The Most “Civil-Warred” Home – Unburned – in Jefferson County (2) by Jim Surkamp

7272 words

Images at Flickr: 18 https://www.flickr.com/photos/jimsurkamp/sets/72157645932550985/

https://web.archive.org/web/20190710015427/https://civilwarscholars.com/2014/07/the-most-civil-warred-home-unburned-home-in-jefferson-county-2-by-jim-surkamp/

Summary:

Thomas and Mary Rutherford and their eight children – alongside the war’s flailing claws – had a flag made for Stonewall Jackson to take into battle in 1861 at First Manassas/Bull Run; entertained at dinner Federal General Nathaniel Banks with Stonewall’s returned flag precariously hidden away in an upstairs hearth; enjoyed Sam Sweeney’s banjo as he sat beside Gen J.E.B. Stuart who was visiting and sharing momentos with the family of his ride around Gen. McClellan’s army in October, 1862. They cared for wounded in late 1862, one who died and they buried. Daughter Mary dodged a bullet fired at her upstairs window, all while our callow narrator, Richard, nosed around town, saw things, and above all daily milked their two cows, that he often had to roam to find, bribing thankful Federal pickets with pie.Then the most historic two hours at Rutherford House/Carriage Inn was the meeting of Federal Generals Grant and Sheridan (almost two years to the day after the terrible Antietam/Sharpsburg battle), having surrounded the Rutherford home with a huge security cordon, and used new information smuggled into them by an African-American named Thomas Laws – correctly convincing them the time was propitious to attack Confederate General Jubal Early on the Opequon Creek. A lasting memory after the war was, for Richard, – one night sky’s hideous glow in all directions from the burning barns and, in some cases, homes torched as part of General Sheridan’s punitive campaign through the Valley, the one where his orders from Grant were curt and cruel – so that, to periphrase, a crow flying overhead would have to carry its own rations. Part Two here is about events affecting the Rutherfords in 1862, 1863 and the second half of 1864.

Chapterettes:

1. September, 1862: A Gift of sweets to Stonewall before battle

2. Sept.-Oct., 1862: A wounded man dies, even though Richard tries.

3. Monday, October 6, 1862: Stonewall writes his thanks.

4. Tuesday, October 7, 1862: Ellen, and Ginny Rutherford likely go to the Ball at the Bower.

5. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart brings his banjo-man to the Rutherfords’.

6. October 16-17, 1862: The Rutherfords save a hospital attendant and a wounded Confederate officer at their home from arrest by Federals.

7. We only wonder what sorrow the next day might bring.

8. Sunday, October 18, 1863 – Sleeping Mary Rutherford gets a bullet through her window during a rout.

9. Young Robert W. Baylor, Jr. takes a mad, galloping gamble:

10.Sunday, July 17, 1864: General David Hunter’s order is carried out to burn the home of Andrew Hunter, his cousin, near the Rutherfords’.

11.Tuesday, November 29, 1864 – Young Robert Baylor is killed east of Charlestown. On the Eve of the Battles of Antietam and Harper’s Ferry:

1. A Gift of sweets to Stonewall before battleCarriagae_Inn_2_1_Stonewall_Treats_TITLE_1 September 12-15, 1862, Harper’s Ferry and environs: In position for attacking, surrounding and capturing Harper’s Ferry east of Halltown on Schoolhouse Ridge, Gen. Jackson was pleased to accept some delectables sent to him by Mrs. Rutherford, three miles to the west. After the Antietam Battle, the Confederate Army moves into Virginia and along the Opequon, with Gen. Stuart at the home of the Dandridge family, called The Bower in Jefferson County. Gen. Jackson’s men, and briefly General Robert E. Lee, encamped to the west in the vicinity of Bunker Hill, Va. (now West Virginia).

2. Sept-Oct., 1862: A wounded man dies, even though Richard tries.Carriage_Inn_2_2_FINAL_TITLE Thousands of wounded from the fighting filled homes across the County, including the Rutherfords in Charlestown. Richard Rutherford recalls what must have been a maturing experience helping a dying man – “Captain Keels” – from South Carolina.A Captain Keels from South Carolina was brought to our home very badly wounded and lived but a day or two. My mother left him to me to look after, as she and my sister were caring for others who filled the house. She and others of the family came at times to see how I was getting on. On the second day, I think it was, I noticed a change to his breathing and so called my mother. She came in just as he breathed his last. We came out and closed the door and then I returned with two soldier nurses and prepared his body for burial. – Rutherford, p. 34. (Keels was buried with a short service by Rev. Dutton in Edge Hill cemetery, along with many others.-JS)

3. Monday, October 6, 1862 – Confederate General Stonewall Jackson writes his thanks to Mrs. Rutherford:Carriage_Inn_2_3_FINAL_TITLE My dear Mrs. Rutherford, Your delicious present and kind note reached me when I was near Halltown (September 14-15th-JS) and I much regret not being able to call and see you and return my thanks in person, but at this late day I beg you to accept them.I hope sometime to have the pleasure of again visiting your house & meeting you & yours. Please remember me very kindly to Mr. R and the family. Your much attached friend – T. J. Jackson

4. Tuesday, October 7, 1862: Ellen, and Ginny Rutherford likely go to the Ball at the Dandridge’s Bower: Carriage_Inn_2_4_Ball_TITLE_FINAL Young women from Charlestown and Shepherdstown were invited to this grand ball and fetched by van. The following day Gen. Stuart was ordered to cross the Potomac above Williamsport with 1,200 or 1,500 cavalry (NOTE: 1800, in Stuart’s report.-JS), and endeavor to ascertain the position and designs of the enemy. Being friends of Gen. Stuart who arranged the event, 22-year-old Ellen and 18-year- old Virginia (“Ginny”) Rutherford certainly were invited and it is hard to imagine anything that could keep them from going. (“Eighteen” was not too young for a woman to attend. 18-year-old Netta Edmonia Lee from Shepherdstown attended.-JS)

The Bower and the Grand Ball’s Music Program: Grand Overture – Orchestra Cottage By The Sea – Sweeney. Lilly, Dear – Sweeney. When The Swallows Homeward Fly sung by Stuart Looka Thar Now by Capt. Tiernan Brien Going Down To Town played by Sweeney I Ain’t Got No Time To Tarry Evelyn Lively Piece Soldier’s Dream Ever of Thee Money Musk Old Grey Horse

The Dandridge family and many of the people who were living of visiting The Bower in October, 1862:Bower.Map_.LookalikeBower.25.Perfect.Days_Bower.Then_.Now_ASDII.SCDAlexSDEPD.NDLPD.ASDIIISPD.SCDJEB.StuartFL.RL_.WH_3HVB.JEC_.WB_JBF.LTB.WAMJP.TR.RCPMM.SS_CD.NRF_.HBM_1Bob.Gilbert.Wm_CF.DD_FoxesTuesday evening, October 7 – Sweeney’s “orchestra” at The Bower as described by William Blackford:

We had at headquarters a capital band of singers who were accompanied by Sweeney on his banjo; Bob, The General’s mulatto servant, on the bones, and occasionally, by a violin, and other instruments. But the main standby was Sweeney and his banjo, and every evening at The Bower this formed a part of the entertainment. – Blackford, pp 161-162.

Gen. Stuart’s adjutant, Heros Von Borcke, gives his own first-hand account of his October 7th masquerade in which he – with his massive frame – and fellow cavalryman, Tiernan Brien, convinced everyone – for a while – that he was the “blushing” spouse of “The Pennsylvania Farmer:”On the 7th, a grand ball was to take place at The Bower, to which Mr D. had invited families from Martinsburg, Shepherdstown, and Charlestown, and in the success of which we all felt a great interest. As an exceptional bit of fun, Colonel Brien and I had secretly prepared a little pantomime, ‘The Pennsylvania Farmer and his Wife,’ in which the Colonel was to personate the farmer and I the spouse. Accordingly, when the guests had all assembled and the ball was quite en train, the immense couple entered the brilliantly lighted apartment – Brien enveloped in an ample greatcoat, which had been stuffed with pillows until the form of the wearer had assumed the most enormous proportions; I dressed in an old white ball-dress of Mrs D.’s that had been enlarged in every direction, and sweetly ornamented with half-a-bushel of artificial flowers in my hair. Our success greatly outran our expectations. Stuart, exploding with laughter, scrutinized me closely on all sides, scarcely crediting the fact that within that tall bundle of feminine habiliments dwelt the soul of his Chief of Staff. Again and again we were made to repeat our little play in dumb show, until, getting tired of it and wishing to put a stop to it, I gracefully fainted away and was carried from the room by Brien and three or four assistants, amid the wild applause of the company, who insisted on a repetition of the fainting scene. When, in a few moments, I made my appearance in uniform, the laughter and applause recommenced, and Stuart, throwing his arms around my neck in a burlesque of pathos, said, ‘My dear old Von, if I could ever forget you as I know you on the field of battle, your appearance as a woman would never fade from my memory.’ So the joyous night went on with dancing and merriment, until the sun stole in at the windows, and the reveille sounding from camp reminded us that the hour of separation had arrived. – Von Borcke, pp. 293-294.

Cavalryman William Blackford also wrote of that memorable night:

Von Borcke and Brien were taken secretly upstairs for preparations under the the Dandridge’s care. Von Borcke was transformed into a blushing maiden weighing two hundred and fifty pounds and six feet, two and a half inches tall; a riding skirt of one of the girls, supplemented by numerous dainty underskirts and extended by enormous hoops according to the fashion then in vogue, hung in graceful folds to conceal the huge cavalry boots the huge damsel wore. Her naturally ample bosom palpitated under skillfully arranged pillows, and was gorgeously decorated with the Dandridge family jewelry and ribbons; while ‘a love of a bonnet,’ long braids of hair, and quantities of powder and rouge completed her toilet, and in her hand she flirted coquettishly with a fan of huge dimensions. When there was an invited company and the parlors were all full, Von Borcke and Brien gave us another capital performance. When they made their appearance in the ballroom the surprise was complete. Both acted their parts to perfection. Paddy entertained the fair girl on his arm with loud and humorous remarks as they sauntered around the room, to which she replied with simpering affectation that was irresistibly ludicrous. No one had the faintest conception as to who they were, so perfect was the disguise. Before the company recovered from the surprise of their appearance the music struck up a lively waltz, and ’round and ’round the couple went, faster, and faster went the music, and faster and faster flew the strangers. It was not until in the fury of the whirling dance with hoop skirts flying horizontally, that twinkling amid the white drapery beneath, the well-known boots of Von Borcke betrayed the first suspicion of who the lady was. – Blackford, pp. 158-159.

5. Late October, 1862 – Gen. J.E.B. Stuart brings his banjo-man to the Rutherfords’.Carriage_Inn_2_5_FINAL_TITLE Rutherford recalled Gen. J.E.B. Stuart’s visit to the Rutherford home after his cavalrymen entered Pennsylvania from the Bower via Williamsport, MD and rode around the entire Federal army commanded by Gen. George McClellan, returning safely to the Bower on October 14th:Rutherford wrote: Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, after his raid on Chambersburg, camped at The Bower, the home of the Dandridges, a few miles from Charlestown, to rest his command, and, as was his custom when near to us, he came to visit us. He told us many things about his trip around the Yankee army. While there (at the Rutherford home), he took from his pocket a large oak leaf, pinned it in a floral album on the table and wrote: “This leaf was plucked by me in the Blue Ridge Pass on my return from the raid around General McClellan’s army,” with the date and other comments. Jeb Stuart often brought his aide, Sweeney, who was a famous banjo-picker, and used to sit on one side of the sofa with Sweeney on the other, telling him what to play. – Rutherford, p. 42.

6. October 16-17, 1862: The Rutherfords save a hospital attendant and a wounded Confederate officer at their home from arrest by Federals:Federal General Winfield Hancock’s official report and Richard Rutherford’s recollections both depict an artillery exchange east of Charlestown, eventually won by the Federals, that left one Confederate artillerist, Captain Benjamin H. Smith, badly wounded in the foot. He was carried to the Rutherford’s house with help from a soldier just called “Red.Events.1862.21 Richard Rutherford wrote: The Union commander at Harper’s Ferry finally sent out several very large scouting parties, in all some four or five thousand men – infantry, cavalry and artillery. One, I remember, was under General Hancock and another under General Geary. The Confederates in number resisted, and they clashed hard on the hill just below our house. We all had to take to the cellar, and stay there until nearly all day, as shells and balls were thick and fast. After the clash, my brother and I picked up six or seven shells that had fallen in the next yard, in line with, but a bit short of our house. – Rutherford, pp. 29-30.Federal commander Winfield Hancock wrote of the same events in his report: On the 16th instant, in obedience to instructions, I marched toward Charlestown, Va., with my division and 1,500 men of other divisions, under command of Col. W.(illiam) R.(aymond) Lee, Twentieth Massachusetts Volunteers, and a force of cavalry, with a battery of four guns (horse artillery), Colonel Devin being in command thereof. . . . The advance of our column encountered the enemy’s pickets beyond Halltown, drove them in, and pursued until, when within short artillery range of the high ground this side of Charlestown, the enemy was found posted. He opened fire upon us with artillery. Our horse artillery battery, supported by Capt. M. A. Reno’s First Cavalry, then engaged the enemy, who opened fire from five guns, and deployed dismounted cavalry as skirmishers on their front and flanks. The town was at once taken possession of and the troops suitably disposed for defense. Toward evening our infantry advanced and occupied the heights surrounding the town, within artillery range. . . The command remained in Charlestown until about 2 pm. The next day (October 17th), when we received orders to return. . . Richard Rutherford wrote of their wounded Captain and his care-giver: Carriage_Inn_2_6_Smith In one of these battles Captain B. H. Smith (Benjamin H. Smith-JS), one of the Richmond Howitzer outfit, had his foot shot nearly off, and was brought into our house. As the Confederates were falling back, he was left with us. One of his men, by the name of “Red,” was left to nurse him. Dr. Mason and Dr. Cordell operated on his foot on our dining room table the same day, taking off a little more of his foot. “Red” was taking a basin of water into the operation for the doctors when the Yankees saw him on the porch and started to take him away. My mother rushed out and explained to them that the man was nursing his captain and they must not take him. One of them said: “But suppose he gets away?” My mother replied: “Then you can take me” – so they let him stay. Captain Smith and “Red” stayed with us until he was able to get around on crutches, when he returned to his home in Richmond. – Rutherford, pp. 29-30. Federal General Hancock found a hundred officers like Captain Smith in Charlestown, but couldn’t arrest them all because many were badly wounded: Col_J_R_Brooke_Named_Comment While in Charlestown I appointed Col. J. R. Brooke, of the Fifty-third Pennsylvania Volunteers, military governor, the better to preserve order. About 100 officers and soldiers of the Confederate Army were found in the town, consisting entirely, it is believed, of surgeons, hospital attendants, convalescents, and sick. Twenty-six were sent to the provost-marshal at Harper’s Ferry, and 38 wounded and unable to be removed, were paroled. Time did not permit the paroling of all who were severely wounded, as they were scattered throughout the town, requiring more time than we had for the purpose, to find them. – W. HANCOCK, Chapter XIX, Official Record, Series I, Part 2, Vol. 19. pp. 91-92. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014.

Spring, 1863: 7. We only wonder what sorrow the next day might bring. Carriage_Inn_2_7_FINAL_TITLE No one who did not actually live in or around Charlestown can realize the trying times we suffered during the four years of war. We could only wonder what trouble and sorrow the next day might bring to some of us. Often when a battle was in progress, our people would gather on the hills outside of town where we could hear the roar of cannon, and often even volleys of musketry . . .Very often we could not locate exactly where (the heavy fighting was in progress), but in the next day or two some of our boys would come in wounded or bring home the dead. – Rutherford, p. 33.dhs.2.womancab.150 We could get nothing in the way of clothing except gray cloth made by the factories in the county, so everyone dressed in gray. The ladies, dressed also in gray, made belts with pockets hanging to them under their skirts. When the cry went up: “Here come the Yankees,” my mother and sisters would run and fill these pockets with silverware and other valuables and what money my father might have at the time. They often carried this weight with them all day long, and at night would put the belts under their pillows. – Rutherford, p. 33.Carriage_Inn_2_7_Newspapers_TITLE_FINAL My brother and I, almost every day, would go into the country to some farmer’s house along the Baltimore and Ohio railroad and get newspapers which the trainmen would throw off as the train passed. This was the only way we got newspapers for a long time. Richmond papers were at a premium and we only got them when some of our own boys came home and brought them along. No matter what we were doing, when the papers came all work would stop as we rushed to hear the latest news. – Rutherford, p. 41.

8. Sunday, October 18, 1863 – Sleeping Mary Rutherford gets a bullet through her window during a rout.She (Mary Aisquith) narrowly escaped being shot on one occasion. General Imboden and his men shelled the courthouse in Charles Town and the Federal Col. B.L. Simpson, 9th Maryland Infantry Regiment had to surrender. Aisquith recalled: Carriage_Inn_2_8_Mary_TITLE_FINAL His (Simpson’s) officers fled before the enemy, leaving their men to shift for themselves. These officers ran down the railroad near our house. I was in bed at the time. All at once I heard something whizz over me and strike the wall on the other side of the room. A shot had been fired into the room.” – Mary Rutherford Aisquith, The Farmer’s Advocate, September 8, 1934.Confederate Gen. John Imboden reports on shelling the Courthouse, capturing the soldiers of the 9th Maryland Infantry and their flight past the Rutherfords en route to Harper’s Ferry, who claimed they were being fired upon from homes, including the Rutherford’s:Carriage_Inn_2_8_Imboden_TITLE_FINAL I found the enemy occupying the court-house, jail, and some contiguous buildings in the heart of the town, all loop-holed for musketry, and the court-house yard inclosed by a heavy wall of oak timber. To my demand for a surrender Colonel Simpson requested an hour for consideration. I offered him five minutes, to which he replied, “Take us if you can.” I immediately opened on the buildings with artillery at less than 200 yards, and with half a dozen shells drove out the enemy into the streets, when he formed and fled toward Harpers Ferry. – J. IMBODEN (Commander of Confederate force), Chapter XLI, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 29, pp. 490-492. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014.

1864:9. Young Robert W. Baylor, Jr. takes a mad, galloping gamble:Carriage_Inn_2_9_Baylor_Chase_TITLE_FINAL Another time I saw R. W. Baylor, Jr., a cousin of mine . . . and though he did not belong to the army, and lived at home with his mother and younger members of his family, he always carried a revolver. He was on his way into town one day and had ridden down under the stone bridge (Evitt’s Run under Washington Street-JS) to give his horse some water. He saw five Yankees turn the corner from the Berryville Pike going to Harper’s Ferry. One was leading an extra horse and (Baylor) was only a block from them. Baylor drew his revolver and with a Rebel yell, he took after them. They bolted pell mell through the town with Tud (as we called him) after them. He caught the Yankee who was leading the extra horse on Hunter’s Hill and returned with the prisoner and two horses. He turned the man loose, but took the two horses home with him. With his own horse and the other two he put out a crop of wheat for the home folks – then took his horse and went off into the army. – Rutherford, p. 37.

10. Sunday, July 17, 1864: Federal General David Hunter’s order is carried out to burn the home of Andrew Hunter, his cousin, near the Rutherford’s. Andrew Hunter’s family took refuge at the Rutherfords:Carriage_Inn_2_10_Hunter_TITLE_FINAL One Sunday morning, we were all at church, except my father, who had stayed home. Some ten or fifteen of Baylor’s boys had come into town, and as all seemed quiet and peaceful, some of them had ventured to attend church. The minister was in the midst of his sermon when we were startled by several shouts out in front. All made a rush to get the soldiers out first. A squad of Yankees had passed, shooting at some of our boys who were visiting at their homes, but who had fled at the first alarm of their picket. Those at church had their horses tied behind the church and so succeeded in getting away over the fence in the rear before the main body of the Yankees got as far as the church. One of our men, a friend of my father’s – Newton Sadler, had left his porch talking when the Yankees dashed by. My father put him up in the attic right under a slate roof, and as it was very warm weather, he almost roasted to death. My sister took him ice water often through the day, which enabled him to survive the imprisonment. These Yankees had orders from General Hunter to burn Mr. Andrew Hunter’s house. They were first cousins. Andrew Hunter was home, but they caught him and brought him to our house, where his daughters were; so now we were in a tight place with Mr. Hunter and Yankee officers downstairs and Nate Sadler hid up in the attic! – Rutherford, p. 38.My mother talked with the officer in command (Captain William Franklin Martindale of the 1st New York Cavalry-JS) and tried to persuade them not to burn the Hunter house, but to give her time to go to Harper’s Ferry to see General Kelley, who was of no use. The men carried great armfuls of hay into each room and put it all to the match. The beautiful home was soon in flames. Nothing was saved, but the clothes the family wore. My mother and I, with the help of an old Irishman who lived with us, dragged the piano to the door and would have gotten it out had the soldiers not made us let it alone. When I saw that beautiful home in ruins, I thought no punishment was too great for General Hunter. – Rutherford, p. 39.

11. Tuesday, November 29, 1864 – Young Robert Baylor is killed east of Charlestown: Carriage_Inn_2_11_Baylor_TITLE_FINAL Stealthily moving on, the sleeping camp was entered, and the occupants awoke to find themselves prisoners. There was sudden confusion and scampering among the enemy. Some twenty of their number, lodged in a stone house nearby, opened fire on us. Recognizing the gravity of the situation, we rushed upon the house, and, seizing the doors and windows, poured several volleys into the building. Just as George Creaton (Crayton), my brother Robert W. Baylor, Jr. (a boy of seventeen) and myself entered the door, several shots were fired by the inmates, one mortally injuring my brother and another severely injuring Creaton. After a few minutes the cry of surrender came from the group huddled together in the building, and the firing ceased. My brother and Creaton were removed to the house of Dr. Mason, who had been for years our family physician, and where I knew they would be well cared for. My brother died in a few hours, but Creaton rallied for a while and died soon after the close of the war. Baylor, pp. 265-266.Carriage_Inn_2_11_Baylor_BoysReferences:

1. A Gift of sweets to Stonewall before battle – letter courtesy Don Amoroso.

2. Sept-Oct., 1862: A wounded man dies, even though Richard tries.

– Rutherford, p. 34. from Recollections of Richard D. Rutherford. (December, 1993). “The Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society.” Volume LIX. Edited by Cecil D. Eby. Charles Town, WV: Jefferson County Historical Society. Print. pp. 17-41.

3. Monday, October 6, 1862 – Confederate General Stonewall Jackson writes his thanks to Mrs. Rutherford:

Letter from Stonewall Jackson to Mary Rutherford – courtesy Don Amoroso.

4. Tuesday, October 7, 1862: Ellen, and Ginny Rutherford likely go to the Ball at the Dandridge’s Bower:

The Bower and the Grand Ball’s Music Program – Peggy Vogtsberger. “This Fine Music.”
(NOTE: This program first appeared in an article in Volume 10, No. 4 of The Cannoneer. Sources: Burke Davis, “The Swinging Sweeneys,” The Iron Worker, Autumn, 1969, contributed by Wes Rine. Bob Trout confirmed the dates and information).
gallantpelham.org 3 February 2006 Web. 20 June 2014.

Blackford, William W. (1945). “War Years with Jeb Stuart.” New York, NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons. Print.

Blackford, William W. (1945). “War Years with Jeb Stuart.” Google Books. 19 July 2008. Web. 24 Dec. 2010.
More. . .

Von Borcke, Heros. (1867). “Memoirs of the Confederate war for independence.” Philadelphia. PA: J. B. Lippincott & Co. Print.

Von Borcke, Heros. (1867). “Memoirs of the Confederate war for independence.” Internet Archives archive.org 9 August 2002 Web. 20 April 2014. pp. 293-294.
More. . .

5. Late October, 1862 – Gen. J.E.B. Stuart brings his banjo-man to the Rutherfords’.
– Rutherford, p. 42.

6. October 16-17, 1862: The Rutherfords save a hospital attendant and a wounded Confederate officer at their home from arrest by Federals.

Report – W. HANCOCK, Chapter XIX, Official Record, Series I, Part 2, Vol. 19.  pp. 91-92 (SEE REFERENCES)

Rutherford, pp. 29-30.

Roger Preston Chew wrote of the October, 1862 battle, mentioning Capt. B. H. Smith:
Artillery Duel at Old Fair Grounds Near Charles Town.

Chew, Roger P. (1911) “Military Operations in Jefferson County, Virginia (and West Va.) 1861-1865.” [s.l.] : Charles Town, WV: published by authority of Jefferson County Camp, U.C.V. [by] Farmers Advocate Printing. Print.

Chew, Roger P. (1911) “Military Operations in Jefferson County, Virginia (and West Va.) 1861-1865.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 24 Dec. 2010.31 Dec. 2010.
More. . .

After the battle of Sharpsburg, McClellan remained north of the Potomac for about thirty days, when he crossed below Harpers Ferry with his artillery on October 16, 1863. To screen that movement he sent Hancock with a large force of infantry, cavalry and artillery to make a reconnaissance in the direction of Charles Town. Our cavalry under the command of General T. T. Munford retired before this force until they reached a point about half a mile below Charles Town, known as the Old Fair Grounds. Here a section of Chew’s Battery under Lieutenant J. W. Carter and two guns of the Richmond Howitsers, third company under Captain B. H. Smith were placed in position, and opened on the enemy, who had planted their batteries on the hill about three quarters of a mile below, known as Butler’s Hill.

A severe engagement between the artillery on either side took place at this point, although the enemy were greatly superior in number and guns. The Confederate guns soon got the range and inflicted serious damage upon the enemy. The resistance on their part was so bold and determined that the Federals were delayed for several hours, and after the retirement of the guns they occupied Charles Town until the next day when they retired to Harpers Ferry. Lieutenant J. W. Carter, who was greatly distinguished as an artillery officer and a man of superb courage and daring, was noticed in Official Report by General Munford, and recommended for promotion. Our forces retired towards Berryville undisturbed by the enemy. pp. 36-37.

7. We only wonder what sorrow the next day might bring. – Rutherford, pp. 33 & 41.

8. Sunday, October 18, 1863 – Sleeping Mary Rutherford gets a bullet through her window.

She (Mary Aisquith) narrowly escaped being shot on one occasion. General Imboden and his men were in Charles Town and the (Federal) general had to surrender. His officers – “I call it cowardice,” she interjected – fled before the enemy, leaving their men to shift for themselves. “These officers ran down the railroad near our house,” she said. “I was in bed at the time. All at once I heard something whizz over me and strike the wall on the other side of the room. A shot had been fired into the room. That bullet-hole remained in the wall until the house was sold.” – Mary Rutherford Aisquith, The Farmer’s Advocate, September 8, 1934.

Report, J. IMBODEN (Commander of Confederate force), Chapter XLI, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 29,  pp. 490-492 (SEE REFERENCES)

Account of the event by Charlestown resident and Confederate artillerist, Roger Preston Chew:

Chew, Roger P. (1911) “Military Operations in Jefferson County, Virginia (and West Va.) 1861-1865.” [s.l.] : Charles Town, WV: published by authority of Jefferson County Camp, U.C.V. [by] Farmers Advocate Printing. Print.

Chew, Roger P. (1911) “Military Operations in Jefferson County, Virginia (and West Va.) 1861-1865.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 24 Dec. 2010.31 Dec. 2010.
More. . .

On October 18, 1863, Gen. John D. Imboden marched to the vicinity of Charles Town for the purpose of capturing the enemy, who were posted there in large force. The 9th Maryland Regiment of Infantry and Capt, Summer’s Cavalry Company were quartered, the first in the Court House, and the latter in the Jail.

Imboden formed a line of battle on the Ranson farm west of the town, and extending his line to the east to the Kabletown road. He located a battery near the house of Robert Brown but found, after firing a few shots, he could not reach the Court House. He then extended his line across the Harpers Ferry road to the farm of James M. Ranson, and placing his gun on the hill north of town fired several shots through the Court House. The enemy immediately evacuated the Court House and attempted a retreat towards Harpers Ferry but were intercepted by the Confederates and the entire command captured, excepting Summers’ company which effected its escape towards Leetown. He then commenced to retreat by the pike to Berryville. He (Imboden) was pursued by a large force of the enemy and had a number of engagements between that point and Rippon. Here he formed in line to check the advance of the enemy and a serious engagement took place in which a number of men on both sides were killed and wounded. The enemy discontinued their pursuit at that point and Imboden retreated unmolested with his prisoners and captures. – Chew, pp. 30-32.
More . .

“‘They Are Coming!’: Testimony at the Court of Inquiry on Imboden’s Capture of Charles Town,” in “Jefferson County Historical Magazine,” LIV, Dec. 1988, Paul E. Barr, Jr., and Michael P. Musick, eds.

Battle_of_Charlestown
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

9. Young Robert W. Baylor, Jr. takes a mad, galloping gamble:

Rutherford, p. 37.

10. Sunday, July 17, 1864: Federal General David Hunter’s order is carried out to burn the home of Andrew Hunter, his cousin, near the Rutherford’s. – (BOTH) Rutherford, pp. 37-39.

11. Tuesday, November 29, 1864 – Young Robert Baylor is killed east of Charlestown:

Robert W. Baylor household
National Archives Catalog Title: Population Schedules for the 1860 Census, compiled 1860 – 1860. Record Group: 29; Short Description: NARA M653. Eighth Census of the United States, 1860 population schedules. Roll: 1355; State: Virginia; County: Jefferson; Minor Civil Division: [Blank]; Page: 136. fold3.com (footnote.com) January 2007 Web. 20 June 2014.

Account of the Charlestown skirmish in which eighteen-year-old Robert W. Baylor, Jr. was killed:

Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.” Richmond, VA: B. F. Johnson Publishing. Print.

Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.”Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011.

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Confederate commander George W. Baylor described the November 29th event:
On the night of the 29th of November, 1864, with 30 men of Company B, we attacked the camp of the Twelfth Pennsylvania Cavalry at Charles Town. Passing through the enemy’s picket line, through a hollow just east of town, under cover of a fog such as usually hangs on autumn nights over the little valleys near the river and unobserved by the sentry on the adjacent hills, we reached in safety the north side of the town and the rear of the enemy’s camp, and rode quietly to a point near the block house, about twenty yards from the camp. Here the men dismounted, leaving the horses in charge of the fourth man in each file of fours, and noiselessly gained the block house. Steathily moving on, the sleeping camp was entered, and the occupants awoke to find themselves prisoners. There was sudden confusion and scampering among the enemy. Some twenty of their number, lodged in a stone house nearby, opened fire on us. Recognizing the gravity of the situation, we rushed upon the house, and, seizing the doors and windows, poured several volleys into the building. Just as George Crayton, my brother Robert W. Baylor, Jr. (a boy of seventeen) and myself entered the door, several shots were fired by the inmates, one mortally injuring my brother and another severely injuring Crayton. After a few minutes the cry of surrender came from the group huddled together in the building, and the firing ceased. My brother and Crayton were removed to the house of Dr. Mason, who had been for years our family physician, and where I knew they would be well cared for. My brother died in a few hours, but Crayton rallied for a while and died soon after the close of the war. The loss of these two gallant soldiers was deeply deplored by their comrades, and especially by myself. In this engagement we killed and wounded 11 of the enemy, captured 27 prisoners and 37 horses – and equipments. – Baylor, pp. 265-266.
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Federal General John Stevenson reported on the November 29th event:
The camp of the Twelfth Pennsylvania Cavalry was attacked last night about 12 oclock. The attacking force are a part of a Virginia regiment acting with Mosby and camped on this side the mountains. They were finally repulsed, but killed 2 of our men, wounded 1, and captured 5, also 19 horses. The enemy lost 1 killed and several wounded. The force at the camp is only a camp guard of forty men. Anticipating that the attack would be made, I directed the commanding officer to call on Heine’s infantry for assistance. He did so, but they sent him no help. Will you order him to send 100 men of his command to the camp until the regiment returns. – STEVENSON, Chapter LV, Official Record, Volume 43, Series I, Part 2,  p. 711. (SEE REFERENCES)

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NOTE: Richard Channing Baylor, Robert W.’s older brother, was killed a year to the day earlier November 29, 1863 at Parker’s Store near Fredericksburg, Va. – p. 408.
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Image Credits:

1. A Gift of sweets to Stonewall before battle

Map of the battle-fields of Harper’s Ferry and Sharpsburg
Title Map of the battle-fields of Harper’s Ferry and Sharpsburg
Creator Brown, S. Howell
Publication Info Washington : Government Printing Office
baylor.edu 9 May 1997 Web. 20 June 2014.

Baking a pie
Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 10, Issue: 55, (Dec., 1854). pp. 1-25. Print.

Strother, David H. (Dec., 1854). “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s Magazine. p. 7 
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Stonewall_Jackson
Stonewall Jackson by Routzahn, 1862Public Domainview terms
Nathaniel Routzahn (1822 – 1908), Winchester, Virginia – Valentine Richmond History Center, Cook Collection
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

2. Sept.-Oct., 1862: A wounded man dies, even though Richard tries.

detail from “Burying the Dead at Hospital in Fredericksburg, Va.” (title from print). Title from Civil War caption book(?): “Fredericksburg, Virginia. Burial of Federal dead.” Shows four African American men digging graves; a bearded white man can be seen looking on, arms crossed, in the distance. (Same scene as LC-B8184-B-473, but from a different angle)
Reproduction number: LC-DIG-cwpb-01844 (b&w copy scan of left half of glass negative) , LC-DIG-cwpb-01843 (b&w copy scan of right half of glass negative) , LC-DIG-cwpb-01845 (b&w copy scan of variant)
Call number: LC-B811-2506 (glass negative); LOT 4168 (print). loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

Aerial view today (2014) of Carriage Inn lot and Edge Hill Cemetery (where Captain Keels was buried) – Apple Maps.

Hallway at Carriage Inn – today (2014).

Image of Captain Keels’ stone in Edge Hill Cemetery
Captain Keels Headstone, Edge Hill Cemetery
Created by: stars&bars
Record added: May 06, 2007
Find A Grave Memorial# 19257579
findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. 20 June 2014.

wounded man
Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 34, Issue: 204, May, 1867. Print.

Strother, David H. (May, 1867). “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harpers Magazine. p. 725 (REFERENCES).

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3. Monday, October 6, 1862 – Confederate General Stonewall Jackson writes his thanks to Mrs. Rutherford:

Image of the original letter courtesy Don Amoroso & Ann Cross

Edgewood_Manor_-_Bunker_Hill,_WV
commons.wikimedia.org 15 September 2004 Web. 20 April 2014.

Stonewall_Jackson
commons.wikimedia.org 15 September 2004 Web. 20 April 2014.

4. Tuesday, October 7, 1862: Ellen, and Ginny Rutherford likely go to the Ball at the Dandridge’s Bower:

Winslow Homer Great Russian Ball at the New York Academy of Music – Harper’s Weekly – November 21, 1863, p. 744. sonofthesouth.net Start date unavailable Web. 20 June 2014.

5. Late October, 1862 – Gen. J.E.B. Stuart brings his banjo-man to the Rutherfords’.

Series: I. Civil War drawings
NOTE: All drawings are by Frank Vizetelly unless stated otherwise. Most drawings have penciled annotations by Vizetelly on verso (occasionally also on recto) and sometimes include changes to the original text made by his editors. Titles of drawing were taken from the Vizetelly text exactly as annotated on verso. Quotation marks included in titles are Vizetelly’s. Often the published titles, as well as the drawings, vary from the originial. (1) “Barbarous” treatment of the Negro in the Confederate Camp, nights by the pine wood fire. [Virginia, 1862 Oct.-Nov.]. 1 drawing : pencil and watercolor on buff paper ; 18 x 23 cm. AMs inscription on verso. Unsigned. Subject: Campfire scene with tent next to fire at center of scene. Dancing Negro near campfire, banjo player inside tent. These subjects surrounded by standing soldiers viewing entertainment. Forest in background. Engraved in ILN, 1863 Jan. 10.
oasis.lib.harvard.edu 29 August 2007 Web. 20 June 2014.

The Banjo Lesson, ca. 1893, by Mary Cassatt
Mary Cassatt
The Banjo Lesson, ca. 1893
National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.
nga.gov 8 May 2013 Web. 20 June 2014.

Front – The Carriage Inn – Charles Town, WV
jeffersonhistoricalwv.org 22 October 2007 Web. 20 June 2014.

6. October 16-17, 1862: The Rutherfords save a hospital attendant and a wounded Confederate officer at their home from arrest by Federals.

Chisholm, J. J. (1864). “A Manual of Military Surgery, for the use of surgeons in the Confederate States army; with explanatory plates of all useful operations.” Richmond, VA: Columbia, Evans and Cogswell. Print.

Chisholm, J. J. (1864). “A Manual of Military Surgery, for the use of surgeons in the Confederate States army; with explanatory plates of all useful operations.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 16 Feb. 2011. pp. 569-570.
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detail of soldier with amputated foot
Wounded soldiers at rest near Marye’s Heights, Fredericksburg, Virginia. After the battle of Spotsylvania, in 1864. (Mathew Brady/NARA).
theatlantic.com 16 November 1996 Web. 20 June 2014.

Nurse Anne Bell tending to wounded soldiers in a Union hospital, ca. 1863. (U.S. Army Center of Military History)
theatlantic.com 16 November 1996 Web. 20 June 2014.

7. We only wonder what sorrow the next day might bring.

Duffields Depot
West Virginia Archives & History
wvculture.org 2 March 2000 Web. 1 Oct. 2011.

Man reading a newspaper at table, detail from The Village Tavern by John Lewis Krimmel. Courtesy of Toledo Museum of Art
Owner/Location: Toledo Museum of Art (Ohio) (United States – Toledo, OH)
Dates: 1813-1814
Artist age: Approximately 27 years old.
Dimensions: Height: 42.86 cm (16.88 in.), Width: 57.15 cm (22.5 in.)
Medium: Painting – oil on canvas

Richmond Enquirer – 1865 – Virginia State Library Archives

8. Sunday, October 18, 1863 – Sleeping Mary Rutherford gets a bullet through her window.

Bedroom – Courtesy Carriage Inn

Federal firing 1851 Navy Colt revolver
imfdb.org 1 April 2011 Web. 20 June 2014.

Mary Rutherford (1847-1937)
Owner/Source Mary H. Tayloe
File name Rutherford_Mary#0252A – 2000-07-07 at 16-15-34.jpg
File Size 2.68m
Dimensions 1263 x 1806
Caption Mary Rutherford b. 1847 d. 1937 m. Archibald H. Asquith Submitted by Mary H. Tayloe
wmstrother.org 12 December 1998 Web. 20 June 2014.

Three cartridges are what original Colt Conversions of all types were chambered for. From left are .38 Rimfire, .38 Colt (long version) and .44 Colt.
americanhandgunner.com 19 August 1999 Web. 20 June 2014.

Colonel B.L. Simpson and Officers of 9th Maryland Volunteers
Item ID: CSPH 337
Creator: Unknown
Description: Gift of Mrs. Ethel Flannagan.
Date of Original: ca. 1863
Collection: Cased Photographs Collection; Special Collections Department
Type/Size: Image; Physical object
mdhs.org 1 December 1998 Web. 20 June 2014.

John Imboden
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

9. Young Robert W. Baylor, Jr. takes a mad, galloping gamble:

Robert W. Baylor, Jr.
Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.” Richmond, VA: B. F. Johnson Publishing. Print.

Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.”Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011. p. 41.

“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 1.” (1887). Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co. Print.

“Battles and Leaders Vol. 1.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010. p. 126.

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Charlestown, Va. Washington Street, 1852
Brown, Howell S. “Map of Jefferson County, Virginia From Actual Surveys With Farm Limits, 1852.” Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society Vol. XLV. (1979): pp. 1-7. Print.

Brown, S. Howell. (1852). “Map of Jefferson County, Virginia from actual survey with the farm limits.” United States. The Library of Congress: American Memory. “Maps Collection.” 27 Oct. 2009 Web. 10 Sept. 2010.

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10. Sunday, July 17, 1864: General David Hunter’s order is carried out to burn the home of Andrew Hunter, his cousin, near the Rutherford’s.

Title: Maj. Gen. Hunter / Brady’s National Portrait Galleries, New York & Washington.
Creator(s): Brady’s National Photographic Portrait Galleries, photographer
Date Created/Published: [between 1860 and 1863]
loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

Andrew Hunter
West Virginia Archives & History
wvculture.org 2 March 2000 Web. 1 Oct. 2011.

11. Tuesday, November 29, 1864 – Young Robert Baylor is killed east of Charlestown:

Robert W. Baylor, Jr. (1846-1864)
Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.” Richmond, VA: B. F. Johnson Publishing. Print.

Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.”Internet Archives p. 41 https://archive.org/details/bullruntobullru00baylgoog/page/n45/mode/2up?view=theater

George Creaton
Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.” Richmond, VA: B. F. Johnson Publishing. Print.

Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.”Internet Archives: p. 106 http://archive.org/stream/bullruntobullru00baylgoog#page/n109/mode/2up

Richard Channing Baylor (1839-1863)
Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.” Richmond, VA: B. F. Johnson Publishing. Print.

Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.”Internet Archives: p. 29 https://archive.org/stream/bullruntobullru00baylgoog#page/n33/mode/2up

General John D. Stevenson
mydunlap.net 9 February 2009 Web. 20 June 2014.

George W. Baylor (1843-1902)
archives.dickinson.edu 9 September 2012 Web. 20 June 2014.

“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 3″. (1887). Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co. Print.

“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 3” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010. p. 114.
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