CHAPTER 6 – Blakeley & Claymont by Jim Surkamp.

1345 words.

CHAPTER OR STORY 6 (OF 25 CHAPTERS IN THE LONGER VIDEO SHOWN BELOW) – BLAKELEY & CLAYMONT, BEGINNING AT ABOUT 13:18
Video link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LJpJeIwFMw#t=13m18s

FLICKR 42 images
https://www.flickr.com/photos/jimsurkamp/albums/72157686988987354

https://web.archive.org/web/20190612204456/https://civilwarscholars.com/2017/09/chapter-6-blakeley-claymont-by-jim-surkamp/

With support from American Public University System (apus.edu). The sentiments expressed do not in any way reflect modern-day policies of APUS, and are intended to encourage fact-based exchange for a better understanding of our nation’s foundational values.

BEGIN CHAPTER 6 of 25 CHAPTERS OR STORIES IN THE ABOVE, LONGER VIDEO – BLAKELEY & CLAYMONT

When Richard died unmarried in 1817, his acres went one-third to Blakeley (the second John A. Washington),

one third to Claymont (Bushrod Corbin Washington),

and one-third to his sister, Mary Lee Washington, who was the wife of a lawyer named Noblet Herbert.

Perhaps with this transfer of 274 acres of Richard Washington’s going to Blakeley some of the Thompsons of Prospect Hill also went over to help at this newly-minted 892-acre farm site of the future inheritors of Mt Vernon, John Augustine Washington II and his remarkable wife, Jane Charlotte Blackburn Washington. Buildings needed building and the womb of Mrs Washington was a busy place.

Jasper’s dad, Solomon, went to Blakeley where for the next fifty years he helped the homesteads prosper at Blakeley. Prospect Hill and Claymont.

Claymont, the massive home, built by the brother of John Augustine, Bushrod Corbin Washington faced Blakeley a short distance from across the Bullskin Run.

Bushrod conveniently had married his beloved Anna Maria Tomasina Blackburn Washington, Jane Charlotte’s sister.

The heart of an affectionate husband pays to her this tribute, that in all relations of her life her conduct was exemplary, and her character lovely and attractive. Her spirit by nature was amiable, ardent yet gentle. By the grace of her Redeemer.

SOLOMON WORKED CLAYMONT & BLAKELEY FARMS, BUT STILL HAD “PEOPLE” AT PROSPECT HILL

Two of Solomon’s siblings, Matilda and Richard, kept up residence at Prospect Hill until they died many years later, sharing the residence and work load from before, during and after the Civil War with the final Washington family owner Bushrod Washington Herbert, a peaceable insurance man who left the smallish main house, barn, a small graveyard and outbuildings of Prospect Hill to Matilda Thompson, provided she didn’t marry.

References:

Monique Crippen-Hopkins – “My Journey Breaking down the Walls.” genealogybreakingdownthewalls.blogspot.com 12 December 2013 Web. 20 January 2017.

Galtcho Geertsema – surveyor who ammassed all plats of Washington family property transactions through time in the eastern Panhandle and a complete re-transcription of all early deed transactions up to 1800.

Jane Charlotte Blackburn Washington
Birth: Aug. 23, 1786
Prince William County
Virginia, USA
Death: Sep. 6, 1855
Mount Vernon
Fairfax County
Virginia, USA
wife of John Augustine Washington

Family links:
Spouse:
John Augustine Washington (1789 – 1832)*

Children:
Anna Maria Thomasina Blackburn Washington Alexander (1817 – 1850)*
George Washington (1818 – 1827)*
Christian Scott Washington (1820 – 1820)*
John Augustine Washington (1820 – 1861)*
John Augustine Washington (1821 – 1861)*
Richard Scott Blackburn Washington (1822 – 1910)*
findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. 20 January 2017.

Beeline chapter NSDAR. (1981). “Tombstone Inscriptions Jefferson County 1687-1980.” p. 379
Charles Town, Wv: HBP, Inc. p. 379.

Wayland, John W. (1944). “The Washingtons and their Homes.” McClure Printing Company: Staunton, VA. hathitrust.org 26 August 2015 Web. 20 September 2016. p. 226.

Image Credits:

1. Image Credits 6: FINAL
2. Blakeley & Claymont FINAL
3. Music by Cam Millar FINAL

4. When Richard died unmarried in 1817, his acres went one-third to Blakeley FINAL
CREDIT: Google Maps

5. (the home of the second John A. Washington), FINAL

5.1 (the home of the second John A. Washington) (close-up), FINAL

5.2 (the home of the second John A. Washington), (overall & Wayland image) FINAL

CREDIT: Galtcho Geertsema

6. one third to Claymont (Bushrod Corbin Washington’s) FINAL

CREDIT: ‘Claymont Court’, Jefferson County, W. Va.
Date: 1936. wvhistoryonview.org 9 October 2010 Web. 20 June 2016.

7. one third to Claymont (Bushrod Corbin Washington’s)(plat) FINAL

7.1 one third to Claymont (Bushrod Corbin Washington’s)(plat Claymont only) FINAL

CREDIT: Galtcho Geertsema

8. TITLE: The Thompsons were certainly among the ninety-some enslaved persons assisting in building and farming at Claymont from 1815-1820. FINAL

9. TITLE: But building Blakeley and making its lands and household productive for John and Jane Washington – who would own Mt. Vernon in about ten years – was primary. FINAL

9.1 But building Blakeley and making its lands and household productive for John and Jane Washington – who would own Mt. Vernon in about ten years – was primary. (Solomon, wheat field) FINAL

9.2 But building Blakeley and making its lands and household productive for John and Jane Washington – who would own Mt. Vernon in about ten years – was primary. (The Blakeley Washingtons) FINAL

CREDIT: Solomon Thompson, courtesy Monique Crippen Hopkins; Cutting hay with a scythe THE IOWA AGRICULTURIST
For the Farm, Garden & Household iowahist.uni.edu start date unavailable Web. 20 January 2017.

10. Buildings needed building (cutting timber) FINAL

CREDIT: Crayon, Porte (Strother, D. H.). “The Mountains – Pt. VII.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, Volume 46, Issue: 275, April, 1873, Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014. p. 680 – Delusive Industry

11. and the womb of Mrs. Washington was a busy place (Jane Charlotte) FINAL

11.1 and the womb of Mrs. Washington was a busy place (Jane Charlotte & children 1) FINAL

11.2 and the womb of Mrs. Washington was a busy place (Jane Charlotte & children 2) FINAL

CREDIT: (Anna Maria born 1817 – George 1818 – Christian 1820 – Augustine 1821 – Richard 1822) – Jane Charlotte Washington and her Family – from “Mrs. J.A.W.” courtesy Augustine and Patty Washington by John Gadsby Chapman The George Washington Masonic National Memorial Assoc.)

Jane Charlotte Blackburn Washington
Birth: Aug. 23, 1786
Prince William County
Virginia, USA
Death: Sep. 6, 1855
Mount Vernon
Fairfax County
Virginia, USA
wife of John Augustine Washington

Family links:
Spouse:
John Augustine Washington (1789 – 1832)*

Children:
Anna Maria Thomasina Blackburn Washington Alexander (1817 – 1850)*
George Washington (1818 – 1827)*
Christian Scott Washington (1820 – 1820)*
John Augustine Washington (1820 – 1861)*
John Augustine Washington (1821 – 1861)*
Richard Scott Blackburn Washington (1822 – 1910)*
findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. 20 January 2017.

Beeline chapter NSDAR. (1981). “Tombstone Inscriptions Jefferson County 1687-1980.” p. 279
Charles Town, Wv: HBP, Inc. p. 379.

12. Young Solomon, Jasper’s dad, helped the homesteads prosper.(Waterman painting) FINAL

12.1 Young Solomon, Jasper’s dad, helped the homesteads prosper.(Solomon Thompson’s written name) FINAL

CREDIT: Fresh Eggs by Thomas Waterman Wood the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 20 December 2016.

Appraisement, Inventory Thos B. Washington personal estate, Will Book 14, Page
140. wvgeohistory.org 5 October 2010 Web. 1 October 2016.
– Jefferson County Clerk

13. Banjo by Shana Aisenberg FINAL

14. Young Solomon, Jasper’s dad, helped the homesteads prosper.(Frank Leslie’s) FINAL

CREDIT: Title: Plowing in South Carolina / Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper Oct. 20, 1866 from a sketch by Jas. E. Taylor.
loc.gov 2 March 2000 Web.20 September 2016.

15. Claymont, the massive home, built by the brother of John Augustine FINAL

CREDIT: Claymont Court; 4 February 2007 (original upload date)
Author User:Sevenofnine7o9 – commons.wikimedia.org 24 June 2004 Web. 20 January 2017.

16. faced Blakeley across the Bullskin Run FINAL

CREDIT: potomacaudubon.org/Cool-Spring-Preserve 11 February 2017 Web. 17 February 2017.

17. TITLE: John Augustine’s brother, Bushrod Corbin, lived across the Bullskin with his bigger home facing John’s. Their wives were sisters. FINAL

CREDIT: Tombstone marker of Bushrod Corbin Washington at Zion Episcopal Church, Charles town, WV;

18. TITLE: Jane Charlotte Blackburn and Anna Maria Tomasina Blackburn married the two Washington brothers. FINAL

19. Rodney Jantzi Plays “When Swallows Homeward Fly” on a harmonium FINAL

20. Zion Episcopal Church FINAL

20.1 Zion Episcopal Churchyard FINAL

CREDIT: zionepiscopal.net 19 July 2008 Web. 20 January 2017.

21. Bushrod had conveniently married FINAL

CREDIT: Silhouette of a Southern Gentleman
by Samuel Metford, ca. 1840 williamsamericanart.com 23 February 2001 Web. 10 April 2017.

22. Anna Maria Tomasina Blackburn Washington (1790-1833) (semblance only) FINAL

CREDIT: Kennedy, John P. (1856). “Swallow barn; or, A sojourn in the Old Dominion.” revised edition. New York, NY: G. P. Putnam & Sons. Internet Archive. archive.org 26 January 1997 Web. 20 January 2014.
p. 39 – Semblance Anna Maria Tomasina Washington.

23. Her great great great grandmother (Betsy Wells) FINAL

23.1 Her great great great grandmother (Betsy Wells) FINAL

CREDIT: Jim Surkamp

23.2 The face of Anna Maria Tomasina Washington’s tombstone FINAL

24. Transcription from part of Anna Maria Tomasina Washington’s tombstone FINAL

25. TITLE: Solomon worked Claymont & Blakeley Farms, but still had “People” at Prospect Hill FINAL

26. Dinah – Portrait of a Negress by Eastman Johnson FINAL

CREDIT: Dinah, Portrait of a Negress Eastman Johnson – circa 1866-1869 Gibbes Museum of Art, Charleston, South Carolina, Gift of Kathleen Hammer and Arthur Seelbinder https://courses.bowdoin.edu/there-is-a-woman-in-every-color-2021/patterns-of-visibility/dinah-portrait-of-a-negress/

27. Matilda Thompson (1837-1909) Semblance only FINAL

28. J. P. Kennedy’s “Swallow Barn” p. 448 archive.org FINAL

29. Richard Thompson (1819-1922) Semblance only FINAL

CREDIT: Kennedy, John P. (1856). “Swallow barn; or, A sojourn in the Old Dominion.” revised edition. New York, NY: G. P. Putnam & Sons. Internet Archive. archive.org 26 January 1997 Web. 20 January 2014.
p. 448 – Semblance Richard Thompson.

30. TITLE: THE THOMPSONS LIVED FOR MANY YEARS AT PROSPECT HILL WITH BUSHROD WASHINGTON HERBERT, A DESCENDANT OF THE SISTER OF RICHARD HENRY LEE WASHINGTON. FINAL

31. TITLE: BUSHROD LEFT THE PROPERTY TO MATILDA WHEN HE DIED. WHEN THE INFIRM RICHARD DIED IN 1922 THE HOUSE, IN DISREPAIR, WAS TORN DOWN. FINAL

CREDIT: signature of Bushrod Washington Herbert, Deed Book 23, P. 419. Aug. 23, 1839 – Jefferson County Clerk.

Chapter or Story 7 Click Here https://civilwarscholars.com/uncategorized/chapter-7-grandmother-jane-by-jim-surkamp/

CHAPTER 7 – “Grandmother Jane” by Jim Surkamp.

1009 words.

CHAPTER or STORY 7 – “GRAND-MOTHER JANE”.BEGINS AT ABOUT 17:07 IN THE LONGER VIDEO SHOWN BELOW
Video link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LJpJeIwFMw#t=17m7s

FLICKR 24 images
https://www.flickr.com/photos/jimsurkamp/albums/72157686988826074

https://web.archive.org/web/20190612204733/https://civilwarscholars.com/2017/09/chapter-7-grandmother-jane-by-jim-surkamp/

With support from American Public University System (apus.edu). The sentiments expressed do not in any way reflect modern-day policies of APUS, and are intended to encourage fact-based exchange for a better understanding of our nation’s foundational values.


CHAPTER or STORY 7 (OUT OF 25 CHAPTERS OF A FULL STORY) – “GRAND-MOTHER JANE”

In 1829, John Augustine and Jane Charlotte inherited Mt. Vernon upon the death of their childless uncle Justice Bushrod Washington.

In just three years, John Augustine succumbed to a common fate of many Washington family members – tuberculosis, making Jane Charlotte the owner and maintainer of the most popular and revered home in America, at a time when the slavery issue threatened and George Washington’s memory was one of the few ties that could still bind all Americans, north and south.

Today’s John Augustine Washington, the family historian, once said: One of the most conspicuous people in the history of the Washington family always seemed to me to be “Grandmother Jane.”

Her take on the obligation of Mount Vernon was put down in a letter to George C. Washington in 1840: I never would have submitted to the endless intrusions and sacrifices of everything like private right and domestic privacy to which we are liable here but that I believe it arises frequently from a sincere though thoughtless desire of honoring the memory of Genl Washington.

‘Tis a feeling calculated to inspire and strengthen virtuous and patriotic principles and cement more firmly the ties that bind us together as a Nation.

We have done and shall continue to do all we can to keep the place from entire decay.

It is yearly becoming more expensive and difficult to do so, the buildings all ought to be thoroughly repaired or they must in a few years go down.

Image Credits:

BEGIN STORY 7 – “GRAND-MOTHER JANE” 16:59

1. Image Credits 7 FINAL
2. “Grandmother Jane” FINAL
3. Mandolin Played by Shana Aisenberg FINAL

4. TITLE: In 1829, John Augustine and Jane Charlotte inherited Mt. Vernon upon the death of their childless uncle Justice Bushrod Washington. FINAL

5. In 1829, John Augustine and Jane Charlotte inherited Mt. Vernon (Eastman Johnson painting) FINAL

5.1 In 1829, John Augustine and Jane Charlotte inherited Mt. Vernon (Eastman Johnson painting zoom in) FINAL

CREDIT: Eastman Johnson, The Old Mount Vernon, 1857, oil on board, M-4863, Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association, Purchased with funds courtesy of an anonymous donor and the Mount Vernon Licensing Fund, 2009

In 1829, John Augustine and Jane Charlotte inherited Mt. Vernon upn the death of their childless uncle Justice Bushrod Washington

6. upon the death of their childless uncle Justice Bushrod Washington. FINAL

CREDIT: The official portrait of Supreme Court Justice Bushrod Washington (1762–1829). commons.wikimedia.org 24 July 2003 Web. 20 December 2016.

7. TITLE: In just three years, John Augustine succumbed to a common fate of many Washington family members – tuberculosis, FINAL

8. John Augustine Washington (1789-1832) FINAL

CREDIT: https://www.abebooks.com/servlet/BookDetailsPL?bi=30822335321

9. tuberculosis – aafp.org

CREDIT:
tuberculosis – https://www.aafp.org/news/health-of-the-public/20170328mmwrtb.html

10. TITLE: making Jane Charlotte the owner and maintainer of the most popular and revered home in America, at a time when the slavery issue threatened and George Washington’s memory was one of the few ties that could still bind all Americans, north and south. FINAL

11. Jane Charlotte and Mount Vernon FINAL

CREDIT: Jane Charlotte Washington and her Family – from “Mrs. J.A.W.” courtesy Augustine and Patty Washington by John Gadsby Chapman The George Washington Masonic National Memorial Assoc.)

Eastman Johnson, The Old Mount Vernon, 1857, oil on board, M-4863, Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association, Purchased with funds courtesy of an anonymous donor and the Mount Vernon Licensing Fund, 2009

12. John Augustine Washington (1921- ) FINAL

CREDIT: Jim Surkamp

13. TITLE: One of the most conspicuous people in the history of the Washington family always seemed to me to be “Grandmother Jane.” – Family historian John A. Washington FINAL

CREDIT: Glenn, Justin. (2014). The Washingtons: A Family History: Volume 6 (Part One): Generation Ten of the Presidential Branch. El Dorado Hills, CA: Savas Publishing Co.

Glenn, Justin. (2014). The Washingtons: A Family History: Volume 6 (Part One): Generation Ten of the Presidential Branch. books.google.com 24 November 2005 Web. 20 January 2017.
p. 241.

14. Her take on the obligation of Mount Vernon was put down in a letter to George C. Washington in 1840 (Mt Vernon The Study) FINAL

CREDIT:
Mount Vernon The Study
19′ 6″ wide x 16′ 9″ long x 10′ 9″ high
mountvernon.org 11 November 1996 Web. 20 October 2016.

15. TITLE: I never would have submitted to the endless intrusions and sacrifices of everything like private right and domestic privacy to which we are liable here but that . . . FINAL

16. Mount Vernon by John Gadsby Chapman (Chapman painting) FINAL

CREDIT:
John Gadsby Chapman painted this view of the east side of Mount Vernon in the 1830s.
mountvernon.org 11 November 1996 Web. 20 October 2016.

17. Music by Cam Millar FINAL

18. TITLE: I believe it arises frequently from a sincere though thoughtless desire of honoring the memory of Genl Washington. FINAL

19 TITLE: ’Tis a feeling calculated to inspire and strengthen virtuous and patriotic principles and cement more firmly the ties that bind us together as a Nation. FINAL

20. detail Death of General Mercer at the Battle of Princeton, by John Trumbull (painting) FINAL

CREDIT:
detail Death of General Mercer at the Battle of Princeton, by John Trumbull.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Death_of_General_Mercer_at_the_Battle_of_Princeton,_January_3,_1777

21. The Birth of Old Glory, Percy Moran, 1917 FINAL

CREDIT: The Birth of Old Glory, Percy Moran, 1917
This image from c 1917 depicts what is presumed to be Betsy Ross and two children presenting the “Betsy Ross flag” to George Washington and three other men. The image is a version of a painting entitled “The Birth of Old Glory” by Percy Moran, from the Library of Congress: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betsy_Ross

22. TITLE “We have done and shall continue to do all we can to keep the place from entire decay. It is yearly becoming more expensive and difficult to do so, the buildings all ought to be thoroughly repaired or they must in a few years go down.” FINAL

23. Early view of Mansion ca. 1858 – N. S. Bennett FINAL

CREDIT:
Early view of Mansion ca. 1858 – N. S. Bennett
http://www.mountvernon.org/preservation/historic-preservation/19th-century-photography-at-mount-vernon/

Chapter or Story 8 Click Here https://civilwarscholars.com/uncategorized/chapter-8-the-enslaved-persons-byword-by-jim-surkamp/

CHAPTER 8 – The Enslaved Person’s Byword by Jim Surkamp.

2688 words.

STORY 8 – THE ENSLAVED PERSON’s BYWORD WAS . . (FREEDOM – “GETTING CLEAR”)
TRT: 23:23 (BEGINS WITHIN THE MUCH LONGER VIDEO SHOWN BELOW)
Video link: https://www.youtube.comwatch?v=4LJpJeIwFMw#t=23m23s

https://web.archive.org/web/20190612210504/https://civilwarscholars.com/2017/09/chapter-8-the-enslaved-persons-byword-by-jim-surkamp/

FLICKR 61 images
https://www.flickr.com/photos/jimsurkamp/albums/72157686988512854

With support from American Public University System (apus.edu). The sentiments expressed do not in any way reflect modern-day policies of APUS, and are intended to encourage fact-based exchange for a better understanding of our nation’s foundational values.

BEGIN CHAPTER 8 OR STORY (OUT OF 25) – The Enslaved Person’s Byword by Jim Surkamp.

Owning other human beings for Grandma Jane was distressing.

The Enslaved person’s byword
You COULD escape north and NEVER wanted to be sold south.

Escaping from the enslavers was quite doable in Jefferson County before the Civil War.

You just had to get across at night the Shenandoah River with the help of Goins, a free African American ferry boat man taking people over to the famed Shannondale Springs resort, known as a hotbed of abolitionist leanings.

You started near to the resort at the freed African-American community called Bushy Ridge, then on to Chambersburg Pa. or on to Chatham Ontario – hiding by day and traveling especially on the moonless nights

In fact, in the months after the John Brown Raid in October, 1859, over six hundred enslaved persons DID escape from mostly the southeastern part of the County, according to the U.S Census Slave Schedules reported the following August in 1860. No other County in the area reported any such escapes in that year’s Census form. Even two of John Brown’s raiders, one Osborn Anderson wrote about taking successfully a similar route to Chambersburg.

The raid, one could surmise, panicked the enslavers here and many began hiring off their human property south or selling them South. Breaking up a family at auction, was an intense fear, something Jane Charlotte Washington would not do.

While these Mount Vernon Washingtons never repudiated slavery outright, much to the imagined dismay of their great and far-sighted ancestor, Jane Charlotte Washington and her two sisters regularly freed some people, tried to educate as many as possible and used all their influence and considerable resources to protect and keep families in tact.

References:

Anderson, Osborne. (1861). “A Voice from Harper’s Ferry: A Narrative of Events at Harper’s Ferry; with Incidents Prior and Subsequent to its Capture by Captain Brown and His Men.” Boston MA: self-published. https://archive.org/details/voicefromharpers01ande

Ellen Brooks – Annie Marmion (1959). Under Fire An Experience in the Civil War. edited and compiled by William Vincent Marmion Jr.

“The Underground Railroad from Slavery to Freedom” by Wilbur H. Siebert, The Macmillan Company, 1898. https://archive.org/details/cihm_13617/page/n7/mode/2up

Surkamp, Jim (2011). “POST: Free, Black Families in Jefferson County, Va. Towns” civilwarscholars.com 21 June 2011 Web 10 June 2017.

Surkamp, Jim (2011) “POST: 602 Enslaved Counted in 1860 as “Escaped.” (698 words). civilwarscholars.com 21 June 2011 Web 10 June 2017.

Thompson, Michael D. (1984). ”Calendar and Index to Recorded Survey Plats in Jefferson County, West Virginia (Virginia) Courthouse, 1801-1901.” Charles town, WV: Jefferson County Historical Society. p. 166.

United States. Bureau of the Census; United States. National Archives and Records Service. (1967). Population schedules of the eighth census of the United States, 1860, Virginia [microform] – Volume Reel 1392 – 1860 Virginia Federal Population Census Schedules Slave – Henrico, James City, Jefferson, Kanawha, King George, King and Queen, and King William Counties. Publisher Washington D.C.: Gov’t Printing Office. Jefferson county, Virginia. archive.org 26 January 1997 Web. 20 January 2014. p. 299 http://www.archive.org/stream/populationschedu1392unix#page/n298/mode/1up

Image Credits: (includes images from the video in sequence as they appear in the video)

1. Chapter 8: FINAL
2. The Enslaved Person’s Byword FINAL
3. Harmonica by Dave Hellyer FINAL

CREDIT: Drafting the Letter by Edward Lamson Henry – circa 1871 https://19thcenturyusapaint.blogspot.com/2012/06/edward-lamson-henry-ctd.html

5. Owning other human beings

CREDIT:
Edward Lamson Henry – circa 1871 https://19thcenturyusapaint.blogspot.com/2012/06/edward-lamson-henry-ctd.html

6. for Grandma Jane

CREDIT:
Edward Lamson Henry – circa 1871 https://19thcenturyusapaint.blogspot.com/2012/06/edward-lamson-henry-ctd.html

detail John Gadsby Chapman’s “Mrs. J.A.W.”
National Masonic Memorial

7. was

CREDIT:
Edward Lamson Henry – circa 1871 https://19thcenturyusapaint.blogspot.com/2012/06/edward-lamson-henry-ctd.htm

8. distressing

CREDIT: Edward Lamson Henry – circa 1871 https://19thcenturyusapaint.blogspot.com/2012/06/edward-lamson-henry-ctd.htm

9. TITLE ENSLAVEMENT

10. TITLE JEFFERSON COUNTY

11. In a field working

CREDIT: detail Washington as a Farmer at Mount Vernon Junius Brutus Stearns – 1851 https://archive.org/details/junius-brutus-stearns-george-washington-as-farmer-at-mount-vernon

12. Nicholas Roper

CREDIT: Nicholas O. Roper – courtesy Shelley Murphy

13. William Dotson

CREDIT: William Dotson – James Taylor and the Taylor Family

14. TITLE Ellen Brooks – Annie Marmion (1959). Under Fire An Experience in the Civil War. edited and compiled by William Vincent Marmion Jr.

14.1 Ellen Brooks

CREDIT: Ellen Brooks – Marmion, Annie P. (1959). “Under Fire: An Experience in the Civil War.” edited and compiled by William Vincent Marmion, Jr.

15. Dolly Thompson (Crippen-Hopkins)

CREDIT: Monique Crippen-Hopkins

16. Mary Goins

CREDIT: Mary Goins – courtesy DrShelley Murphy

17. Sukey Richardson

CREDIT: Sukey Richardson – Middleway Conservancy Association wvgeohistory.org

18. TITLE The enslaved person’s byword was

19. FREEDOM

CREDIT: A Ride for Freedom – The Fugitive Slaves Eastman Johnson – circa 1862 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Ride_for_Liberty_%E2%80%93_The_Fugitive_Slaves

20. You COULD escape north

CREDIT: A Ride for Freedom – The Fugitive Slaves Eastman Johnson – circa 1862 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Ride_for_Liberty_%E2%80%93_The_Fugitive_Slaves

21. and NEVER wanted to be sold south.

CREDIT: A Ride for Freedom – The Fugitive Slaves Eastman Johnson – circa 1862 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Ride_for_Liberty_%E2%80%93_The_Fugitive_Slaves

22. TITLE You escaped North by night with a freed ferry boatman – “Goins” or “Freeman” – across the Shenandoah River to Shannondale Springs, to nearby Bushy Ridge, then North.

22.1 You escaped North by night with a freed ferry boatman – “Goins” or “Freeman” – across the Shenandoah River to Shannondale Springs, to nearby Bushy Ridge, then North.

CREDIT: Apple Maps

22.2 You escaped North by night with a freed ferry boatman – “Goins” or “Freeman” – across the Shenandoah River to Shannondale Springs, to nearby Bushy Ridge, then North.

CREDIT: Map of Jefferson County, Virginia; Summary: Shows Jefferson County before the formation of West Virginia in 1863. Contributor Name: Brown, S. Howell.
Created / Published: [S.l., s.n.,] 1852. https://www.loc.gov/item/2005625308/

Shannondale Springs by Dr. William F. Theriault jeffersonhlc.org
http://jeffersoncountyhlc.org/index.php/history-of-shannondale-springs-by-william-d-theriault-ph-d/

22.3 You escaped North by night with a freed ferry boatman – “Goins” or “Freeman” – across the Shenandoah River to Shannondale Springs, to nearby Bushy Ridge, then North.

CREDIT: C. Burton, Charles. “Shannondale Springs, Virginia.”Engraved and printed by Fenner, Sears & Co. in London, September 1, 1831; drawing C. Burton, New York. National Register of Historic Places Nomination form wvculture.org p. 14 https://web.archive.org/web/20181024140108/http://www.wvculture.org/shpo/nr/pdf/jefferson/98000289.pdf

22.4 You escaped North by night with a freed ferry boatman – “Goins” or “Freeman” – across the Shenandoah River to Shannondale Springs, to nearby Bushy Ridge, then North.

CREDIT: Shannondale Springs by Dr. William F. Theriault jeffersonhlc.org
http://jeffersoncountyhlc.org/index.php/history-of-shannondale-springs-by-william-d-theriault-ph-d/

Jefferson County Museum, Charles Town, WV.

photo of Shannondale Springs ferry boatman circa 1894
civilwarscholars.com 9 June 2011 Web. 20 December 2016.

22.5 You escaped North by night with a freed ferry boatman – “Goins” or “Freeman” – across the Shenandoah River to Shannondale Springs, to nearby Bushy Ridge, then North.

Map 1860
Compiled from “The Underground Railroad from Slavery to Freedom” by Wilbur H. Siebert, The Macmillan Company, 1898.[1]
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 December 2016.

23. TITLE: Bushy Ridge was a stop on the Underground Railroad that led North to Chambersburg, Pennsylvania and was similar to the route taken by one of John Brown’s raiders, Osborn Anderson, who lived to write about his escape.

23.1 Bushy Ridge was a stop on the Underground Railroad that led North to Chambersburg, Pennsylvania and was similar to the route taken by one of John Brown’s raiders, Osborn Anderson, who lived to write about his escape.

Reference: Bushy Ridge Plats No.25, 380, 395
Thompson, Michael D. (1984). ”Calendar and Index to Recorded Survey Plats in Jefferson County, West Virginia (Virginia) Courthouse, 1801-1901.” Charles town, WV: Jefferson County Historical Society. p. 166.

CREDIT: Apple Maps

23.2 Bushy Ridge was a stop on the Underground Railroad that led North to Chambersburg, Pennsylvania and was similar to the route taken by one of John Brown’s raiders, Osborn Anderson, who lived to write about his escape.

CREDIT: Dismal Swamp by Thomas Moran wikipedia.org https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Slave_Hunt,_Dismal_Swamp,_Virginia_by_Thomas_Moran.JPG

24. TITLE After the John Brown raid, Shannondale Springs and Bushy Ridge helped some of 600 enslaved persons who escaped by the following August, 1860 Census. No adjacent Virginia counties reported any such escapes to the U.S. Census-taker at that same time.

24.1 In fact, in the months after the John Brown Raid in October, 1859, (NPS painting) FINAL

24.2 Bushy Ridge was a stop on the Underground Railroad that led North to Chambersburg, Pennsylvania and was similar to the route taken by one of John Brown’s raiders, Osborn Anderson, who lived to write about his escape.

CREDIT: Osborn Perry Anderson
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 1 October 2016.

24.3 After the John Brown Raid in Oct., 1859, Shannondale Springs and Bushy Ridge helped some of 600 enslaved persons who escaped by the following August, 1860 Census. No adjacent Virginia counties reported such great numbers in escapees as the number reported to the to the U.S. Census-taker in Jefferson County as of the summer of 1860.

CREDIT:

1860 Census – “Population schedules of the eighth census of the United States, 1860, Virginia [microform] (Volume Reel 1355 – 1860 Virginia Federal Population Census Schedules – James City and Jefferson Counties).” Beginning page Jefferson County.

United States. Bureau of the Census; United States. National Archives and Records Service. (1967). Population schedules of the eighth census of the United States, 1860, Virginia [microform] – Volume Reel 1392 – 1860 Virginia Federal Population Census Schedules Slave – Henrico, James City, Jefferson, Kanawha, King George, King and Queen, and King William Counties. Publisher Washington D.C.: Gov’t Printing Office. Jefferson county, Virginia. archive.org 26 January 1997 Web. 20 January 2014. p. 14.
http://www.archive.org/stream/populationschedu1392unix#page/n310/mode/1up

p. 15. http://www.archive.org/stream/populationschedu1392unix#page/n312/mode/1up

Cookus Page 16 Slave Schedule title column 6 fugitive
p. 16. http://www.archive.org/stream/populationschedu1392unix#page/n313/mode/1up
p. 19. http://www.archive.org/stream/populationschedu1392unix#page/n316/mode/1up

Free, Black Families in Jefferson County, Va. Towns
civilwarscholars.com 21 June 2011 Web 10 June 2017

25. No other County in the area reported escapes in such very high numbers in that year’s Census form.

CREDIT: Shenandoah Valley William Louis Sonntag, Sr. – 1859-1860 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Shenandoah_Valley_William_Louis_Sonntag.jpeg

26. TITLE: The raid, one could surmise, panicked the enslavers here and throughout the upper South persuading, them to treat those enslaved even more harshly. Many protected their “investment” by hiring or selling those enslaved to points in the Deep South.

26.1 The raid, one could surmise, panicked the enslavers here and throughout the upper South persuading, them to treat those enslaved even more harshly. Many protected their “investment” by hiring or selling those enslaved to points in the Deep South. (

CREDIT: detail Leisure and Labor
Frank Blackwell Mayer – 1858 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Frank_Blackwell_Mayer_-Leisure_and_Labor2014.136.111-_Corcoran_Gallery_of_Art.jpg

27. Voices – Alice Bort, Laura First, Ardyth Gilbertson FINAL

28. TITLE: Breaking up a family at auction, was an intense fear – something Jane Charlotte Washington would not do.

28.1 Breaking up a family at auction, was an intense fear .

CREDIT: “Slave Auction at Richmond, Virginia”
Eyre Crowe (1824-1910) Source: Illustrated London News. Date:
September 27, 1856 http://www.virginiamemory.com/online-exhibitions/exhibits/show/to-be-sold/item/406 

28.2 Breaking up a family at auction, was an intense fear.

CREDIT: Slaves Waiting for Sale by Eyre Crowe, an English painter who arrived in Richmond, March 1853,
blog.encyclopediavirginia.org 30 March 2008 Web. 20 January 2017.

28.3 something Jane Charlotte Washington would not do. (Homer – Visit from the Mistress) FINAL

CREDIT: A Visit from the Old Mistress
Winslow Homer – 1876
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 20 December 2016.

29. While these Mount Vernon-owning Washingtons never repudiated slavery outright, much to the imagined dismay of their great and far-sighted ancestor, Montage. (Blakeley Washingtons) FINAL

CREDIT: Montage: The Washington Family, Apple Maps, mountvernon.org

29.1 While these Mount Vernon owning Washingtons never repudiated slavery outright, much to the imagined dismay of their great and far sighted ancestor, (bust of Washington) FINAL

CREDIT: Jean-Antoine Houdon · Bust of George Washington
mountvernon.org 11 November 1996 Web. 1 October 2016.

30. Jane Charlotte Washington and her two sisters, Christian Blackburn and Anna Maria Blackburn Washington, regularly bought the freedom for some people, tried to educate as many as possible and used their influence to keep families in tact. FINAL

CREDIT: A Visit from the Old Mistress Winslow Homer – 1876
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 20 December 2016.

30.1 TITLE: Jane Charlotte Washington and her two sisters, Christian Blackburn and Anna Maria Blackburn Washington, regularly bought the freedom for some people, tried to educate as many as possible and used their influence to keep families in tact.

CREDIT: A Visit from the Old Mistress Winslow Homer – 1876
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 20 December 2016.

30.2 Jane Charlotte Washington and her two sisters, Christian Blackburn and Anna Maria Blackburn Washington, regularly bought the freedom for some people, tried to educate as many as possible and used their influence to keep families in tact. Montage (D.H. Strother Charley) FINAL

CREDIT: Crayon, Porte. (Strother, David H.) “Our Negro Schools” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 49 Issue 292 (September, 1874). pp. 457-468.
hathitrust.org p. 458 – Charley https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.31210014814410&view=1up&seq=472&q1=Charley

30.3 Jane Charlotte Washington and her two sisters, Christian Blackburn and Anna Maria Blackburn Washington, regularly bought the freedom for some people, tried to educate as many as possible and used their influence to keep families in tact.

CREDITS: John Gadsby Chapman – “Mrs. J.A.W.” – National Masonic Memorial; 1860 Census; Blakeley home – wikipedia.org

31. Jane Charlotte Washington and her two sisters, Christian Blackburn and Anna Maria Blackburn Washington, regularly bought the freedom for some people, tried to educate as many as possible and used their influence to keep families in tact.

CREDIT: Woman with a Cane William Aiken Walker – Date unknown https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:William_Aiken_Walker_-_A_woman_with_cane.jpg

33. Jane Charlotte Washington and her two sisters, Christian Blackburn and Anna Maria Blackburn Washington, regularly bought the freedom for some people, tried to educate as many as possible and used their influence to keep families in tact.

CREDIT: Title: Life of George Washington–The farmer / painted by Stearns ; lith. by Régnier, imp. Lemercier, Paris.
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 20 September 2016.

IMPORTANT: CLICK HERE (followed by CHAPTER OR STORY 9) https://civilwarscholars.com/uncategorized/important/

CHAPTER OR STORY 9 CLICK HERE https://civilwarscholars.com/uncategorized/chapter-9-george-johnson-gets-clear-by-jim-surkamp/

IMPORTANT:

Click Here to see and explore the original civilwarscholars.com website as it appeared under the auspices of American Public University System and created by Jim Surkamp

Posts were made regularly between June, 2011 thru May 29, 2021, totaling over one million words of sourced content with over 20,000 illustrations. The illustrations can also be found at Jim Surkamp’s location at Flickr as stories and also on the Jim Surkamp channel on youtube with over 500 videos.
Additions to the current site will be only occasional and not pursued as much because of a shift in interests of Jim Surkamp to a broader range of historical subjects. Enjoy – Jim

Intermission to VIDEO OF JASPER THOMPSON’s DESTINY DAY SEPTEMBER 6, 1906 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LJpJeIwFMw#t=27m28s

CHAPTER OR STORY 9 – CLICK HERE https://civilwarscholars.com/uncategorized/chapter-9-george-johnson-gets-clear-by-jim-surkamp/

CHAPTER 9 – GEORGE JOHNSON “GETS CLEAR” by Jim Surkamp.

5163 words

CHAPTER or STORY 9 – THE SOBER FACTS, BUT GEORGE JOHNSON “GETS CLEAR” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LJpJeIwFMw#t=25m06s

https://web.archive.org/web/20190612203021/https://civilwarscholars.com/2017/09/chapter-9-the-sober-facts-but-george-johnson-gets-clear-by-jim-surkamp/

FLICKR 58 images
https://www.flickr.com/photos/jimsurkamp/albums/72157688724464186

With support from American Public University System (apus.edu). The sentiments expressed do not in any way reflect modern-day policies of APUS, and are intended to encourage fact-based exchange for a better understanding of our nation’s foundational values.

Click Here and it will take you to the start of this story within the much longer story and video. START: 25:06 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LJpJeIwFMw#t=25m06s

THE DARKER SIDE SOME SAW:

But others in Jefferson County, like the enslaved George Johnson saw the darker side of slavery and and struck out for his freedom and Life.

The Negro Scipio by Paul Cézanne – 1867 Museu de Arte Moderna de São Paulo (Brazil – Sao Paulo)
the-athenaeum.org
D.H. Strother Harper’s New Monthly Magazine (August 1855) Title: Virginia Illustrated [pp. 289-311] hathitrust.org p. 289 – Tim Longbow

Records show that in the darker recesses of Jefferson County, cruelties were quietly administered by some.

Norman McDonald https://justjefferson.com/16Day.htm ; US Census 1860 Virginia Jefferson Shepherdstown Page 28 fold3.com https://www.fold3.com/image/75222890/?terms=robert%20Lucas
Tape recorded interview with Norman McDonald who descended from a grandmother who witnessed the acts. (justjefferson.com)

Col Robert Lucas having a horse stampeded, thereby dragging a returned runaway to his death whose foot was tied to the horse.

Report as a Nomination to have the Poor Farm (Snow Hill) put on the National Register of Historic Places.”
https://justjefferson.com/27daisy.htm
Reading the Scriptures by Thomas Waterman Wood – 1874 metmuseum.org

Or the old man at the poor farm on Leetown Road in the 1930s with but one hand, the other cut off by a half-mad overseer who thought it worthy punishment for – “lying.”

Tape recorded interview with Jim Surkamp describing her family history. (justjefferson.com)

Or Bertha Fox Jones’ recorded account of her ancestor, Mary Fox at the Bower who was last seen being whipped in an open wagon that drove away for refusing to be a brood woman.

The Dancing Lesson by Thomas Eakins – 1878 the-athenaeum.org
1862 Confederate Paper Money $100 Bill from Richmond, Virginia worldbanknotescoins.com
Drew Benjamin. (1856). “A North-side View of Slavery: The Refugee: Or, The Narratives of Fugitive Slaves in Canada” archive.org pp. 52-54 – George Johnson’s accounting

George Johnson who was raised in Harper’s Ferry and later escaped and established a home in Chatham, Ontario, wrote:

“I was raised near Harper’s Ferry. I was used as well as the people about there are used.

Strother, David Hunter; Baltimore 1845. (W1995.030.388pg18)
Home page of David Hunter Strother drawings at West Virginia University Library
web.archive.org

“My master used to pray in his family with the house servants, morning and evening. I attended these services until I was eighteen, when I was put out on the farm, and lived in a cabin.

The Pumpkin Patch by Winslow Homer – 1878 Arkell Museum in Canajoharie, New York
commons.wikimedia.org

“We were well supplied with food. We went to work at sunrise, and quit work between sundown and dark. Some were sold from my master’s farm, and many from the neighborhood. If a man did any thing out of the way, he was in more danger of being sold than of being whipped. The slaves were always afraid of being sold South. The Southern masters were believed to be much worse than those about us. I had a great wish for liberty when I was a boy. I always had it in my head to clear.”

African Tending a Horse by the Sea by Alfred de Dreux – Date unknown the-athenaeum.org

He went on:
“Whipping and slashing are bad enough, but selling children from their mothers and husbands from their wives is worse. At one time I wanted to marry a young woman, not on the same farm. I was then sent to Alabama, to one of my masters’ sons for two years. When the girl died, I was sent for to come back. I liked the work, the tending of cotton, better than the work on the farm in Virginia,–but there was so much whipping in Alabama, that I was glad to get back.”

References:

GEORGE JOHNSON – pp. 52-54.

I arrived in St. Catharine’s about two hours ago.
[April 17, 1855]

I was raised near Harper’s Ferry. I was used as well as the people about there are used. My master used to pray in his family with the house servants, morning and evening. I attended these services until I was eighteen, when I was put out on the farm, and lived in a cabin. We were well supplied with food. We went to work at sunrise, and quit work between sundown and dark. Some were sold from my master’s farm, and many from the neighborhood. If a man did any thing out of the way, he was in more danger of being sold than of being whipped. The slaves were always afraid of being sold South. The Southern masters were believed to be much worse than those about us. I had a great wish for liberty when I was a boy. I always had it in my head to clear. But I had a wife and children. However, my wife died last year of cholera, and then I determined not to remain in that country.
When my old master died, I fell to his son. I had no difficulty with him, but was influenced merely by a love of liberty. I felt disagreeably about leaving my friends, — but I knew I might have to leave them by going South. There was a fellow-servant of mine named Thomas. My master gave him a letter one day, to carry to a soul-driver. Thomas got a man to read it, who told him he was sold. Thomas then got a free man to carry the letter. They handcuffed , the free man, and put him in jail. Thomas, when he saw them take the free man, dodged into the bush. He came to us. We made up a purse, and sent him on his way. Next day, the man who had carried the letter, sent for his friends and got out. The master denied to us that he intended to sell Thomas. He did not get the money for him. Thomas afterward wrote a letter from Toronto to his friend.


I prepared myself by getting cakes, etc., and on a Saturday night in March, I and two comrades started off together. They were younger than I. We traveled by night and slept by day until we reached Pittsburgh. When we had got through the town, I left the two boys, and told them not to leave while I went back to a grocery for food. When I returned, they were gone, — I do not know their fate. I stopped in that neighborhood two nights, trying to find them — I did not dare to inquire for them. The second night, I made up my mind to ask after them, but my heart failed me. I am of opinion that they got to Canada, as they knew the route. At length I was obliged to come off without them.
I think that slavery is not the best condition for the the refugee; or a black. Whipping and slashing are bad enough, but selling children from their mothers and husbands from their wives is worse. At one time I wanted to marry a young woman, not on the same farm. I was then sent to Alabama, to one of my master’s sons for two years. “When the girl died, I was sent for to come back. I liked the work, the tending of cotton, better than the work on the farm in Virginia, — but there was
so much whipping in Alabama, that I was glad to get back. One man there, on another farm, was tied up and received five hundred and fifty lashes for striking the overseer. His back was awfully cut up. His wife took care of him. Two months after, I saw him lying on his face, unable to turn over or help himself. The master seemed ashamed of this, and told the man that if he got well, he might go where he liked. My master told me he said so, and the man told me so himself. Whether he ever got well, I do not know: the time when I saw him, was just before I went back to Virginia.

Drew Benjamin. (1856). “A North-side View of Slavery: The Refugee: Or, The Narratives of Fugitive Slaves in Canada …” archive.org
pp. 52-54 – George Johnson’s account
https://archive.org/details/northsideviewofs00drew/page/52/mode/2up

Other escape accounts from Benjamin Drew’s book of interviews with persons from Jefferson County

WILLIAM GROSE: pp. 82-87

I was held as a slave at Harper’s Ferry, Va. When I was twenty-five years old, my two brothers who were twelve miles out, were sent for to the ferry, so as to catch us all three together, which they did. We were then taken to Baltimore to be sold down south. The reason was, that I had a free wife in Virginia, and they were afraid we would get away through her means. My wife and two children were then keeping boarders; I was well used, and we were doing well. All at once,
on Sunday morning, a man came to my house before I was up, and called me to go to his store to help put up some goods. My wife suspected it was a trap: but I started to go. When I came in sight of him, my heart failed me; I sent him word I could not come.

On inquiry in a certain quarter, I was told that I was sold,
and was advised to make my escape into Pennsylvania. (83) I then went to my owner’s, twelve miles, and remained there three days, they telling me I was not sold. The two brothers were all this time in jail, but I did not then know it. I was sent to the mill to get some offal— then two men came in, grabbed me and handcuffed me, and took me off. How I felt that day I cannot tell. I had never been more than twenty miles from home, and now I was taken away from my mother and wife and children. About four miles from the mill, I met my wife in the road coming to bring me some clean clothes. She met me as I was on horseback, handcuffed. She thought I was on the farm, and was surprised to see me. They let me get down to walk and talk with her until we came to the jail: then they put me in, and kept her outside. She had then eight miles to go on foot, to get clothes ready for me to take along. I was so crazy, I don’t know what my wife said. I was beside myself to think of going south. I was as afraid of traders as I would be of a bear. This was Tuesday.


The man who had bought us came early Wednesday morning, but the jailer would not let us out, he hoping to make a bargain with somebody else, and induce our owners to withdraw the bond from the man that had us. Upon this, the trader and jailer got into a quarrel, and the trader produced a pistol, which the jailer and his brother took away from him. After some time, the jailer let us out. We were handcuffed together: I was in the middle, a hand of each brother fastened to mine.
We walked thus to Harper’s Ferry: there my wife met me with some clothes. She said but little; she was in grief and crying. The two men with us told her they would get us a good home. We went by the cars to (84) the Baltimore — remained fifteen days in jail. Then we were separated, myself and one brother going to New Orleans, and the other remained in B. Him I have not seen since, but have heard that he was taken to Georgia. There were about seventy of us, men, women,
and children shipped to New Orleans. Nothing especial occurred except on one occasion, when, after some thick weather, the ship came near an English island, the captain then hurried us all below and closed the hatches. After passing the island, we had liberty to come up again.


We waited on our owners awhile in New Orleans, and after four months, my brother and I were sold together as house servants in the city, to an old widower, who would not have a white face about him. He had a colored woman for a wife — she being a slave. He had had several wives whom he had set free when he got tired of them. This woman came for us to the yard, — then we went before him. He sent for a woman, who came in, and said he to me, ” That is your wife. I was scared half to death, for I had one wife whom I liked, and didn’t want another, — but I said nothing. He assigned one to my brother in the same way. There was no ceremony about it — he said ” Cynthia is your wife, and Ellen is John’s.” As we were not acclimated, he sent us into Alabama to a watering-place, where we remained three months till late in the fall — then we went back to him. I was hired out one month in a gambling saloon, where I had two meals a day and slept on a table ; then for nine months to an American family, where I got along very well; then to a man who had been mate of a steamboat, and whom I could not please.

After I (85) had been in New Orleans a year, my wife came on and was employed in the same place, (in the American family).
One oppression there was, my wife did not dare let it be known she was from Virginia, through fear of being sold. When my master found out that I had a free-woman for a wife there, he was angry about it, and began to grumble. Then she went to a lawyer to get a certificate by which she could remain there. He would get one for a hundred dollars, which was more than she was able to pay: so she did not get the certificate, but promised to take one by and by. His hoping to get the money kept him from troubling her, — and before the time came for her taking it, she left for a distant place. He was mad about it, and told me
that if she ever came there again, he’d put her to so much trouble that she would wish she had paid the hundred dollars and got the certificate. This did not disturb me, as I knew she would not come back any more.


After my wife was gone, I felt very uneasy. At length, I picked up spunk, and said I would start. All this time, I dreamed on nights that I was getting clear. This put the notion into my head to start — a dream that I had reached a free soil and was perfectly safe. Sometimes I felt as if I would get clear, and again as if I would not. I had many doubts. I said to myself — I recollect it well, — I can’t die but once ; if they catch me, they can but kill me: I’ll defend myself as far as I can. I armed myself with an old razor, and made a start alone, telling no one, not even my brother. All the way along, I felt a dread — a heavy load on me all the way. I would look up at the telegraph wire, and dread that the news was going on ahead of me. At one time I was on a canal-boat — it did not seem to go (86) fast enough for me, and I felt very much cast down
about it ; at last I came to a place where the telegraph wire was broken, and I felt as if the heavy load was rolled off me, I intended to stay in my native country,— but I saw so many mean-looking men, that I did not dare to stay. I found a friend who helped me on the way to Canada, which I reached in 1851.


I served twenty-five years in slavery, and about five I have been free. I feel now like a man, while before I felt more as though I were but a brute. When in the United States, if a white man spoke to me, I would feel frightened, whether I were in the right or wrong; but now it is quite a different thing, — if a white man speaks to me, I can look him right in the eyes — if he were to insult me, I could give him an answer. I have the rights and privileges of any other man. I am now living with my wife and children, and doing very well. When I lie down at night, I do not feel afraid of over-sleeping, so that my employer might jump on me if he pleased. I am a true British subject, and I have a vote every year as much as any other man. I often used to wonder in the United States, when I saw carriages going round for voters, why they never asked me to vote. But I have since found out the reason, — I know they were using my vote instead of my using it — now I use it myself. Now I feel like a man, and I wish to God that all my fellow-creatures could feel the same freedom that I feel. I am not prejudiced against all the white race in the United States, — it is only the portion that sustain the cursed laws of slavery.


Here ‘s something I want to say to the colored people in the United States: You think you are free there, but you are very much mistaken: if you wish to be free men, I hope you will all come to Canada as soon (87) as possible. There is plenty of land here, and schools to educate your children. I have no education myself, but I don’t intend to let my children come up as I did. I have but two, and instead of making servants out of them, I’ll give them a good education, which I could not do in the southern portion of the United States. True, they were not slaves there, but I could not have given them any education.

I have been through both Upper and Lower Canada, and I have found the colored people keeping stores, farming, etc., and doing well. I have made more money since I came here, than I made in the United States. I know several colored people who have become wealthy by industry — owning horses and carriages, — one who was a fellow-servant of mine, now owns two span of horses, and two as fine carriages as there are on the bank. As a general thing, the colored people are more sober and industrious than in the States: there they feel when they have money, that they cannot make what use they would like of it, they are so kept down, so looked down upon. Here they have something to do with their money, and put it to a good purpose.


I am employed in the Clifton House, at the Falls.
Drew, pp. 82-87.
https://archive.org/details/northsideviewofs00drew/page/82/mode/2up

Adams, Julia D. (1990). “Between the Shenandoah and the Potomac: Historic Homes of Jefferson County, West Virginia.” Charles Town, West Virginia: The Jefferson County Historical Society, p. 121.

Recorded interviews with Bertha Fox Jones and Norman McDonald https://justjefferson.com/16Day.htm

Robert Lucas entry
US Census 1860 Virginia Jefferson Shepherdstown Page 28 – fold3.com
https://www.fold3.com/image/75222890/?terms=robert%20Lucas

Julia S. Blickenstaff; Carmen Creamer; Don Wood; Beverley Grove; Galtjo Geertsema (December 13, 1994) “National Register of Historic Places Nomination: Jefferson County Alms House” (pdf). National Park Service.

CHAPTER OR STORY 10 CLICK HERE https://civilwarscholars.com/uncategorized/chapter-10-jasper-begins-his-life-1844-by-jim-surkamp/

CHAPTER 10: Jasper Begins His Life – 1844 by Jim Surkamp

1857 words

STORY 10 – JASPER THOMPSON BEGINS LIFE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LJpJeIwFMw#t=28m47s

https://web.archive.org/web/20190612195342/https://civilwarscholars.com/2017/09/chapter-10-jasper-is-born-1844-by-jim-surkamp/

With support from American Public University System (apus.edu). The sentiments expressed do not in any way reflect modern-day policies of APUS, and are intended to encourage fact-based exchange for a better understanding of our nation’s foundational values.

FLICKR 29 images
https://www.flickr.com/photos/jimsurkamp/albums/72157685472796192

CLICK HERE. This will take you to the beginning of this video within the much longer video – START: 28:47 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LJpJeIwFMw#t=28m47s
PRECEDED BY: Intermission VIDEO START: 27:28
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LJpJeIwFMw#t=27m28s

“Babywearing”…The African Trend That Made The Runways by An Ethnic Nurse – web.archive.org ; Solomon Thompson courtesy Monique Crippen Hopkins

In January, 1844 Jasper Thompson was born to Solomon Thompson and Eliza Gray Thompson.

Head of Negro by Albecht Durer – 1508 Albertina – Vienna (Austria – Wien-Innere Stadt)
the-athenaeum.org ; Thompson Family Collection, Kansas Collection, RH MS 510, Kenneth Spencer Research Library, University of Kansas Libraries – etext.ku.edu ; Monique Crippen Hopkins at genealogybreakingdownthewalls.blogspot.com

The family’s written records show Eliza was the daughter of Harry Gray and Phanny (Fanny) Mitchell.

A Visit from the Old Mistress by Winslow Homer – 1876 Smithsonian American Art Museum americanart.si.edu

Jasper was born at a location that Jasper himself simply called, in his official enlistment form for the United States Colored Troops later on – as “Harper’s Ferry.”

Strother, David Hunter; Untitled (W1995.030.390pg13a).jpg
West Virginia and Regional History Collection
Jasper Thompson USCT 23rd infantry regiment service record, p. 18 fold3.com (requires account)
Record room Deed Will Books in the shelf etowahcounty.org

Researching the lives of the enslaved is hard – because only first names are in most records and no courthouse death records in Jefferson County existed there for before 1853.

Image of page 2 of Jane Charlotte’s Washington’s Will
JCBW Will Book 14 Page 342 9/17/1855 (Search “Jane C. Washington”) – ancestry.com ; detail from “Mrs. J.A.W.” by John Gadsby Chapman – donated by Anne and Patty Washington to the George Washington Masonic Memorial Association. – archives.mountvernon.org ; detail from The Veteran in a New Field by Winslow Homer – 1865 metmuseum.org ; Head of a Negro Boy by Alice Pike Barney – Date unknown
Smithsonian American Art Museum americanart.si.edu

But Jasper Thompson may have well been the (quote) negro boy named Jasper (end quote) that Jane Charlotte Washington, then the owner of Mount Vernon, cited in her will and gave, in the parlance of the time, to the son of her prematurely deceased eldest daughter, Anna Maria Tomasina Alexander.

Anna Maria had married Doctor William F. Alexander and they began making house and making farm.

Walnut Hill, Halltown, Jefferson County, WV
Creator(s): Historic American Buildings Survey, creator
Date Created/Published: Documentation compiled after 1933
loc.gov

The couple began making house, renting a small structure from John Humphreys just east of Charles Town off the Harper’s Ferry Road, called Walnut Hill.

Apple Maps

References:

1. Jasper Thompson USCT 23rd infantry regiment service record,p. 18
fold3.com 16 September 2011 Web. 20 October 2016.

2. Video of Monique Crippen Hopkins – April, 2016 – Perry Room, Charles Town Library, Charles Town, West Virginia

3. Jefferson County Clerk Deed Room, Charles Town, WV.

ID 57780 Washington, Jane C. 9/17/1855
Jefferson County, WV, Will Book 14 Pages 341-345
Jefferson County VA/WV Index to Wills, Vol. 1, 1801 – 1970
Page 341, View Pages 342-343, View Pages 344-345

4. Allen, John C. (2011). “Uncommon Vernacular: The Early Houses of Jefferson County, West Virginia 1735-1835.” Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Press. pp. 228 & 324.

5. John C. Allen email – January 5, 2016. (Mr. Allen is the author of “Uncommon Vernacular,” a book on structures in Jefferson County, Va. prior to the advent of the railroad).

On Tue, Jan 5, 2016 at 6:07 PM, John Allen wrote:
Jim,
My estimate of the construction date of the main part of Walnut Hill is ca. 1845. This main block is the front section shown in the HABS photo in my book (pg. 324). Here’s why I called it the Humphreys-Alexander House:

In 1820, the property’s owner, Thomas Wilson, was assessed as having $100 in buildings. That’s a very modest building, probably a one- or two-room cabin. In 1825 when the property passed to John Humphreys the assessment was $110 – no change, just inflation.

In 1827 the assessment rose to $1000 for “new wing on old house.” That new wing is the back wing of the current house. it was not a house, just a wing. Two years later his assessment rose by $300 for “new stone kitchen”. This is the back addition to the aforementioned wing. There is a clear photo of these two sections in the second HABS photo of the building (at Library of Congress website, not in my book). Still, these were service wings to a main house.

In 1839, the property was sold to W.F. Alexander. In 1841, Alexander’s building assessment dropped from $1,410 to $1,200. This drop reflects the demolition of the original house, while the newer wing and it’s kitchen addition remained. In 1850 Alexander’s assessment rose to $2,000 showing that the front section (again pictured in the book) had been completed. This main section of the house is a very substantial, stone central-hall house with very nice interior detailing of that 1850 period. So, that’s my take on the house. The back is Humphreys and the front is Alexander.

CHAPTER OR STORY 11 – CLICK HERE https://civilwarscholars.com/uncategorized/chapter-11-ones-work-in-1850-by-jim-surkamp/

CHAPTER 11 – One’s Work in 1850: by Jim Surkamp.

991 words.

CHAPTER OR STORY 11 – A YEAR’S WORK IN 1850 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LJpJeIwFMw#t=31m28s

https://web.archive.org/web/20190817082359/https://civilwarscholars.com/2017/09/chapter-11-a-years-work-in-1850-by-jim-surkamp/

FLICKR 63 images
https://www.flickr.com/photos/jimsurkamp/albums/72157689463767475

With support from American Public University System (apus.edu). The sentiments expressed do not in any way reflect modern-day policies of APUS, and are intended to encourage fact-based exchange for a better understanding of our nation’s foundational values.

Click Here. This will take you to the beginning of this story within the longer video START: 31:28 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LJpJeIwFMw#t=31m28s

Starry Night by Jean-François Millet – circa 1850-1865 artgallery.yale.edu

A Year’s Work in 1850:

JANUARY – Hauling Firewood

1850 Poor Richard’s Almanac – archive.org ; Horse Drawn Carts in Winter by Fritz Thaulow – cutlermiles.com

JANUARY – Cooking

Strother, David H., Harper’s (Dec., 1854) p. 7; 1850 Poor Richard’s Almanac – archive.org

JANUARY – Making shoes and boots

A conservative philosopher (boot man) by Strother, David H., Harper’s (Jan., 1856) hathitrust.org p. 178 ; Mr. Jones’s legacy (worn out pair of boots) by A Virginian. Harper’s, December, 1853 hathitrust.org p. 31; Shining Shoes by Thomas Waterman Wood paintingstar.com ; slave shoes – Charles F. Gunther Collection, 1920.1734ab Collection: Chicago History Museum collections.carli.illinois.edu

FEBRUARY – Hauling Fodder

Peasant with Wheelbarrow by Jean-François Millet – fineartamerica.com;

FEBRUARY – Hauling Water

Uncle Ned at home by Winslow Homer commons.wikimedia.org

MARCH – Mockingbird

Ryan Hagerty from the National Digital Library of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Mockingbird wikipedia.org

APRIL – Plowing corn ground

Frank Leslie’s Illustrated newspaper Plowing in South Carolina From a Sketch by Jas E. Taylor. Illus. in: Frank Leslie’s illustrated newspaper, v. 23, no. 577 (1866 October 20). loc.gov

MAY – Planting corn

The Iowa Agriculturalist for the Farm, Garden & Household – uni.edu

MAY – Washing Sheep & Shearing Sheep

Washing and Shearing Sheep in the Country sketches by Edwin Forbes July 18, Harper’s Weekly 1868, printsoldandrare.com p. 461

JUNE – Altering Lambs

The Keeper of the Herd by Jean-François Millet – The Art Institute of Chicago – artic.edu

JUNE – Hoeing Corn

A Southern Cornfield, Nashville, Tennessee Thomas Waterman Wood – 1861 – oceansbridge.com

JULY – Cutting and Cradling Hay

Cradle scythe used for harvesting grain – Mississippi History Timeline mdah.ms.gov ; The Iowa Agriculturalist for the Farm, Garden & Household uni.edu

JULY – Nooning

Farmers Nooning by William Sidney Mount – 1836
Long Island Museum (United States – Stony Brook, Long Island, New York)
artsandculture.google.com

AUGUST – Hauling & stacking wheat

Culpepper [i.e., Culpeper], Va.–Stacking wheat by Edwin Forbes – loc.gov

AUGUST – Shucking Corn

Corn Husking by Eastman Johnson – 1860 Everson Museum of Art – Syracuse, NY – commons.wikimedia.org

SEPTEMBER – At Market

Charleston Vegetable Woman by William Aiken Walker – Date unknown – wikioo.org

SEPTEMBER – Cutting & Collecting Wood

Currier_Ives_chopping_wood_Matte_detail – Louis Maurer, Preparing for Market, 1856. Hand-colored lithograph, (22 5/8 x 31 1/8 in). Published by N. Currier, New York.
commons.wikimedia.org ; Strother, David H., Harper’s July, 1866 hathitrust.org p. 139

OCTOBER – Sowing Red Clover

The Sower by Jean-François Millet – 1850 Museum of Fine Arts (MFA), Boston, MA wikiart.org

OCTOBER – Apples

Cider_Colonial-Press_Retouched eastfallshouse.com ; campfire – artofmanliness.com ; apple in black man’s palm – dreamstime.com

NOVEMBER – Hog butchering

Strother, David Hunter; Catching Hogs (W1995.030.004) – 1872
West Virginia and Regional History Collection; Smoked Ham at the Bonnie Crest Inn, North Carolina by William Aiken Walker – 1886 – wahooart.com

DECEMBER – Making warm clothes from linsey-woolsey

“JENNY . . .A GOOD SPINSTER” – inthewordsofwomen.com ; Strother, David H., Harper’s (Aug., 1856) hathitrust.org – p. 309 ; Strother, David Hunter; Lock’s Old Stephen. 1845. Martinsburg Va. (W1995.030.391pg19) West Virginia and Regional History Collection

References:

Aglionby, Charles. “The Day Book Kept By Charles Aglionby at Mount Pleasant, Charles Town, Jefferson County, Virginia.” 6 March, 1861 to 1 January, 1866.” Transcribed by Francis John Aglionby (1932-2002). With permission from Julia Aglionby. (Available at the Jefferson County Museum, Charles Town, WV). Print.

CHAPTER OR STORY 12 CLICK HERE https://civilwarscholars.com/uncategorized/chapter-12-jasper-thompson-grows-up-by-jim-surkamp/

CHAPTER 12 – Jasper Thompson Grows Up by Jim Surkamp.

1120 words

CHAPTER OR STORY 12 – JASPER COMES OF AGE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LJpJeIwFMw#t=35m36s

https://web.archive.org/web/20190612211811/https://civilwarscholars.com/2017/09/chapter-12-jasper-thompson-comes-of-age-by-jim-surkamp/

FLICKR 16 images
https://www.flickr.com/photos/jimsurkamp/albums/72157688723549706

With support from American Public University System (apus.edu). The sentiments expressed do not in any way reflect modern-day policies of APUS, and are intended to encourage fact-based exchange for a better understanding of our nation’s foundational values.

Click Here and this link will take you to where this chapter begins within the longer video (35:36) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LJpJeIwFMw#t=36m50s

Man Turning Over the Soil – Jean-François Millet – circa 1847-1850 – mfa.org
Dolly Irvin Thompson – courtesy Monique Crippen-Hopkins
Walnut Hill, Halltown, Jefferson County, WV
Creator(s): Historic American Buildings Survey, creator
Date Created/Published: Documentation compiled after 1933 loc.gov
aafp.org
Dr. William F. Alexander (1841-1880)
owner of Walnut Hill – courtesy Betsy Wells

Three of William F. Alexander and the late Anna Maria Thomasina Blackburn Washington Alexander’s children died of tb before the Civil War: Louise Fontaine Alexander (1837 – 1839) – Wilson Cary Selden Alexander (1836 – 1859) – and John Augustine Alexander died in 1854, when he was just fifteen.

findagrave.com
findagrave.com

THEN, THINGS FELL APART

Regional History Center; John Brown hanged unmasked – Strother, David Hunter; Untitled (W1995.030.394pg31a) West Virginia and Regional History Center; “Execution of John Brown” by David Hunter Strother December 2nd, 1859 – loc.gov ; John Brown wrote his last prophecy on December 2 of 1859 – wikipedia.org; John Brown hanging site today – The Jefferson County Convention & Visitors Center

On December 2nd 1859, Jasper’s future wife and life partner – Dolly – about a mile from the Walnut Hill farm on Samuel Street in Charlestown – witnessed the history-sundering hanging of the warrior against slavery – John Brown.

My first person I’ll probably go to is Dolly because my grandmother – that’s first-hand knowledge – my grandmother, Marie, actually lived with her grandmother, Dolly (Barr) Irvin Thompson. Dolly Thompson – this story was passed down orally – was actually at the hanging of John Brown and my grandmother would tell this story time and time again. And whenever she told this story, it was like this glazed look on her face – like she could actually relive whatever her grandmother told her. Now it is interesting to me, (but) when I was younger, I really wish I’d paid attention. So Dolly was married to Jasper Thompson. Dolly’s an Irvin (pause) really, her last name was Barr she would say, but she had to take her mom’s name Irvin.

REFERENCES:

William F. Alexander and his children – findagrave.com

https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/6045750/william-fontaine-alexander

William F. Alexander and his children at Walnut Hill – ancestry.com

https://www.ancestry.com/discoveryui-content/view/2848472:60525?tid=&pid=&queryId=cd74e3a8f9378ba7ef6b911ec7008af8&_phsrc=CED869&_phstart=successSource

The Bee Line Chapter, National Society Daughters of the American Revolution. (1981) “Tombstone Inscriptions and Burial Lots.” Hagerstown, MD.: HBP. Inc.
p. 353.

1850 U.S. Federal Census – Slave Schedules Jefferson Virginia District 28 for Jane Charlotte Washington (indicating two entries in which the enslaved person’s owner, gender and age correspond to those of Solomon Thompson and his son Jasper Thompson).

United States. Bureau of the Census; United States. National Archives and Records Service. (1964). “Population schedules of the seventh census of the United States, 1850, Virginia. [microform] (Volume Reel 0988 – 1850 Virginia Federal Population Census Slave Schedules – Hampshire, Hancock, Hanover, Hardy, Harrison, Henrico, Henry, Highland, Isle of Wight, Jackson, James City, and Jefferson Counties).” archive.org https://archive.org/details/populationschedu0988unix/page/n485/mode/1up?view=theater

Jane C. Washington
53 M B
50 M B
48 M B
41 M B
40 M B** age of Solomon Thompson (born 1810, according to death record and report of his son Jasper Thompson)
18 M B
18 M B
16 M B
10 M B
10 M B
6 M B** age of Jasper Thompson (born in 1844, using his age in the 1900 Census and his enlistment application)
5 M B
5 M B
5 M B
5? M B
3 M B
79 F B
75 F B
60 F B
54 F B
44 F B
37 F B
46 F B
24 F B
19 F B
22 F B
11 F B
8 F B
8 F B
4 F B
5 F B
7 F B (Idiot)
27 F B
3 mo F B

Dr. William F. Alexander

1860 U.S. Federal Census – Slave Schedules – Virginia – Jefferson p. 28
for Wm F. Alexander (indicating two entries in which the enslaved person’s owner, gender and age correspond to those of Jasper Thompson).


United States. Bureau of the Census; United States. National Archives and Records Service. (1967). “Population schedules of the eighth census of the United States, 1860, Virginia. [microform] (Volume Reel 1392 – 1860 Virginia Federal Population Census Schedules Slave – Henrico, James City, Jefferson, Kanawha, King George, King and Queen, and King William Counties).” ancestry.com (showing Census page) https://www.ancestry.com/imageviewer/collections/7668/images/vam653_1392-0326?treeid=&personid=&hintid=&usePUB=true&_phsrc=uVp1&_phstart=successSource&usePUBJs=true&pId=1145250

Male 15
Female 70
Male 65
Male 35
Male 30
Male 16** corresponds to Jasper’s age
Male 16
Male 15
Female 15
Female 40
Female 35
Male 8
Male 6
Female 14
Female 12
Male 4
Female 2
Female 6
Female 4
Female 1
Female 30
Male 4
Male 3
Male 2
Male 6/12
Male 40
Female 65
Female 45

CHAPTER OR STORY 13 CLICK HERE https://civilwarscholars.com/uncategorized/chapter-13-when-the-somber-men-wept-by-jim-surkamp/

CHAPTER 13 – When The Somber Men Wept by Jim Surkamp.

2126 words

STORY 13 – WHEN SOMBER MEN WEEP https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LJpJeIwFMw#t=36m50s

https://web.archive.org/web/20190612195332/https://civilwarscholars.com/2017/09/chapter-13-when-somber-men-weep-by-jim-surkamp/

FLICKR 61 images
https://www.flickr.com/photos/jimsurkamp/albums/72157685451374152

With support from American Public University System (apus.edu). The sentiments expressed do not in any way reflect modern-day policies of APUS, and are intended to encourage fact-based exchange for a better understanding of our nation’s foundational values.

Click Here on the video and it will take you to the portion in the longer video where this story begins. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LJpJeIwFMw#t=36m50s

John Brown hanged – Strother, David Hunter; John Brown (W1995.030.394pg20b) – West Virginia and Regional History Center; John Brown hanged unmasked – Strother, David Hunter; Untitled (W1995.030.394pg31a) West Virginia and Regional History Center; “Execution of John Brown” by David Hunter Strother December 2nd, 1859 – loc.gov ; John Brown wrote his last prophecy on December 2 of 1859 – wikipedia.org; John Brown hanging site today – The Jefferson County Convention & Visitors Center

Not very far away in December, 1859, Jasper’s future wife and life partner – Dolly – standing about a mile from the Walnut Hill farm, where she usually lived, and witnessing on Samuel Street in Charlestown, the history-sundering hanging of the warrior against slavery – John Brown.

Dolly Thomnpson – courtesy Monique Crippen-Hopkins

Family historian Monique Crippen-Hopkins:
My first person I’ll probably go to is Dolly because my grandmother – that’s first-hand knowledge – my grandmother Marie actually lived with her grandmother Dolly Irvin Thompson.

Dolly Thompson – this story was passed down orally – was actually at the hanging of John Brown and my grandmother would tell this story time and time again. And whenever she told this story it was like this glazed look on her face – like she could actually relive whatever her grandmother told her. Now it is interesting to me, (but) when I was younger, I really wish I’d paid attention. So Dolly was married to Jasper Thompson. Dolly’s an Irvin (pause) really, her last name was Barr she would say, but she had to take her mom’s name Irvin.

Earth-shaking blows land at the doorsteps of Charlestown, Va.

Shields Green, one of John Brown’s Negroes going to Execution (W1995.030.394pg24b) by David Hunter Strother West Virginia and Regional History Collection; John A. Copeland – Boyd B. Stutler Collection – wvculture.org ; John E. Cook – Boyd B. Stutler Collection – wvculture.org ; John A. Copeland – Boyd B. Stutler Collection – wvculture.org
Howell Brown Jefferson County, Virginia Map 1852 – loc.gov ; Aaron Stevens – Boyd B. Stutler Collection – wvculture.org ; Albert Hazlett – Boyd B. Stutler Collection – wvculture.org
Jim Surkamp

Six other raiders are hanged.

The Richmond Convention on Secession where things fall apart – and, Sumter.

Richmond in Ruins, 1865, War Department: Office of the Chief Signal Officer wikipedia.org ; Confederate flag flying. Ft. Sumter after the evacuation of Maj. Anderson – interior view Creator(s): Pelot, Alma A., photographer; 1861 April 16. loc.gov

More than one historian has called the conclusion of the Virginia Secession convention on April 17th, 1861 as the most fateful moment in American history.

Minute-by-minute, the silent ones even, will say they are sad. Proud men bared their souls and emptied their hearts – shedding tears – because their world was ending – the United States. Existential sorrows hollowed solemn voices.

George Wythe Randolph – encyclopediavirginia.org
Jubal Early – wikipedia.org
George McC. Porter – Hall, Granville D. (1901) “The rending of Virginia, a history.” Chicago, IL.: Mayer & Miller. archive.org
p. 180.
Waitman T. Willey – Contributed by Allison Fredette encyclopediavirginia.org
John Tyler – wikipedia.org
John Francis Lewis – wikipedia.org
Logan Osburn – Donald Amoroso
John Janney – wikipedia.org
John Brown Baldwin – encyclopediavirginia.org
Benjamin Wilson – Seitz, George – findagrave.com
Bombardment of Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor, April 12 and 13, 1861 – Hand-colored lithograph, ca. 1861 – loc.gov ; Ordinance of Secession (Calligraphy Version) – Acc. 40586. State Government Records. Record Group 93, Library of Virginia. Virginia Memory, Library of Virginia edu.lva.virginia.gov ; E. Hergesheimer, Map of Virginia – Secession Vote. C. B. Graham, Lithographer (Washington, D.C.: Henry S. Graham, 1861), edu.lva.virginia.gov
Abraham Lincoln by Byers, 7 May 1858 – wikiquote.org

That day Confederate firing on Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor prompted President Lincoln to call up 75,000 volunteers – including Virginia.

With all delegates sworn to secrecy, the closed session Convention voted 88 to 55 to secede, pending affirmation by the populace in a May 23rd referendum.

Jefferson County’s delegate, Logan Osburn, voted “Nay.” Alfred Barbour was absent and was hurrying back to Harper’s Ferry, knowing a plan was afoot to capture the arsenal regardless of any future referendum.

courtesy the Harper’s Ferry National Historic Park

CHAPTER OR STORY 14 CLICK HERE https://civilwarscholars.com/uncategorized/chapter-14-the-war-storm-breaks-at-home-by-jim-surkamp/

CHAPTER 14 – The War Storm Breaks by Jim Surkamp.

685 words.

CHAPTER OR STORY 14 – THE STORM BREAKS AT HOME https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LJpJeIwFMw#t=40m54s

https://web.archive.org/web/20190817123526/https://civilwarscholars.com/2017/09/chapter-14-the-war-storm-breaks-at-home-by-jim-surkamp/

With support from American Public University System (apus.edu). The sentiments expressed do not in any way reflect modern-day policies of APUS, and are intended to encourage fact-based exchange for a better understanding of our nation’s foundational values.

FLICKR 29 images
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Click Here and the link will take you to the beginning of this story within the longer video 40:54

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LJpJeIwFMw#t=40m54s

Spring at the Barbizon Jean-François Millet – 1868 wikiart.org
Colonel James W. Allen, 2nd Virginia Infantry Regiment [portrait]
Description Portrait of Confederate Army Col. James W. Allen, VMI Class of 1849, as he looked at the beginning of the Civil War. He was killed in battle at Gaines Mill on June 27, 1862. The original painting, by William D. Washington, is owned by VMI.
[portrait date ca. 1869] Collection VMI Archives Photographs Collection Photo Number 0003850
digitalcollections.vmi.edu
Turner Ashby
Handley Regional Library – Winchester, Va.
Accession number: 26-169 wfchs
Collection: John Walter Wayland Papers
Description: Turner Ashby (1824-1862) in civilian dress, circa 1860. Reproduced on page 36 of Stonewall Jackson’s Way. Date: c 1860 handley.pastperfectonline.com
Topographic Map of Jefferson, Berkeley and Morgan Counties – wvgeohistory.org
The rendez-vous of the Virginians at Halltown, Virginia 5 PM on April 18m 1862 to march on Harper’s Ferry (sketched by D.H. Strother) Halltown Harpers Weekly May 11, 1861 p. 292.
sonofthesouth.net

As they moved in the direction of Harper’s Ferry to capture the United States arsenal there with its muskets and equipment, they heard a roar and saw a huge glow from the little town in the ravine. The arsenal was preemptively blown up.

Harper’s Ferry, W. Va. View of town; railroad bridge in ruins]
Summary: Photograph from the main eastern theater of the war, Battle of Antietam, September-October 1862. Contributor Names: Bostwick, C. O., photographer
Created / Published Between 1860 and 1865]
loc.gov
Harper’s Ferry by moonlight / G. Perkins ; R. Hinshelwood.
Creator(s): Hinshelwood, Robert, 1812-, engraver
loc.gov
Roger Jones wikipedia.org Lt. Jones, the armory’s commander, ordered its contents and the building destroyed by dynamite to prevent the attackers from getting the arms and equipment. They were able to salvage some very important, state-of-the-art-equipment.
Harper’s Ferry National Historic Park (nps.gov)

The great experiment which the pure and wise of all nations are watching with trembling solicitude and imperishable hope. It was something to belong to such a nationality. This was yesterday.

Augustus Mitchell. (1861). “Mitchell’s new general atlas containing maps of the various countries of the world, plans of cities, etc. Embraced in forty?seven quarto maps, forming a series of seventy?six maps and plans, together with valuable statistical tables.” Philadelphia : Published by S. Augustus Mitchell, Jr. archive.org p. 8 – Map of the United States and Territories.
David Hunter Strother – The Library of Congress civilwar.org These comments by Strother appear in Strother, David H. “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 33, Issue: 193, June, 1866 hathitrust.org p. 16

To-day, what am I? A citizen of Virginia. Virginia, a petty commonwealth with scarcely a million of white inhabitants. What could she ever hope to be but a worthless fragment of the broken vase? A fallen and splintered column of the once glorious temple. But I will not dwell longer on the humiliating contrast.

Strother, David Hunter; At Hancock Depot Aug 1st 1857 (W1995.030.387pg26c)
West Virginia and Regional History Collection images.lib.wvu.edu

“Come harness up the buggy and let us get out of this or I shall suffocate. On our way to Charles Town we met great numbers of persons afoot, on horseback, and on wheels, hurrying to the scene of excitement.

Strother, David H. “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 33, Issue: 193, June, 1866. Print. p. 1 – knights and statue. (The Two-faced Shield)

Some attracted simply by curiosity, others armed and demonstrative, eager to claim a share of the glory after the danger was over.”

Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 34, Issue: 202, March, 1867.
p. 448 – lowering the flag

CHAPTER OR STORY 15 CLICK HERE https://civilwarscholars.com/uncategorized/chapter-15-joining-an-army-by-jim-surkamp/