864 May.
memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

detail of photos of men in the 12th New York militia that encamped outside Charlestown, Va. in July, 1861, including Francis Barlow and Carlton Richards.
dmna.ny.gov 30 January 2012 Web 10 May 2014.

Portrait of Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, officer of the Federal Army
Creator(s): Brady National Photographic Art Gallery (Washington, D.C.), photographer
Date Created/Published: [Between 1860 and 1865]
memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

Gen. Phil Sheridan and Staff
Date Created/Published: [Jan. 3, 1865]
Medium: 1 negative : glass, wet collodion.
Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-cwpbh-03133 (digital file from original neg.)
memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

General Jackson’s “Chancellorsville” Portrait, taken at a Spotsylvania County farm on April 26, 1863, seven days before his mortal wounding at the Battle of Chancellorsville.
Date 26 April 1863
Source Derivative (crop) of: File:Photograph of General Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson – NARA – 526067.tif
Author Unknown
commons.wikimedia.org 15 September 2004 Web. 20 April 2014.

J.E.B.Stuart
civilwardailygazette.com 11 November 2010 Web. 10 July 2014.

The Battle Flag of the Army of Northern Virginia
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

U.S. 35 Stars (1863-1864) flags
theflagshop.net 24 May 2000 Web. 10 July 2014.

detail from photo – courtesy Ann Cross and Don Amoroso of Mary E. Rutherford and her two sons Richard and Thomas in the 1870s.

“Mary E. (Mrs. Thomas) Rutherford” circa 1840s (semblance)
David Hunter Strother Collection West Virginia Historical Art Collection West Virginia Regional History Collection WVU Library.
wvu.edu 20 November 1999 Web. 25 May 2013.

Strother, David Hunter; 1845. Winchester. Va (W1995.030.388pg7)
Date January 1857
Title 1845. Winchester. Va
Collection West Virginia Historical Art Collection
Type Drawing
Identifier W1995.030.388pg7
Nationality American 1816-1888
Medium Pen and ink wash, some white and brown highlights, some pencil
wvu.edu 1999 Web. 25 May 2014.

Duffields Station Today
National Register Nomination
West Virginia Archives & History
wvculture.org 2 March 2000 Web. 1 Oct. 2011.

“Richard D. Rutherford” (boy holding goose)(semblance)
David Hunter Strother Collection West Virginia Historical Art Collection West Virginia Regional History Collection WVU Library.
wvu.edu 20 November 1999 Web. 25 May 2013.

Strother, David Hunter; Berkeley Springs, 1846 (W1995.030.388pg12)
Collection West Virginia Historical Art Collection
Type Drawing
Identifier W1995.030.388pg12
Nationality American 1816-1888
Medium Pen and ink, some pencil, some white highlights
wvu.edu 1999 Web. 25 May 2014.

First Battle of Bull Run Kurz & Allison Public Domain
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

scared boys in the bushes
Crayon, Porte (Strother, D. H.). “The Mountains. Pt. IV.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 44, Issue: 267, August, 1872. p. 362. Print.

Crayon, Porte.. (August, 1872). “The Mountains. Pt. IV.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014.
p. 347.
More . . .

Drawing Charles Town, Va.
Brown, Howell S. “Map of Jefferson County, Virginia From Actual Surveys With Farm Limits, 1852.” Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society Vol. XLV. (1979): pp. 1-7. Print.

Brown, S. Howell. (1852). “Map of Jefferson County, Virginia from actual survey with the farm limits.” United States. The Library of Congress: American Memory. “Maps Collection.” 27 Oct. 2009 Web. 10 Sept. 2010.

Francis_C._Barlow
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

Original-john-brown-words-george-kimball-1890 Public Domain
James E. Greenleaf, C. S. Hall, C. B. Marsh – Cornell University Library Making of America Collection. The original publication of the text of the “John Brown Song”, “From an Original in the Possession of Mr. Abram E. Cutter of Charlestown”, according to George Kimball and as re-published in George Kimball, “Origin of the John Brown Song”, New England Magazine, new series 1 (1890):374.
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

Charles Town Presbyterian Church, exterior, sanctuary, organ loft in 2014. – by Jim Surkamp.

Rev. Warren B. Dutton, DD of the Presbyterian Church from 1842-1866 – courtesy of the Charles Town Presbyterian Church.

(Library of Congress photograph cropped from a three-image photo) Thos. H. Ruger. CREATED/PUBLISHED [between 1860 and 1870] NOTES Title from unverified information on negative sleeve. Annotation from negative, scratched on emulsion: 1673. Forms part of Civil War glass negative collection (Library of Congress). SUBJECTS United States–History–Civil War, 1861-1865. Portrait photographs–1860-1870. Glass negatives–1860-1870. MEDIUM 1 negative : glass, wet collodion. CALL NUMBER LC-B814- 1673 REPRODUCTION NUMBER LC-DIG-cwpb-04479 DLC (digital file from original neg.) SPECIAL TERMS OF USE No known restrictions on publication.
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

Mary Rutherford (1847-1937)
Owner/Source Mary H. Tayloe
File name Rutherford_Mary#0252A – 2000-07-07 at 16-15-34.jpg
File Size 2.68m
Dimensions 1263 x 1806
Caption Mary Rutherford b. 1847 d. 1937 m. Archibald H. Asquith Submitted by Mary H. Tayloe
wmstrother.org 12 December 1998 Web. 20 June 2014.

Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 35, Issue: 210, November, 1867. Print.

Strother, David H. (November, 1867). “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harpers Magazine. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014.
p. 708.

More. . .