Many County fights

April 18, 1861-April 6, 1865



Click Here for locations of events up through March, 1864

Jefferson County had 1300 days of strife and danger, being within one of the two areas of greatest warfare during the Civil War – the Fredericksburg area compared to the eastern Panhandle-Winchester-Antietam area. This is the most complete enumeration and description of war as it occurred in Jefferson County, including wanton destruction of trains and buildings and homes as well as the violence of war. There are a few of Mosby’s encounters missing and possibly some sabotage operations.

Each line gives the year, date, location and classification of type of armed conflict. References to “MARKER” are taken from Veteran Roger Preston Chew’s volume and its corresponding map.


Jefferson County had 1300 days of strife and danger, being within one of the two areas of greatest warfare during the Civil War – the Fredericksburg area compared to the eastern Panhandle-Winchester-Antietam area. This is the most complete enumeration and description of war as it occurred in Jefferson County, including wanton destruction of trains and buildings and homes as well as the violence of war. MORE EVENTS ARE EXPECTED TO BE CONFIRMED AND ADDED TO THIS LIST. IT IS INCOMPLETE.

Each line gives the year, date, location and classification of type of armed conflict. References to “MARKER” are taken from Veteran Roger Preston Chew’s volume and its corresponding map.

1. 1861.April.18.Harpers.Ferry.Destruction of Armory:
This is a combination of two more pro-Union eye witness accounts of the attack on the Harper’s Ferry arsenal by Virginia militias and the sabotage of same by Federal soldiers. More at POST: “The Red Dawn of Sedition.”

2. (Near Jefferson County1861.May.26.Point.of.Rocks.Destruction.Railroad:
Confederate Cavalryman Turner Ashby and his men blast rocky hillsides and block passage with fallen rock on the Baltimore & Ohio Main Stem near Point of Rocks, MD. – J. JOHNSTON, Chapter IX, Official Record, Volume 2, p. 881.

3. 1861.May.28.Jefferson.County.Berkeley.County.Capture.B&O.Main.Stem:
Author Festus Summers wrote of the events that began May 28, 1861:

Confederates took possession of more than one hundred miles of the Main Stem not relinquishing all of it until May 29, 1862. During this campaign, the Confederates seized or destroyed 42, locomotives with their tenders, 386 cars, 23 bridges, embracing , all told, 127 spans and a total bridge length of 4713 feet. – F. Summers, pp. 66-67; More at: Imboden, pp. 122-123;

T. JACKSON, Chapter XIV, Official Record, Volume 5, pp. 976-977 ;

J. JOHNSTON, Chapter IX, Official Record, Volume 2, p. 949.

4. 1861.June.13.Shepherdstown.Potomac.Destruction.Bridge:
Local resident Henry Kyd Douglas, of the 2nd Virginia Infantry, wrote of the June 13th event, in which the bridge his father helped to build was destroyed:
The same day bridges were also destroyed by Confederates at Martinsburg (the Colonnade Bridge), Great Cacapon, and the Pillar Bridge, the wooden bridge crossing the Potomac at Shepherdstown was destroyed by Stonewall Jackson’s men by pushing wagons full of fired straw into the yellow wooden,covered bridge. – Douglas, p. 6.
(Scroll down).

5. 1861.June.14.Harpers.Ferry.Bridge.Destroyed
Michael Caplinger wrote of the June 14th event:

On June 14, 1861, the Confederates retreated from Harper’s Ferry after controlling the town for nearly a month. Before leaving, they blew up the great Latrobe/Wernwag bridge and burned the woodwork on the armory trestle. – Caplinger, p. 48.

Eyewitness Augustus Vairin wrote of the June 14th event:
14 June Thursday, fine day. 6 AM orders to cook breakfast & strike tents & we waited for further orders which were to march at 6 PM. At 6 AM the bridges over the Potomac were blown up & burned by order of Gen. Joe Johnston commanding. During the forenoon all the public buildings at H.F. & the long tresseling of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad were burned, all of which was in plain view of our camp. This was a great destruction of fine & expensive works but it was all for the best as it will not do to leave & give the enemy a chance to follow us quickly as we are encumbered with many sick, say 350 to 400 only for the 2nd Miss. & others in proportion. Our regt. this morning 531 men fit for duty in the field. Co. B 69 men out of 105. Nearly all the sick in all regts. are measles. One Virginia regt. yesterday in their hurry to get away from here crowded all the sick out of the cars to make room for themselves. We have about 8 to 10 regiments here. Our baggage is not yet up from the depot. A strong picket guard extends from the Potomac to the Shenandoah Rivers, consisting of the 2nd Georgia on the Potomac, 2nd Miss., 11th Miss., 4th Ala. The chain is 1 mile long & consists of 300 to 400 men. We sleep without tents tonight ready to fall into line at a moment. The Iuka Co. returned from picket guard, Co. G from camp guard. Some look for an attack tonight, very doubtful. Drew rations for tomorrow. The men are cooking them, all they have. No meat is or can be got today. Will not move till morning. – Vairin. (Scroll down).

David Hunter Strother wrote of the June 14th event:
The whole structure seemed to ignite at once and was soon consumed, the incombustible parts, iron rails and metal roofing, falling into the water, the quantity of half-burned timber there forming a dam the whole way over that one might cross upon. – Caplinger, p. 49.

6. 1861.June.15.Harpers.Ferry.Evacuation:
Augustus Vairin gives his first-hand account of the June 15th event:

15 June Friday. 4 AM reveille, everything done up on short order. Breakfast soon over & as we had no tents we had ample & airy rooms for the purpose. 6 1/2 AM the troops at the Ferry took up line of march, about 5 or 6,000 men in line, a grand sight. At 8 1/2 AM the 2nd Miss. formed line & being next to the last regiment to start it was full 9 o’clock before we got off. Forenoon quite warm & clear, travel very slow. Many men leave the lines & as there is little concert of action jams continually occur which prevent making more than 1/4 mile at a time. At 11 having given the main line time to get 1/2 mile ahead we pushed up as we found to our cost because it exhausted the men very much. 3 PM reached Charlestown where we were much cheered by the people. Here we got good water. 1 mile from here L. Richie having taken too much ice water he took sick & fainted & came near dying at Charlestown. He & others were put in the cars & sent to Winchester which is our point of destination. The road we travel is a turnpike, not the smoothest either as my feet can tell. Corn is 2 to 6 inches high. At 5 PM reached camp (Johnston) 4 miles from Charlestown and 20 miles to Winchester. Made 11 miles today & are to reach W. tomorrow morning. Camp finely situated with a good supply of water which is good but not very convenient, from a large spring. It looks rainy & we pitch tents. – Vairin. (Scroll down). More at POST: 2 Dragons Sweep the Panhandle May-July, ’61.

7. 1861.June.28.Harpers.Ferry.Trains.Destroyed:
Augustus Vairin wrote his first-hand account of the June 28th event:

June 28 – Friday, To Halltown: Stopped an hour & went on the cars, stopped about 1 mile from H. F. leaving our blankets on the cars. Marched & reached the ferry at 7 AM. Companies were detailed by turns to load machinery, lead, copper & c to send to Winchester. 5 cars were run off the B. & O.R.R. over the bridge into the Potomac. The place looks quite deserted but the rains have made the place much cleaner than when we left it. At 2 PM took up line of march to return to W., made 4 miles to Halltown where we met the cars, got on them, A drizzling rain set in & continued nearly all night. Reached camp about 12 PM hungry & sleepy. – Vairin. (Scroll down).

Caplinger wrote, adding detail about the destruction on the June 28th event:
A week later, Confederate raiders burned the wood flooring and crossties on the Bollman truss and ran a locomotive through the charred deck and into the Potomac, but the iron trusses still stood. – Caplinger, p. 49. Harwood, Impossible Challenge, p. 76. More at POST: 2 Dragons Sweep the Panhandle May-July, ’61.

Maj. William Atterbury, Eighty-third New York Infantry (Ninth State Militia), reported on the July 4th event:
About 4 o’clock this pm. the picket guard, under the command of Lieutenant Galbraith, of Company E, was fired upon by the rebels on the opposite side of the river at this point, in consequence of the attempt on the part of two of the picket guard to prevent the crossing of a member of the Pennsylvania regiment who had succeeded in crossing part way over about half a mile above the picket, the firing continuing after the return of the sentries to the picket, being very galling, and fearing they would attempt to cross over, Lieutenant Galbraith desired that re-enforcements might be sent him. Feeling satisfied that if attacked in the village a large sacrifice of the lives of the citizens would be the result, I ordered the advance of the command, consisting of Company A, Captain Morrison; Company C, Captain Prescott, and a detail of sixteen men from Company G, to proceed with me at once to the bridge. On arrival, found the enemy posted about the trestle-work and behind the abutments of the bridge on the Virginia shore and in some of the buildings along the river. Opened fire on them, but ascertaining that the muskets of the command were not effective at that distance and the enemy being armed with rifles or rifled muskets, ordered the command to retire, which was done with the following results: John Earle Banks, of Company G, shot through the breast, died while being removed from the field; Ernest Gedricke, of Company A, shot through the abdomen, supposed to be mortally wounded; Henry V. Williamson, of Company G, shot through the leg, severely wounded, but will probably recover; Fred. R. Warner, of Company C, shot through the leg, slightly wounded. The men behaved with great courage and retired with reluctance. – W. ATTERBURY, Chapter LXIII, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Vol. LI, p. 8.
Federal Col. Charles P. Stone reported on the July 4th event:
Yesterday afternoon, while I was engaged in bringing up more troops from the Point of Rocks, Harpers Ferry was suddenly occupied by a few of the enemy, who opened fire on our pickets. The latter were re-enforced by a company of the Ninth New York Regiment, and firing was kept up for about half an hour, resulting in a slight loss on both sides; on ours one private killed and three wounded. As far as now known, the loss of the enemy was two killed and two severely wounded, but there are reports that his loss was greater. The enemy retired to the rear of the town. – C. STONE, Chapter IX, Official Record, Series I, Volume 2, p. 121.

Joseph Barry, a Unionist Harper’s Ferry resident, wrote of the July 4th event:
A lively skirmish took place between Captain John Henderson’s company of Confederate cavalry and a part of the 9th New York regiment of militia which a few days before had occupied Sandy Hook in Maryland — one mile east of Harper’s Ferry — the same village in which John Brown boarded when he first came to the neighborhood — the federal soldiers being on the Maryland side and the Confederates on the Virginia shore of the river, the game was at “long taw” and comparatively little damage was done. Two men were killed on the Maryland bank and at least one was wounded on the Virginia side. . . . The name of one of the slain New Yorkers was Banks and it was said that he was a man of high character in his regiment and at his home, but the name of the other is unknown to the author. The man wounded on the Virginia shore was a shoemaker of Harper’s Ferry, named Harding, who, although not in the army, was a sympathizer with the south. On this occasion he was on a spree and, having exposed himself recklessly, he received a dangerous wound. He was an Irishman by birth. and had served many years in the British East India Company’s forces. The honor of having wounded him was claimed by John, better known as “Ginger” Chambers, a citizen of Harper’s Ferry, who, being strongly attached to the Union and, happening to be at Sandy Hook at this time, picked up a gun and fell into ranks with the New Yorkers. . . Prominent among the Confederates in this skirmish was a man named James Miller, of Halltown, Jefferson county, and it is thought that it was he who killed Banks. In a short time after, while he was under the influence of whiskey, he, in company with a fellow-soldier named Kerfott, shot his captain — Henderson — wounding him severely, and for this offense he was executed in Winchester by order of a court-martial. The skirmish, of course, effected little beyond putting the few old people who still clung to their homes at the place into a most uncomfortable state of alarm. – Barry, pp. 106-107 

9: 1861.July.2-25.Harpers.Ferry.Campaign: POST: 2 Dragons Sweep the Panhandle May-July, ’

10. 1861.July.21.CharlesTown.Skirmish:
Chapter IX, Official Record, Series I, Volume 2, p. 156.

11. 1861.August.17-19.Harper’s.Ferry.Massive.Removals.Herr’s.Mill:
Soldiers of the 2nd Massachusetts regiment removed some 15,000 bushels of wheat, and several hundred barrels of fine flour. – Frye, “Harper’s Ferry Under Fire,” p. 39; J. RANSON, Chapter XIV, Official Record, Series I, Volume 5, p. 899.

12. 1861.August.20.Harper’s.Ferry.Sabotage.Herr’s.Mill:
Soldiers of the 2nd Massachusetts regiment sabotaged the equipment at the very large mill Herr’s Mill. – Frye, “Harper’s Ferry Under Fire,” p. 39.

13. 1861.September.2.Bellers.Mill.Skirmish:
Beeler’s (Beller’s) Mill, Kabletown Road:

The Massachusetts Thirteenth regiment surrounded the Charlestown “Home Guards” Cavalry about two o’clock this afternoon at Beller’s Mill, and took twenty prisoners, having first killed three and wounded five. . . – The National Intelligencer, September 3, 1861.

14. 1861.September.9.Shepherdstown.Skirmish:
September 9-10 – Mon.-Tues. Shepherdstown: Skirmish – Richmond Daily Dispatch, September 20, 1861; More at Gilmor, p. 17.

15. (OUTSIDE Jefferson County) 1861.September.13.Elk.Water.A.Death:
Jefferson County resident and last family owner of Mt. Vernon, John A. Washington, is killed near Elk Water, VA. by a sniper while serving as Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee’s adjutant. – Letter, Robert E. Lee to John Washington’s seventeen-year-old daughter, Louisa, September, 16, 1861.

16. 1861.September.13-14.Shepherdstown.Slight.Skirmish:
Friday evening-Saturday, Shepherdstown: Five shots of four-pound ball followed by a volley of musket fire from across the river. Shepherdstown men responded with same on Saturday, prompting a negotiated “truce,” conducted by three representatives from Shepherdstown who crossed the river to settle. – Richmond Daily Dispatch, September 20, 1861.

17. 1861.September.14-17.Potomac.Above Harpers.Ferry.Skirmishes:
Saturday-Tuesday, Harper’s Ferry, VA; Old Furnace Mill, and Ore Bank, VA: About 130 volunteers under Col. Geary exchanged fire, once for two hours, with Confederate soldiers in Virginia positions, including Loudoun Heights. They were fighting along the Potomac River between Harper’s Ferry and Shepherdstown. – J. GEARY, Chapter XIV, Official Report, Series I, Volume 5, pp. 197-198;
** More at Gilmor, pp.18-21; More at Nine Weeks at Harper’s Ferry – Companies C, I & K, September 1st – October 31st 1861, courtesy Bradley M. Forbush.

18. 1861.September.15.Pritchards.Mill.Skirmish:
Sunday morning, Pritchard’s Mill, VA., opposite Antietam Ford: One of these parties, consisting of an officer (Lieutenant Brown), 1 sergeant, and 6 privates, all of the Thirteenth Massachusetts Regiment, mounted, by my direction pushed forward as far as Antietam Ford; this party, returning, while opposite Pritchard’s Mill, were fired upon suddenly from the Virginia side of the river by a volley of about 50 muskets from a body of men perfectly concealed. One man of the party was instantly killed on the spot, and, owing to a continuous fire kept [up] on the remaining portion of the party, it was impossible for them to move from the position to which they had taken themselves to prevent further losses as the enemy deployed down the river. – J. GEARY, Chapter XIV, Official Report, Series I, Volume 5, pp. 197-198.

19. 1861.September.17.Harpers.Ferry.Skirmish:
Gen. Geary reported on the September 17th event:
A skirmish occurred this evening near Harpers Ferry between the rebels and a portion of troops, resulting successfully to our arms. Several of the enemy are reported killed and wounded. – GEARY, Chapter XIV, Official Record, Series I, Volume 5, p. 199.

20. 1861.October.11.Harpers.Ferry.Skirmish:
Chapter XIV, Official Record, Series I, Volume 5, p. 2.

21. 1861.October.16.Bolivar.Heights.Skirmish – ROADSIDE MARKER NUMBER TWENTY-THREE:
Confederate Col. Turner Ashby gave his eyewitness report of the event of October 16th:
The enemy occupying that position for several days, had been committing depredations in the vicinity of the camp. Having at my disposal three hundred militia armed with flint lock muskets and two companies of cavalry, Turner’s and Mason’s of Colonel McDonald’s regiment. I wrote to Genl. Evans to cooperate with me, taking position on Loudoun Heights and thereby prevent reinforcements from below, and at the same time to drive them out of the Ferry where they were under cover in the buildings. On the evening of the 15th, I was reinforced by two companies of Colonel McDonald’s regiment (Captain Wingfield), fully armed with minie rifles and mounted. Captain Miller’s about 30 men mounted, the balance on foot and with flint lock guns. I had one rifled four-pound gun and one 24-pound gun badly mounted which broke an axle in Bolivar, and I had to spike it. My force on the morning of the attack consisted of 300 militia, part of two regiments commanded by Colonel Albert of Shenandoah and Major Finter of Page. I had 180 of Colonel McDonald’s cavalry (Captain Henderson’s men) under command of Lieut. Glenn, Capt. Baylor’s mounted militia, Capt. Hess about 25 men. The rifled gun was under command of Capt. Averitt, the 24-pound gun under command of Capt. Canfield. I made the attack in three divisions and drove the enemy from their breast works without the loss of a man, and took position upon the hill, driving the enemy as far as lower Bolivar. The large gun broke down and this materially effected the result. The detachment from the large gun was transferred to the rifled piece, and Captain Averitt was sent to Loudoun Heights with a message to Colonel Griffin. The enemy now formed and charged with shouts and yells, which the militia met like veterans. At this moment I ordered a charge of cavalry, which was handsomely done, Captain Turner’s in the lead. In this charge five of the enemy were killed. After holding this position for four hours the enemy were re-enforced by infantry and artillery, and we fell back in order to the position their pickets occupied in the morning. The position Colonel Griffin held upon Loudoun Heights was such as to be of very little assistance to us, being so elevated as to prevent them from controlling the crossing. My main force is at Camp Evans while I hold all of the intermediate ground. The enemy left the ferry last night and encamped on the first plateau on Maryland Heights. My loss was one killed and nine wounded. Report from the ferry states the loss of the enemy at 25 killed and a number wounded. We have two Yankee prisoners and eight Union men co-operating with them. We took a large number of blankets, overcoats, and about a dozen guns. – T. ASHBY, Chapter XIV, Official Record, Series I, Volume 5, pp. 247-249.

Federal commander John Geary reports on the event of October 16th:
. . . but about 7 o’clock on the morning of the 16th my pickets stationed on the heights above Bolivar, extending from the Potomac to the Shenandoah River, about 2 miles west of Harpers Ferry, were driven into the town of Bolivar by the enemy, who approached from the west in three columns, consisting of infantry and cavalry, supported by artillery. I was upon the ground in a few minutes, and rallied my pickets upon the main body of our troops in Bolivar. In a short time, the action became general. The advanced guard of the rebels, consisting of several hundred cavalry, charged gallantly towards the upper part of the town, and their artillery and infantry soon took position upon the heights from which my pickets had been driven. The enemy’s three pieces of artillery were stationed on and near the Charlestown road where it crosses Bolivar Heights. They had one 32-pounder Columbiad, one steel rifled 13-pounder, and one brass 6-pounder, all of which were served upon the troops of my command with great activity, the large gun throwing alternately solid shot, shell, and grape, and the others principally fuse shell. While these demonstrations were being made in front a large body of men made their appearance upon Loudoun Heights, with four pieces of cannon and sharpshooters stationed at the most eligible points of the mountain, to bombard our troops, and greatly annoy us in the use of the ferry on the Potomac. The commencement of the firing upon our front and left was almost simultaneous.

In order to prevent the enemy from crossing the Shenandoah, I detached a company of the Thirteenth Massachusetts Regiment, under command of Captain Shriber, for the defense of the fords on that river. He took position near the old rifle works, and during the action rendered good service there. There then remained under my immediate (241) command about 450 men. With these the fierce charge of the enemy’s cavalry was soon checked and turned back. A second and a third charge was made by them, increasing in impetuosity with each repetition, during which they were supported, in addition to the artillery, by long lines of infantry stationed on Bolivar Heights, who kept up a continuous firing. They were repulsed each time with effect. Under this concentrated fire our troops held their position until 11 o’clock, when Lieutenant Martin, by my order, joined me with one rifled cannon, which, had been placed to cover the ferry, he having crossed the river with it under a galling fire of riflemen from Loudoun Heights. ** I then pushed forward my right flank, consisting of two companies (A and G) of the Twenty-eighth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers. They succeeded in turning the enemy’s left near the Potomac, and gained a portion of the heights. At the same time Lieutenant Martin opened a well-directed fire upon the enemy’s cannon in our front, and Captain Tompkins succeeded in silencing some of the enemy’s guns on Loudoun Heights. These services, simultaneously rendered, were of great importance, and the turning of the enemy’s flank being the key to the success of the action, I instantly ordered a general forward movement, which terminated in a charge, and we were soon in possession of the heights from river to river. There I halted the troops, and from that position they drove the fugitives with a well-directed aim of cannon and small-arms across the valley in the direction of Halltown. . . ** Immediately after the capture of the heights, Major Tyndale arrived with a re-enforcement of five companies of my regiment from Point of Rocks, two of which he ordered to report to Major Gould at Sandy Hook, and soon joined me with the others on the field. The standard of the Twenty-eighth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers the flag of the Union was then unfurled on the soil of Virginia, and planted on an eminence of Bolivar Heights, and under its folds we directed the fire of our artillery against the batteries and forces on Loudoun Heights, and soon succeeded in silencing every gun and driving away every rebel that could be seen. The victory was complete. The loss of the enemy in killed and wounded is generally conceded to be about 150, which they carried back in wagons and on horses as rapidly as they fell. We took 4 prisoners, among whom is Rev. Nathaniel Green North, chaplain of Colonel Ashby’s command. He is said to have been present at every battle that has occurred in Virginia. The fine 32-pounder Columbiad (cannon), mounted on an old-fashioned gun-carriage, was captured, together with a quantity of ammunition for it, consisting of ball, shell, and grape shot, for the transportation of which a wagon was used as a caisson. . . . One of their small guns used at Bolivar Heights was disabled, having one of the wheels shot from the gun carriage by a well-directed shot from Lieutenant Martin. They succeeded in dragging it from the field.
** Our loss is 4 killed, 7 wounded, and 2 taken prisoners, . . . The greater part of the loss occurred in the Wisconsin companies, who gallantly sustained the position of our left flank throughout the contest. One of the soldiers taken by the enemy (242) was Private Edgar Ross, of Company C, Third Wisconsin Regiment, who was wounded in the action. The other, Corporal Beniah Pratt, of Company A, Twenty-eighth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, was accidentally taken by a few of the enemy, whom he mistook for Massachusetts men, their uniform corresponding in all respects to that of the latter. The four men who were killed were afterwards charged upon by the cavalry and stabbed through the body, stripped of all their clothing, not excepting their shoes and stockings, and left in perfect nudity. One was laid in the form of a crucifixion, with his hands spread out, and cut through the palms with a dull knife. This inhuman treatment incensed my troops exceedingly, and I fear its consequences may be shown in retaliatory acts hereafter. . . . More – J. GEARY, Chapter XIV, Official Record, Series I, Volume 5, pp. 240-243

22. 1861.October.16.Harpers.Ferry.Destruction.Foundry:
Federal Gen. Geary described the event that occurred late on October 16th:
I visited the iron foundry at Shenandoah City, and ascertained that it was used by the rebels for casting shot and shell of all kinds. I ordered it to be burned, which was done the same night. . . . – J. GEARY, Chapter XIV, Official Record, Series I, Volume 5, p. 243.

23. 1861.October.18.Harpers.Ferry.Destruction.Herr’s.Mill:
Federal commander John Geary reports on the event of October 18th:
On this morning a few of the enemy in citizens’ dress came secretly to Harper’s Ferry, by way of the Shenandoah road, burned Herr’s mill, from which a great portion of the wheat had been taken, and immediately retired. – J. GEARY – Chapter XIV, Official Record, Series I, Volume 5, pp. 242-243.

24. 1861.December.Dams.4.5.Attempts.To.Destroy:
Confederate Cavalryman Harry Gilmor describes these efforts:

– Gilmor, pp. 24-26.

25. 1862.February.7.Harpers.Ferry.Destruction.of.Town:
On February 7, 1862, Union forces did their part in the destruction, completing the ruination of the railroad’s properties in the town. – Caplinger, p. 50.

United States forces under Col. Geary crossed over into Harper’s Ferry and burned the Company’s hotel, warehouse, ticket office and water station, also 38 panels, 570 feet in length, of wood work on the double track iron trestling through the arsenal yard and boatway bridge. This was the remainder of the Company’s property in Harper’s Ferry not destroyed by the enemy. – Harwood, p. 77.

26. 1862.May.28.CharlesTown.Skirmish.Destruction.Town.Hall:
David Hunter Strother, with family in the County and an officer on the staff of Federal Gen. Banks, wrote this diary-account of the May 28th events: May 28, Wednesday. Threatened rain. Went forward with a reconnoissance toward Charles Town. We saw nothing until we arrived at the hill near the Charles Town toll gate where a sharp fire of musketry was opened on our advance by some Rebel pickets stationed on the road at the fair ground. Ashby was there as usual, circus-riding up and down. We brought up our battery and opened with shells. I asked the Captain to fire low to save the town. Half a dozen shots cleared them out. In the meantime, flanking parties of cavalry were sent around the town. Having cleaned out the pickets, the artillery opened on our own troops. Three or four tumbled off their horses, which caused great excitement among the fools at the supposed loss of the enemy. I stopped the firing and urged the Colonel to advance his infantry now that the enemy were gone. Instead of this, he ordered three cheers for Captain Loder. The whole command responded. Somebody then called three cheers for somebody else and so they went on cheering like fools at a public meeting. Riding forward, I got the cavalry to advance, which they did in good style, notwithstanding some straggling shots against them. When I got to Mrs. Hunter’s house (Strother’s relative-JS), I stopped and stood guard over it. The troops went firing down every cross street as they rushed to the other end of town.

26. Strother described the burning of Town Hall on May 28th:
Some stopped and, breaking open the town hall, set fire to it. As it began to burn fiercely, I endeavored to get some soldiers and then some citizens to put it out. The soldiers did nothing and the citizens who showed willingness to act were deterred through fear of the soldiers. I appealed to the colonel of infantry just marching by and then to the major commanding the rear guard, but they flatly refused or evaded my request. The flames rose fiercely and threatened to destroy the village. Seeing a young officer with a squad of men halted in front of Redmonds (hotel nearly opposite the courthouse-JS), I inquired his name and corps. He said he was Captain Healy of the 8th New York Cavalry. I asked him to put himself and squad under my command. He cheerfully did so. I put him to guard the streets and then invited the citizens to get out their engines, and to prevent the further progress of the fire. Negroes, women, and all turned in, and in an hour or two the hall was burned down but all the adjacent buildings safe.

Passing to the lower part of the town I saw the colonel of the regiment ordering the opening of a store. I inquired as to its propriety. He said he had been ordered to search for Confederate arms and stores. This was a lie. Seeing his men carrying out tobacco I asked him if those were Confederate stores. He looked abashed and called to the men to stop taking the tobacco, but they paid no attention to him whatever. I left in disgust. Returning to the house I got a milk toddy, my dinner, and a cup of coffee.

27. Strother described the encounter, beginning late on May 28:
While we dined, cannon began to roar at the other end of town and scattered horsemen galloped to the rear. Presently a whole squadron rushed by as if the devil was after them. I also noticed the infantry double-quicking it up the street in a body. I rode down far enough to see the smoke of Ashby’s cannon crowning the high ground on the old Winchester road. Everything looked like a disgraceful stampede. For the first two miles the road was strewed with plunder gotten by the rascals during their three-hour sojourn in the village. – Strother, pp. 47-48.

28. Local resident George Baylor of the Virginia 12th Cavalry described the same events of May 27-28th in Charles Town and the skirmish on May 29th from the perspective of those entering the town and driving the Federal soldiers out:
After Banks’s defeat at that point, (on May 26th-JS) the company was ordered in the direction of Charlestown, which place we entered the day following (May 27-JS), finding a considerable amount of abandoned stores, but as we had no means of removing them, the enemy returned the next day (May 28-JS), drove us out, and destroyed them. As these stores were burning, (On May 29-JS) General Winder, with the Stonewall Brigade, put in an appearance, and the enemy hastily retreated. On this occasion the market-house and railroad station were destroyed by the enemy. General Winder moved with his brigade to the vicinity of Harper’s Ferry, but on the 30th received orders to retire up the Valley with infantry and cavalry. . . – Baylor. pp. 40-42.

Local resident, Confederate artilleryman and eyewitness Roger Preston Chew also described the May 29th event:
Winder with the Stonewall Brigade and some Artillery was ordered to Charles Town. The enemy had formed a line of battle on Potato Hill in Charles Town. General Winder planted his artillery near Cooke’s house, and deploying his infantry commenced an attack at once. The enemy soon gave way and retreated in great confusion through the town. The Market House and Railroad Station had been destroyed by the enemy the day before. General Winder pursued to the vicinity of Harper’s Ferry, but was ordered back on the 30th, and made his wonderful march to Strasburg. – Chew, p. 35. – ROADSIDE MARKER NUMBER NINETEEN.

29. 1862.May.29-30.Harpers.Ferry.Operations
See VIDEO: Dennis Frye – Stonewall is Stopped, Harper’s Ferry May 30, 1862 by Jim Surkamp Click Here. – TRT: 15:43.
See POST/VIDEO Illustrated Transcript: Dennis Frye: Stonewall is Stopped, Harper’s Ferry May 30, 1862 by Jim Surkamp Click Here. – 4558 words.

30 & 31). 1862.August.23.Summit.Point.Wade.Depot.Train.Attack;
1862.Evening.August.23.Smithfield.Capture – ROADSIDE MARKER NUMBER TWELVE (in Smithfield/Middleway):

30. Train Attack between Summit Point and Wade’s Depot on August 23rd:
Resident and artilleryman Roger P. Chew described the August 23rd event between Summit Point and Wade’s Depot:

(NOTE: Official references in the War’s Official Record to this event placed the railroad train’s capture in Harper’s Ferry. But Harper’s Ferry was the place of origination of the train; the actual capture, according to these eye-witness accounts, locate the capture of the train at Wade’s depot near Summit Point coming from Harpers Ferry about 20 miles away.-JS). In August, 1862 Lieutenant Rouss with Lieut. Baylor, Lieutenant Rowland and thirty men marched down the valley intending to attack the train between Summit Point and Wade’s Depot. In each of these places the enemy had stationed eighty infantry and five cavalry. The distance between the depots was four miles. At four o’clock in the afternoon the road was reached, and soon after the whistle of the engine was heard. Obstructions were placed across the track to bring the train to a stand-still. This proved effectual and when the engine struck the obstruction, the train was halted. It was then boarded by our men and eight yankee soldiers were captured. The express car was opened, where they found baskets of champagne and boxes of fruit. It is needless to say, as the men were thirsty and hungry, they proceeded to partake of these good things. The express safe was opened and $4,000 in U. S. money was taken out. Nothing remained to be done but to burn the car. This was done effectually and a full head of steam was put on the engine and it was started in the direction of Winchester. The telegraph wire was cut for two hundred yards. Lieutenant Rowland with thirteen men took charge of the prisoners, and started back over the route they came, while Lieutenants Rouss and Baylor, with the seventeen men remaining, determined to penetrate farther into Jefferson County.

31. Surprise and Capture in Smithfield on August 23th:
R. P. Chew described the Smithfield event on August 23rd:

Lieutenant Rouss with these men moved in the direction of Smithfield, five miles distant. When they arrived within half a mile of the town the blue uniforms of the yankee pickets were discovered. Thinking we were a scouting party of their own men, Rouss and his party approached within twenty yards of them before they discovered who they were. The command was given to charge, and before they could fire a shot, our men were upon them and captured all three with their arms and equipment. These pickets informed our men that there were fourteen of their companions in town. A charge was made and the fourteen yankees were captured, being taken completely by surprise. The spoils amounted to 17 horses, 20 revolvers, 5 Sharpe’s carbines, saddles, bridles and other trappings. After the capture Lieut. Rouss led his men safely back into our lines. – Chew, pp. 19-20.
More at Chew:
In August, 1862, Lieutenant Rouss and Baylor; with seventeen men, captured seventeen yankees with their horses and equipments complete, in the Main street of Smithfield, not losing a man. – Chew, p. 23.
More at Baylor, pp. 56-60.

Federal General Julius White and Baltimore & Ohio Railroad president, John W. Garrett, report of the August 23rd train capture and Smithfield event in the Official Record:
Wrote Garrett of the events of August 23rd:

. . . at 4 p.m. a squadron of the enemy’s cavalry stopped the passenger train between Harper’s Ferry and Winchester; took the agent of Adams Express and all on board prisoners except two, who escaped, and burned the train and cut the telegraph wire. The command of Lieutenant Milling, at Smithfield, a point west of Winchester road and en route to Martinsburg, was captured during the evening. – J. GARRETT, Chapter XXIV, Official Record, Series I, Part 3, Volume 12, pp. 650-651.

Wrote Federal General Julius White of the August 23rd events:
The railroad train from Harper’s Ferry to this place was fired into and burned this afternoon; the mail captured, and telegraph wire cut. A few soldiers coming here were taken. With what mounted force I can muster I am trying to intercept the marauders. – J. WHITE, Chapter XXIV, Official Record, Series I, Part 3, Volume 12, p. 652.

32. 1862.September.2.Keyes.Ford.Skirmish:
Confederate Cavalryman and local resident George Baylor described the September 2nd event and adds an account from a letter of a federal eyewitness:
On September 2d, the day General White evacuated Winchester, about 9 am., with six men, we attacked the enemy’s picket near Keyes Ford, a short distance south of Harper’s Ferry, taking eight prisoners, with their horses and equipments, without loss. The Federal account of this little dash is as follows (based on a letter to the author Baylor-JS): Lieutenant Bierney, with an orderly, went to Keyes Ford to ascertain the truth of the reported capture of Cole’s cavalry pickets, and ascertained the facts to be as follows: A party of 25 Confederate cavalry dashed down the Kabletown or River road and captured the outer vidette, a quarter of a mile from his comrades, and forced him to inform them of the position of the others, who were at that time in a cornshed, dismounted. They dashed in and captured the party without resistance on the part of our pickets. – Baylor, p. 70.

33. 1862.September.3-4.CharlesTown.Reconnaissance: From Harper’s Ferry to Lovettsville and Charles Town – Chapter XXXI, Series I, Part 1, Vol. 19, p. 157.

Charles Town Farmer Charles Aglionby wrote in his farm diary of the September 4th event:
There was a skirmish between some Confederate rangers and Federal cavalry. Carey Selden was shot in the mouth and a Federal soldier was shot in the groin. The Federals retired towards H. Ferry – Aglionby, Farm Diary, September 4, 1862.

34. 1862.September.12.Halltown.Skirmish:
Eyewitness George Baylor of the Virginia 12th Cavalry described the September 12th event:
About noon we again entered Charlestown and followed the enemy to Halltown. While occupying a position near Halltown, we were surprised at seeing General Jackson’s advance approaching on the Martinsburg road, en route to Harper’s Ferry. From them we learned that our troops were moving on Maryland and Loudoun Heights and investing Harper’s Ferry. – Baylor, p. 72.

Federal General Julius White reported on the September 12th incident near Halltown: (As White’s men were evacuating from Martinsburg en route to Harper’s Ferry), Upon the march, the pickets of the enemy were encountered at Halltown, but they were driven back to Charlestown, the command arriving safely at Harper’s Ferry on the afternoon of the 12th. – White – Chapter XXXI, Official Record, Series I,Part 1, Vol. 19, p. 524.

35. 1862.September.12-15.Harpers.Ferry.Siege.Capture:
See POST: The Fall of “Freedomland” – Harper’s Ferry, September, 1862 – With Dennis Frye. Click Here. 25,220 words.
See VIDEO: The Capture of Harper’s Ferry, Va. September, 1862 with Historian Dennis Frye. Click Here. TRT: 45:12.

(Outside County) 1862.September.15-17.Antietam.Campaign:
See POST: Video Illustrated Transcript: Antietam – Decisions Sorely Missed by Jim Surkamp
Click Here. – 7125 words.
See VIDEO: Antietam – Decisions Sorely Missed Click Here. – TRT: 40:40.

36. 1862.September.17.December.Shepherdstown.County.Hospital.Care.Antietam:
See POST: The Home Front in Jefferson County Then-VA, Fall, 1862 by Jim Surkamp. Click Here.
1449 words.
See VIDEO: The Home Front in Jefferson County Then-Virginia, September-October, 1862. Click Here. TRT: 12:07.

See POST: Unforgettable, Wounded Thousands – 3 Women Paint the Picture from September, 1862 Click Here. 12556 words. ALLOW about thirty seconds for site to download

See VIDEO: Shepherdstown’s Wounded Thousands – Sept., 1862 by Jim Surkamp Click Here. TRT: 54:53.

37-38. 1862.September.19.Botelers.Ford.Skirmish; 1862.September.20.Action.Shepherdstown:
See POST: A “Small” Blunder Ends Lee’s Campaign – Sept. 19-20, 1862 With Thomas A. McGrath – Click Here. 6496 words.
See VIDEO: A “Small” Blunder Ends Lee’s Campaign – Sept. 19-20, 1862 With Thomas A. McGrath – Click Here. TRT: 35:02. Video link:
See POST/VIDEO Transcript – One “Small” Blunder Ends Lee’s Campaign – Sept. 19-20, 1862 With Thomas A. McGrath – Click Here. 5169 words.

39. 1862.September.21.October.8.Bridges.Main.Stem.Destroyed:
In September, 1862, the rebels returned and again laid waste to the railroad. Confederate troops destroyed much of the B&O main stem between Harper’s Ferry and Martinsburg and absconded with equipment, using teams of horses to haul locomotives over dirt roads into southern territory. They blew up two new Bollman trusses (spans three and four) as well as Bollman’s original 1852 Winchester span. Troops also burned the remainder of the temporary Potomac trustle, twenty-four spans of armory-trestle woodwork, the boatway trestle, and the 148-foot-long government power canal bridge. The latter had been the last undamaged wooden bridge remaining between Monocacy and Cumberland. . . One locomotive dangled in the trestlework at the west end of the Potomac bridge, while another sat and burned in the west of town until repair crews arrived. – Caplinger, p. 50-51.; Harwood, pp. 77-78.

Confederate General Robert E. Lee wrote of the destruction of Baltimore & Ohio as well as Winchester & Potomac railroad lines and equipment from that time period:
The condition of our troops now demanded repose, and the army marched to the Opequon, near Martinsburg, where it remained several days, and then moved to the vicinity of Bunker Hill and Winchester. The enemy seemed to be concentrating in and near Harper’s Ferry, but made no forward movement. During this time the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was destroyed for several miles, and that from Winchester to Harper’s Ferry broken up to within a short distance of the latter place, in order to render the occupation of the Valley by the enemy after our withdrawal more difficult. – R.E. LEE, Chapter XXXI, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Vol. 19, p. 152.

40. 1862.September.25.Halltown.CharlesTown.Reconnaissance
George Neese in the Confederate Cavalry wrote of the September 25th event:
The very next day – the 25th – the Federals did move from Harper’s Ferry on reconnaissance on Charles Town. This morning we ordered up the Berryville pike. We went about three miles toward Berryville, then came right back to camp. After we got back we moved camp to Leetown, which is seven miles from Charlestown, on the Smithfield and Shepherdstown road. – Neese, p. 127.

Heros Von Borcke, on Confederate Cavalry General J.E.B.Stuart’s staff, wrote of the September 25th event:
Quite unexpectedly I received orders next morning from General Stuart to proceed with half of the Staff and couriers to Charlestown, nearly twenty miles off, and to establish near there, until further instructions, a second headquarters, to which reports from Robertson’s brigade, forming the right wing of our line, should be sent, and from which, in case of urgency, they should be transmitted by me to General Jackson, at Bunker Hill. . . . (263) On my way to the scene of action, I met a courier from Colonel Munford, who reported that the enemy had driven back our pickets opposite Harper’s Ferry, and was advancing towards Charlestown in considerable strength. I found the brigades drawn up across the broad turnpike leading to the river, on a slight range of hills beyond Charlestown, and our artillery well posted and already hotly engaged with two Federal batteries. A large number of our men were dismounted as sharpshooters, and the firing ran briskly along our whole line. The combat grew for a time fiercer and fiercer, and the Yankees seemed determined upon driving us off; but during the afternoon we assumed the offensive and repulsed them heavily, chasing their flying columns into the protecting fortifications of Harper’s Ferry. Our loss in killed (264) and wounded was small; that of the Federals must have been large, for, besides those left upon the field, many of their wounded were carried off in their ambulances, which I had seen moving to and fro all the morning. We took twenty-five prisoners. More . . . – Borcke, pp. 261-265.

41. 1862.September.24-25.Shepherdstown.Reconnaissance:
Federal Cavalryman Pleasonton described the events of September 24-25:

By direction of General McClellan, I am about to throw a squadron of cavalry across the river at the ford near Shepherdstown. I am instructed to notify you of the same. The party will be at the ford within an hour, and a small detachment will first cross over to feel the way. – A. PLEASONTON, Chapter XIX, Official Record, Series I, Part 2, Vol. 19. p. 355.

Dr. Abner Hard of the 8th Illinois Cavalry Regiment wrote of the September 24-25th events:
Near the village we encountered the rebel pickets who beat a hasty retreat, but our movements were ordered and executed so quickly and with such celerity, that the village was surrounded and occupied before many were aware of our presence. The place had the appearance of one immense hospital, nearly every house being filled with wounded which had been taken from the battle of Antietam. Among them were some union prisoners which we provided for with great pleasure. We drove the enemy some three miles beyond the town, and took about thirty prisoners, among them Lieutenant Colonel Lee of the Thirty-third Virginia Infantry. He was finely mounted and equipped, and expressed himself greatly chagrined at being captured. Toward evening the regiment returned to camp with their prisoners, proud of their day’s work. More . . . – Hard, p. 190.

42. 1862.September.28.CharlesTown.Skirmish:
Von Borcke, of Confederate Gen. Stuart’s staff, wrote of the September 28th events:

(266) General Stuart had meanwhile shifted his headquarters to a point exactly in rear of the centre of our outpost lines, and much nearer to Jackson than my own position at Charlestown, thus rendering my further detached duty unnecessary. Accordingly, on the morning of the 28th, orders reached me to join him at The Bower, a plantation eight miles from Martinsburg, and about ten from Charlestown. Two-thirds of our march thither had been already accomplished, and we were just entering the little village of Leetown, when a heavy cannonade was heard from the neighbourhood we had left, and Stuart soon came galloping towards us. His orders now were that I (267) should return with him at once to the scene of the conflict. Riding at full speed, in an hour’s time we reached the spot, where our troops were hard pressed by the far superior numbers of the foe. General Stuart immediately sent instructions to Fitz Lee to come with all haste to his support, and determined upon trying to maintain his position until his reinforcements should arrive. Munford and his men had been fighting with their accustomed gallantry; but the Yankees receiving again and again fresh troops from Harper’s Ferry, and their numerous batteries pouring upon us a most destructive fire, we were compelled to retreat and abandon Charlestown, which was instantly occupied by the enemy, who halted there, and did not seek to push their success farther. Their possession of the town, however, was of very short duration; for Fitz Lee suddenly appearing on their right flank at the same moment that we attacked them vigorously in front, they were now driven in turn to their stronghold of Harper’s Ferry; and before nightfall we had regained our old lines and re-established our pickets. – Von Borcke, p. 266.

43. 1862.October.1.Shepherdstown.Opequon.Martinsburg.Reconnaissance.Skirmish:
Confederate General Robert E. Lee wrote of this October 1st event in his report:
The enemy’s cavalry, under General Pleasonton, with six pieces of artillery, drove back our pickets yesterday in front of Shepherdstown. The Ninth Virginia Cavalry, which was on picket, repulsed the enemy several times, by vigorous charges, disputing the ground, step by step, back to the main body. By the time his artillery reached him, Col. W. H. F. Lee, who was in command of the brigade, was obliged to place it on the west bank of the Opequon, on the flank of the enemy as he approached Martinsburg. General Hampton’s brigade had retired through Martinsburg on the Tuscarora road, when General Stuart arrived and made dispositions to attack. Lee’s brigade was advanced immediately and Hampton’s ordered forward. The enemy retired, at the approach of Lee, along the Shepherdstown road, and was driven across the Potomac by the cavalry, . . More . . . – R. E. LEE, Chapter XIX, Official Record, Series I, Part 2, Vol. 19. p. 12.

Participant Dr. Hard, with Federals under Gen. Pleasonton, described the October 1st reconnaissance and skirmish:
Selecting the Eighth Illinois, a portion of the Eighth Pennsylvania, and one battery of Regular Artillery, he crossed the Potomac at Shepherdstown, at an early hour on the morning of the 1st of October, the Eighth Illinois being in the advance. We had proceeded but two or three miles when the advance guard, under command of Captain Forsythe, came upon tho enemy’s cavalry. The Captain, with a furious charge, such as he was in the habit of making, gallantly dispersed their advance, but finding them in too strong force to be easily driven, a section of the artillery was brought forward and forced them to retire, which they did very reluctantly, stoutly contesting every part of the road to Martinsburg, a distance of seven or eight miles. On approaching the town our troops were ordered to make a dash into it, which they did, capturing a number of the enemy, releasing some of our men held as prisoners of war, securing a quantity of plunder and driving a large force of them out of the place. It was about one o’clock when we entered and took possession. During the forenoon the rebel cavalry manifested that stubbornness and confidence which is always inspired by the consciousness of superior numbers. Our forces sustained a loss of several wounded but none killed. We killed one or two of their number. Numerous bodies of the enemy had been seen at a distance during the day, and while we remained in possession of the town they still lingered, keeping up a constant fire on our pickets and advanced posts. Our prisoners showed by their conduct that they had very little idea of being obliged to re-cross the Potomac with us. From the inhabitants, some of whom were union at heart, we learned that a large force was encamped about us; and we afterwards ascertained that during all this time, up to four o’clock in the afternoon, the commander of the rebels was engaged concentrating his forces ready to “gobble up” our entire command whenever we attempted to return. However we had a word to say on that subject.

At about four o’clock pm., General Pleasanton having gained all the information possible of the situation of the rebel army, made preparations to return. This move called for more military skill, caution and courage than it had required to advance. We were twelve miles from Shepherdstown, the nearest ford, with a force not to exceed eight hundred men, (our regiment being very much reduced at that time,) and with an opposition of five or six times our number on all sides, well acquainted with the country, of which we were comparatively ignorant. On withdrawing, the Eighth Illinois was placed in the rear of the column, the rear guard being commanded by Major Medill. Scarcely had our pickets left their post before the rebel cavalry came pouring along in pursuit. The streets were filled and completely blockaded with them. A section of our artillery, placed on a slight eminence just outside of town, and trained to bear on a bridge, with a few well directed shots held the enemy in check for a short time, and created considerable confusion in their ranks. More . . . – Hard, pp. 190-193.

Confederate General Robert E. Lee summarizes Gen. Stuart’s Oct. 8-14th journey::

On October 8 General Stuart was ordered to cross the Potomac above Williamsport with 1,200 or 1,500 cavalry (NOTE: 1800, in Stuart’s report.-JS), and endeavor to ascertain the position and designs of the enemy. He was directed, if practicable, to enter Pennsylvania, and do all in his power to impede and embarrass the military operations of the enemy. This order was executed with skill, address, and courage. General Stuart passed through Maryland, occupied Chambersburg, and destroyed a large amount of public property, making the entire circuit of General McClellan’s army. He recrossed the Potomac below Harpers Ferry without loss. – R.E. LEE, Chapter XXXI, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Vol. 19, p. 152.

(45.) 1862.October.16.Smithfield.Reconnaissance
(46.) 1862.October.16-17.Kearneysville.Skirmish – ROADSIDE MARKERS NO. 1, 8, & 6:
Local resident and Confederate artilleryman, Roger P. Chew, described the October 16th event in Kearneysville:
On the Sixteenth of October, 1862, Brigadier General Humphreys crossed the Potomac at Boteler’s Ford, with six thousand infantry, five hundred cavalry, and six pieces of artillery, and advanced on the roads leading to Kearneysville. Another force, commanded by Brigadier General W. S. Hancock, with his own brigade, fifteen hundred from other brigades, four regiments of cavalry, and four pieces of artillery, advanced from Harpers Ferry at the same time, in the direction of Charles Town. We had, at the time, a line of pickets extending from the North Mountain to the Shenandoah River. The advance was so sudden that it cut off some of the pickets.

45. 1862.October.16.Smithfield.Reconnaissance
46. 1862.October.16-17.Kearneysville.Skirmish – ROADSIDE MARKER NUMBER ONE
Roger P. Chew described fighting between Kearneysville to Smithfield from October 16-17:
Humphrey’s advance guard went as far as Smithfield, and his main body a little south of Kearneysville. The Confederates had been destroying the railroad in this section, and some of General Winder’s Infantry was near. They, with Fitz Lee and Hampton’s Brigades of Cavalry, commanded by General Stuart, attacked late in the evening of the sixteenth of October, (Marker No. 1), and, after some severe fighting, drove him from his position. They were steadily driven back on the Seventeenth, but made a determined stand two miles south of Shepherdstown, on the Shepherdstown and Duffields road at what is called the Forks. A brigade of regulars, commanded by Major Lovell, U.S.A. occupied this part of the field, and the importance of holding it was apparent. Back of him was the Trough road which led to the ford on the Potomac and also the road leading to Shepherdstown. If the position were carried his retreat was endangered. Trees were felled across the road to impede the artillery and cavalry, but Winder’s infantry forced them back slowly, and the whole force crossed into Maryland. – Chew, p. 8.

47. 1862.October.16-17.CharlesTown.Reconnaissance:
Artilleryman and local resident Roger P. Chew described an artillery duel at the old fair grounds near Charles Town – MARKER NUMBER TWENTY-ONE:
After the battle of Sharpsburg, McClellan remained north of the Potomac for about thirty days, when he crossed below Harper’s Ferry with his artillery on October 16, 1863. To screen that movement he sent Hancock with a large force of infantry, cavalry and artillery to make a reconnaissance in the direction of Charles Town. Our cavalry under the command of General T. T. Munford retired before this force until they reached a point about half a mile below Charles Town, known as the Old Fair Grounds. Here a section of Chew’s Battery under Lieutenant J. W. Carter and two guns of the Richmond Howitsers, a third company under Captain B. H. Smith were placed in position, and opened on the enemy, who had planted their batteries on the hill about three quarters of a mile below, known as Butler’s Hill. A severe engagement between the artillery on either side took place at this point, although the enemy were greatly superior in number and guns. – Chew, pp. 36-37.

George Baylor of the Virginia 12th Cavalry recounts the October 16-17 events:
{On September 18th}, Company B was ordered back to Harper’s Ferry, with instructions to picket the Potomac at that point and report any movement of the enemy in that direction. This position was held by our company until the enemy crossed in force and drove us back to Halltown. We remained at Halltown until the 16th of October, when a column of the enemy under General Hancock advanced, and, after a brisk fight just east of Charlestown, our small force of cavalry under Colonel Munford was driven back, and Charlestown was occupied by the enemy. On the afternoon of the 17th, General Hancock withdrew his command to Harper’s Ferry, and Charlestown was again occupied by us and pickets posted at Halltown. General McClellan having now crossed the Potomac east of the Blue Ridge, began his march southward, and General Lee, who had been resting his army near Bunker Hill, moved across the mountains to confront him, but our company was left at its post. – Baylor, pp. 73-74

Excerpts from the report of Federal commander Winfield Hancock about the Oct. 16-17 events:
On the 16th instant, in obedience to instructions, I marched toward Charlestown, Va., with my division and 1,500 men of other divisions, under command of Col. W. R.. Lee, Twentieth Massachusetts Volunteers, and a force of cavalry, with a battery of four guns (horse artillery), Colonel Devin being in command thereof. . . . The advance of our column encountered the enemy’s pickets beyond Halltown, drove them in, and pursued until, when within short artillery range of the high ground this side of Charlestown, the enemy was found posted. He opened fire upon us with artillery. Our horse artillery battery, supported by Capt. M. A. Reno’s First Cavalry, then engaged the enemy, who opened fire from five guns, and deployed dismounted cavalry as skirmishers on their front and flanks. . . . We soon ascertained that the enemy had been driven away by the fire of our artillery, together with the threatened attack by the infantry. His force only consisted of the artillery already referred to, with two or three regiments of cavalry. The town was at once taken possession of and the troops suitably disposed for defense. Toward evening our infantry advanced and occupied the heights surrounding the town, within artillery range. . . The command remained in Charlestown until about 2 pm. The next day, when we received orders to return. It then marched to Halltown, and occupied that position during the night. The next morning, after an examination of the roads, and it being found there was no enemy in front, the command returned to Harper’s Ferry. While in Charlestown I appointed Col. J. R. Brooke, of the Fifty-third Pennsylvania Volunteers, military governor, the better to preserve order. About 100 officers and soldiers of the Confederate Army were found in the town, consisting entirely, it is believed, of surgeons, hospital attendants, convalescents, and sick. Twenty-six were sent to the provost-marshal at Harper’s Ferry, and 38 wounded and unable to be removed, were paroled. Time did not permit the paroling of all who were severely wounded, as they were scattered throughout the town, requiring more time than we had for the purpose, to find them. The casualties (from the skirmish-JS) on either side were about equal, and were not numerous. I found some parts of artillery carriages belonging to the enemy, which I destroyed. . . More . . . W. HANCOCK, Chapter XIX, Official Record, Series I, Part 2, Vol. 19. pp. 91-92


Roger P. Chew described the above-mentioned skirmish – ROADSIDE MARKER NUMBER EIGHT:
Company D, of the Twelfth Virginia Cavalry, was picketing from Engle’s Hill to the Shepherdstown road. The reserve was near where Marker No. 8 stands, at the intersection of the Uvilla and Charles Town roads. A sharp encounter took place between the Federal advance and company D, a little south of this point in Rocky Lane. Captain Knott was wounded in the shoulder. Many of the company were from this section, and knew every road. They easily made their way through the enemy’s lines and joined the Regiment. (Thus they played even; for about a month previous, our line of pickets were being advanced, and company D struck their pickets at Duffields, and chased them back on their company reserve at Marker 8. They held their own until the company had closed up, when a charge was made and they were driven to Lucas’ woods, where a regiment was stationed. They all decamped and crossed the Potomac). – Chew, p. 8.

49. 1862.November.1.Halltown.Skirmish:
George Baylor, of the 12th Virginia cavalry, wrote of the November 1st event:
On November 1st, while our company reserve was occupying a little woods on the Brown farm, we were surprised in our camp in the early morning by a dash made by the enemy’s cavalry. Our horses were unsaddled and unbridled and tied to trees. Awakening from our slumbers and realizing the situation, we fought the enemy on foot and drove them out of camp and over a hill in our front; then, while keeping up a fire with a few men, the others retired to camp, saddled, bridled, and mounted, and, making a charge on the enemy, drove them back to Halltown. Just in front of Mr. Shaeffer’s house my horse received a fatal wound and I a slight one in the calf of my leg, which was not sufficient to render me hors de combat, I led the noble animal, which I dearly loved, and whose very life seemed bound to mine by dangers shared and daily companionship, to the roadside, where she laid down on the green turf. Her breathing too plainly indicated that death was near. As her eyes rested on me in fondness and affection, human nature could not resist, and, kneeling down by her side, and clasping my arms about her neck, I wept. When I arose she was dead. She died, and with her life passed away my hopes and aspirations for her whose name she bore. The dream of my young life vanished, and the hopes of the future were dissipated. . . . The enemy having made a stand at Halltown, our company passed unobserved to the south of the turnpike, in the rear of Rion Hall, coming in their rear just east of the town, and, making a dash, routed and drove them in confusion over the hills. In this fracas we captured seven prisoners. This force proved to be Cole’s Cavalry battalion. – Baylor, p. 74.

50. 1862.November.9-10.Rippon.CharlesTown.Skirmish:
From a Federal report in the Official Record on the events of November 9-10:
The command has been actively employed in picketing 3 miles of front, from the Potomac to the Shenandoah, occasionally harassed by small parties of rebel cavalry, without any serious casualties. A large portion of the division has also been arduously engaged in fatigue duties, felling timber, and constructing and improving the fortifications of the position. . . November 9, a reconnaissance in force was made by the division, under brigadier-general commanding, to Rippon, within 6 miles of Berryville, driving the enemy before them, capturing prisoners, arms, horses, and cattle, and ascertaining the location and strength of the enemy in the valley between this point and Front Royal. – Itinerary of the Twelfth Army Corps, September-November 30, 1862. SECOND DlVISION. Chapter XXXI, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Vol. 19. p. 481.

51. See No. 49.

52. 1862.November.24.25.Shepherdstown.Capture:
Federal troops locate a Confederate scouting party in Shepherdstown. They kill its leader, Redmond Burke, and capture the others. The following day they search homes in Shepherdstown.
See POST: The Fall of Redmond Burke and the “Harvard Men”, With Author Steve French words 7988.
1. The “Harvard men” Hunt Down “Bushwhacker” Burke – November 24, 1862, Shepherdstown, VA TRT: 16:30.
2. Shepherdstown, VA. November, 1862 & The Shameful Searchers TRT: 23:06.

53. 1862.November.26.Cockralls.Mill.Skirmish:
From a Federal report in the Official Record on the events of November 26:
A . . . reconnaissance, with 600 infantry and two pieces of artillery, under the general commanding the division (Gen. George S. Greene, 2nd Division, XIIth Crops, Federal Army.-JS) was made on the 26th as far as Charlestown, having a skirmish with the enemy’s cavalry at Cockralls Mill, on the Shenandoah, routing them, wounding several, and taking a number of prisoners, arms, and horses, together with a quantity of flour, and destroying at that place a cloth-mill in the employ of the rebels. – Itinerary of the Twelfth Army Corps, September-November 30, 1862. SECOND DlVISION. Chapter XXXI, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Vol. 19. p. 481.

54. 1862.December.2.CharlesTown.Skirmish:
Participant Baylor wrote of the December 2nd event:
. . . matters remained quiet in our front until the first part of December, when a column under General Geary, about 5,000 strong, advanced on Charlestown. Just east of the town we engaged his advance, and after a spirited contest, were driven back. In this fight, Sergeant Timberlake, Richard Baylor, and Charles Isler were wounded. The enemy passed through Charlestown and continued its route through Berryville to Winchester. Company B, falling in its rear, harassed the enemy along the route and captured some prisoners. Geary’s cavalry (Cole’s Battalion) kept close beside the infantry and could not be induced to part company. – Baylor, pp. 74-76.

55. 1862.December.20.Halltown.Skirmish:
Confederate Cavalryman George Baylor wrote of the December 20th event:
On the 20th of December, with 25 men, we moved down the River road and attacked the enemy’s reserve cavalry picket near the double toll-gate, just west of Bolivar Heights, capturing seven prisoners, horses and equipments, and as we were returning to Charlestown, at Lucas’s gate, just west of Halltown, encountered about 200 of Cole’s cavalry under Colonel Vernon, who, it seems, had started out on a raid to Charlestown, but on hearing the cannon firing at Bolivar heights had turned back to Harper’s Ferry. At the first glance we supposed them to be some of our regiment from Winchester, sent down to look after us, but soon realized the true situation and prepared for an attack. Five of our men had charge of the prisoners captured, which left us only 20 effective men. Both sides charged, we met near the cake and cider shop, and after a short struggle positions were exchanged, the enemy passing on to Harper’s Ferry and we to Charlestown. We brought off safely our seven prisoners, and wounded several others of the enemy. We lost one prisoner in the fight, W. L. Wilson. The enemy about a mile east of Charlestown picked up my father, who was unarmed, still a sufferer from his wound, and on a visit to some wards, but I was not aware of it until I returned to Charlestown. I met Colonel Cole that evening under flag of truce, and after inquiring after my father, proposed to him to make an exchange for him and Wilson, first offering him three for two, and finally offering his seven men for our two, but he declined. My father remained a prisoner from that time until late in 1864, but Wilson was soon exchanged and back with the company. – Baylor, pp. 77-78.

56. 1863.February.12.Smithfield.Skirmish – ROADSIDE MARKER NUMBER TWELVE:
Eyewitness and artilleryman Roger P. Chew described the February 12th event:
February, 1863, Lieut. Rouss with Lieut. Baylor, John Chew, Billie Manning, Charlie Henderson, John Yates, John Coleman, George Crayton, Billie Gibson, Up Manning, Joe Crane and Duck English marched to Summit Point where information was received that a small scouting party of about 21 men had passed that place in the direction of Smithfield. Rouss immediately started in pursuit of this party. Just before entering the town of Smithfield there is a long straight stretch of road, probably a mile long. There our party came in full view of the foe. The Confederates approached the enemy, who were entirely unmindful of our presence, and dashed into their rear and shot down some of their party before they were aware of any danger. No resistance was made, but pell-mell down through the town they ran, with Confederates behind them, yelling like hyenas. Summing up the result of the fight, four were found killed, three wounded, 7 men and 11 horses captured, without a casualty on our side. A negro man by the name of Redmond, a resident of Jefferson county, who had guided the yankees to people’s homes was shot by Lieut. Rouss and died in a stable north of the town. The party with their prisoners and horses, returned to Summit Point and from there to Locke’s shop, where a stop was made to have a horse shod. The smith had hardly completed the job when the yankees were seen approaching from Charles Town, and a handful of our men were sent to make a dash on the head of the column. This charge was led by John Chew and Charles Crane and was so successful that the head of the column was broken and thrown into confusion. The balance of the party retreated down Locke’s lane. The enemy pursued rapidly and, captured Frank Manning, John Coleman, and Lieut. Baylor. The rest of the party made their escape. – Chew, pp. 20-21.

57. 1863.February.12.CharlesTown.Skirmish:
R. P. Chew gives his account of the February 12th event in Charles Town:

February 12th, 1863, 21 men of the Twelfth Pennsylvania cavalry were scouting in that section, and so was Baylor with 13 of his company. Baylor completely surprised and routed them, killing four, wounding three, and capturing seven men and eleven horses. But on their return south of Charles Town, they encountered a large body of federal cavalry, and lost all they had captured, and Baylor and two of his men were made prisoners. – Chew, p. 23.

Federal General B. F. Kelley reported on both (Smithfield and Charles Town) events of February 12th:
Yesterday about 1 pm. a squad of {R. W.} Baylor’s rebel cavalry attacked a small scouting party of the Twelfth Pennsylvania Cavalry, from Kearneysville, of 12 men, near Smithfield, killing 1, wounding 2, and capturing 4 men and several horses. About 4 pm. my scouts from here fell in with the same party a few miles south of Charlestown, and, after a running fight of several miles, recaptured our men and horses, and captured Lieutenant [George] Baylor, two of his men, and several horses. – B. KELLEY, Chapter XXXVII, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Vol. 25. p. 15.

58. 1863.Early.May.16.CharlesTown.Skirmish – ROADSIDE MARKER NUMBER EIGHTEEN:
David Hunter Strother with the Federals, wrote of this second-hand report of the May 16th event:
May 16, Saturday. Took the cars for Harpers Ferry, and arrived there at 12:30. A voice called my name from another car. I turned and saw young Tom Buchanan among a squad of Confederate prisoners. I went in and shook hands with him. He was a lieutenant in my cadet company and I paid a drill sergeant to teach him to drill. When the war broke out he and a number of others joined the Confederacy. He looked sunburned and dirty . . . Was told that Mosby had made a raid into Charles Town and had captured our troops. This, of course, changed my plans, and I determined to remain at the Ferry until the next train of cars going west . . . – Strother, p. 182.

Confederate Participant Roger Preston Chew wrote of the May 16th event:
After Gen. William E. Jones had left New Market on his West Virginia raid in May, 1863, Lieutenant G. B. Phillpott and Captain R. P. Chew gathered together about 45 men of Company “Q”, and crossing the mountain, went down the Luray Valley through Front Royal, crossing the Shenandoah river at Myers Ford about 11 o’clock at night, May l5th. They pursued their way to Tate’s woods, about three quarters of a mile from Charles Town. They dismounted here and tied their horses, and marched behind the house of Andrew Hunter, down the back street. Thence in front of Hawks’ Factory to George (Street-JS) and turning moved in the direction of the Court House. Phillpott and Chew reached the old cattle scales where a sentinel challenged them and raised his gun. They both fired on him and he fled into the Court House yard and fell. Summers’ Company was quartered in the Court House and the Carter House. They numbered about ninety men. A lieutenant and ten men stationed in the parlor of the Carter House opened fire upon us as soon as Phillpott and Chew fired upon the sentry. They kept up a constant fussilade. It had been arranged that Lieutenant J. W. Carter of Chew’s Battery should attack and capture the soldiers in the Carter House. He was assigned six men for this purpose. When the Company reached the corner of the Court House yard, Carter with his men moved swiftly up the walk in front of the Court House, and crossing the street opposite the Carter House threw open the hall door and entered the parlor. Striking the lieutenant over the head with the butt of his pistol he demanded a surrender. The guard threw down their arms and were taken prisoners. In the meantime Phillpott and Chew, with the remaining men, had entered the Court House and captured, without trouble, the balance of the company of Capt. Summers. Summers, who happened to be out at the time of the attack, hid in the wood pile of Major Hawks, whose house was nearby. The horses in the hotel stable were captured, and the men were mounted with the prisoners behind them. Summers’ company numbered about ninety men, sixty of whom were captured with their arms, and about seventy-five horses. Returning through Tate’s woods the prisoners were mounted on the broken-down horses, and at daylight the whole party recrossed the river at Myers’ Ford. This capture was made without a single man being killed or wounded on either side. The Federals seemed dazed by the night attack and offered but feeble resistance. – Chew, pp. 30-31.

59. 1863.May.17.CharlesTown.Skirmish:
David Hunter Strother with the Federals, wrote a second-hand, mention of this May 17th event:
May 17, Sunday . . . We went to see General Morris . . . The General is a stout, easy-mannered man of thirty or thirty-five, not much of a soldier in appearance. He seemed to get all his orders from General [Robert C.] Schenck and declined doing anything on his own responsibility. He expressed great apprehension about the safety of the place, and about midday a train arrived from the west with a regiment aboard to reinforce Harper’s Ferry. At dinner came news that the Confederate raiders into Charles Town had been attacked by Union cavalry and beaten with the loss of spoils, prisoners, and a number of their own men killed and wounded (NOTE: This counter-attack occurred outside the County, at Piedmont, VA.-JS) . . . . Took a walk around the hills with Mrs. Strother. We remained out until sunset, and I never saw more beautiful natural pictures than those we enjoyed, looking up and down the two rivers. – Strother, p. 182.

Confederate Lt. Col. O. R. Funsten described both the May 16-17 events in his report:
On the night of May 16, a party of 45 men under Captain [R. Preston] Chew and Lieutenant {John W.} Carter oi Chew’s battery, and Lieutenant [G. B.] Philpot, of the Seventh Regiment, was sent down to attack a cavalry company which was stationed in Charlestown, Jefferson County, which numbered about 93 men. The expedition was entirely successful in the beginning. The enemy was surprised about 1 o’clock at night, and, besides several who were killed and wounded and left behind, Captain Chew brought out 56 prisoners and 75 horses. Unfortunately, they were attacked the next day at 2 pm, after having marched 85 miles on their return, at Piedmont, in Fauquier County, by about 120 of the enemy’s cavalry, and after a firm resistance (in which the captain commanding the enemy’s cavalry was killed, besides several of his command), they were obliged to abandon the prisoners and captured horses. Our loss in this whole affair was only 5 men wounded and 2 or 3 taken prisoners. – O. FUNSTEN, Chapter XXXVII, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Vol. 25, p. 145.

60. 1863.June.15.Harpers.Ferry.Evacuation:
Federal officer Adams describes carrying out the order to evacuate:

About 8 pm. an attempt was made to storm the main fort, occupied by General Milroy, but the storming party was promptly met and repulsed, General Milroy commanding in person. It was now quite dark, and the firing ceased on all sides. About 1 am. on Monday, 15th, I was informed by Colonel McReynolds that it was determined by a council of war to evacuate the forts and fall back on Harper’s Ferry, “taking nothing that goes on wheels,” and that to my regiment was assigned the post of honor that of bringing up and protecting the rear of our forces. At 2 o’clock, the main body of the division having reached the Winchester and Martinsburg turnpike, I marched with a strong rear guard in inverse order, expecting an attack in rear by the rebel cavalry, and never for one moment anticipating trouble in front. The wily enemy, however, by a rapid flank movement, had succeeded in throwing a heavy force of artillery and infantry in our front, at a point about 4 miles from Winchester, on the Martinsburg road, and opened a terrific fire upon our retreating forces. – A. ADAMS, Chapter XXXIX, Official Record, Series I, Part 2, Vol. 27, p. 85.

61. 1863.July.Melvins.Hill.Skirmish:
Roger P. Chew described a small skirmish at Melvins Hill, but with no exact date given:

A sharp encounter occurred at Melvin’s Hill, about one and one quarter miles east of Duffields, between three rebs and three yanks, in July ’63. The three rebs had been sent to establish a picket post on Engle’s Hill, not knowing that the Federals were advancing. After crossing the Halltown and Shepherdstown road, a citizen informed them that the Federals were advancing, and that a company had just passed. The Confederates wheeled about to investigate. The Federal company had sent three scouts up the road towards Duffields, and the Confederates, being informed of that fact, prepared for it. The yanks saw the rebs coming, raised their carbines, and waited until the rebs were within seventy-five yards, and fired, but missed. Both sides used their revolvers. The rebs drove the yanks back to the stone house, killing one, wounding one, and liberating one prisoner they had captured. In the melee, a horse of one of the rebs fell, and disabled its rider. The Federal cavalry, hearing the firing, wheeled and come back at full tilt. Reb No. 2, getting too close with an empty revolver, was taken in. Reb No. 3, with two loads in his second revolver, could not shoot, for fear of killing his comrade; and the company, almost on him, he gave the spur to his horse, jumped the cap fence, and reported to his company. – Chew, pp. 16-17.

62. 1863.July.5-7.Harpers.Ferry.Bridge.Destruction.Skirmish:
Southern troops from Gettysburg passed through town on July 5, 1863. They laid wood flooring across the spans for their troops and wagons to use, prompting Union cavalry under General Henry A. Cole to raid the town and burn the woodwork on the four Bollman spans and the C&O canal trestle. The line was re-opened July 22, 1863. – Caplinger, p. 52.

63. 1863.July.14.Harpers.Ferry.Skirmish:
Federal Cavalry Commander Pleasonton described the July 14th skirmish:
On July 14, General Gregg, with McIntosh’s and Gregg’s brigades, of his division, crossed the Potomac at Harper’s Ferry, and quickly drove a force of the enemy’s cavalry back upon Charlestown. The entire rebel army having effected a crossing of the Potomac on that day, Gregg was re-enforced by Huey’s brigade, and directed to gain the flank and rear of the rebels, and harass them as much as possible. He (Gregg) marched to Shepherdstown, found the roads to Martinsburg and Winchester strongly picketed, and Huey’s brigade not having joined him, he waited until the 16th, when the enemy attacked him in force. A spirited contest was maintained until some time after dark, when the enemy withdrew. A large quantity of bacon and flour was captured by our troops at Shepherdstown. General Gregg speaks of the high soldierly qualities exhibited by his officers and men on that occasion. – A. PLEASONTON, Chapter XXXIX, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Vol. 27, pp. 917.
Union Losses July 14, 1863 near Harper’s Ferry: **1 officer and 24 enlisted men were captured or missing. – Return of Casualties in the Union Forces, Chapter XXXIX, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Vol. 27, p. 193.

Confederate Cavalryman Commander Stuart gave this report of the July 14th events in Harpers Ferry:
Harper’s Ferry was again in possession of the enemy, and Colonel Harman, Twelfth Virginia Cavalry, had in an engagement with the enemy gained a decided success, but was himself captured by his horse falling. – J.E.B STUART, Chapter XXXIX, Official Record, Series I, Part 2, Vol. 27, pp. 705-706.

64. 1863.July.15.Halltown.Skirmish:
Federal officer C. H. Smith described the skirmish in Halltown on July 15th:
On the morning of July 15, when the column had reached Halltown; the colonel commanding the brigade ordered me to go forward with my regiment on the Charlestown pike, and directed that I should go into Charlestown or until I found the enemy in force. Having advanced nearly a mile, we surprised the pickets of the enemy, and drove them until we were met by a regular line of dismounted skirmishers; then the engagement became general. I deployed six companies, kept two companies on the pike to charge the center of the enemy from time to time after his flanks were sufficiently forced back, and kept but three small companies in reserve and to guard our flanks and rear. Thus, by a bold front and two hours severe skirmishing, we drove a very much larger number over a mile and from several good positions, when ordered to retire and join the column. The enemy opened upon us with two pieces of artillery. The officers and men of my regiment behaved with the utmost gallantry. All of which is respectfully submitted. – C. H. SMITH, Chapter XXXIX, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Vol. 27, p. 980.

More at J. GREGG, Chapter XXXIX, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Vol. 27, pp. 978-979.

65. 1863.July.15. Shepherdstown.Skirmish;
66. 1863.July.16.Kearnesyville.Pike.Butlers.Woods.Action – ROADSIDE MARKER NUMBER TWO: Butler’s Woods:
Confederate Cavalry Commander J.E.B. Stuart described the conflicts of July 15-16th in his report:
Upon my arrival at the Bower that afternoon (15th), I learned that a large force of the enemy’s cavalry was between Shepherdstown and Leetown, and determined at once to attack him in order to defeat any designs he might have in the direction of Martinsburg. I made disposition accordingly, concentrating cavalry in his front, and **early on the 16th moved Fitz Lee’s brigade down the turnpike, toward Shepherdstown, supported by Chambliss, who, though quite ill, with that commendable spirit which has always distinguished him, remained at the head of his brigade. Jenkins brigade was ordered to advance on the road from Martinsburg toward Shepherdstown, so as by this combination to expose one of the enemy’s flanks, while Jones, now near Charlestown, was notified of the attack, in order that he might co-operate. No positive orders were sent him, as his precise locality was not known. These dispositions having been arranged, I was about to attack when I received a very urgent message from the commanding general to repair at once to his headquarters. I therefore committed to Brig. Gen. Fitz. Lee the consummation of my plans, and reported at once to the commanding general, whom I found at Bunker Hill. Returning in the afternoon, I proceeded to the scene of conflict on the turnpike, and found that General Fitz. Lee had, with his own and Chambliss brigades, driven the enemy steadily to within a mile of Shepherdstown, Jenkin’s brigade not having yet appeared on the left. However, it (Jenkin’s brigade-JS) soon after arrived in Fitz. Lee’s rear, and moved up to his support. The ground was not practicable for cavalry, and the main body was dismounted, and advanced in line of battle. The enemy retired to a strong position behind stone fences and barricades, near Colonel [A. R.] Boteler’s residence, and it being nearly dark, obstinately maintained his ground at this last point until dark, to cover his withdrawal. Preparations were made to renew the attack vigorously next morning, but daybreak revealed that the enemy had retired toward Harpers Ferry. The enemy’s loss in killed and wounded was heavy. We had several killed and wounded, and among the latter Col. James H. Drake, First Virginia Cavalry, was mortally wounded, dying that night (16th), depriving his regiment of a brave and zealous leader, and his country of one of her most patriotic defenders. (NOTE: Reported Federal casualties: Union Losses July 15-16, 1863 Shepherdstown: 8 enlisted men killed; 8 officers and 64 enlisted men were wounded; 24 enlisted men were captured or missing. – Return of Casualties in the Union Forces, Chapter XXXIX, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Vol. 27, p. 193).

Stuart continues:
The commanding general was very desirous of my moving a large portion of my command at once into Loudoun, but the recent rains had so swollen the Shenandoah that it was impossible to ford it, and cavalry scouting parties had to swim their horses over. – J.E.B. STUART – Chapter XXXIX, Official Record, Series I, Part 2, Vol. 27. p. 706.

Roger P. Chew described the two conflicts on July 15-16 near Shepherdstown and halfway between Shepherdstown and Kearneysville on the Kearneysville Pike:
After the Gettysburg Campaign, with Lee back in Virginia and Harper’s Ferry in the hands of the enemy, the situation in Jefferson County was about as follows: The enemy’s pickets extended about 2 miles out from Harper’s Ferry, with signal and spy stations on Maryland Heights. Any movement of troops in day time could be seen by them. Even many of the picket posts were under their observation. The Shenandoah River was high, hardly fordable. Lee’s army was in Jefferson and Berkeley Counties until after the middle of the month. The Potomac and Shenandoah Rivers were carefully picketed, and the army uncertain what the next move would be. On the Sixteenth, the Federals, crossing at Shepherdstown and driving in the pickets, advanced a large force of cavalry as far as Kearneysville. Here Fitz Lee and Chambliss’ brigades of cavalry confronted them and steadily drove them back. The federals were amply supplied with artillery, and at every favorable position, made stubborn resistence. Late in the evening, Stuart came on the field and took command, having ordered General Jenkins, with his brigade of cavalry from near Martinsburg to his assistance, who arrived later in the evening. The enemy, having fallen back to Butler’s woods, made a final stand. The cavalry could not well operate, and so both sides dismounted their men and fought until dark. The Confederates remained on the field, expecting to renew the engagement in the morning, but the enemy moved off in the night. . . . Colonel Drake, of the first Virginia Cavalry, was mortally wounded, and died that night at Mr. Marshall’s. About 40 feet from Marker No. 2, measuring west, is the place where he was shot. He was an able officer. This movement of the enemy had been made to ascertain Lee’s position, but failed. This force was to have been supported by a brigade from Harper’s Ferry, but they failed to arrive on time, as will be shown. Company I, of the Twelfth Virginia Cavalry, was picketing from near Shepherdstown to Engle’s Hill; and when the advance was made, they stayed within the enemy’s lines to operate. A courier was captured at Uvilla on the evening of the fifteenth, and sufficient information obtained to justify our watching this road. – Chew, p. 9.

Federal Eyewitness C. H. Smith of the First Maine Cavalry gave this report of the July 16th action on the Kearneysville Pike:
On July 16, about 12 in., I was ordered by the colonel commanding brigade to proceed from Shepherdstown with my regiment out about 4 miles on the Winchester pike for forage. Having advanced about a mile, I met a courier from the picket (a squadron of the Tenth New York Cavalry), who reported that the picket had been attacked, and were hotly pursued by the enemy. Looking forward, I observed that about half a mile ahead the pike crossed a ridge covered by a belt of timber, and, being desirous of obtaining that position, I ordered the gallop, and the regiment dashed forward. As we drew near the timber, we met the squadron on picket completely overwhelmed by a superior foe, making every effort to cover its led horses and wounded men. The advance of the enemy reached the crest of the ridge first, but, in spite of their steady firing, two companies from my regiment, commanded respectively by Lieutenants Coleman and Cole, when ordered to take the summit of the hill, charged with such impetuosity as to drive back the enemy, killing 1 and wounding 3. The enemy thus received a serious check, the position was gained, and the regiment was immediately disposed for still further defense. In that position we opposed the rapidly increasing number of the enemy for more than an hour, strengthening our line from time to time until the regiment was nearly all deployed and engaged in the front. Here it was that Major Boothby and Lieutenant Hunton were wounded, while engaged urging the men to still more gallant resistance. Subsequently the enemy massed in such numbers on our left flank as to make longer resistance impossible, and our line of skirmishers was driven back about 200 yards to a favorable position. Supported by a portion of the Fourth Pennsylvania Cavalry, the regiment defended this position against every effort of the enemy to rout it, even driving the gunners from a howitzer that the enemy had the rashness to bring within carbine range, until relieved by the Sixteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, when it retired from the front and took position as support. But a short time afterward, however, the enemy opened with several pieces of artillery, and simultaneously advanced with such overwhelming numbers as to peril the thin line of skirmishers of the Sixteenth. Observing this, I at once ordered four companies to the front just in season to render timely assistance, and shortly after the rest of the regiment became actively engaged again, and thus shared the fortunes of the rest of the day until withdrawn from the field at midnight. – C. H. SMITH, Chapter XXXIX, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Vol. 27. pp. 980-981.

More at E. DOSTER, Chapter XXXIX, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Vol. 27, pp. 983-985.

and M. HENRY AVERY Chapter XXXIX, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Vol. 27, pp. 982-983.

67. 1863.July.16.Uvilla.Skirmish – ROADSIDE MARKER NUMBER SEVEN: Uvilla Store. (No report in Official Record.-JS)
Roger P. Chew wrote of the July 16th event:

Early on the morning of the sixteenth, Captain Kearney took position in the timber adjoining the Uvilla store, put a picket in either direction, and awaited events. It was not long until a squad appeared. They were taken in. The company would divide, and charge front and rear. This was continued until thirty-three prisoners, their horses and equipments, and the General’s headquarter’s wagon with his extra clothing, camp fixtures, and bedding, and two fine horses and harness, and servant were captured. Several escaped and gave the alarm. Marker No. 7, on the hill north of the Uvilla store, is where most of the captures were made. – Chew, p. 10.

68. 1863.July.16.Moler’s.Crossroads.Skirmish – ROADSIDE MARKER NUMBER FIVE:
Roger P. Chew wrote of the Moler’s Crossroads event on July 16th:

Major Knott, joining the company at this time, sent the prisoners back to safety, and moved the company to Moler’s Cross Roads, two and one-half miles east of Uvilla. When they neared the place, they saw the advance guard of some force. They charged and captured one. The others ran into their column, closely followed by our company. They were over the hill and could not be seen. The company wheeled about and exchanged some shots and retired. It was a brigade of cavalry with artillery on their way to reinforce their forces at Shepherdstown. They, supposing that a heavy force was in their front, placed their artillery in position, threw out skirmishers, put their squadrons in line of battle and awaited developments. Full three hours time was lost. Every citizen that happened along was held by them until near midnight. – Chew, p. 11.

69. 1863.September.15-16.Smithfield.Affair:
September 15, Captain (Abram) Jones, of the First New York Cavalry, with 100 men, attacked a party of rebels, 70 strong, at Smithfield, and captured 11 prisoners, with horses and full equipments. Captain Jones was slightly wounded in the hand. No other injury was sustained on our part. September 16 and 17, scouts were sent up the valley, but returned without discovering any enemy. – Extract from “Record of Events,” Chapter XLL, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 29, p. 102.

70. 1863.October.1.Harpers.Ferry.Skirmish:
Chapter XLI, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 29,  p. 4

71-72. 1863.October.7.CharlesTown.Summit.Point.2.Skirmishes:
Federal Colonel George Wells described the October 7th events in his report:
The affair at Charlestown would appear to be this: On the morning of October 7, before receiving my dispatch, Colonel Simpson sent out a scout of 20 cavalry on the Berryville road. Information was soon brought in that this force was cut off by the enemy. Captain Summers was immediately sent out to their relief, with 43 men, his entire available force. Some time after his departure the scout of 20 men came in on another road, closely followed within half a mile of the town by the enemy. Colonel Simpson immediately went out with his infantry and drove the enemy back, capturing 4 prisoners and 3 horses of Companies A and F, Twelfth Virginia Cavalry. As Captain Summers was on his return from his scout, when near Summit Point he fell in with this party. He was leading the advance, when, at a bend of the road, he came upon a portion of the enemy drawn up in the road. He instantly charged them, and as he did so received a volley from a squad which had dismounted and were concealed behind a stone fence skirting the road. Captain Summers fell at the first fire. His men, deprived of their leader, scattered and fell back. They were not followed. Cole’s cavalry, placed under my orders by the brigadier-general commanding, were sent to Charlestown that night, and the next morning scouted out the Summit Point and Smithfield road, bringing in the bodies of our killed. They report seeing no enemy. It would seem that the rebel force consisted of two companies (Captains Baylor and Morrow) Twelfth Virginia Cavalry and Gilmor’s entire battalion . . . Our loss was: Capt. George D. Summers, Company F, Cavalry, Second Maryland Regiment, [Potomac Home Brigade,] killed [and 1 man killed and 4 wounded]. I think Colonel Simpson’s disposition and management of his small force very judicious. The loss of Captain Summers is greatly to be deplored. – G. WELLS, Chapter XLI, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 29,  pp. 210-211

Confederate Cavalryman Col. Harry Gilmor described in his book his lead role in the skirmish on October 7th at Summit Point, leading to the skirmish at Charles Town – ROADSIDE MARKER NUMBER THIRTEEN:
About the close of September, 1863, I took 50 men from my camp at Mt. Jackson with the intention of crossing the Potomac to capture a lot of government horses and mules which my scouts had reported to be grazing in the neighborhood of Hagerstown. Their picket lines extended to and beyond Charles Town, where a regiment of infantry and two companies of cavalry were stationed. Captain Somers commanded the cavalry, and Col. Benjamin Simpson the 9th Maryland. I crossed the line without being detected, but when I reached the river I found it past fording, and had to return. I camped in the woods on William Washington’s place, and, being determined not to go back without some game, sent scouts to watch the road leading out of Charles Town. I had not slept more than two hours when I learned that 27th cavalry had gone up the road leading to Smithfield. The men were soon mounted, and, striking out across the country, we got into the road in the rear of this squad, and followed on their trail to Smithfield. Soon after reaching the turnpike we met a man whom I knew to be a Unionist, but, expecting to capture the party ahead of me before they could reach Charles Town in my rear, I let him pass. What a change it would have made in subsequent events had I taken him along with us! We continued at a trot until we gained the hill immediately above Smithfield, when I closed up the column, drawing sabres, charged into the town, expecting to find the enemy there; but to my chagrin, learned that they had passed through without halting, taking the road to Summit Point, and were now a considerable distance ahead. I followed on at a good swinging trot, with four or five well mounted men in advance, until we got nearly to Summit Point, when my scouts returned, saying the enemy had passed through that place also a short time previous, and were now on the road back to Charles Town.

My horses were by this time much jaded, and some hardly able to keep up; still, determined not to abandon the enterprise, I struck across the fields, hoping to cut them off before they could reach Charles Town. In this I did not succeed; but three of my men ran into their rear guard just as they were entering the place. One of them, Charles Forman, was captured. I dismounted half my men, put them in position, and tried to draw out the enemy, but they had their own plan in view, and refused to follow. This made me rather suspicious, so putting twelve men under Captain Blackford as a rear guard, I started for Summit Point and camp. I had reached the “White House,” owned by Mr. Morrow, two miles from Summit Point, had halted to let the men dismount and get water from the large spring about fifty yards off, and was the only mounted man left in the road. I had ridden up to the yard fence, and was talking to the ladies, when I heard a voice exclaim, “Here they are boys by God, we’ve got them now!” At the same instant a bullet whistled through a lilac bush between the ladies and myself. I wheeled around and saw the head of a cavalry column on the rocky hill above, and between me and Summit Point.

Here was a perilous position. Seeing only the first section of fours, I knew not how many were behind them. I could not retreat, and therefore determined to make the best light possible under the circumstances. I ordered ten of my men who had carbines to get behind the ruins of an old stone stable, and fight them to the last. Seeing my horses without their riders, the others thought we were apprized of their coming, and had prepared an ambuscade; and though Captain Somers, whom I recognized, begged, implored, and cursed them, they would not charge, but stood still on the hill, popping away at us with their carbines. One of my men Ford, from Baltimore came up with a rifle and putting his hand on my thigh, asked what he should do. I told him to get behind the stone wall, and take a good aim every time he fired, “all right, Major.” Just as he spoke the word a ball pierced his head, killing him instantly.

At that moment Captain Somers. who I must say was a brave man, spurred his horse down the hill, and engaged me with his pistol, firing wildly, for I saw he was much excited. I reserved my fire till he came within twenty paces, steadied my horse with the bit, took a long sure aim, and Somers fell from his horse. The ball entered the side of his nose, and came out back of his head. By this time nine of my men had mounted, and, as the sharpshooters had been doing good work. I thought I could risk a charge, but it was unnecessary to give the order, for I heard Read or Bosley say, “come, boys it’s a shame to leave the major there by himself;” and by the time I had returned the pistol and drawn my sabre, the boys were at my side, so on we went. When we gained the hill top, I saw, to my amazement, that there were about sixty before me, but, as there was a good post and rail fence on either side, they could show no more front than my ten men. To whip the foremost was to whip all. As I passed by the stone stable I ordered the rest to mount and follow. Captain Somers was lying across the road. I was obliged to jump my horse over his dead body; four others lying near were either dead or wounded.

Settling myself in the saddle, I dashed in among the blue jackets, cutting and thrusting right and left, and parrying a blow when necessary. They were from Michigan and Maryland, and for a while fought well. Observing an officer fighting like a Turk and cheering his men on, I made for him. He was a man of my own size, wore a very heavy beard, and looked, I thought very savage as he yelled out, “Come on you damned rebel, I’ll soon fix your flint.” This promised good sport. I closed with him, making a powerful front cut, which he parried, and at the same instant made a right cut at my neck. By bringing my sabre down in time, my side caught the blow. Now I had the advantage.

Quick as a flash I cut him across the cheek, inflicting a large gash, and he fell to the ground. I gave him in charge of one of my men, and then followed after my first ten, who had pushed the column back two hundred yards while the lieutenant and I were busy with our affair. The latter soon after escaped by jumping a stone wall and running into a thick woods. We soon got them on the run, nor did we give them time to stop and reform until they had passed through and beyond Summit Point. We had taken eighteen prisoners, and were unable to pursue them farther until my men had come up, for the federals had formed and turned upon the two or three men who were still in pursuit, but by the time they had pushed these back again to Summit Point I had dismounted ten or fifteen men, who easily checked them. We charged again, took five more prisoners, and the rest made their escape. After collecting my prisoners and men, I left by a private route for the Upper Valley, with twenty three prisoners and twenty nine horses, leaving four of their dead and three wounded on the field. My loss was one man killed, three wounded, and one taken prisoner. I reached camp safely with everything I had captured. It seems the Unionist went immediately to Charles Town and gave information of what he had seen, and Somers followed me all the way round. A sad affair it turned out for him, but “such are the fortunes of war”. Captain Somers was highly esteemed by his commanding officers, as shown by a long article, highly complimentary to him, that appeared a few days after. The same paper also alleged that I had murdered him! Indeed! Then not a few were murdered on both sides. – Gilmor,  pp. 107-111

73. 1863.October.18.CharlesTown.Capture:
Telegram from Federal Gen. Jer. Sullivan, summarizing the events of October 18th:

This a.m. at about 7 o’clock the forces of Imboden and White, numbering about 900 cavalry or mounted infantry and three pieces of artillery, surrounded the command of Colonel Simpson at Charlestown, and captured almost all his entire command, consisting of about 250 men. As soon as information reached me I sent out my cavalry under Major Cole, one battery of artillery, and two regiments, Thirty-fourth Massachusetts and Tenth Maryland, all under command of Colonel Wells. The cavalry came up with the enemy this side of Charlestown, and drove them through the town. Artillery coming up, drove them about 4 miles. A portion of infantry force, one regiment, reaching them, the enemy were driven from every position they took, to near Berryville. Night coming on, I ordered them to fall back. Our entire loss, irrespective of the force captured, will not exceed 25 killed and wounded. – J. SULLIVAN,
Chapter XLI, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 29. p. 485

Local resident and Confederate Cavlaryman Roger P. Chew described the event of October 18th:
On October 18, 1863, Gen. John D. Imboden marched to the vicinity of Charles Town for the purpose of capturing the enemy, who were posted there in large force. The 9th Maryland Regiment of Infantry and Capt. Summer’s Cavalry Company were quartered, the first in the Court House, and the latter in the Jail. Imboden formed a line of battle on the Hanson farm west of the town, and extending his line to the east to the Kabletown road. He located a battery near the house of Robert Brown but found, after firing a few shots, he could not reach the Court House. He then extended his line across the Harpers Ferry road to the farm of James M. Ranson, and placing his gun on the hill north of town fired several shots through the Court House. The enemy immediately evacuated the Court House and attempted a retreat towards Harpers Ferry but were intercepted by the Confederates and the entire command captured, excepting Summers’ company which effected its escape towards Leetown. He (Imboden-JS) then commenced to retreat by the pike to Berryville. He was pursued by a large force of the enemy and had a number of engagements between that point and Rippon. Here he (Imboden-JS) formed in line to check the advance of the enemy and a serious engagement took place in which a number of men on both sides were killed and wounded. The enemy discontinued their pursuit at that point and Imboden retreated unmolested with his prisoners and captures. – Chew, pp. 31-32.

More reports about the October 18 conflict:
G. WELLS, Chapter XLI, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 29. pp. 486-489
B. SIMPSON, Chapter XLI, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 29, pp. 489-490.
J. IMBODEN (Commander of Confederate force), Chapter XLI, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 29, pp. 490-492.

74. 1864.January.10.Loudoun.Heights.Skirmish:
Partisan Commander Mosby gave this first-hand account of the January 10th event:

On Saturday, January 9, having learned through Frank Stringfellow (a scout of General Stuart) that Coles (Maryland) cavalry was encamped on Loudoun Heights with no support but infantry, which was about one-half mile off, I left lie with about 100 men in hopes of being able to completely surprise his camp by a night attack. By marching my command by file along a narrow path I succeeded in gaining a position in rear of the enemy between their camp and the ferry. On reaching this point without creating any alarm. I deemed that the crisis had passed and the capture of the camp of the enemy a certainty. I had exact information up to dark of that evening of the number of the enemy (which was between 175 and 200), the position of their headquarters, & c. When within 200 yards of the camp I sent Stringfellow on ahead with about 110 men to capture Major Cole and staff, whose headquarters were in a house about 100 yards from their camp, while I halted to close up my command. The camp was buried in profound sleep; there was not a sentinel awake. All my plans were on the eve of consummation (16) when suddenly the party sent with Stringfellow came dashing over the hill toward the camp yelling and shooting. They had made no attempt to secure Cole. Mistaking them for the enemy, I ordered my men to charge. In the mean time the enemy had taken the alarm and received us with a volley from their carbines. A severe fight ensued, in which they were driven from their camp, but taking refuge in the surrounding houses kept up a desultory firing. Confusion and delay having ensued from the derangement of my plans, consequent on the alarm given to the enemy, rendered it hazardous to continue in my position, as re-enforcements were near the enemy. Accordingly I ordered the men to retire, which was done in good order, bringing off 6 prisoners and between 50 and 60 horses. My loss was severe; more so in the worth than the number of the slain. It was 4 killed, 7 wounded (of whom 4 have since died), and 1 captured. A published list of the enemys loss gives it at 5 killed and 13 wounded. Among those who fell on this occasion were Capt. William R. Smith and Lieutenant Turner, two of the noblest and bravest officers of this army, who thus sealed a life of devotion and of sacrifice to the cause that they loved. In numerous other affairs with the enemy between 75 and 100 horses and mules have been captured, about 40 men killed, wounded, and captured. A party of this command also threw one of the enemy’s trains off the track, causing a great smash-up. – J. MOSBY, Chapter XLV, Official Record, Series I, Volume 33, p. 15.

Federal Officer Henry Cole gave his first-hand report of the January 10th event:
I have the honor of addressing you for the purpose of reportlng the facts of an attempt by Major Mosby’s battalion of guerrilla cavalry to surprise and capture my camp, between the hours of 3 and 4 am. of this day. They studiously avoided my pickets; divided themselves into small bodies, which were speedily consolidated in sight of my camp. They then made an impetuous charge with a yell on the right of the same. In consequence of the suddenness of the same this company could offer but a feeble resistance. In the mean time Company A, the second in the line, was speedily rallied by its commanding officer, Captain Vernon, who contested their farther advance in such a sanguinary manner that [they] formed a rallying point for the balance of the command, who were now thoroughly aroused of the danger that threatened them, and one and al], from the officer to the private, entered into the contest with such a determined zest as led to the utter rout and discomfiture of the enemy, and the signal failure of their base attempt. They experienced a loss of 1 captain, 2 lieutenants, and 2 privates killed, and 2 privates mortally wounded, and 1 prisoner. It was also very evident that they removed a large portion of their wounded with them in their precipitate flight, as a detachment of the command, subsequently sent in pursuit, found evidence of blood all along their line of retreat. I experienced a loss of 4 enlisted men killed and 16 wounded. – H. COLE, Chapter XLV, Official Record, Series I, Volume 33, pp. 17-18.

75. 1864.February.5.Smithfield.Skirmish:
Local resident and Confederate Artilleryman Roger P. Chew gives his first-hand account of the event on February 5th:
In February, 1864, General Rosser, with all his command except a small portion which were picketing the outposts down the valley, was west of the mountains on his celebrated cattle raid. Captain Kearney, with a part of his company engaged in picket duty at the time, and being relieved too late to join Rosser, asked permission to make a scout to Jefferson (County-JS). The request was granted. He got together nineteen of his company and started, early on the 4th of February, 1864, from New Market; and by 2 AM of the fifth, eighteen of his men were hidden in the pines and cedars along the pike, a short distance north of Smithfield. A picket was placed on the Charles Town pike, and one on the Shepherdstown pike, with instructions to report in haste, the approach of the enemy, and count the number, if possible. It was known that every day a squad came from Shepherdstown or Kearneysville on that pike to Smithfield, and a battalion came from Charles Town three times each week. About sunrise, both pickets came at a gallop, and reported that 22 federals were advancing from Kearneysville. Kearney kept nine of his men to charge down Main street, and sent nine in charge of a sergeant, down a back street, to meet in the centre of the town; and he started these nine a moment ahead to allow for distance.

Just at this stage, with the nine gone on their mission, some one exclaimed, “Look there on the Charles Town pike, there comes the battalion,” which unfortunately, was true. Kearney, equal to the emergency, said, “Boys, we will charge through the yanks in the town, but don’t stop.” Forward and away we went. We were on them so suddenly, and the surprise was so great, that nearly all surrendered without a shot, not knowing that several hundred of their own men were at hand. We had not time to disarm them. A few took our direction ahead of us; and as soon as we passed those in the street, they, seeing the situation, with the whole battalion, gave chase, and began firing with their carbines, killing one of our best men, David Hoffman. The squad that tried to escape ahead of us on Main street had one killed and several wounded. Two of our squad, wanting a remount, stopped long enough to disarm and dismount two yanks, and, taking as they thought, a near cut to overtake the company, were captured. The horses would not jump fences.

We were thirty-five miles outside our lines. A ruse saved the rest of the company. The Major inquired, “How many men had you in that command?” The reb thought quickly, “The truth will be the best answer,” and replied, “Eighteen.” “You are lying”, he said, “Eighteen men would not come so far out of their lines;” and he would not follow. Our horses were nearly worn out from hard service and the long ride from New Market the day and night before, they could have easily overtaken, at least, some of the men. Our scout was a failure, as was Captain Baylor’s the year previous. – Chew, pp. 21-23.

More from Federal Col. RODGERS, Chapter XLV, Official Record, Series I, Volume 33, pp. 508-509.

76. 1864.February.11.B&O.Railroad.Kearneysville.Browns.Shop.Raid:
Chief Participant Harry Gilmor gives his account of the February 11th event:
There were three thousand cavalry encamped around Charlestown, near which we must pass, and a double row of pickets, extending from the Shenandoah to the North Mountain, through which also we had to find our way. The point on the railroad to which my attention was directed was about midway between Duffield’s Depot and Kearneysville, and at both of these places a strong (144) picket-guard of cavalry and infantry were stationed; therefore it must be quick work. Well, after a great deal of nice manoeuvering, I worked through all the pickets, and dismounted in a piece of wood near Brown’s shop. Obstructions were soon placed upon the track, but we were unable to move a rail, so securely were they bolted down. Having firmly placed these obstructions so that the train could not drive through, I sent two men two hundred yards down the track, to put light fence-rails across, in order to check the engine, and not let it run into the logs at full speed; for I would rather have let it go than inflict injury beyond what was actually necessary to stop the train. Lieutenant Kearney was put in charge of the boarding party, with very precise instructions as to their conduct toward the passengers. The train in a short time came thundering along from Harper’s Ferry. The fence-rails had the desired effect; the engineer had time to check and reverse the engine before it struck the logs, and it ran off the track so easily that some of the passengers were still asleep when Lieutenant Kearney boarded the train. I ran to the engineer to know if he was hurt; he said “No.” I then entered the smoking-car, thinking it was the mail, but found it filled with soldliers, mostly cavalry, all armed. I announced to them they were my prisoners; ordered them to take off their arms, and come out one at a time. But a large Irishman drew his sabre and swore “he had paid his passage, and intended to ride.” As I went up to take hold of him, he made a tremendous front cut at me; but, fortunately, the roof was too low to allow his sabre full swing, and I caught the blow on my fore-arm. I had a thick overcoat on, and received merely a bruise. Orders had been given for no firing under any circumstances (145), but I could not refrain from striking the fellow a blow on the head with the barrel of my revolver, which brought him down on his seat. I then seized him by the collar and hurled him to the door. There were several more around me disposed to fight, but a little persuasion from the muzzle of a cocked pistol quieted them all, I then turned to see what was meant by a scuffle at the door, and found that two of my men, in coming to my assistance, had been thrown off the platform by my Irish friend, whom the blow had made ferocious, and one of them, Norwood, severely injured. Dropping on one knee, and seizing him at the same instant, I threw him head foremost from the platform, and he fell on a flat rock lying on one side. When we left, there he still lay. Having had all the prisoners brought together, I ordered the stoves to be knocked down, and all the train burned except the sleeping-car, which was reserved for the ladies. Information had been given me that a large amount of public money was in the iron safe, and I made every effort to get into it, but in vain. The expressman had made his escape.

I then went back to see how the men were getting on, and was told that some of them had been robbing the prisoners and passengers. This was against my positive orders, and I threatened to shoot any one caught in the act. Of course I could not see every thing going on, and all around was in confusion. Judge Bright, of Indiana, complained that he had been robbed of his watch. I promised him to endeavor to have it restored, which was afterward done. Just then a scout informed me the other train was coming from Wheeling with troops on board, and soon after it came near and stopped. I ordered all hands to make for the horses, taking with me two officers whom I had captured (146). There were some others who, having torn off the insignia of their rank, could not be detected. We had not been gone five minutes before the enemy were all through the wood in which our horses had been tied. The two officers were carried behind our men; but, as it was rather hard upon the horses, to say nothing of the officers, and a long tramp lay before us, I let them go, under a promise not to leave the house in which we left them until daylight. We had passed the picket-lines by break-of-day, although the whole country was alive with cavalry, hunting for us in every direction. I took the most out of the way by-paths, but did not hurry myself. I preferred to let the Federals go ahead, and then follow on in their wake, until we got above Winchester, where I went into the pine hills and laid by at a friend’s house. The enemy soon became tired of looking for us, and returned to camp. . . More . . . – Gilmor, pp. 143-146.

Federal General Kelley gave the report of the February 11th event:
The express train west last night was thrown off the track near Kearneysville by a band of Gilmor’s guerrillas, numbering about 25. They did not burn the train or take away any prisoners, but robbed the conductor and passengers of quite a sum of money. Brigadier-General Sullivan reports his cavalry in pursuit. General Duffie reports his cavalry had captured a portion of the guerrilla force that took General Scammon, but, does not say that the general is recaptured. – B. KELLEY, Chapter XLV, Official Record, Series I, Volume 33, p. 151.

Confederate General J.E.B. Stuart reported on the February 11th event:
I have the honor to report that Maj. H. W. Gilmor, commanding cavalry battalion, has made a successful attack upon the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. On the night of the 11th instant he, with 20 men, penetrated to the railroad at Brown’s Shop, between Kearneysville and Duffields Depot, attacked the express train from Baltimore, threw it from the track, disabling the engine and damaging the track. He captured nearly 90 prisoners, but owing to the proximity of the enemy was compelled to abandon them, having taken away their arms. He returned to Mount Jackson without loss, although pursued, as he states, as far as Strasburg by four or five regiments. – J. STUART, Chapter XLV, Official Record, Series I, Volume 33, p. 151.

77. 1864.March.10.CharlesTown.Kabletown.Skirmishes:
Federal Col. R. F. Taylor gives eyewitness account of the March 10th events:

I have the honor to report that our pickets were attacked between Charlestown, Va., and the river, at the crossing of the Keys Ferry and Kabletown roads, yesterday morning at 6 o’clock, by what is supposed to be a portion of Mosby’s command, numbering from 40 to 80 men. The force passed to the left of the vedette, on the Kabletown road, seen by them, but supposed to be a reserve from Charlestown, they being dressed in our uniform. The mistake was not discovered until the rebels had obtained a position and fired a volley into the reserve at less than 10 rods distant, completely surprising them. The loss at the reserve post is 1 killed and 4 wounded, and 2 lieutenants and 11 privates missing. After the attack they retreated with great rapidity by the way of Kabletown, recrossing at Sampson’s Ford, about 3 miles this side of Snicker’s Ferry, except small parties, which went to the right below Kabletown, crossing near and at Snicker’s Ferry. Major Sullivan, commanding picket, pursued the enemy with 9 men, overtaking them at Kabletown; found them concealed behind an old building, from which they fired a volley, killing Major Sullivan and 2 privates, and severely wounding Lieutenant Baker, all of the First [New York] Veteran Cavalry. The balance of the reserve, under Lieutenant Conway, numbering about 50 men, came up a few moments after, but failed to overtake the enemy. The firing was distinctly heard at this place, and the entire force ordered out. Lieutenant Wyckoff, with 15 men, got to the ford just as they had succeeded in crossing. Anticipating an attack, I sent Lieutenant Wyckoff to Charlestown on the evening of March 9, informing Major Sullivan of the probability of an attack, ordering him to strengthen his pickets and order them to keep on the alert, which I learn he did. I also informed him that I had 150 men in readiness to re-enforce him at any moment. I learn that there were a number of shots fired by the vedette at the post attacked between the hour of 3 and the time of the attack. – R. TAYLOR, Chapter XLV, Official Record, Series I, Volume 33 Part 1, p. 248.

Confederate Partisan John S. Mosby describes the events of March 10th:
On March 10, with a detachment of about 40 men, I defeated a superior force of the enemy’s cavalry near Greenwich, severely wounding 3, and capturing 9 prisoners, 10 horses, arms, &c. **On the same day Lieut. A. E. Richards, with another detachment of about 30 men, surprised an outpost of the enemy near Charlestown, killed the major commanding and a lieutenant, several privates, and brought off 21 prisoners with their horses, arms, &c. In neither engagement did my command sustain any loss. – J. MOSBY, Chapter XLV, Official Record, Series I, Volume 33, Part 1, pp. 248-249.

78. 1864.March.16.Shenandoah.Ferry.Scout:
Federal Gen. Averell wrote in his report of March 16:
I have out three patrols, one to Bloomery Gap (on the Shenandoah River-JS), one beyond Pughtown, and one to Smithfield. I have to request you to direct the senior officer of your cavalry to report to me in person at this place as soon as practicable, bringing with him the latest returns of all the cavalry with your division. – W. AVERELL, Chapter XLV, Official Record, Series I, Volume 33, p. 683.

79. 1864.March.22.Keyes.Ford.Skirmish:
Local resident and Confederate Artilleryman Roger P. Chew described the March 22nd event:
On the night of March 22, 1864, George Baylor with seven men passed unnoticed through the enemy’s infantry picket at Halltown, and got in rear of a cavalry force at Keyes Ford, giving the Rebel yell they charged along the river road and dashed into the enemy’s camp, where they found fifty horses and 13 men. The party consisted of 50 cavalry, the rest had taken to their heels and concealed themselves. Baylor and his party gathered up thirteen prisoners and 26 horses, leaving the other horses because they could not well manage them. Then they crossed the river and made their escape along the Blue Ridge Mountain road. This remarkable skirmish illustrates the terror troops feel when surprised and attacked in the night. – Chew, p. 42.

80. 1864.May.8.Halltown.Affair:
Federal General Max Weber reported on the affair of May 8th:
On the night of the 8th instant our pickets at Halltown were attacked by about fifty rebels, their object being to outflank our forces. They were unsuccessful from the fact that each night the position of the guard is changed. I have seen Colonel Rodgers myself, and the necessary orders have been issued regarding papers. He cannot strengthen his police and picket guards as his whole force, 200 infantry and 70 cavalry, are now all on duty. – M. WEBER – Chapter XLIX, Official Report, Series I, Part 1, Volume 37, p. 69.

81. 1864.May.24.CharlesTown.Skirmish:
Federal General Max Weber reported on the skirmish of May 24th:
One of my scouting parties had a fight with some of Mosby’s men this afternoon near Charlestown. A scouting party from Duffields pursued about eleven of Mosby’s men near Kabletown. The number of Mosby’s men is reported to be between 200 and 300. – M. WEBER, Chapter XLIX, Official Report, Series I, Part 1, Volume 37, p. 92.

82-83. 1864.June.29.Duffield.Station.Capture:
Partisan leader John Mosby gives his first-hand account of the June 29th capture at Duffields:
On the 28th day of June (1864), a meeting was held at Upperville. Two hundred and fifty men responded to their names. At noon we moved up the turnpike through Paris; thence across the mountains at Ashby Gap. One mile from the Gap, at Mount Carmel, we took the mountain road, which carried us to Shepperd’s Mills, crossing the Shenandoah River there. Resting our horses an hour or so, we resumed our march, passing through Kable town, on to within one mile of Charlestown, on the turnpike, where we halted and drew up in line of battle on either side of the road, with one piece of artillery posted on an eminence commanding the turnpike up and down for one mile. A party was sent into town to draw the enemy out, if any were there; if not, to Halltown, near Harper’s Ferry.

After waiting half an hour to be attacked, and the party sent out to draw the enemy on having returned with intelligence of no enemy nearer than Harper’s Ferry, Mosby determined to strike the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Passing through Charlestown, where we were greeted with waving of handkerchiefs and smiles from pretty ladies, we filed off to the left, outside of the town, and (208) made for Duffield Station, leaving Company A (twenty-five men) with Lieutenant Joseph Nelson, to prevent, if possible, our being cut off by troops from the Ferry. Reaching the railroad without opposition, Mosby sent Captain Richards into Duffield, with flag of truce, demanding an unconditional surrender, on pain of being shelled in two minutes; Mosby in the meanwhile having posted his howitzer in good position, with Company C to support it. So great was the surprise that the lieutenant of the post had to arrange the terms, the commandant being taken very suddenly sick. Richards returned with the terms, and we occupied the place. The camp was burnt, and all Government goods in the depot confiscated, including Union men’s shoes, and ladies’ and gentlemen’s dress and fancy goods. Groceries were found in great quantities, with which each man filled his sack. The whole guard was surrendered, but only seventy infantry prisoners were brought away. Mosby, apprehending a large force might be sent from Harper’s Ferry to intercept him, ordered the retreat to where Nelson was.

Partisan leader John Mosby gives his first-hand account of the June 29th skirmish near Halltown:
Mosby’s expectations were realized. Before we were out of sight of Duffield, a courier came to direct us “to hurry back, as (209) Nelson was engaging an overwhelming force.” We hurried back as fast as our horses would carry us, with the loads on them, but arrived too late for the fun. Nelson had already, with his twenty-five men, fought and routed one hundred of Siegel’s cavalry, killing two captains, and taking twenty of them prisoners, with their horses. Nelson drove the enemy as far as Halltown. Apprehending a stronger force would be sent after us, the whole command started for Fauquier. On the way out, when above Charlestown a short distance, Siegel came down from his stronghold with a force, and displayed them one mile and a half from us, and marched back. . . . We recrossed the Shenandoah River at Shepperd’s Mills that night, and camped on the Fauquier side. Next morning at daylight our march was resumed, and we reached Paris at late breakfast. Here a division of the property was made amongst the men, who were then disbanded, and the prisoners sent to Richmond. – Crawford, pp. 207-209.

Federal General Max Weber gives the Federal account of the June 29th events:
. . . on the morning of the 29th instant I received reliable information to the effect that Mosby with a considerable force was in the vicinity of Charlestown, W. Va., and reported the fact by telegraph to division headquarters at 10.30 am. Between 1 and 2 pm. the wires between this post and Martinsburg were cut and communication ceased. About 3 o’clock an attack was made upon my picket-line toward Charlestown, and during the afternoon there was heavy skirmishing along my whole line of pickets on that front. Later in the day a report was received from the commandant of the forces at Duffields Station that he was attacked by superior numbers of the enemy at that point and calling for reenforcements. I at once sent 50 cavalry toward Duffields to feel the enemy and watch their movements, and 300 infantry were ordered to that point. Subsequently information was received that the enemy had routed our men; had plundered and burned the camp, stores, and store-houses at Duffields; had retired without doing further damage, and moved in the direction of Keys Ford, intending to cross there. I sent the 300 infantry at once to Keys Ford, where they remained until 7 this am, when they returned without seeing anything of the enemy. Our 1oss as nearly as can be now ascertained is 38 in killed, wounded, and missing. The force of the enemy was not far from 400 men, with two pieces of artillery. From all the reports received it appears that the force at Duffields had not even a picket out, were surprised, and consequently retired with hardly a show of resistance. – M. WEBER, Chapter XLIX, Official Report, Series I, Part 1, Volume 37, pp. 357-358

More at Federal Col. L. PIERCE, p. 693

More from Federal Lt. Col. C. GATCH, p. 694

84. 1864.July.2.Harpers.Ferry.Bridge.Destroyed:
On July 2, 1864, during Jubal Early’s abortive raid into the North, the Confederates again passed through Harper’s Ferry. As a precaution Union troops retreated across the bridge to the Maryland side, burning the trestlework at the bridge’s west end and removed the pontoon bridge. – Caplinger, p. 52.

85. 1864.July.3.Leetown.Skirmish:
Federal Gen. Franz Sigel reported on the July 3rd event in Leetown:

At 6 oclock this morning the enemy attacked our forces at Leetown and Darkesville, on the Winchester pike. **Major-General Ransom led the force attacking Colonel Mulligan at Leetown. Rebel cavalry made an assault on our cavalry at Darkesville, and 1,100 (176) cavalry went into our rear at North Mountain and on the Williamsport road. Colonel Mulligan, with his small force, fought the enemy stubbornly the whole day. In order to enable me to concentrate our forces, I ordered Colonel Mulligan to retire, if forced, as slowly as possible to Kearneysville and Shepherdstown. All stores were sent off on cars, and the remainder loaded on wagons. The train was sent to Shepherdstown to cross the river, and subsequently I withdrew the troops from Martinsburg, when Colonel Mulligan was compelled to retire toward Kearneysville all my troops, consisting of two old and two regiments Ohio National Guard, infantry, 1,000 dismounted cavalry, 2 pieces of artillery, and 1,500 cavalry. Colonel Mulligan fought Major-Generals Ransom and Early, unaided, on to Martinsburg. The exact strength of the enemy I have not been able to ascertain. His cavalry is 2,600 strong. If our troops can cross the Potomac to-night I will march to Harper’s Ferry to join General Weber’s forces, and to operate from that place. – F. SIGEL, Chapter XLIX, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 37, Correspondence, pp. 175-176

86-88. 1864.July.4-8.Harpers.Ferry.Operations; July.4.Bolivar.Heights.Skirmish:
Federal commander Max Weber described events around and in Harper’s Ferry and Bolivar Heights from July 4-8:
The enemy have attacked us in force with cavalry and infantry. I shall not evacuate until my means are exhausted. . . . 10.40 am. The enemy are approaching, by way of Charlestown, in heavy force. Two thousand cavalry and a force of infantry are on this (185) side of Charlestown in force. We have been skirmishing for two hours. If re-enforcements do not come up I must leave the town, but shall hold Maryland Heights at all hazards. Nothing has been heard from General Sigel or his forces. His wagon train, 176 wagons, is in Pleasant Valley. . . . We are still hotly engaged. I have but 400 men and no word from General Sigel on our re-enforcements. Our stores are safely across the river. Unless the enemy come in large force I shall hold the town. Word has been received that the rebels in force are crossing at Point of Rocks. I am not able to raise that office. They received their orders last night, in case of an attack, to retire to this point. I shall not leave the town, except at the last necessity, and I have rations for thirty days on the heights, and shall hold them until re-enforced. The bridges are yet entire and our men are doing well. We have lost but 1 officer and 20 men, and inflicted much damage on the enemy . . . . We are still engaged with the advance of the enemy. Our cavalry has retired. The main body of the enemy, in strong force, is rapidly advancing via Kearneysville. No re-enforcements have yet reached us. Nothing heard from General Sigel. If we leave the town the station at Sandy Hook will be kept open . . . . The rebels, numbering some 2,000 cavalry, with a support of infantry and a section of light artillery, attacked our pickets near Bolivar Heights. After a smart skirmish the pickets fell back to the rifle-pits near Camp Hill, W. Va., where the enemy was held in check during the day. The quartermasters, commissary, and . . . . ordnance stores were removed to Sandy Hook, Md. About 7 p.m., having received no re-enforcements (railroad and telegraphic communication being cut off at Point of Rocks, and the signal officers reporting a large body of the enemy, infantry and artillery, approaching from Halltown), our forces evacuated the Ferry, falling back to Maryland Heights. General Sigel’s forces arrived that night about 9 p.m. After three days brisk skirmishing around the heights the enemy withdrew during the night of the 7th. July 8. Our forces reoccupied Harpers Ferry, which they still hold. – M. WEBER, Chapter XLIX, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 37, Correspondence, 

pp. 184-185

90. 1864.July.4.Harpers.Ferry.Deaths.Townspeople.Homes.Destroyed:
Resident and Unionist Joseph Barry described the deaths and wounding of men, women, and children in the town from murder, stray minie bullets and careless Union shelling:
On the 4th of July, while the federal troops were evacuating Harper’s Ferry and some of them were yet at Sandy Hook preparing to retreat farther into Maryland, one of them, partially intoxicated, went into the store of Mr. Thomas Egan at the place and offered to buy some tobacco. The proprietor handed him a plug. The soldier took it but refused to pay for it and, on Mr. Egan’s attempting to recover the tobacco, a scuffle ensued. Mr. Egan succeeded in ejecting the soldier and he shut the door to keep the intruder from re-entering. At this moment the proprietor’s only child, a very interesting girl of about thirteen years, noticed that the soldier’s cap was on the floor of the storeroom, it having fallen off the owner’s head in the struggle. She raised a window, held out the cap and called the soldier to take it, when the ruffian shot her dead with his carbine, the bullet entering her mouth and coming out at the back of her head. The lamented Colonel Mulligan of the 23rd Illinois regiment happened to be passing the scene of the murder at the time and he ordered the brute to be arrested and confined for trial, but, in the confusion of the following night, he escaped and was never seen afterwards in that region . . . On the same day a lady from North Mountain was killed, while standing on High street, Harper’s Ferry, at a point exposed to the fire which was kept up from the Maryland Heights by the federal troops. A colored woman, also, was killed on Shenandoah street, of the place, and a child was mortally wounded in Bolivar, and a young lady — Miss Fitzsimmons — seriously injured at the same time and place. The child was a daughter of Mr. Thomas Jenkins and Miss Fitzsimmons was his step-daughter. A shell struck Mr. Jenkins’ house, shattering it badly and injuring his family as noted. The author of this little volume was seated at the time under the gun that discharged the shell. The cannon was on the fortifications of the Maryland Heights and the writer could see Mr. Jenkins’ house was struck. He remonstrated in strong language with the gunners for doing wanton mischief to inoffensive citizens. They took good-naturedly his indignant protests and ceased firing, which, no doubt, prevented much harm. The lady killed on High street and the colored woman received their death wounds from Minnie bullets. A shell from some other battery penetrated a government house on High street, Harper’s Ferry, occupied by Mr. James McGraw, passed directly through it without injuring any one, and the penetrated the house of Mr. Alexander Kelly, where it fell on a bed without exploding. Miss Margaret Kelly, daughter of the proprietor of the house, was in the room when the unwelcome visitor intruded and settled down on the bed, but fortunately, she received no injury beyond a bad fright. – Barry, p. 130.

91. 1864.July.6.Harpers.Ferry.Bridge.Destruction:
On July 6, 1864, the rebels burned the C&O canal trestle, the woodwork on the Bollman spans, and “the timber, track and platforms” on sixteen spans of the armory trestle, all of which work crews repaired by mid-July (Note: Two spans of the bridge were set on fire by Federals, following orders from Gen. Sigel during this period to destroy the bridge. Federals also destroyed the pontoon bridge after evacuating. Official Record. -JS). – Caplinger, p. 52; Harewood, p. 85; Journal of Captain James H. Montgomery, July 4, 1864, Civil War Miscellaneous Collection, USAMHI, Carlisle, PA.

Federal Major G. F. Merriam reported 1,000-1500 Confederates guarding supplies:

. . . the captain of the canal boat which lies near here states that he went to his house in Sharpsburg this am, where he learned that about 1,000 or 1,500 rebels were guarding a large lot of stores they had collected in the vicinity at or near Shepherdstown, on the Maryland side of the Potomac, that their pickets were up to Sharpsburg, and that they might soon move. – G. MERRIAM – Chapter XLIX, Official Record, Series I, Part 2, Volume 37, Correspondence, 

p. 144

92. 1864.Early.July.C&O.Canal.Antietam.Division.Destruction:
Author Timothy R. Snyder writes in his book, “Trembling in the Balance: The Chesapeake & Ohio During the Civil War:”

On the Antietam Division (near Shepherdstown-JS), where most of Early’s command had crossed the Potomac , the Confederates inflicted the most serious damage. On July 20 Levin Benton reported that the southern troops had “torn the acqueduct (sic) at Antietam very badly.” The next day Benton described the destruction in detail: “The bermside of the acqueduct (sic) over the Antietam is torn entirely down into the arches, the ringstone being torn out . . . The towpath side is about two thirds down and the stone thrown into the creek and a (great-JS) many of (them) broken. The Confederates had also burned four lock gates on the division, along with thirty-eight canal boats, a bridge over the canal, and the planks from the stop lock. – Timothy Snyder, p. 200.

93. 1864.Early.July.Destruction.B&O.Assets:
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad President John W. Garrett reported in the company’s 1865 annual report, referring to Jefferson, Berkeley and Morgan Counties:

It will be remembered that in July, 1864, the periodical movement of the Confederates in large force upon our road was again consummated . . . the Company’s tracks, bridges, water stations, depots etc. destroyed. – Steve French, p. 217.

94. 1864.July.17.18.Charlestown.Ordered.Burning.Home:
Federal Gen. David Hunter ordered Capt. Martindale to burn the home and property of Hunter’s cousin, Andrew Hunter, who was the prosecuting attorney in the John Brown trial in 1859:
Capt. F. G. Martindale, First New York (Lincoln) Cavalry, will proceed with the cavalry under his command to Charlestown, W. Va., and burn the dwelling-house and outbuildings of Andrew Hunter, not permitting anything to be taken therefrom except the family. – Special Order 128 (Excerpt), Chapter XLIX, Official Record, Series I, Part 2, Volume 37 Correspondence, 

p. 367

95. 1864.July.18.Kabletown.Affair:
Operations in the Shenandoah Valley, Maryland and Pennsylvania, Official Record, Chapter XLIX, Series I, Part 1, Volume 37 Correspondence, 

p. 170

96. 1864.July.19.Shepherdstown.Ordered.Burning.2.Homes.Property:
Fountain Rock, the home of former Congressman Alexander Boteler, and then current member of the Confederate congress, was burned and its residents allowed to take out only what they could carry. Then, Bedford, the home of Edmund Jennings Lee and Henrietta Lee, who was present, was burned under the same orders. Lee was a first cousin of Gen. Robert E. Lee – Bushong, pp. 174-176.
See VIDEO: General David Hunter Burns Fountain Rock in Shepherdstown, WV, by Jim Surkamp TRT: 4:54.
See VIDEO: Shepherdstown – Bedford Burns 1864 by Jim Surkamp TRT: 6:19.

97. 1864.July.19.Kabletown.Skirmish:
– Operations in the Shenandoah Valley, Maryland and Pennsylvania, Official Record, Chapter XLIX, Series I, Part 1, Volume 37 Correspondence, 

p. 171

98. 1864.July.19.CharlesTown.Skirmish:
– Operations in the Shenandoah Valley, Maryland and Pennsylvania, Official Record, Chapter XLIX, Series I, Part 1, Volume 37 Correspondence, 

p. 171.

99. 1864.July.22.CharlesTown.Skirmish:
1st New York Cavalry 2 casualties. SOURCE: New York in the War of the Rebellion, 3rd ed. Frederick Phisterer. Albany: J. B. Lyon Company, 1912.

Confederate Cavalryman Col. William Jackson reported on the skirmish near Shepherdstown on July 30th:

One and a half miles from Shepherdstown, on the road to Martinsburg, July 30, 1864. – By maneuvering more than fighting the enemy’s infantry and cavalry (about 1,500, so far as I can learn) compelled me to fall back to this point, and they are now in possession of Shepherdstown and still moving to flank me. – W. JACKSON, Chapter XLIX, Official Report, Series I, Part 1, Volume 37, p. 354. More at – Operations in the Shenandoah Valley, Maryland and Pennsylvania, Official Record, Chapter XLIX, Series I, Part 1, Volume 37 Correspondence, 

p. 171

100. 1864.August.3.Duffields.Skirmish:
1st Ne York Cavalry. 1 killed. SOURCE: New York in the War of the Rebellion, 3rd ed. Frederick Phisterer. Albany: J. B. Lyon Company, 1912.

101. 1864.August.9.10.Duffield.Station.Capture:
Partisan raider John S. Mosby reported on capturing Federal soldiers and their horses at Duffields Station approximately on August 9-10:

. . . another detachment (sent out August 9th-JS) of five sent to Duffields Depot brought in 10 prisoners with their horses, & c. – J. MOSBY, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43,  p. 634

102. 1864.August.12.13.Berryville.From.Harpers.Ferry.Capture.Supplies (Outside Jefferson County, not included in events count):
Partisan raider John Mosby reported on the August 13th capture and routing of a large Federal supply train en route from Harper’s Ferry to Winchester:
On the morning of August 13 I attacked, near Berryville, the enemy’s supply train, which was guarded by some 700 or 800 infantry and cavalry, under command of Brigadier-General Kenly. Completely routed the guard, with a loss of over 200 prisoners, including 8 lieutenants, besides several killed and wounded. Captured and destroyed 75 loaded wagons, and secured over 200 head of beef-cattle, between 500 and 600 horses and mules, and many valuable stores. My loss 2 killed and 3 wounded. My force numbered something over 300 men, with two mountain howitzers. One howitzer became disabled before being brought into action by breaking of a wheel; the other after firing a few rounds was rendered useless also by breaking of the carriage. – J. MOSBY, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43, p. 634

103. 1864.mid-August.Berryville.Pike.Charlestown.Skirmish:
John Scott, a partisan with John S. Mosby for the Confederacy, wrote of the capture of two scouts and their escorting party and the death of Federal Captain Walker:
About the middle of August Colonel Mosby again sent Captain Richards to the Valley with twenty-eight men. He selected a position on the turnpike leading from Charlestown to Berryville, along which Sheridan communicated with his dept. of supplies at Harper’s Ferry. In a short time, two men, coming from Berryville, were captured, but one of them proved to be a . . . a reporter for the New York Tribune. . . . The idea that he was in the hands of the guerrillas, and about to be executed for being a Yankee, had then flashed upon the reporter’s mind, and caused him to utter cries of distress . . . he informed his (captors-JS) that twelve of his countrymen would soon be along, and that if he would “lie snug” he (referring to the partisan commander, Adolphus “Dolly” Richards-JS) could get them all. Soon, in confirmation of the reporter’s words, Captain J. S. Walker, a bearer of dispatches, and Lieutenant Ware, Commissary of the 5th United States Cavalry, made their appearance, with an escort of ten men. Richards, to remove any suspicion, advanced to meet them, whistling a song. When very near each other, Captain Walker, discovering his mistake, ordered his men to fire, but Captain Richards ordered his men to charge. A Yankee sergeant and private were killed, and the rest of the party fled toward Berryville. In the pursuit which followed Captain Walker and one private were killed, and Lieutenant Ware and three men captured. In Captain Walker’s pocket was found a miniature likeness of his bride, with her name and the date of her marriage inscribed upon it – sad words when the bridegroom lay stark and cold before us. Buck Watkins, touched with sympathy, obtained possession of the picture, and gave it to a lady, who sent it to Mrs. Walker by the hands of a Federal officer. Captain Walker’s horse – “young, handsome, and well-limbed” – was presented to Captain Richards, and proved to be the fastest horse in the battalion . . . . When the captured property was divided, it was discovered that some lucky fellow had found in Lieutenant Ware’s pocketbook five hundred dollars in greenbacks, and about an equal amount in drafts. – Scott, pp. 272-273.

104. 1864.August.15.CharlesTown.Skirmish:
Partisan raider John S. Mosby reported on the August 15 event in Charlestown:

A few days after this (August 13-JS), Lieutenant Glascock, with fourteen men, captured 29 prisoners, including several officers, with their horses arms, & c., near Kernstown. **At the same time Captain Richards, with a small squad, killed a captain and captured 7 or 8 men and horses near Charlestown. – J. MOSBY, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43,  p. 634
More at: The Shenandoah Valley Campaign, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43, p. 8.

105. 1864.August.20.Charlestown.Skirmish:
Partisan raider John S. Mosby reported on the August 20 event near Charlestown:

About August 20 I crossed with my command at Snicker’s Gap, the enemy being near Berryville, sending the larger portion, under Capt. William Chapman, to operate around Berryville and restrain the enemy from devastating the country. **With a small detachment I went to their rear, near Charlestown, and captured 12 prisoners and 10 horses. (NOTE: Near Berryville, outside the County, Mosby continues, reporting on his rangers’ reaction to the burning of five homes ordered by Federal General George Custer-JS): Captain Chapman, coming upon a portion of the enemy’s cavalry which was engaged in burning houses, attacked and routed them. Such was the indignation of our men at witnessing some of the finest residences in that portion of the State enveloped in flames that no quarter was shown, and about 25 of them were shot to death for their villainy. About 30 horses were brought off, but no prisoners). – J. MOSBY, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43,  p. 634

106. 1864.August.21.Middleway(Smithfield).Skirmish:
Federal General H. G. Wright mentions the Middleway skirmish of August 21st in his report:
On the morning of this day, (Sunday, August 21-JS) information came that our cavalry at Middleway had been attacked and driven off. H. WRIGHT, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43,  p. 155.

107. 1864.August.21.Welch’s.Spring.Camerons.Depot.Aldridge.near.Charlestown.Skirmish – (Cameron’s Depot/Aldridge’s and Welch’s spring about 2.5 miles west of Charles Town on the Smithfield/Middleway Pike):
OVERVIEW written by local resident and Artilleryman Roger P. Chew of fighting centering around Cameron’s Depot, Aldridge’s property, Packett’s property and Welch’s Spring:
On August 21st, 1864, Gen. Early marched from the vicinity of Bunker Hill toward Charles Town, driving the Federal Cavalry before him until he reached Cameron’s Station on the Baltimore & Ohio railroad, where he encountered the infantry. He engaged them about nine o’clock in the morning, and drove them toward Charles Town. The Federals threw up fortifications in front of his line and prepared to resist his advance. The cavalry under Vaughn, Johnson and Jackson advanced by way of Leetown and joined Early in front of Charles Town. McCausland marched by way of Summit Point and Fitz Lee by way of Berryville and engaged the enemy on that road. Early planted his cannon on the hill around the house of John R. Flagg, and formed his line of battle north and south of this point, while Sheridan formed his line a short distance east, the center being around the house of John B. Packett. Severe skirmishing and cannonading took place at this point, and quite a number of Federals were killed and wounded in and around Mr. Packett’s house. The house was occupied at the time by Mr. Packett and his family and quite a number of visitors, among them several of the Misses Washington, whose home was about two miles distant. The Federals declined to allow them to leave until the shelling became too serious, with Lieutenant H. G. Nickols, they made their escape, under fire, across the fields towards the Federal lines and in the direction of Charles Town. Fortunately they all escaped without injury. The house of Mr. Packett to this day bears the evidence of the cannonading and musketry firing, a number of shells being lodged in the walls. It was expected a large engagement would take place here but the Federals, although largely outnumbering Early’s army, declined to attack. On the night of the 21st, Sheridan withdrew and retired to Harpers Ferry, pursued by Early’s army. While Sheridan occupied Charles Town he had his famous conference with Gen. Grant at the house of Thos. Rutherford and the destruction of the resources of the Shenandoah Valley was agreed upon. – Chew,  pp. 35-36 – ROADSIDE MARKER NUMBER TWENTY.

Federal General H. G. Wright continues and describes the skirmish near Welch’s Spring on August 21st in his report:
. . . Before these officers could reach the division commanders, **firing was heard on our picket line. The enemy developed rapidly, mainly on the south side of the pike and kept up a sharp fire, driving in our line on that side of the pike. It was not supposed that an advance in force could be made, without notice from our cavalry (156) in front, hence this sudden attack of the enemy was almost a surprise, but the troops were soon ready, and the Third Division (Brigadier-General Ricketts) was transferred from its position in reserve to the left of the line, where General Crook afterward connected with him. Our original position was regained, and the corps ready to repulse any further attack or make one if ordered. The First Division of the Nineteenth Corps moved about noon, and connected with my right, The loss of the corps here was about 260 killed and wounded, a large portion being from the Second Division, whose conduct on this occasion cannot be too highly praised. – H. WRIGHT, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43,  p. 155.

Confederate map-maker Jedediah Hotchkiss reported on the event on August 21st near Cameron’s Depot/Aldridge’s and Welch’s spring about 2.5 miles west of Charles Town on the Smithfield/Middleway Pike:
Sunday, August 21. We moved toward Charlestown at an early hour. Drove the enemy from the Opequon. **Met their infantry skirmishers at Aldridge’s abont 9.30 am. Rodes was in front and threw ont his skirmishers and drove the enemy to the vicinity of Charlestown. Ramseur was put on his right and advanced to near the Summit Point road. Anderson came by the old Winchester and Charlestown road and Fitz Lee by the Berryville road. – J. HOTCHKISS, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43,  p. 570

108. 1864.August.21.Summit.Point.Skirmish:
Confederate map-maker Jedediah Hotchkiss reported on the Summit Point event on the morning of August 21st:
Sunday, August 21. We moved toward Charlestown at an early hour. Drove the enemy from the Opequon. Met their infantry skirmishers at Aldridge’s abont 9.30 am. Rodes was in front and threw out his skirmishers and drove the enemy to the vicinity of Charlestown. Ramseur was put on his right and advanced to near the Summit Point road. Anderson came by the old Winchester and Charlestown road and Fitz Lee by the Berryville road. **They had some fighting near Summit Point. We advanced by Smithfield. It threatened rain some, but cleared off by noon. Lomax, with Yanghn, Johnson, and Jackson, advanced by Leetown and then toward Charlestown. McCausland came on in our front and went toward Summit Point with part of his force from Smithfield. – J. HOTCHKISS, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43, p. 570
More at: The Shenandoah Valley Campaign, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43,  p. 8

109. 1864.August.21.Afternoon.Leetown.Pike.Action:
Local resident and Confederate Artilleryman Roger P. Chew described the fighting on the afternoon of August 21st, west of Charlestown, from Leetown Road south towards Summit Point, before the Confederates under Gen. Early retired into camp about 2.5 miles west of Charlestown.:
On the 21st of August 1864 General Early had formed his line of battle in front of Charles Town, W. Va. with General Rhodes (Rodes-JS) on his left. General Lomax, with his division of cavalry, protected their left flank. Harry Gilmor with the two Maryland batallions and the 19th and 20th Virginia regiments of Jackson’s brigade were on the extreme left, and were ordered to hold the Leetown road. Gilmor dismounted the 19th regiment near the house then owned by Mrs. Daniel and now the property of James E. Watson. They were at once charged by a regiment of cavalry. Awaiting until they approached very near, the 19th opened a steady fire upon them, which threw them into confusion, when Gilmor ordered Captain Welsh to charge them with the First Maryland. They retreated, the regiment driving them back to their reserves, taking some prisoners, and killing and wounding a small number. A brigade of cavalry attempted to move around the left of Gilmor’s line, there they formed the 19th and 20th in the woods near the house. This line was attacked by Duffie’s brigade, led by the 12th Pennsylvania, commanded by Colonel Bell. Gilmor ordered his men to withhold their fire until the enemy got within a hundred yards. When the word to fire was given, a good many saddles were emptied. Among those who were shot was Colonel Bell, who fell mortally wounded. Tho enemy retreated then to their reserves. The artillery kept up a furious and incessant fire on the woods. Later in the afternoon a desperate charge was made on the two Virginia regiments. The men had thrown up a barricade of rails, and gallantly held their position. About 50 Federals cut their way through and were captured by a squadron from the 1st Maryland under Lieutenant William Dorsey and Gilmor. Colonel Bell’s adjutant, a son of Governor Curtin of Pennsylvania, mounted on Col. Bell’s horse was captured. Gilmor presented the horse to General Lomax. This ended the fight and the enemy, during the night retreated in the direction of Harpers Ferry. The enemy’s loss was heavy, in killed, wounded and prisoners. – Chew, pp. 17-18.
More at: The Shenandoah Valley Campaign, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43, p. 8

Confederate map-maker Jedediah Hotchkiss reported on events in the afternoon of August 21st:
McCausland came on in our front and went toward Summit Point with part of his force from Smithfield. Gordon was put on the right and Wharton on the left of the pike in reserve. **We skirmished with the enemy during the p.m. and used some artillery. They made some advances, but were repulsed. We encamped some two and a half miles from Charlestown. – J. HOTCHKISS, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43, p. 570.
More at: The Shenandoah Valley Campaign, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43,  p. 8

110. 1864.August.22.Charlestown.Skirmish:
Confederate map-maker Jedediah Hotchkiss reported on the Charlestown event on August 22nd:
Monday, August 22. We advanced at an early hour and found the enemy gone, leaving only cavalry behind. We soon drove them off, and three miles beyond Charlestown. – J. HOTCHKISS, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43, p. 570.
More at: The Shenandoah Valley Campaign, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43, p. 8

111. 1864.August.23.Kearneysville.Skirmish:
More at: The Shenandoah Valley Campaign, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43,  p. 8

112. 1864.August.24.Halltown.Skirmish:
Federal commander General Phil Sheridan reported on the Halltown skirmish on August 24:
This morning General Crook made a reconnaissance, driving the enemy’s advance line, punishing him severely, and capturing twenty men belonging to Early’s corps. General Emory made a reconnaissance and encountered the enemy in strong force in his front. I will commence operations with the cavalry to-morrow. – P. SHERIDAN, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43,  p. 20
More at: The Shenandoah Valley Campaign, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43, p. 8

113. 1864.August.25.Leetown.Skirmish:
Resident and Confederate Artilleryman Roger P. Chew described the back-and-forth of Early’s army on August 25th:
General Early, leaving Anderson in front of Charles Town marched on the 25th of August 1864 towards Leetown, intending to go to Shepherdstown. Wharton’s division was in front and encountered a small force of cavalry near Wageley’s Shop and near Leetown, which was quickly disposed of with a loss to the enemy of both men and horses. – Chew, pp. 18-19 ROADSIDE MARKER NUMBER ELEVEN.

114-115. 1864.August.25.Kearneysville.Shepherdstown.Action:
Roger P. Chew described August 25th event, a cavalry action from Leetown to Morgan’s Grove outside Shepherdstown on the Kearneysville Pike:
(Continuing Chew’s account from the earlier Leetown account): Marching by way of Leetown he encountered unexpectedly two divisions of Federal cavalry, Wilson’s and Merrit’s, which were started on a reconnoisance up the valley, and had halted in a piece of woods a short distance from Leetown to feed and rest. The enemy at first gained some advantage but Early quickly formed a line of battle, and advancing boldly, forced the enemy back. Early was not, however, met with any serious opposition until he reached Kearneysville, where the enemy made a determined stand, a part of their force fighting on foot and some mounted. Being unable to dislodge the enemy from the railroad embankment by frontal attack, Gordon’s division was sent around to the Federal flank, where this gallant fighter and his worthy men made advantageous charges, finally driving them from their strong position and pursuing them through Kearneysville and on towards Shepherdstown. In one of the charges made by Gordon and his men that General was wounded in the face by a sabre slash. General Early continued the pursuit until he reached Shepherdstown. The enemy escaped and a part crossed the Potomac and the balance in the direction of Harpers Ferry. – Chew, Chew, pp. 18-19

Federal commander General Phil Sheridan reported on the Kearneysville and Shepherdstown events of August 25:
There is no doubt of the presence here of a large portion of Longstreets corps, General Anderson commanding. Early and Breckinridge moved this morning in the direction of Shepherdstown and were met by our cavalry near Kearneysvllle not far from Blue Spring or Leetown. The cavalry was opposed by Breckinridge’s corps. After some skirmishing Wilson’s division was ordered into its present position here, and Merritt to Shepherdstown. Merritt was followed and had to leave Shepherdstown and fall back here (Gen.) Custer crossing to the north side at Shepherdstown. – P. SHERIDAN, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43, p. 21
More at: The Shenandoah Valley Campaign, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43, p. 8
See VIDEO at: Cavalry Battle Down Kearneysville Pike – 1864. TRT: 5:38.

116. 1864.August.26.Halltown.Action:
Federal commander General Phil Sheridan reported on the Halltown action on August 26th:
This evening General Crook made a dash and drove in their heavy line ot skirmishers on the left, and Colonel Lowell took advantage of it to make a cavalry charge, capturing seven officers and sixty-nine privates of Kershaw’s division. Among the officers is one lieutenant-colonel – P. SHERIDAN, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43, p. 21.
More at: The Shenandoah Valley Campaign, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43, p. 8

117. 1864.August.26.Charlestown.Skirmish:
Federal commander Phil Sheridan reported on the August 26th retreat by Gen. Early from Charlestown towards Smithfield (Middleway):
The enemy left my front last night, falling back to Smithfield or Middleway, captured 101 prisoners yesterday and inflicted a loss of 150 killed and wounded. There have been a few feints to cross the river by cavalry at Williamsport, but there was no strength shown. – P. SHERIDAN, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43,

p. 22
More at: The Shenandoah Valley Campaign, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43, p. 9

118. 1864.August.27.Duffields.Skirmish:
The Shenandoah Valley Campaign, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43, 

p. 9

119. 1864.August.28.Leetown.Smithfield.Skirmish:
Federal Cavalry commander, Wesley Merritt, reported on the August 28th events:
August 26 and 27, remained in camp picketing and reconnoitering. August 28, marched to Leetown, at which point the enemy’s cavalry, under Lomax, was engaged by the Reserve Brigade and driven toward Smithfield. At this latter place the enemy made a decided stand, when the division was disposed for battle, the First Brigade moving to the right flank and the Reserve Brigade attacking in front, Second Brigade being held as reserve. In the attack the First U. S. Cavalry distinguished itself in a splendid charge against double its numbers of the enemy, repelling his charge and driving his column back in confusion. Lieutenant Hoyer, of the First, a gallant and promising young officer, fell mortally wounded while leading his squadron in the charge. The enemy were finally driven across the Opequon to Bunker Hill, and the division encamped near Smithfield. – W. MERRITT, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43,  pp. 440-441

Local resident and Confederate Cavalryman Roger P. Chew wrote of the August 28th events:
On the 28th of August, 1864, Early ‘s cavalry that had been located near Charles Town, was driven back through Middleway and compelled to cross the Opequon, Fitz Lee retreating towards Brucetown and Lomax towards Bunker Hill. – Chew, p. 21.
More at: The Shenandoah Valley Campaign, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43,  p. 9

120. 1864.August.29.Smithfield.Crossing.Charlestown.Engagement:
Federal Cavalry commander, Wesley Merritt, reported on the August 29th event:
The next day (August 29-JS) the brigade was ordered on reconnaissance to Bunker Hill, to discover if possible the whereabouts of the enemy’s infantry. Two divisions of his force (infantry) were met on their way to attack us. The brigade was withdrawn to the right bank of the Opequon, and the entire division, after a stubborn resistance, fell back toward Charlestown, about two miles. The enemy did not advance far, but in his turn retired to the left bank of the Opequon. – W. MERRITT, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43, pp. 440-441.

Local resident and Confederate Cavalryman Roger P. Chew wrote of the August 29th events:
The enemy occupied Middleway, where they burned several barns and houses. To put a stop to this fiendish work Ramsey crossed the Opequon and drove back the Federal cavalry. General Early also crossed the Opequon with infantry and artillery and drove the federals from some rude works they had constructed in front of the town. He then returned to camp over the Opequon leaving the cavalry behind. The enemy attacked this later in the afternoon and drove them back across the stream. There was considerable loss in these actions. – Chew p. 21.
More at: The Shenandoah Valley Campaign, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43, 

p. 9

121. 1864.August.29.Charlestown.Skirmish:
The Shenandoah Valley Campaign, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43,

p. 9


122. 1864.August.30.Smithfield.Skirmish:
The Shenandoah Valley Campaign, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43,

p. 9


123. 1864.September.1.Opequon.Creek.Skirmish:
The Shenandoah Valley Campaign, Chapter LV, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 43,

p. 9

 124. The Greenback Raid, Quincey’s Siding Oct. 14, 1864

125. 1864.November.22.Halltown.Skirmish:
Confederate commander and local resident, George W. Baylor, described this capture of Federal soldiers on November 22nd:
On the night of the 22d of November, passing unnoticed through the enemy’s infantry picket at Halltown, the rear of the cavalry picket camp was gained. As we were seven to about fifty of the enemy, a little strategy was found necessary, and the attack was arranged on the Gideon plan. Much to our surprise, the picket force had a sentinel on guard in its rear, and as we approached, we were halted about two hundred yards from the camp. To the sentinel’s demand, “Who comes there,” I responded, “Friends.” “Friends to whom?” was the demand. “Abe Lincoln,” I replied. “Advance and give the countersign,” the sentinel replied. Cautioning the boys that so soon as I fired they were to come to my aid with all the speed and noise possible, I rode forward, but before I reached the sentinel he fired his gun and rapidly retreated to camp. . . . and on that still November night, as with the rebel yell we charged along the River road, the Shenandoah and the Blue Ridge echoing and re-echoing our shout and magnifying our little band into a mighty host, fought for us, and we dashed into the enemy’s camp to find only some 50 riderless horses and 13 men too much frightened to run. The rest had sought safety in flight. Gathering up 13 prisoners and 26 horses, ail we could conveniently manage, we crossed the river and passed out of the enemy’s line along the Blue Ridge Mountain road. Arriving at headquarters in safety, prisoners and booty were disposed of, and report made to General Rosser. On the following day we obtained permission from the General for Company B to operate in the lower Valley. After getting within the enemy’s lines the company was disbanded, with directions for the men to meet at a certain time and place; the interim was spent among friends and acquaintances, changing quarters every night to prevent capture by the enemy. – Baylor, pp. 261-262.

126. 1864.November.29.Charlestown.Skirmish:
Confederate commander George W. Baylor described the November 29th event:
On the night of the 29th of November, 1864, with 30 men of Company B, we attacked the camp of the Twelfth Pennsylvania Cavalry at Charles Town. Passing through the enemy’s picket line, through a hollow just east of town, under cover of a fog such as usually hangs on autumn nights over the little valleys near the river and unobserved by the sentry on the adjacent hills, we reached in safety the north side of the town and the rear of the enemy’s camp, and rode quietly to a point near the block house, about twenty yards from the camp. Here the men dismounted, leaving the horses in charge of the fourth man in each file of fours, and noiselessly gained the block house. Steathily moving on, the sleeping camp was entered, and the occupants awoke to find themselves prisoners. There was sudden confusion and scampering among the enemy. Some twenty of their number, lodged in a stone house nearby, opened fire on us. Recognizing the gravity of the situation, we rushed upon the house, and, seizing the doors and windows, poured several volleys into the building. Just as George Crayton, my brother Robert W. Baylor, Jr. (a boy of seventeen) and myself entered the door, several shots were fired by the inmates, one mortally injuring my brother and another severely injuring Crayton. After a few minutes the cry of surrender came from the group huddled together in the building, and the firing ceased. My brother and Crayton were removed to the house of Dr. Mason, who had been for years our family physician, and where I knew they would be well cared for. My brother died in a few hours, but Crayton rallied for a while and died soon after the close of the war. The loss of these two gallant soldiers was deeply deplored by their comrades, and especially by myself. In this engagement we killed and wounded 11 of the enemy, captured 27 prisoners and 37 horses and equipments. – Baylor, pp. 265-266.

Federal General John Stevenson reported on the November 29th event:
The camp of the Twelfth Pennsylvania Cavalry was attacked last night about 12 oclock. The attacking force are a part of a Virginia regiment acting with Mosby and camped on this side the mountains. They were finally repulsed, but killed 2 of our men, wounded 1, and captured 5, also 19 horses. The enemy lost 1 killed and several wounded. The force at the camp is only a camp guard of forty men. Anticipating that the attack would be made, I directed the commanding officer to call on Heine’s infantry for assistance. He did so, but they sent him no help. Will you order him to send 100 men of his command to the camp until the regiment returns. – STEVENSON, Chapter LV, Official Record, Volume 43, Series I, Part 2, 

p. 711

127. 1864.December.1-2.Harpers.Ferry.Execution:
Author Chester Hearn, in his book: “Six Years of Hell: Harper’s Ferry During the Civil War,” described the capture and execution of William “French Bill” Loge on December 1st & 2nd in Harpers Ferry:
Most of Mobley’s command was made up of old friends who grew up in the Harper’s Ferry neighborhood. The exception was Private William “French Bill” Loge of the 61st New York. One day Loge stepped across the Potomac to join Mobley’s gang, and he soon earned a reputation as a notorious murderer and bushwhacker. He possessed great strength and relished a good fight. On December 1 after several months of successful marauding, he made the mistake of appearing at Johnson’s still house to witness a boxing match between Yankee Sullivan and Ben Caunt. French Bill had been involved in the murder of the 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry’s surgeon, and Sheridan had standing orders to have him shot. Merritt’s raid through Loudoun County had sent Mobley’s men into hiding, but a few of the gang resurfaced to see the fight. Corporal Samuel E. Tritapoe of Atwell’s company of Independent Loudoun Rangers recognized Loge and hauled him into Harpers Ferry. Sheridan issued orders for Stevenson to “take him out and hang him.” On December 2 . . . French Bill choked to an agonizing death on the gallows. Some said he died game, but Joseph Barry remembered the great brutality displayed by the provost guards as they jostled the prisoner to the scaffold. “On the whole,” Barry wrote, “It was the most sickening affair witnessed . . . during the war.” – Hearn, pp. 281-282; STEVENSON, SHERIDAN Chapter LV, Official Record, Volume 43, Series I, Part 2, p. 721

Barry, p. 136.

128. 1864.December.3.Duffield.Scout.No.Conflict:
Confederate partisan John S. Mosby described the December 3rd event:
On the 3d of December, a meeting of the whole battalion was held at Upperville. The First squadron went into the Valley, crossing at Snicker’s Gap and Castleman’s Ferry. Proceeding then to Charlestown, and finding no enemy. Captain A. E. Richards pushed on to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad at Duffield Station, placing obstructions on the track, to capture a train of cars. After waiting patiently all night for one to approach, and none making its appearance, the men were disbanded, and all returned to Fauquier. – Mosby, p. 313.

129. 1864.December.7.Duffield. No Conflict
Confederate partisan John S. Mosby described the December 7th event:
Dec. 7th (1864), Captain Richards, of Company B, and commandant of the First squadron, detailed forty men, with fast horses, to meet him the next day (Thursday), at two o’clock, at Snickersville. In compliance with Richards’s order, the men met him. He then started on a raid to the Valley, crossing the mountains at Snicker’s Gap, and Shenandoah River at Castleman’s Ferry. Penetrating the enemy’s lines to within five miles of Martinsburg, and capturing only two Federals, he changed his course, and struck for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, near Duffield Station. When about half way a violent snow-storm set in and com- (315) pelled him to return to Fauquier. As it snowed all that night, Richards’s men suffered severely. He reached headquarters, however, without loss or serious injury, although the mercury stood below zero during his entire absence. – Mosby, pp. 314-315.

130. 1865.February.1.CharlesTown. No Conflict
Confederate partisan John S. Mosby described the February 1st event:

The dawn of the morning of February 1, 1865, was heralded by still another exploit of Major Richards with twenty-five men. They made another crossing at Castleman’s, and captured five patrolmen, from whom, by the exercise of strength, awkwardness, and a mixture of deception, they succeded in obtaining the countersign, and thus armed were enabled to effect the loan of five noble chargers from the Yankee garrison at Charlestown. The conditions of the loan not being fully understood, several leaden messengers sung around their ears as they made their exit. The riders of the captured horses were induced to remain in the saddle until we could furnish them quarters. Upon the return of Major Richards, he was advised that Jim (331) Wilcher and Bob Eastham, (alias Bob Ridley), with ten men, had attacked a train between Harper’s Ferry and Winchester, without success. The engineer, however, fell from the train in his frenzied efforts to save his charge, and was instantly killed. – Mosby, pp. 330-331.

131. 1865.February.3.Harpers.Ferry.Affair:
Federal Colonel Marcus Reno reported on two scouting parties achieving different results on February 3rd:

I have the honor to report that the party which ran the train off the track on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad crossed at or near Keyes Ford. I had timely information of their crossing and their whereabouts, and would have succeeded in capturing some of them had my orders been obeyed. About 10 pm. I sent out two parties under command of Lieutenants Guild and Chase. These parties were about fifty strong. Lieutenant Chase was ordered, with his command, to cover the roads leading to the different fords through Bloomery. Lieutenant Guild was ordered to overtake and head off the party, attack them, and drive them back. After he left camp, instead of following them up, he thought he had better move toward the river, the diametrically opposite direction from his orders. Lieutenant Chase (with good reason) did not expect our own men in that direction, and fired into Lieutenant G.’s command. I regret to say that one man, Private Hogeland, Company D, was wounded. I have placed Lieutenant Guild in arrest and now report him for immediate dismissal . . . **The scouting party which brought the information lost one of their number. He was taken prisoner by the rebels, but in returning over the same ground his dead body was found in the road, evidently murdered after capture. Upon receiving Lieutenant Guild’s report I immediately dispatched parties to Duffields and Smithfield, as it was evident to me they had gone in that direction. They report that, after throwing off the train, the enemy separated into small parties and made toward the Shenandoah. – RENO, Chapter LVIII, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 46,  p. 455

1865.February.8.Washington.D.C.Martin.Delany.Impresses.Lincoln: (Outside County)
Frank Rollin wrote of the meeting between Delany and President Lincoln:
On a cold, clammy damp morning at 8 AM on Feb. 8th, Delany was welcomed by President Lincoln into his study at the White House. Lincoln had followed Delany’s doings for years. He knew him. On entering the executive chamber and being introduced to his excellency, a generous grasp of the hand brought me to a seat in front of him. Lincoln: “What can I do for you, sir?” Delany: “Nothing, Mr. President, but I’ve come to propose something to you, which I think will be beneficial to this nation in this critical hour of her peril.” Lincoln: “Go on sir.” Delany and Lincoln discussed the value of black leaders for freed black Americans, and how so many feared black leadership. Lincoln: “This is the very thing I’ve been looking for and hoping for; but nobody offered it. I have talked about it; I hoped and prayed for it. But up until now, it has never been proposed. “When I issued the Emancipation Proclamation, I had this thing in contemplation. I then gave them a chance by prohibiting any interference on the part of the army; but they did not embrace it.” Delany replied: “But Mr. President, these poor people could not READ your proclamation.” While he spoke Lincoln was writing on a piece of paper. “Hon. E. M. Stanton: “Don’t not fail to have a meeting with this most extraordinary and intelligent black man – Rollin, p. 166.
More at:
See POST: “Martin Delany of Charles Town, WV.” Click Here. 8733 words.
See VIDEO: Delany has a fateful interview with President Lincoln in February, 1865 setting the stage for Delany’s key role in the reconstruction effort in South Carolina. – Click Here. TRT: 6:34
See POST: “True Patriotism” – Martin Delany’s “Masterpiece” Click Here 2442 words.
See VIDEOS: Martin Delany Video Link Click Here. 354 words.

1865.February.24.Hanging.Spy.County.Citizen: (Outside County)
February 24, 1865, the hanging of John Yates Beall, young aristocrat from Charlestown Governor’s Island, New York Harbor:
The day of the hanging was set for February 24, 1865 between noon and two. Beall tried to bribe a guard and two saws were successfully smuggled into him and hidden into a shoe sole. Perhaps family money helped or Lee’s gold helped, but President Abraham Lincoln was deluged with letters pleading mercy for John Yates Beall. Ninety-one Congressmen – and a handful of Senators in fact – who all, unfortunately, were the same Democrats who opposed President Lincoln’s re-election. But the pleas kept pouring in. Then there was the visit to Lincoln by Beall’s desperate mother and sister. Said Lincoln: “I’ve had more questions of life and death to settle in four years than all the other men who ever sat in this chair put together. No man knows the distress of my mind. The case of Beall on the Lakes had to be an example.” John Beall wrote by a small lamp in his gloomy cell: “I care nothing for the judgement of mankind and nothing of their punishment I have to suffer because I know my mother thinks her son is right and my sister will honor my memory.”
More at:
See POST: John Yates Beall of Charles Town, WV – Who Lincoln Hanged. Click Here. 7860 words.
See POST/VIDEO: John Yates Beall The Video Click Here. 382 words.
See POST: Lincoln, Beall and The Gallows Click Here. 2775 words.

132. 1865.March.13.Charlestown.Skirmish:
Eyewitness and commander George Baylor described the March 13th event:
On March 13th, with seven men, we crossed the Shenandoah, then much swollen, swimming our horses, struck the Berryville turnpike, a mile south of Charlestown, about 10 pm., and moved cautiously in the direction of the town, then garrisoned as a Federal post. At the toll-gate, then located within the present corporation limits, we were halted by the enemy’s picket, a single soldier, who demanded, “Who comes there?” I responded, “Friend to Abe Lincoln.” The picket then replied, “Advance and give the countersign.” Advancing until within a few feet of him, I discovered he was covering me with his gun. I realized that a ruse de guerre was necessary. I was riding at the time a little sorrel horse, Jeb, an almost perfect cavalry steed, learned in many accomplishments, who would rear whenever desired. This picket was on the alert, and I must divert his attention. A stroke on the neck, and Jeb rose on his hind legs, and as he did so, I shouted, “Take down your gun, you frighten my horse!” Down it went, and in a second my pistol was at his head, with a demand, “Surrender, you son-of-a-gun!” This was my favorite salute to the Yankees on such occasions, and was as near swearing as anything I did during the war, and I believe it had as much effect as something stronger. The soldier’s gun dropped on the ground, and up went his hands. My comrades now coming up, the countersign was demanded of the prisoner and given to us without hesitation. Death was the penalty threatened if it proved to be wrong. The prisoner then directed us to the next post westward, where the countersign proved genuine, and this picket also was gathered in. The town was surrounded with a cordon of pickets, and the full circuit was made and all the posts relieved without trouble or alarm until the last was reached. This post was just east of the one first taken, on the hill in rear of the Academy. As my recollection now serves me, there were with me on this occasion. Douglas Mason, Howard Kerfoot (now the distinguished Baptist divine), Jim and Shannon Gallaher, Ike Anderson, Bob North, and Willie Johnson. The pickets up to this one had been relieved by me without the least difficulty. Doug. Mason requested and was granted permission to relieve this last fellow, as I apprehended no danger. When a halt was demanded and the sentinel’s inquiry had been answered, “Friends, with countersign,” Mason rode forward at the demand, “Advance and give countersign,” until close to his man, when he was ordered to dismount. As this fellow was evidently more cautious than his fellows a little apprehension was felt for Mason’s safety, and the next moment was awaited with suspense. Suddenly two shots rang out simultaneously on the night air, breaking the solemn stillness of the hour. Dashing up, I found Mason and the Yankee lying on the ground. Mason shot through the shoulder and the Yankee through the stomach. No disturbance had been made until the encounter with this picket, but now the alarm was given, and a speedy retreat was necessary as the reserve would soon be upon us. Putting Mason on his horse, I started south on the Berryville turnpike, Mason, prisoners and small guard in front, and some three or four in rear to protect them. The enemy pursued only a short distance, and very cautiously. Halting at each favorable point, the advance was greeted with a little volley, which seems from the enemy’s account not to have been without effect. After passing Roper’s Hill the pursuit seems to have been abandoned, and Mason was taken into Mr. Milburn’s house on the Frame (now Burns) farm, his wound dressed and bound. Our retreat was then continued to Clarke and Warren counties, and the prisoners sent to Gordonsville. – Baylor, pp. 308-310.

Federal General John Stevenson reported on the March 13th event:
On the evening of the 13th instant a party of guerrillas attacked one of Renos picket posts, killing 1 man and wounding 2 others. He reports to-day a party of nine guerrillas crossed river to-day; were attacked by seven men of his command, rebels losing 2 killed, and Reno’s men 1 killed and 1 captured. – J. STEVENSON, Chapter LVIII, Official Record, Series I, Part 2, Volume 46,  p. 998

133. 1865.March.20.Kabletown.ShenandoahFerry.Myerstown.MyersFord.Scouting (No Action)
Federal Captain Henry Underhill describes in detail his scouting operation of March 20th:

I left camp with the One hundred and sixtieth New York Volunteers at 6.30 oclock this am., and proceeding down the Berryville and Smithfield pike about two miles, took the Rippon cross-road, and marched through Rippon to Myerstown. There I ordered the right wing, under Capt. J. B. Burrud, to take the road, which I was told led straight to the river, and, after reaching the river, to wait till the left wing should join him. I then took the left wing and marched to Kabletown, and then turning to the right, by a farm road, proceeded to the river, striking it near Myers Ford. I there found the right wing, their route, instead of leading straight to the river, bending obliquely to the left, and striking the river opposite Kabletown at Myers Ford. With the entire regiment I then followed the bank of the river up to Long Marshy Run, passing Rocky and Backhouse Fords. After crossing Long Marshy Run, turning to the right, I struck over the country, by cross-roads, crossing the Berryville and Charlestown pike, and reached the Berryville and Smithfield pike some three miles from camp. I reached camp at 6.30 pm., having been gone just twelve hours, making between twenty-five and thirty miles. The river was too deep to be forded at any of the crossings. It must fall two feet before cavalry can cross at Backhouse Ford, and five feet before it can be crossed at Rocky or Myers Fords. The river is now falling very rapidly. I saw no parties of mounted men, and only now and then solitary horsemen. – H. UNDERHILL, Chapter LVIII, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 46, 

p. 534

134. 1865.April.6.Keyes.Switch.Millville.Skirmish:
On April 5th, 1865, Col. John S. Mosby organized Company “H”, with George Baylor as Captain; E. P. Thompson, 1st Lieutenant; J. G. Wiltshire, 2nd Lieutenant; Jas. B. Carter, 3rd Lieutenant. On the day following, Baylor with his company crossed the Shenandoah river at Snickers Ferry and marched in the direction of Charles Town.

Eyewitness and commander George Baylor described the April 6th event:
In his report of this expedition he says: “On the way I learned that the Loudoun Rangers were camped near Millville (Keye’s Switch, as it was then called), and that most of the Federal cavalry had gone up the Valley. The Loudoun Rangers were two companies of men from Loudoun county and the neighboring country, and Mosby’s men had long been desirous of capturing them. Here was the opportunity; a regiment of infantry was camped just east of Halltown, picketing down to the river, and it was necessary to pass through this line of infantry pickets to reach the Ranger’s Camp. The infantry picket was approached about 10 AM, saluted, and passed without molestation, our men keeping perfectly in rank, and making no effort to capture or disturb them. This picket very politely gave us the usual military salute “present arms” but some of our boys, who took a sly glance at them, say it was the most tremulous salute they ever witnessed. Having safely passed the infantry picket line, we rode quietly to within fifty yards of the Rangers’ Camp, and seeing them in their cavalry tents, horses tied to stakes and engaged in various diversions, ordered a charge. They outnumbered our force two to one, but we were playing a bold game, and the bold game generally wins in war as well as in cards. With two jacks and the joker in our hands, our opponents must yield. A general flurry and commotion followed our charge. A few seemed disposed to tight, but some to surrender. A few shots soon quieted the more pugilistic. Some ran for the bushes and made good their escape, but the greater part were made prisoners. The loss of the enemy was 2 killed, 4 wounded, 65 prisoners, 81 horses equipments; our loss, one wounded, Frank Helm of Warrenton. This was a pretty good beginning for company H, yet scarce two days old, and it felt proud of its achievement. Gathering up the prisoners, horses and equipments, the tents and wagons were fired, and company H rode off, while the Federal infantry in full view were sounding the “long roll” and falling into line. The river was crossed at Keyes’ Ford, and pursuit was not attempted by the enemy.” – Baylor, pp. 310-311. – ROADSIDE MARKER NUMBER TWENTY-FIVE.


Alexander, John H. (1907). “Mosby’s Men.” New York,NY: The Neale Pub. Co. Print.

Alexander, John H. (1907). “Mosby’s Men.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011.

Barry, Joseph (1903). “The Strange Story of Harper’s Ferry.” Martinsburg, WV: Thompson Brothers. Print.

Barry, Joseph (1903). “The Strange Story of Harper’s Ferry.” Internet Archives. Google Books. 15 August 2006 Web. 18 July 2012.

Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.” Richmond, VA: B. F. Johnson Publishing. Print.

Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011.

Bushong, Millard K. (1941). “A History of Jefferson County, West Virginia 1719-1940.” Westminster MD: Heritage Books. Print.

Caplinger, Michael W. (1997). “Bridges Over Time: A Technological Context for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Main Stem at Harpers Ferry, west Virginia.” Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Institute for the History of Technology & Industrial Archaeology. Print.

Chew, Roger P. (1911). “Military operations in Jefferson County, Virginia (and West Va.) 1861-1865.” published by authority of Jefferson County Camp, U.C.V. [by] Farmers Advocate Print.

Chew, Roger P. (1911). “Military operations in Jefferson County, Virginia (and West Va.) 1861-1865.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011.

Crawford, J. Marshall. (1867). “Mosby and his men : a record of the adventures of that renowned partisan ranger, John S. Mosby, (Colonel C.S.A.); including the exploits of Smith, Chapman, Richards, Montjoy, Turner, Russell, Glasscock, and the men under them.”
New York: G.W. Carleton & Co.; London: S. Low, Son & Co. Print.

Crawford, J. Marshall. (1867). “Mosby and his men : a record of the adventures of that renowned partisan ranger, John S. Mosby, (Colonel C.S.A.); including the exploits of Smith, Chapman, Richards, Montjoy, Turner, Russell, Glasscock, and the men under them.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011.

Douglas, Henry Kyd. (1940, 1968). “I Rode With Stonewall.” Charlotte, NC: University of North Carolina Press. Print.

Douglas, Henry Kyd. (1940, 1968). “I Rode With Stonewall.” Google Books. 19 July 2008. Web. 24 Dec. 2010.

Early, Jubal A. (1867). “A Memoir of the Last Year of the War for Independence, in the Confederate States of America.” New Orleans, LA: Blelock & co. Print.

Early, Jubal A. (1867). “A Memoir of the Last Year of the War for Independence, in the Confederate States of America.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011.

Early, Jubal A. (1912). “Lieutenant General Jubal Anderson Early, C.S.A. Autobiographical sketch and narrative of the war between the states.” Philadelphia, London : J.B. Lippincott Company. Print.

Early, Jubal A. (1912). “Lieutenant General Jubal Anderson Early, C.S.A. Autobiographical sketch and narrative of the war between the states.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011.

French, Steve. (2012). “Rebel Chronicles.” Hedgesville, WV: New Horizons Publishing. Print

Frye, Dennis E. (2012). “Harpers Ferry Under Siege: A Border Town in the American Civil War.” Harpers Ferry, WV: Harpers Ferry Historical Association. Print.

Gilmor, Harry. (1866). “Four Years in the Saddle.” New York, NY: Harper & Brothers. Print.

Gilmor, Harry. (1866). “Four Years in the Saddle.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 28 Jan. 2010.

Gold, Thomas D. (1914). “History of Clarke County, Virginia.” Berryville, VA: C. R. Hughes Publishers. Print.

Gold, Thomas D. (1914). “History of Clarke County, Virginia.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 28 Dec. 2010.

Hard, Abner, M.D. (1868). “History of the Eighth Cavalry Regiment Illinois Volunteers.” Aurora, Ill.: self-published. p. 190. Print.

Hard, Abner, M.D.(1868). “History of the Eighth Cavalry Regiment Illinois Volunteers.” Google Books. 15 August 2006 Web. 18 July 2012. p. 190

Harwood, Herbert H. Jr. (1994). “The Impossible Challenge.” Baltimore, MD.: Barnard, Roberts and co., Inc. Print.

Hearn, Chester G. (1996). “Six Years of Hell.” Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press. Print.

Imboden, John D. (1888). “Jackson at Harpers Ferry in 1861.” Battles and Leaders. Vol. 1. Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co. pp. 122-123. Print.

Imboden, (later-Brigadier-General, C.S.A.) John D. (1888). “Jackson at Harpers Ferry in 1861.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010.

Jones, Allen W. “The Military Events in West Virginia During the Civil War, 1861-1865.” April, 1960, “West Virginia History.” Print.

Jones, Virgil C. (1944). “Ranger Mosby.” Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. Print.

Morse, Charles F. (1898). “Letters written during the Civil War, 1861-1865 [electronic resource].” Boston, MA: Privately Printed. pp. 108-111.

Morse, Charles F. (1898). “Letters written during the Civil War, 1861-1865 [electronic resource].” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 8 July 2013.

Mosby, John S.; Russell, Charles W. (1917). “The memoirs of Colonel John S. Mosby.” Boston, Little, Brown, and Company. Print

Mosby, John S.; Russell, Charles W. (1917). “The memoirs of Colonel John S. Mosby.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 10 Sept. 2010.

Rollin, Frank A. (1883). “Life and Public Service of Martin R. Delany: Sub assistant commissioner Bureau relief of refugees, freedman, and of abandoned lands, and late, Major 104th U.S. colored troops,” Boston, MA: Lee and Shepard. Print.

Rollin, Frank A. (1883). “Life and public services of Martin R. Delany : sub-assistant commissioner Bureau relief of refugees, freedmen, and of abandoned lands, and late Major 104th U.S. colored troops.” Internet Archives. 26 January 1997. Web. 10 June, 2010.

Scott, John. (1867). “Partisan life with Col. John S. Mosby.” New York: Harper & brothers. Print.

Scott, John. (1867). “Partisan life with Col. John S. Mosby.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011.

Snyder, Timothy R. (2011). “Trembling in the Balance: The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal During the Civil War.” Boston, MA: Blue Mustang Press. Print

Stephenson, Darl L. (2001) “Headquarters in the Brush.” Athens, OH: Ohio University Press. Print.

Strother, David. H. (1961). “A Virginia Yankee in the Civil War: The Diaires of David Hunter Strother.” edited Cecil D. Eby, Jr. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. Print.

Strother, David. H. (1961). “A Virginia Yankee in the Civil War: The Diaries of David Hunter Strother.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 10 Sept. 2010.

Summers, Festus P. (1993). “Baltimore and Ohio in the Civil War.” Gettysburg, PA: Stan Clark Military Books. Print.

Vairin, Augustus L. P. “Civil War Diary of Augustus L. P. Vairin 2nd Mississippi Infantry, C.S.A.” (Originals available for review or copies purchased from the Mississippi Department of Archives and History.

Vairin, Augustus. “Civil War Diary of Augustus L. P. Vairin 2nd Mississippi Infantry, C.S.A.” 25 June 1998 Web. 26 June 2011.

Von Boercke, Heros. (1866). “Memoirs of the Confederate War for Independence.” Edinburgh and London, UK: William Blackwood & Sons. Print.

Von Boercke, Heros. (1866). “Memoirs of the Confederate War for Independence.” Google Books. 19 July 2008. Web. 24 Dec. 2010.

Wert, Jeffrey D. (1996). “Custer.” New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. Print.

Wert, Jeffrey D. (1990). “Mosby’s Rangers.” New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. Print.

Williamson, James J. (1896). “Mosby’s Rangers [electronic resource]: a record of the operations of the Forty-third Battalion Virginia Cavalry, from its organization to the surrender, from the diary of a private, supplemented and verified with official reports of federal officers and also of Mosby: with personal reminiscences, sketches of skirmishes, battles and bivouacs, dashing raids and daring adventures, scenes and incidents in the history of Mosby’s command: containing over 200 illustrations, including portraits of many of Mosby’s men and of federal officers with whom they came in contact, views, engagements, etc., maps of “Mosby’s Confederacy” and localities in which he operated: muster rolls, occupation and present whereabouts of surviving members.” New York, NY: R.B. Kenyon. Print.

Williamson, James J. (1896). “Mosby’s Rangers [electronic resource]: a record of the operations of the Forty-third Battalion Virginia Cavalry, from its organization to the surrender, from the diary of a private, supplemented and verified with official reports of federal officers and also of Mosby: with personal reminiscences, sketches of skirmishes, battles and bivouacs, dashing raids and daring adventures, scenes and incidents in the history of Mosby’s command: containing over 200 illustrations, including portraits of many of Mosby’s men and of federal officers with whom they came in contact, views, engagements, etc., maps of “Mosby’s Confederacy” and localities in which he operated: muster rolls, occupation and present whereabouts of surviving members.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 10 Sept. 2010.

“The War of the Rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies.” (1902). NOTE on authors: Robert N. Scott compiled and edited v. 1-18, 1880-87, and also collected the greater part of the material for v. 19-36, 1887-91. After his death in 1887 the work was continued by Henry M. Lazelle, 1887-89, and by a board of publication, 1889-99, consisting of George B. Davis, 1889-97, Leslie J. Perry, 1889-99, Joseph W. Kirkley, 1889-99, and Fred C. Ainsworth, 1898-99; from 1899-1901 edited by Fred C. Ainsworth and Joesph W. Kirkley. Gettysburg, Pa: Gettysburg National Historical Society. Print.
“The War of the Rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies.”

“The War of the Rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies.”


The Washington Evening Star, August 18, 1864

The New York Times, September 5, 1864.

The Philadelphia Inquirer, August 23, 1864.