D. Wilson Arnett Post – References and more

https://web.archive.org/web/20190612142441/https://civilwarscholars.com/2018/03/daniel-arnett-and-the-medal-of-honor-moment-by-jim-surkamp-references/


10,750 words

Bailey, Chuck. (2014, July 29). “The Saddest Affair: A Geologic Perspective on the Battle of the Crater, U.S. Civil War.” wmblogs.wm.edu 19 June 2014 Web. 22 February 2018.
– (wm.edu).

One hundred and fifty years ago this week a terrible and pernicious battle was fought at Petersburg, Virginia during the American Civil War. In the summer of 1864 the Confederate and Union armies were at a stalemate; dug in and facing each other across a long front. Lt. Colonel Henry Pleasants, a mining engineer from northeastern Pennsylvania, proposed digging a tunnel (in essence a mine shaft) beneath the Confederate lines and then setting off explosives to pierce the Southern defenses. The Union troops would then storm the breach with the prospect of a significant breakthrough on the Petersburg front.

Union general George Meade originally thought the proposition little more than a curious endeavor to occupy bored troops. Between June 25th and July 17th, Pleasants’ men excavated a 500-foot (~150 m) tunnel from just behind the Federal lines to a location immediately beneath the Confederate position. Eventually the plan was embraced by the Union high command and just before dawn on July 30th, 1864 ~8,000 lbs. (~3,600 kg) of gunpowder was detonated in subsurface galleries. In an instant the explosion violently displaced 400,000 cubic feet of earth. That’s equivalent to about 50 modern railroad boxcars) and in the process killed more than 250 Confederate soldiers. A massive crater with a ragged maw and steep walls, upwards of 25’ high (9 m), was created. In the aftermath a cloying dust cloud settled back to the surface coating both Confederate and Union troops.

Rather than immediately storm through the breach, Union troops reacted with confused caution. Ladders and footbridges weren’t available to facilitate Union troop movement out of their own trenches. After traversing the no-man’s land between the lines many Union troops went into the Crater as opposed to going around it, as called for in the original battle plan. Eventually the Confederates regrouped and mounted a counterattack on the Union forces, now mostly stuck in the Crater. Rather than cutting the ever-growing Union losses, General Ambrose Burnside sent a division of the Unites States Colored Troops into the Crater. What ensued was effectively a race riot and many black soldiers were massacred after they’d surrendered. By midday the Confederates had regained the lost ground and the Union was routed. Between 5,000 and 6,000 men were killed, wounded, or captured during the battle of the Crater (the vast majority of casualties were from the Union army). General Ulysses Grant lamented, “it was the saddest affair I’ve witnessed in this war.”

2c.


Powell, William H. “The Battle of the Petersburg Crater.” Battles and Leaders. Vol. 4. Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co., 1887. pp. 545-560. Internet Archives: archive.org. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010.
pp. 550-551.
– between pages 908 and 909 – (archive.org).

I returned immediately, and just as I arrived in rear of the First Division the mine was sprung. It was a magnificent spectacle, and as the mass of earth went up into the air, carrying with it men, guns, carriages, and timbers, and spread out like an immense cloud as it reached its altitude, so close were the Union lines that the mass appeared as if it would descend immediately upon the troops waiting to make the charge. This caused them to break and scatter t6 the rear, and about ten minutes were consumed in re-forming for the attack. Not much was lost by this delay, however, as it took nearly that time for the cloud of dust to pass off. The order was then given for the advance. As no part of the Union line of breastworks had been removed (which would have been an arduous as well as hazardous undertaking), the troops clambered over them as best they could. This in itself broke the ranks, and they did not stop to re-form, but pushed ahead toward the crater, about 130 yards distant, the debris from the explosion having covered up the abatis and chevaux-de-frise in front of the enemy’s works.

Little did these men anticipate what they would see upon arriving there an enormous hole in the ground about 30 feet deep, 60 feet wide, and 170 feet long, filled with dust, great blocks of clay, guns, broken carriages, projecting timbers, and men buried in various ways some up to their necks, others to their waists, and some with only their feet and legs protruding from the earth. One of these near me was pulled out, and proved to be a second lieutenant of the battery which had been blown up. The fresh air revived him, and he was soon able to walk and talk. He was very grateful and said that he was asleep when the explosion took place, and only awoke to find himself wriggling up in the air ; then a few seconds afterward he felt himself descending, and soon lost consciousness.

The whole scene of the explosion struck every one dumb with astonishment as we arrived at the crest of the debris. It was impossible for the troops of the Second Brigade to move forward in line, as they had advanced; and, owing to the broken state they were in, every man crowding up to look into the hole, and being pressed by the First Brigade, which was immediately in rear, it was equally impossible to move by the flank, by any command, around the crater. Before the brigade commanders could realize the situation, the two brigades became inextricably mixed, in the desire to look into the hole.

Paragraph 3

3a.

– (sablearm.blogspot.com).


Price, James C. (2017, January 12). “The Battle of New Market Heights at Five: Looking Back” sablearm.blogspot.com 7 January 2011 Web. 15 February 2018.

3b. Price, James S. (2011). ”The Battle of New Market: Freedom Will Be Theirs By The Sword.” Charleston SC: The History Press, Inc. p. 9 first paragraph in the Preface.

Paragraph 4


  1. Reid, Whitelaw. (1868). “Ohio in the war: her statesmen, her generals, and soldiers.” Vol. 1. Cincinnati, OH: Moore, Wilstach & Baldwin. Internet Archives archive.org 19 January 2001 Web. 6 November 2017.

Paragraph 5


Hanna, Charles W. (2002). “African American Recipients of the Medal of Honor: A Biographical Dictionary.” Jefferson, North Carolina, and London: McFarland & company, Inc. – (books.google.com) 24 November 2005 Web. 22 February 2018.

Powhatan Beaty p. 16
James H. Bronson p. 19
Milton Holland pp. 38-40
Robert A. Pinn pp. 46-47

Paragraph 8

8a.


D.W. Arnett service record Aug 28 1863 fold3.com
Civil War Service Record of Daniel W. Arnett 5th USCT Infantry (17 pages)
– (fold3.com) 16 September 2011 Web. 2 October 2017

Paragraph 9

OVERVIEW OF SEPTEMBER 29-SEPTEMBER 30, 1864 BY DAVID A. NORRIS:


Norris, David. (2017, July 29). “Battle of New Market Heights.” – (warfarehistorynetwork.com) 8 June 2014 Web. 16 October 2017.

Along New Market Road, 1,800 Confederates manned one mile of works. Below the entrenchments was an abatis, a tight barrier of interlocking trees, branches, and brush. On the left, the 1st Rockbridge Artillery provided cover with their guns. Brig. Gen. Martin Gary’s brigade came next, followed by the Texas brigade of Brig. Gen. John Gregg to Gary’s right, and then a detachment of the Richmond Howitzers. Gregg was at Fort Harrison, leaving command on the ground to Colonel Frederick S. Bass. Brig. Gen. Alfred Terry’s division held the Union right, facing Gary and the Rockbridge Artillery. Brig. Gen. Robert Sanford Foster’s division waited in reserve.

Paine’s division held the Union left, facing Bass’s Texans and the Richmond Howitzers. Early that morning they were arrayed on high ground south of Four Mile Creek, where they were instructed to lie down and wait for further orders. Colonel Samuel Duncan’s brigade was sent ahead first, but they were blocked by the abatis. Colonel Alonzo Draper moved his brigade forward and to the right to support Duncan. Draper took skirmisher fire from the woods until he reached the creek’s ravine.

. . . After half an hour, Draper moved his men ahead in double columns. Emerging from a stand of young pines, they burst into the open 800 yards from the enemy’s works. Charging across the field, they lost many men to heavy enemy fire and found themselves mired in the wetlands of Four Mile Creek, 30 yards from the Confederate lines. Slogging through the water, they formed ranks again on the north side of the creek. There, wrote Draper, “The men generally commenced firing, which made so much confusion that it was impossible to make orders understood.” Amid the chaos, Draper was unable to communicate the order to charge, and the brigade remained stranded and tangled in front of the abatis. All the while, men were falling by scores.

For half an hour, under heavy enemy fire, Draper’s men hacked at the abatis with axes. Draper’s aide-de-camp fled from the field. But to Draper’s relief, Confederate fire began dying away. The colonel ordered each regimental commander to rally his men around the colors and charge. Draper’s regiments were short of officers. That morning, the 550 men of the 5th USCT went into action with only one officer per company, and managed that only because the adjutant took command of one of the companies.

“Better Men Were Never Better Led”

By the time they reached the New Market Road works, several companies were missing their officers. Stepping into their places to take command under fire, four sergeants in the 5th USCT and four in the 36th USCT became de facto company captains—the first African American soldiers to command troops in combat. Pouring through the abatis, the Union soldiers rushed up the slope to the Confederate breastworks. Unknown to the Federals, the Confederate fire had slackened because Bass and Gary had received orders to abandon their position and reinforce the lines closer to the city, which were coming under attack from Ord’s XVIII Corps. As Paine’s troops reached the ramparts, enough Rebels were still in place to keep up a lively fire.

For their actions in the final dash to the entrenchments several men were commended in after-battle reports. Among them, Private James Gardiner charged ahead of his company and into the Confederate works. He shot and bayoneted an officer who was trying to rally his men. A musket ball struck Corporal Miles James and shattered his upper left arm bone. James stayed on his feet, urged his men forward, and somehow loaded and fired his musket with his one good arm.

Paine’s strategy of throwing in his regiments piecemeal resulted in needlessly high casualties for a position that was being abandoned anyway. Confederate soldiers remaining in line delayed the Union advance and inflicted heavy losses on the enemy before commencing an orderly evacuation. The sacrifices of Paine’s men had meaning far beyond the value of the ground taken. Until that day, the worth of black soldiers was doubted by much of the Union Army in Virginia. Paine’s brigade sufferedmore than 1,000 casualties, most of them in front of the New Market Heights works. “Better men were never better led,” wrote Butler. “The colored soldiers by coolness, steadiness, and determined courage and dash have silenced every cavil of the doubters of their soldierly capacity.” . . .

Aftermath of Grant’s Fifth Offensive

While Field and Hoke made their attacks on September 30, Meade charged the Confederate entrenchments southwest of Petersburg. They captured a section of works around a redoubt called Fort Archer. Under Lt. Gen. A.P. Hill, Confederates dug new fortifications and repelled the Union forces from further progress. Fighting continued until October 2, when each side settled into their newly established lines of entrenchment. Another 2,800 Union and 1,300 Confederate casualties were added to the cost of Grant’s fifth offensive.

Fourteen men from Draper’s brigade and other USCT regiments in the Army of the James received Medals of Honor for their actions on September 29. Butler was so impressed with the conduct of his USCT regiments at New Market Heights that he supplemented the Medal of Honor awards with a citation of his own, known as the Army of the James Medal or the Butler Medal. Butler himself ordered and paid for the specially designed medals and ribbons. They were manufactured by Tiffany & Company and modeled on the Crimean War Medals issued by Great Britain. “I record with pride,” wrote Butler, “that in that single action there were so many deserving that it called for a presentation of nearly two hundred.” The Army of the James Medal was the only military honor created for a specific battle during the Civil War.


“The Union Army” Vol. 2. Madison, WI: Federal Publishing Company. Internet Archives archive.org 19 January 2001 Web. 6 November 2017.
– pp. 449-450 Fifth U.S. Colored Troops – (archive.org).

Fifth U. S. Colored Troops.— Cols.. James W. Conine, Giles W. Shurtleff; Lieut.-Col., John B. Cook; Maj., Ira C. Terry. This was the first colored regiment recruited in Ohio, the nucleus of which was a few colored men collected at Camp Delaware. Much difficulty was met in the organization, as there was no law of Congress regulating the same and no order from the war department calling for their services. The initiative, however, was taken by mustering into the U. S. service J. B. T. Marsh, as quartermaster of the 127th Ohio infantry, and the formation of this regiment was commenced under what was known as the “contraband law,” which gave a colored laborer in the service $to per month, $3 of which was for clothes. Recruiting progressed slowly and but for a few faithful men, who were ambitious to show themselves worthy of their freedom, the organization would have failed. The companies were mustered into the U. S. service as follows : B, C, E, G and H, July 23, 1863; D, Aug. 20; F, Sept. 9; I, Oct. 17, and K, Jan. 15, 1864. The war department finally called colored men into the service and promised that Congress would place them on an equality with other troops. Officers were examined and assigned to the regiment and early in November the regimental organization was formed. The synonym of the regiment was changed to 5th U. S. colored troops, the equipment was completed and the regiment was ordered to Virginia with nine companies and nearly the full complement of officers. It served the government honorably in many battles, and no troops ever did better fighting. Upon the roll of honor will be found the names of 266 brave soldiers, who gave up their lives on the field of battle, in hospital from mortal wounds received, or from disease. The regiment was mustered
out on Sept. 20, 1865, at Carolina City, N. C.

Paragraph 12

– (udayton.edu).


Washington, Versalle F. (1999). ” Eagles on their Buttons: A Black Infantry Regiment in the Civil War.” Columbia, MO.: University of Missouri Press. books.google.com 24 November 2005 Web. 22 February 2018.
pp. 25-26 – “C” Company’s commander Capt. Gustavus Fahrion was not accounted for as present at the battle
pp. 52-57, 60 – New Market Heights Battle

Paragraph 15


Reid, Whitelaw. (1868). Ohio In The War-Volume II. Cincinnati, OH: Moore, Wilstach & Baldwin.
archive.org 19 January 2001 Web. 6 November 2017.
– p. – (915

Paragraph 17

– p. 269 – “Fifty Years and Over of Akron and Summit County” – (books.google.com).


Marvin, U.L. “Estimate of General G.W. Shurtleff as a Soldier, by a Comrade in Arms.” In Oberlin Alumni Magazine. June 1911. babel.hathitrust.org 6 December 2009 Web. 20 February 2018.
pp. – (316-322).

p. 316:
it is certain that the officers and the enlisted men looked to Colonel Shurtleff as their leader, and it was the inspiration of his presence which was always needed to induce his regiment to do its best.

Before any full colonel had been assigned to the regiment, Colonel Shurtleff, by his zeal and care of his troops, as well as by the firmness with which he commanded, and the discipline upon which he insisted and which he enforced, had become to the Fifth Regiment the embodiment of the soldierly qualities which bespeak the safe commanded.

On the next day, the 16th of June, the regiment, with the other forces with which they were joined, made an attack upon the enemy lasting for several hours, but resulting in no decided victory for anybody.

This was the first general engagement in which Colonel Shurtleff commanded his regiment, and in this engagement, as in all those that followed, he took his position in advance of the center of the front line of his regiment.

He was exposed more than any other officer, both in this and all the subsequent engagements of this regiment, and this because of the fact that instead of taking his position at the right of his regiment, and (317) simply in line with the front rank, he always took his position about two paces in front of the center of the front line.

This made him a target for the enemy, and exposed him more, as already said, than any other officer of the regiment was exposed. In this engagement we lost several men, and the first officer of the regiment who was killed, was killed in this engagement on the i6th day of June, 1864, Lieutenant Johnson, of Bellefontaine, Ohio, a gallant officer and a worthy man.

On the 17th of June we remained quietly in camp at a safe distance from the enemy. On the 18th the attack was renewed and the enemy driven from its first line of breastworks.

It fell back, however, only to its second line, which it was able to hold. We took possession of the first line and reversed the earthworks which the enemy had thrown up, so as to make them a protection to us, and from this line we never retreated, but, as known to all who have read the history of those days, it was many months before we were able to hold any position nearer to Petersburg than the one which we secured on the 18th day of June.

From this time on we were engaged in skirmishes almost daily. Our trenches, as we called them, (which were simply a line of earth thrown up in our front about 4 1-2 feet high, and extending from the Appomattox in a semi-circular form to the east and south-east for a distance of several miles) were so near to the enemy’s line that musketry fired from either side reached the other, and scarcely a day went by that we did not lose some men by the firing of the enemy.

During this time also there was danger of an epidemic, and it required the utmost exertion on the part of the officers, among whom none was more faithful in any part of the command than was Colonel Shurtleff, to keep the camps policed so as to be reasonably clean, and during this time it was largely due to Colonel Shurtleff that we were furnished with rations which were reasonably fit for men to eat.

He made a personal inspection daily of the commissary stores supplied, and under his direction we erected posts and cross bars, and covered them over with branches of trees so as to protect ourselves as far as might be from the intense heat of the sun.

On numerous occasions it was necessary to tumble these branches off, and that very hurriedly, because some force of the enemy would come out from behind their trenches, or (318) we would make, and did make on several occasions advances in front of our trenches, but at night each army occupied the position that it had occupied before.

This state of things continued until the 30th day of July, when the famous mine explosion took place. This explosion was brought about by the excavation under the fort of the enemy of an immense chamber, in which large quantities of powder had been placed, and the details all arranged for an explosion of this mine, which was expected to, and which did blow up the enemy’s fort, killing a large number of men, and filling all their troops in that immediate neighborhood, at least, with consternation.

The colored division was to make the attack immediately following this explosion, and while it was hoped the confusion of the enemy would be so great that they would not be prepared to offer vigorous resistance.

The result is well known; somebody blundered. The attack was not ordered as early as it should have been, and until the enemy had had some opportunity to recover and to prepare themselves for the attack, and when the advance was made, the troops were ordered into the very chasm which had been caused by the explosion, and there hundreds of then met a horrible death. The Fifth Regiment, however, was not among those who fell into the chasm.

We were at the extreme right of the charging column, and so were saved from this horror, but our own experience of that day was sufficient to warrant us in characterizing war as General Sherman characterized it in that famous expression of his.

The enemy retreated to a line of entrenchments but little removed from this fort and the lines extending from it, and there held their own. During that day we made four distinct charges upon the enemy.

They were entrenched; we exposed. The result was, that as we retreated from these charges to the line which we had established, and which had been the enemy’s line in the morning, we left many of our men dead and many more wounded on the field.

The day was hot beyond almost any experience which we have ever had in Ohio, and on the 31st of July, which was Sunday, these wounded and dead men were in our sight, and yet we were unable to help them until late in the afternoon, when a flag of truce, (which we had tried to have recognized the entire (319) day was recognized by the enemy, and we were permitted to remove our wounded.

As a result of the siege up to this time and of the battle of the Mine, our numbers had become greatly depleted, and earnest pleas were made to Ohio for more men. Not only this, but we succeeded in enlisting a very considerable number of men who had been slaves.

These men were, of course, intensely ignorant, but they had sufficient intelligence to know that the defeat of the confederate army meant emancipation of their race, and they had the merit to be willing to face the dangers and endure the hardships of the
battle and the siege for the accomplishment of this result.

Shortly after this engagement, we were removed to the North side of the James, and from that time on participated in the siege of Richmond. The work was practically a repetition of that in which we were engaged while in the trenches in front of Petersburg, but during all this horrible summer, when the men of the regiment were enduring all that it would seem as though men could endure, they were kept in heart, their courage was stimulated, their pride and a determination to win in the long run was kept up, as I firmly believe, more by Colonel Shurtleff than by any other one man.

The battle in which the Fifth Regiment lost most, was fought on the 29th of September, 1864, in an attack on a fortification of the enemy known as “New Market Heights.”

The night before this attack was made, the regiment was furnished with ammunition, and with everything to indicate that we were expected to go into battle on the next day.

By this time our regiment had been recruited so that we numbered on the morning of the battle five hundred and fifty enlisted men. At this time Colonel Shurtleff was the full colonel of the regiment.

Besides him, we had one field officer, Major Ira C. Terry, who had before that been wounded and had just returned to the regiment.

The number of line officers was so reduced that instead of having, as a full complement of officers would require, three to each company, we had but one to each company, and this only because the adjutant took command of a company.

That is, we had ten company commanders, one of whom was the adjutant, who volunteered to take the command of a company, though it was not one of his duties.

Our entire complement of officers, exclusive of the chaplain, the (320) surgeons and the quartermaster, who of course were non-combatants, was on this morning twelve.

We started on the march to the front at early dawn, within an hour we had come up with the enemy who, aside from the protection of the fort, had earthworks extending in either direction, to their right and to their left, along the entire front, and in front of these they had constructed with the boughs and branches of trees abatis, so near to their lines that in our attack we were obliged to go over this, or when we could, pull it to one side, and while we were engaged in this work, we were under severe musketry fire of the enemy, who were near by.

Again we had a full realization of General Sherman’s characterization of war. In this engagement, out of five hundred and fifty men of the Regiment who entered it, eighty-five were killed and two hundred and forty-eight in addition were wounded, and nine of the officers were wounded, one of whom was killed, Captain Wilbur, of Marion, Ohio.

These statistics are taken from Whitelaw Reid’s “Ohio in the War.” It was in this engagement that Colonel Shurtleff received the wound from which he suffered during the remainder of his life, and which for a time seemed likely to prove fatal.

Examining the statistics as to other Ohio regiments in the same volume, it will be found that no regiment from Ohio suffered as great a percentage of loss in any one day as this regiment suffered on the 29th of September, 1864, and it will be further found that no regiment from Ohio suffered as great a percentage of loss during the entire three days of Gettysburg as this regiment suffered at New Market Heights on the 29th of September, 1864.

When Colonel Shurtleff was struck, he was, as I have described him earlier, in front of his regiment, encouraging them by his conduct, by the waiving of his sword and by his calling on them to come on.

General Butler, in his account of this engagement, uses this language: “Then the scene that lay before us was this: There dipped from the brow of the hill quite a declivity down from some meadow land.

At its foot ran a brook of water only a few inches deep, a part of the bottom, as I knew, being gravelly and firm. The brook drained a marsh which was quite deep and muddy, a little to the left of the direct line.

The column of division unfortunately did not oblique to the right far (321) enough to avoid that marsh, wholly. Then rose steadily, at an angle of thirty to thirty-five degrees, plain, hard ground to within one hundred and fifty yards of the redoubt. At this point there was a very strong line of abatis.

A hundred yards above that, the hill rising a little faster, was another line of’ abatis. Fifty yards beyond was a square redoubt mounting some guns en barbette, that is, on top of the embankment, and held by the enemy.

I rode with my staff to the top of the first hill, whence everything was in sight, and watched the movement of the negroes.

The column marched down the declivity as steadily as if on parade. At once when it came in sight the enemy opened upon it, but at that distance there was not much effect.

Crossing the brook their lines broke in a little disorder, the left of the divisions having plunged into the morass, but the men struggled through, holding their guns above their heads to keep them dry.

The enemy directed its fire upon them; but, as in all cases of firing downward from a fort, the fire was too high. The leading battalion broke, but its colonel (Colonel Shurtleff) maintained his position at its head.

Words of command were useless, as in the melee they could not be heard; but calling his bugler to him the rally rang out, and at its call his men formed around him.

The division was at once re-formed, and then at double quick they dashed up to the first line of abatis. The axmen laid to, vigorously chopping out the obstructions. Many of them went down. Others seized the axes. The enemy concentrated their fire upon the head of the column. It looked in one moment as if it might melt away.

The colors of the first battalion went down, but instantly they were up again but with new color bearers. Wonderfully they managed to brush aside the abatis, and then at double quick the reformed column charged the second line of abatis.

Fortunately they were able to remove that in a few minutes, but it seemed a long time to the lookers on. Then, with a cheer and a yell that I can almost hear now, they dashed upon the fort.

But before they reached even the ditch, which was not a formidable thing, the enemy ran away and did not stop until they had run four miles, I believe.
They were only fired at as they ran away, and did not lose a man.

As I rode across the brook and up towards the fort along this (322) line of charge, some eighty feet wide and three or four hundred yards long, there lay in my path five hundred and forty-three dead and wounded of my colored comrades.

And, as I guided my horse this way and that way that his hoof might not profane their dead bodies, I swore to myself an oath, which I hope and believe I have kept sacredly, that they and their race should be cared for and protected by me to the extent of my power so long as I lived.

On every anniversary of this battle, it may, without doubt, safely be said that every man of the Fifth regiment feels a sadness and gloom in his recollection of the terrible losses of that day.

Colonel Shurtleff was immediately taken to the hospital at Hampton, and after remaining there several weeks, came home. He might now very properly have tendered his resignation.

His wound was such as to entitle him to be honorably discharged on a resignation. While at home on this occasion, he was married, but as soon as he was able—indeed before he was able to fully resume his duties in the field, he returned to the regiment.


BATTLE MAP – New Market Heights – September 29, 1864 – (civilwar.org) 5 September 2017 Web. 22 February 2018.

Service records – Teeters, Turners
– (fold3.com) 16 September 2011 Web. 8 November 2017.

Service record – Jackson
– (fold3.com ) 16 September 2011 Web. 8 November 2017.

Service record – Jacob Lee
– (fold3.com) 16 September 2011 Web. 8 November 2017.

Service record – Jefferson Carpenter
– (fold3.com) 16 September 2011 Web. 8 November 2017.

Paragraph 19

BATTLE OF NEW MARKET HEIGHTS
– (thegospelarmy.com) 2 February 2011 Web. 16 November 2017.

Paragraph 20


Pickens, James D. (1909). “Fort Harrison.” Confederate Veteran Vol. 21 No. 10.
Internet Archives archive.org 26 January 1997 Web. 22 February 2018.
– p. 484 – (archive.org).

The Online Books Page Confederate Veteran
– (onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu

Paragraphs 22 & 23

– Brady Collection – (loc.gov).


Butler, Benjamin F. (1892). “Butler’s Book.” Boston, MA: A.M. Thayer & Co. Internet Archives archive.org 26 January 1997 Web. 16 October 2017.
pp. 730-733.

Just before’ sunset on the 28th of September I rode along the James River on the south side from a point opposite Aikens’ Landing down to Deep Bottom. There was no more appearance of the proposed movement than if there had not been a soldier within fifty miles of the place — not the slightest appearance of any preparation for throwing a pontoon or other bridge across the river, and no pontoons in the river or in sight.

When darkness fell the work began, and at half past eleven I was again there. A thoroughly serviceable pontoon bridge had been thrown across the liver to convey infantry and artillery, and it was entirely muffled.

At five minutes of midnight the head of Ord’s column struck the bridge, and with a quiet that was wonderful the march across was performed.

I had sent an aid to Deep Bottom, and he met me half way coming back to say that at precisely twelve o’clock Birney’s column silently began crossing the bridge, and that General Birney had said that after he had bivouacked three divisions of colored troops as well as his own, he should remain quiet and move exactly at daybreak; and that he expected that I would take personal command of the colored troops at that time.

I rode quickly to my headquarters and snatched a few minutes’ sleep. At three o’clock I took my coffee, and at four I was crossing the Deep Bottom Bridge. (731) At half past four o’clock I found the colored division, rising three thousand men, occupying a plain which shelved towards the river, so that they were not observed by the enemy at Newmarket Heights. They were formed in close column of division right iD front. I rode through the division, addressed a few words of encouragement and confidence to the troops. I told them that this was an attack where I expected them to go over and take a work which would be before them after they got over the hill, and that they must take it at all hazards, and that when they went over the parapet into it their war cry should be, “Remember Fort Pillow.”

The caps were taken from the nipples of their guns so that no shot should be fired by them, for whenever a charging column stops to fire, that charge may as well be considered ended. As there was to be no halt after they turned the brow of the hill, no skirmishers were to be deployed.

We waited a few minutes, and the day fairly shining, the order was given to go forward, and the troops marched up to the top of the hill as regularly and quietly as if on parade.

Then the scene that lay before us was this : There dipped from the brow of the hill quite a declivity down through some meadow land. At its foot ran a brook of water only a few inches deep, a part of the bottom, as I knew, being gravelly and firm. The brook drained a marsh which was quite deep and muddy, a little to the left of the direct line. The column of division unfortunately did not oblique to the right far enough to avoid that marsh wholly. Then rose steadily, at an angle of thirty to thirty-five degrees, plain, hard ground to within one hundred and fifty yards of the redoubt. At this point there was a very strong line of abatis.

A hundred yards above that, the hill rising a little faster, was another line of abatis. Fifty yards beyond was a square redoubt mounting some guns en barbette, that is, on top of the embankment, and held by not exceeding one thousand of the enemy. I rode with my staff to the top of the first hill, whence everything was in sight, and watched the movement of the negroes. The column marched down the declivity as steadily as if on parade. At once when it came (732) in sight the enemy opened upon it, but at that distance there was not much effect.

Crossing the brook their lines broke in little disorder, the left of the divisions having plunged into the morass, but the men struggling through, held their guns above their heads to keep them dry. The enemy directed its fire upon them; but, as in all cases of firing downwards from a fort, the fire was too high. The leading battalion broke, but its colonel maintained his position at its head. Words of command were useless, as in the melee they could not be heard; but calling his bugler to him the rally rang out, and at its call his men formed around him.

The division was at once re-formed, and (733) then at double quick they dashed up to the first line of abatis. The axemen laid to, vigorously chopping out the obstructions. Many of them went down. Others seized the axes. The “enemy concentrated their fire upon the head of the column. It looked at one moment as if it might melt away. The colors of the first battalion went down, but instantly they were up again but Avith new color bearers.

Wonderfully they managed to brush aside the abatis, and then at double quick the re-formed column charged the second line of abatis. Fortunately they were able to remove that in a few minutes, but it seemed a long time to the lookers on. Then, with a cheer and a yell that I can almost hear now, they dashed upon the fort. But before they reached even the ditch, which was not a formidable thing, the enemy ran away and did not stop until they had run four miles, I believe. They were only fired at as they ran away, and did not lose a man.

As I rode across the brook and up towards the fort along this line of charge, some eighty feet wide and three or four hundred yards long, there lay in my path five hundred and forty-three dead and wounded of my colored comrades. And, as I guided my horse this way and that way that his hoof might not profane their dead bodies, I swore to myself an oath, which I hope and believe I have kept sacredly, that they and their race should be cared for and protected by me to the extent of my power so long as I lived.

When I reached the scene of their exploit their ranks broke, but it was to gather around their general. They almost dragged my horse up alongside the cannon they had captured, and I felt in my inmost heart that the capacity of the negro race for soldiers had then and there been fully settled forever.

Meanwhile the white troops under Birney had advanced up the Newmarket road in the direction indicated by his orders without meeting any force except a few skirmishers and pickets who fled before him, and occupied the abandoned line of the enemy’s entrenchments, which had been carried by the colored division.

Paragraph 24

– p. 60 – (archive.org).


Moore, Edward Alexander. (1907). “The story of a cannoneer under Stonewall Jackson, in which is told the part taken by the Rockbridge artillery in the Army of northern Virginia.” New York, NY; Washington, Neale Publishing Co. Internet Archives archive.org 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010. pp. 263-265.

The summer now drawing to a close had been a most trying one, and the future offered no sign of relief. The situation was one of simply waiting to be overwhelmed. That the fighting spirit was unimpaired was demonstrated in every encounter, notably the one on July 30, at The Crater, near Petersburg.

During the night of September 28 there was heard the continued rumbling of wheels and the tramp of large forces of the enemy crossing on the pontoon bridges from the south to the north side of the James. At dawn next morning we hurriedly broke camp, as did Gary’s brigade of cavalry camped close by, and scarcely had time to reach high ground and unlimber before we were attacked. The big gaps in our lines, entirely undefended, were soon penetrated, and the contest quickly became one of speed to reach the shorter line of fortifications some five miles nearer to and in sight of Richmond.

The break through our lines was on our right, which placed the Federals almost in our rear, so that a detour of several miles on our part was necessary. On the principle that the chased dog is generally the fleetest, we succeeded in reaching the breastworks, a short distance to the left of Fort Gilmore, with all four guns, now ten-pound Parrotts, followed by the straggling cannoneers much exhausted. I vividly recall George Ginger, who was No. 1 at one of the guns, as he came trotting in with the gun-rammer on his shoulder, which he had carried five miles (264) through brush and brake for want of time to replace it on the gun-carriage.

Much has been written about the defense of Fort Gimore, and much controversy as to who deserved the credit. The fact that a superb fight was made was fully apparent when we entered the fort an hour later, while the negroes who made the attack were still firing from behind stumps and depressions in the cornfield in front, to which our artillery replied with little effect. The Fort was occupied by about sixty men who, I understood, were Mississippians.

The ditch in front was eight or ten feet deep and as many in width. Into it, urged on by white officers, the negroes leaped, and tO’ scale the embankment on the Fort side climbed on each other’s shoulders, and were instantly shot down as their heads appeared above it. The ground beyond was strewn with dead and wounded. A full regiment had preceded us into the Fort, but the charge on it had been repulsed by the small force before its arrival.

Next morning we counted twenty-three dead negroes in the ditch, the wounded and prisoners having previously been removed. There was great lamentation among them when ” Corporal Dick” fell. He was a conspicuous leader, jet black, and bald as a badger. A mile to the right of Fort Gilmore and one-fourth of a mile in advance of our line of breastworks was Fort Harrison, which was feebly garrisoned by reserves.

This force had beep overpowered and the Fort taken by the Federals. Two. days later, (265) and after it had been completely manned with infantry and artillery, an unsuccessful attempt was made to recapture it, of which we had a full view. The attack was made by Colquitt’s and Anderson’s brigades, while General Lee stood on the parapet of Fort Gilmore with field-glass in hand, waving his hat and cheering lustily. Of course our loss in killed, wounded, and captured was very heavy. This ended the fighting, except sharpshooting, on the north side of the James.

During our stay in Fort Gilmore a company of Reserves from Richmond took the place of the regular infantry. They were venerable-looking old gentlemen — lawyers, business men, etc., dressed in citizens’ clothes. In order to accustom them to the service, we supposed, they were frequently roused during the night to prepare for battle. After several repetitions of this they concluded, about two o’clock one night, that it was useless to retire again and go through the same performance, so a party of them kindled a fire and good-humoredly sat around in conversation on various subjects, one of which was infant baptism.

My bedfellow, Tom Williamson, a bachelor under twenty years of age, being deeply interested in this question, of paramount importance at this time, forthwith left his bunk, and from that time until daylight theology was in the air.

Paragraph 25


Giles W. Shurtleff, “Reminiscences of Army Life”, Oberlin College Archives, RG 30/032, Series 7, Subseries 1, Box 1, “Writings re the Civil War” p. 41.

Paragraph 36

Butler’s report to Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton four days after the battle in part read: ‘My colored troops under General Paine…carried intrenchments at the point of a bayonet….It was most gallantly done, with most severe loss. Their praises are in the mouth of every officer in this army. Treated fairly and disciplined, they have fought most heroically.’ Volume XLII – in Three Parts. 1893. (Vol. 42, Chap. 54)
Chapter LIV – Operations in Southeastern Virginia and North Carolina. August 1-December 31, 1864. Part III – Union and Confederate Correspondence
p. 65.

Paragraph 39


Shepherdstown Register., September 17, 1896, page 3 – chroniclingamerica.loc.gov 3 June 2008 Web. 20 February 2018.


Record of D. Arnett and Maria L. Carter October 15, 1873
– (wvculture.org) 2 March 2000 web. 20 February 2018.

Paragraph 40


1890 Veterans Schedule
Shepherdstown Wv Enumeration District No. 5 p. 1
D. W. Arnett loss of hearing ancestry.com
– (ancestry.com) 29 October 1996 Web. 20 February 2018.


Shepherdstown Register, November 28, 1890, page 3 – (chroniclingamerica.loc.gov) 3 June 2008 Web. 20 February 2018.

Paragraph 41


Shepherdstown Register., September 17, 1896, page 3 – (chroniclingamerica.loc.gov 3 June 2008 Web. 20 February 2018.


plat of Arnett property DB 99 pages 279-281 – (documents.jeffersoncountywv.org) 10 October 2014 Web. 20 February 2018

Location of Daniel Wilson Arnett’s property on east High Street in Shepherdstown – (google.com/maps) 13 October 2001 Web. 20 February 2018.


Shepherdstown Register., October 22, 1896, page 3 – (chroniclingamerica.loc.gov) 3 June 2008 Web. 20 February 2018.

Paragraph 42

Map of, and house at 317 W. Academy St., Charles Town, WV – (google.com/maps) 13 October 2001 Web. 20 February 2018.

Paragraph 43


Marriage certificate 1902 D. Arnett and Charlotte Adams – (wvculture.org) 2 March 2000 web. 20 February 2018.

Paragraph 44


Widow’s Pension Application for Husband War-Related Injury for D.W. Arnett (505493) Bureau of Pensions – U.S. Department of Interior. October 24, 1912, pp. 1 & 2.

– Robert A. Pinn. April 30, 1902. – Ordered to be printed – (genealogybank.com).

Paragraph 45

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

– (findagrave.com).


Tombstone Inscriptions Jefferson County, W. Va. (1687-1980) – NSDAR. Hagerstown, MD: HBP, Inc.

p. 312 Rose Hill Cemetery Maria L. Arnet d. Oct. 5, 1900, aged 50 years 40 mo. 17 da. wf of D.W. Arnet;
Arnet, D.W. – b. Oct. 28, 1846 d. Aug. 5, 1912 aged 66 5th Regt. USC Inf. Honorably discharged

– Shepherdstown Register Aug. 8, 1912 – (archive.org).

Paragraph 46

Paragraph 47

James Alvin Tolbert obituary
eackles-spencerfuneralhome.com 25 March 2004 Web. 22 February 2018.

Image Credits:

Paragraph 1

  1. Jim Tolbert at Fisherman’s Hall, Charles Town, WV June 24, 2014 videotaped by Jim Surkamp

1a. Semblance only image D.W. Arnett
Title: [Unidentified young African American soldier in Union uniform]
Date Created/Published: [between 1863 and 1865]
Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 10 October 2017.

1b. D.W. Arnett service record Aug 28 1863 fold3.com
Civil War Service Record of Daniel W. Arnett 5th USCT Infantry (17 pages)
fold3.com 16 September 2011 Web. 2 October 3017

Paragraph 2

2a. Explosion at sunrise by A. Waud loc.gov
Before Petersburg at sunrise, July 30th 1864 by Alfred Waud
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 6 November 2017.

2b. Dimensions of the tunnel B&L 4 pp. 548-549
The Battle of the Petersburg Crater by William H. Powell
“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 4”. (1887). Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co. Internet Archives: archive.org. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010.
pp. 548-549.

2c. On the James River, Virginia Edward Lamson Henry – 1864 athenaeum.org
Member rocsdad uploaded on 16 August 2004.
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 10 November 2017.

Paragraph 3

  1. Jimmy Price image
    sablearm.blogspot.com 7 January 2011 Web. 6 November 2017.

Paragraph 4

4a. detail USCT charge B&L 4 p. 552
The Battle of the Petersburg Crater by William H. Powell
“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 4”. (1887). Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co. Internet Archives: archive.org. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010.
p. 552.

4b. Confederates behind the line B&L 4 p. 557
The Battle of the Petersburg Crater by William H. Powell
“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 4”. (1887). Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co. Internet Archives: archive.org. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010.
p. 557.

Paragraph 5

5a. dead and wounded on battlefield near Richmond, 1864 B&L 4 p. 555
The Battle of the Petersburg Crater by William H. Powell
“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 4”. (1887). Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co. Internet Archives: archive.org. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010.
p. 555 – dead and wounded on battlefield near Petersburg , Va. and Richmond, 1864

5b. Samuel A. Duncan
ourwarmikepride.blogspot.com 3 April 2013 Web. 10 November 2017.

5c. Charles Jackson Paine
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web 10 November 2017.

5d. Brig. Gen. Giles Waldo Shurtleff
added by John “J-Cat” Griffith
findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. 16 October 2017.

5e. Ulysses L. Marvin in later life
Lane. Samuel A. (1892). “Fifty Years and Over of Akron and Summit County.” Akron, OH: Beacon Job Department. image and text p. 269.
NOTE: “wounded at New Market Heights September 25 (should be 29-ED), 1864.”
books.google.com 24 November 2005 Web. 6 November 2017.

5f. Robert Pinn
Robert A. Pinn, Medal of Honor recipient. This photograph was part of the material prepared by W.E.B. Du Bois for the Negro Exhibit of the American Section at the Paris Exposition Universelle in 1900 to show the economic and social progress of African Americans since emancipation. (slightly retouched to remove mark over the person’s mouth).
commons.wikimedia.org 5 June 2004 Web. 9 October 2017.

5g. Montage of Medal of Honor Honorees from the 5th U.S. Colored Troops Infantry regiment

5g1. Civil War Medal of Honor – civilwarhistory.wordpress.com 26 June 2007 Web. 22 February 2018.

5g2. James H. Bronson findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. 22 February 2018. Photo added by Don Morfe.

5g3. Powhatan Beaty Co. G 5th USCT (same as Arnett) wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 22 February 2018.

5g4. Milton M. Holland Sergeant Major 5th U.S. Colored Infantry Took command of Company C, after all the officers had been killed or wounded, and gallantly led it wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 22 February 2018.

5g5. Robert A. Pinn, Medal of Honor recipient. This photograph was part of the material prepared by W.E.B. Du Bois for the Negro Exhibit of the American Section at the Paris Exposition Universelle in 1900 to show the economic and social progress of African Americans since emancipation.commons.wikimedia.org 5 June 2004 Web. 22 February 2018.

Paragraph 6

6a. Benjamin Butler loc.gov
Title: [Portrait of Maj. Gen. Benjamin F. Butler, officer of the Federal Army]
Contributor Names: Brady National Photographic Art Gallery (Washington, D.C.), photographer
Created / Published: [Between 1860 and 1865]
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 10 October 2017

6b. Fort Pillow Montage Leslie’s Weekly May 7, 1864
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 9 October 2017.

Paragraph 7

7a. Hon. Chas. J. Faulkner by Brady
Date Created/Published: [between 1855 and 1865] by Mathew B. Brady
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 6 November 2017.

7b. Mrs. Lydig and Her Daughter Greeting Their Guest
Edward Lamson Henry – 1891-1897
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 6 November 2017.

7c. Boydville Mansion uploaded
4 September 2012, 13:07:19
Source Own work
Author Susan Seibert. Its use here does not indicate any endorsement of content.
commons.wikimedia.org 5 June 2004 Web. 6 November 2017.

Paragraph 8

8a. Nathaniel P. Banks by Mathew Brady
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 9 October 2017.

8b. Martinsburg, then-Va. by Alfred Waud
Summary: Includes four scenes: Ruins of the depot; The Square; The Barricades; On the Opequan n. Martinsburg 64. Contributor: Waud, Alfred R. (Alfred Rudolph), 1828-1891, artist
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 6 November 2017.

8c. Map Martinsburg Winchester, Va
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 9 October 2017.

8d.detail Map of Summit Co., Ohio (Akron)
Contributor Names: Paul, Hosea.
Created / Published: Philada. : Matthews & Taintor, 1856.
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 6 November 2017.

8e. A Group of People Posing in Front of a Grocery Store Along the Ohio and Erie Canal in Akron, Ohio
The Chubachus Library of Photographic History
chubachus.blogspot.com 4 January 2015 Web. 6 November 2017.

8f. A Waiter at the Galt House, Louisville, Kentucky King p. 696
The Great South; A Record of Journeys in Louisiana, Texas, the Indian Territory, Missouri, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland:
Electronic Edition. King, Edward, 1848-1896
Illustrated by Champney, James Wells, 1843-1903
docsouth.unc.edu 19 January 2001 Web. 6 November 2017.

Paragraph 9 (one sentence)

9a. A portion of the 127th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, later re-designated the 5th USCT, in Delaware, Ohio wikipedia.org
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 9 October 2017.

9b. Service Record D. W. Arnett USCT 5th Infantry fold3 p.3
Civil War Service Record of Daniel W. Arnett 5th USCT Infantry (17 pages)
fold3.com 16 September 2011 Web. 2 October 3017

Paragraph 10

10a. Bomb proof quarters at Dutch Gap Canal
Butler, Benjamin F. (1892). “Butler’s Book.” Boston, MA: A.M. Thayer & Co. Internet Archives archive.org 26 January 1997 Web. 16 October 2017.
p. 748.

10b. Brig. Gen. Giles Waldo Shurtleff
added by John “J-Cat” Griffith
findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. 16 October 2017.

Paragraph 11

11a. Camp of Colored Volunteers before Richmond
Butler, Benjamin F. (1892). “Butler’s Book.” Boston, MA: A.M. Thayer & Co. Internet Archives archive.org 26 January 1997 Web. 16 October 2017.
p. 709.

11b. Detail charging U.S. Colored Troops B&L 4 p. 552.
The Battle of the Petersburg Crater by William H. Powell
“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 4”. (1887). Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co. Internet Archives: archive.org. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010.
p. 552 – detail of a charge

11c. Cheval_de_frise wikipedia.org Illustration Chevaux de frise at the Confederate Fort Mahone defenses at Siege of Petersburg
wikimedia.org 24 July 2003 Web. 10 October 2017.

Paragraph 12

  1. Illustration of abatis
    Permission details
    This work has been released into the public domain by its author, Pearson Scott Foresman. This applies worldwide. In some countries this may not be legally possible; if so: Pearson Scott Foresman grants anyone the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law. This work is free
    wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 9 October 2017.

Paragraph 13

13a. [Unidentified African American soldier in Union uniform with bayoneted musket, cap box, and cartridge box] loc.gov
Date Created/Published: [between 1863 and 1865]Title: [Unidentified African American soldier in Union uniform with bayoneted musket, cap box, and cartridge box]
Date Created/Published: [between 1863 and 1865]
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 6 November 2017.

13b. Image captioned “Grant’s Campaign – The Battle at Chapin’s [sic] Farm, September 29, 1864.- Sketched by William Waud.-[See page 684]”. The text on page 684 describes the image as the assault on Fort Harrison in Henrico County, Virginia. (image cropped and cleaned)
Date: 1864; Source: Harper’s Weekly, page 676.
Author: William Waud (original sketch)
commons.wikimedia.org 5 June 2004 Web. 9 October 2017.
Also:
Battle of Chapin’s (sic) Farm – Harper’s Weekly, October 22, 1864, p. 676
sonofthesouth.net start date unavailable Web. 9 Oct. 1864

13c. (detail) Blacksmith loc.gov
Title: [Antietam, Md. Blacksmith shoeing horses at headquarters, Army of the Potomac]
Creator(s): Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882, photographer
Date Created/Published: 1862 September.
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 6 November 2017.

13d. Crop of Fawx’s General Ulysses S. Grant at Cold Harbor loc.gov
Date: 1864
Source: Library of Congress
Author: Fawx, Edgar Guy [1]
commons.wikimedia.org 5 June 2004 Web. 9 October 2017.

Paragraph 14

14a. Captain George B. Cock of Company G 5th USCT service record “Wounded in action September 29, 1864, Deep Bottom, Va.” fold3.com
fold3.com 16 September 2011 Web. 2 October 2017

14b. Sergeant Powhatan Beatty wikipedia.org
Powhatan Beaty, Medal of Honor recipient. This photograph was part of the material prepared by W.E.B. Du Bois for the Negro Exhibit of the American Section at the Paris Exposition Universelle in 1900 to show the economic and social progress of African Americans since emancipation.
Date: Exhibited in 1900 (thus PD-US)
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 9 October 2017.

14c. Captain Wales Wilbur service record fold3.com Co. A 5th USCT wounded and died Oct. 17, 1864 – fold3.com 16 September 2011 Web. 8 November 2017.

14d. Gustavus Fahrion service record p. 10 showing likely absence on September 29, 1864
fold3.com 16 September 2011 Web. 8 November 2017.

14e. Alexander Poundstone – Service record p. 11 showing absence on September 29, 1864
fold3.com 16 September 2011 Web. 8 November 2017.

14f. Sgt Major Milton Holland wikipedia.org
E. S. Walker; Columbus, Ohio – Heritage Auctions
This photo of Holland appears to have been taken later than the other wartime one. The large medal he’s wearing could by the Medal of Honor, which would place this photo in 1865, when he was awarded the medal.
Carte de Visite portrait photograph of Milton M Holland
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 9 October 2017.

14g. Semblance only of First Sergeant James Bronson loc.gov
[Unidentified African American soldier in Union infantry sergeant’s uniform and black mourning ribbon with bayonet in front of painted backdrop]
Date Created/Published: [between 1863 and 1865]
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 10 October 2017.

14h. James H. Brunson (sic) limited service records (lists as “musician”)
fold3.com 16 September 2011 Web. 8 November 2017.

Paragraph 15

Reid, Whitelaw. (1868). Ohio In The War-Volume II. Cincinnati, OH: Moore, Wilstach & Baldwin.
archive.org 19 January 2001 Web. 6 November 2017.
p. 915.

Paragraph 16

16a. wounded man arm up B&L 2 in front of battery Robinett by Walton Taber
“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 2”. (1887). Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co. Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010.
p. 751 – wounded man arm up in front of battery Robinett by Walton Taber from photo by Matt Morgan.

16b. bugle on ground B&L 2 p. 644 by F. H. Schell
“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 2”. (1887). Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co. Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010.
p. 644 – detail bugle on the ground

Paragraph 17

Title: The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. ; Series 1 – Volume 42 (Part I)
Author: United States. War Dept., John Sheldon Moody, Calvin Duvall Cowles, Frederick Caryton Ainsworth, Robert N. Scott, Henry Martyn Lazelle, George Breckenridge Davis, Leslie J. Perry, Joseph William Kirkley. ebooks.library.cornell.edu 28 August 2004 Web. 20 February 2018.
– p. 136 – (casualties (total Federal) September 29, 1864).

Paragraph 18

  1. Assault of the Second Louisiana (Colored) Regiment on the Rebel Works at Port Hudson, May 27 From a Sketch by Our Special Artist Frank Leslie’s June 27, 1863 loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 20 February 2018.

Paragraph 19

19a.cannonfire – Jim Surkamp

19b. Cheval_de_frise wikipedia.org
Petersburg, Va. Sections of chevaux-de-frise before Confederate main works
SUMMARY: Photograph from the main eastern theater of war, the siege of Petersburg, June 1864-April 1865. NOTES: Civil War photographs, 1861-1865 / compiled by Hirst D. Milhollen and Donald H. Mugridge, Washington, D.C. : Library of Congress, 1977. No. 0428
Two plates form left (LC-B811-3206A) and right (LC-B811-3206B) halves of a stereograph pair. Forms part of Selected Civil War photographs, 1861-1865 (Library of Congress) – wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 6 November 2017.

19c. Redoubt and Signal Station at Cobb’s Hill, Va. by Michie, Peter S., 1st Lieut.
– digitalcollections.baylor.edu 18 February 2012 Web. 20 February 2018.

Paragraph 20

No Image

Paragraph 21

21a. Rallying behind the turnpike fence B&L 2 by Walton Taber
“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 2”. (1887). Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co. Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010.
p. 675 – Rallying behind the turnpike fence B&L 2 by Walton Taber

Paragraph 22

  1. Unidentified African American soldier in Union infantry sergeant’s uniform and black mourning ribbon with bayonet in front of painted backdrop – loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 20 February 2018.

22a. Battle of Nashville by Louis Kurz & Alexander Allison 1893 loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 20 February 2018.

22b. Arrival of First Confederate Cannon Captured by Gen. Butler’s Colored Troops.
Butler, Benjamin F. (1892). “Butler’s Book.” Boston, MA: A.M. Thayer & Co. Internet Archives archive.org 26 January 1997 Web. 16 October 2017.
p. 732.

22c. Unidentified African American soldier in Union sergeant uniform holding a rifle – loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 20 February 2018.

Paragraph 23

  1. Maj. General Benjamin Butler in the field by Mathew Brady
    warfarehistorynetwork.com 8 June 2014 Web. 17 November 2017

Title: Major General Benj. F. Butler
Date Created/Published: [photographed between 1861 and 1865, printed between 1880 and 1889]
Medium: 1 photographic print on card mount : albumen.
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 20 February 2018.

Paragraph 24

  1. Edward A. Moore archive.org
    Moore, Edward Alexander. (1907). “The story of a cannoneer under Stonewall Jackson, in which is told the part taken by the Rockbridge artillery in the Army of northern Virginia.” New York, NY; Washington, Neale Publishing Co. Internet Archives archive.org 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010.
    p. 60.

Paragraph 25

  1. Giles Waldo Shurtleff
    oberlinheritagecenter.org 22 November 2013 Web. 17 November 2017.

Paragraph 26-29

No images

Paragraph 30

Map Gilmer Harrison Harrison New Market Heights Butlers Book
Butler, Benjamin F. (1892). “Butler’s Book.” Boston, MA: A.M. Thayer & Co. Internet Archives archive.org 26 January 1997 Web. 16 October 2017.
p. 662. – Map Gilmer, Harrison, New Market Heights Butlers Book – (archive.org).

Paragraph 31

detail of painting of men charging
Catton, Bruce. (1960).”American Heritage Picture History of the Civil War” first edition.
New York: American Heritage Pub. Co.,

Paragraph 32-33

No images

Paragraph 34

special medal from Butler
Butler, Benjamin F. (1892). “Butler’s Book.” Boston, MA: A.M. Thayer & Co. Internet Archives archive.org 26 January 1997 Web. 16 October 2017.
Butler medal p. 743 – (archive.org).

Civil War Medal of Honor – ( civilwarhistory.wordpress.com) 26 June 2007 Web. 22 February 2018.

Paragraph 35

No images

Paragraph 36

Edwin Stanton – (wikipedia.org).

And, as I guided my horse this way and that way that his hoof might not profane their dead bodies, I swore to myself an oath, which I hope and believe I have kept sacredly, that they and their race should be cared for and protected by me to the extent of my power so long as I lived.

AFTER THE WAR:

Paragraph 37

Mustered Out by Alfred Waud – Harper’s Weekly May 19, 1866 – (loc.gov) 16 June 1997 Web. 20 February 2018.

37b. Tolbert Montage Semblance D.W. Arnett – (loc.gov) 16 June 1997 Web. 20 February 2018.

37c. Montage Title: Map of Jefferson County, Virginia
Summary: Shows Jefferson County before the formation of West Virginia in 1863.
Brown, S. Howell. Created / Published [S.l., s.n.,] 1852. – (loc.gov) 16 June 1997 Web. 20 February 2018.

Paragraph 38

  1. Shepherdstown, Va. 1862 viewed from Maryland by Alexander Gardner loc.gov (not online).

Paragraph 39

  1. Arnett’s marriage in 1873 to Maria Louisa Carter.
    – (wvculture.org).

Paragraph 40

40a. Arnett’s Pension Approval – (ancestry.com).

40b. Announcement of Arnett’s pension
Shepherdstown register., November 28, 1890, Image 3 – (chroniclingamerica.loc.gov).

Paragraph 41

FIRES HIT ARNETT’S SHEPHERDSTOWN HOMES

41a. Shepherdstown Register., September 17, 1896, page 3 – (chroniclingamerica.loc.gov).

41b. Plat of Arnett property Deed Book 99 pages 279-281.
– p. 281 -(documents.jeffersoncountywv.org).

41c. Location of Daniel Wilson Arnett’s property on east High Street in Shepherdstown – (google.com/maps) 13 October 2001 Web. 20 February 2018.

41d. Shepherdstown Register., October 22, 1896, page 3 – (chroniclingamerica.loc.gov) 3 June 2008 Web. 20 February 2018.

  1. Montage Map of, and house at 317 W. Academy St., Charles Town, WV – (google.com/maps) 13 October 2001 Web. 20 February 2018.
  2. Marriage certificate 1902 D. Arnett and Charlotte Adams – (wvculture.org) 2 March 2000 web. 20 February 2018.

44a. Jim Tolbert by Jim Surkamp, 2014.

44b. Robert A. Pinn – commons.wikimedia.org.

44c. Pension application – Robert A. Pinn. April 30, 1902. – Ordered to be printed – (genealogybank.com).

44d. Jim Tolbert by Jim Surkamp, 2014.

45a.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

– (findagrave.com).

45b.
– Shepherdstown Register Aug. 8, 1912 – (archive.org).

46.

  1. Former W.Va. NAACP President Jim Tolbert Has Died By LIZ MCCORMICK • NOV 1, 2017
    – (wvpublic.org).