Historian Dennis Frye Challenges A False Antietam Narrative (2) with Jim Surkamp

by Jim Surkamp on July 4, 2018 in Jefferson County

Made possible with the generous, community-minded support of American Public University System (apus.edu). While intended to promote better understanding and communication on the past, (the foundation of our present-day), any sentiments or opinions in posts of civilwarscholars.com do not in any way reflect the 21st century policies of the University.

– (Jim Surkamp).
– (loc.gov).
– (babel.hathitrust.org).

– (wikipedia.org).
– (chicstypes.info).
– (loc.gov).
– (wikipedia.org).

VIDEOClick Here. TRT: 36:52.

JS: So we talked about how Palfrey, and Murfin and Sears have very successfully established the collective memory of the Battle of Antietam. Why was it so successful? Was there fertile ground in the culture when Palfrey wrote his first book? Why is that?

DF: Palfrey did not invent the anti-McClellan society. McClellan was very much disliked during the war. He had many enemies during the war, and I think a lot of this has to do with politics. I’m talking about national politics. McClellan’s a Democrat. We all know that. They all knew that. We all know Lincoln’s a Republican. Herein is the tension. McClellan, even in 1862, is the most likely Democrat to run for President in 1864. He’s the best known. He is famous. He’s a successful general in this regard: he wins. Or, even if he hasn’t won, he can spin it so it looks like he wins. A political spin.

– (mountvernon.org).
– (americanart.si.edu).

So, our nation since its commencement had a tendency to elect successful generals, beginning with George Washington and Andrew Jackson is another good example. So, if McClellan is permitted to succeed, if McClellan is seen as successful, he is going to be able to garner votes as a successful United States general as a veteran. At the time of the Civil War, we knew the political affiliation of generals. They didn’t disguise it. They didn’t hide it. They didn’t try to remain neutral. We knew who the Democrats were that were generals. We knew the Republicans that were generals. It was perfectly acceptable. It was part of the norms of society at the time, part of being a democratic, representative, constitutional republic.

– (digitallibrary.hsp.org).

It was OK to have your political affiliations, your political interests, known. You wore it on your forehead. It was right on your sleeve. Everybody knew your political party. Today, we don’t know and that’s good. I am glad we don’t have the same sort of norm in our society today. We don’t know the political affiliation of any of our generals, and we shouldn’t, because, every general or every admiral in the United States military should defend and protect all of us, all 315 million of us regardless of political party. It makes no difference what our politics are individually. For them, they protect all of us. They defend all of us. They are the ones who allow us to be political and to have political parties. They are the ones that allow our politics to exist.

– (commons.wikimedia.org).

If the day ever comes when our generals or our admirals, once again, are identified with a specific political party, and that’s publicly known, we are in grave trouble. We never want to go back to the days of the Civil War when politics was so pervasive in the personality, character, and identity of generals.

JS: Here’s something to think about – the ongoing reputation – or dis-reputation of McClellan – the letters to his wife, which were sort of very what a guy writes to his wife – they came much later.

– (loc.gov).
– (wikipedia.org).

McClellan was a very potent political figure, even up to 1864 – there hadn’t been the future revelations that were damaging. When the election in 1864 occurred, you know the electoral vote was a landslide but the popular vote was not. And McClellan got a big vote. So once again context, – context during the Civil War – there was always a big chunk of the population that wanted to just go negotiate the separation and be done with it.

DF: Well McClellan had grave differences with President Lincoln on two fronts. One was the issue of emancipation and #2 was the issue of a conquered Confederacy. McClellan was very opposed to emancipation. In the summer of ’62, he wrote a heartfelt and very thoughtful letter to the President on reasons why there should not be an emancipation. Now, today, I read that and it offends me, and I am not at all in support of virtually anything George McClellan has to say about why we should not have emancipation. I’m opposed to everything in that letter. But, again in 1862, McClellan is representing the Democratic Party. He’s the spokesperson for the Democratic Party. The Democrats were staunch supporters of continued enslavement, of the institution of slavery, and McClellan represents that point of view. So his letter to Lincoln in the summer of 1862 says: “the greatest mistake you could every make, Mr. President, is emancipation.” Front and center puts McClellan and Lincoln at great odds with each other in terms of the future of the nation. The second thing deals with the idea of “How do we end this war?” The Democrats were much more interested in simply ending the war, keeping the Constitution as it is, the country as it was. So that means that slavery would continue to exist. “We get over this spat. We just end it and we all come back together again.” In other words, nothing has been cured. The cause of the war doesn’t get cured. We end the war. We still have a disease. That was the position of the Democrats. The Republicans, on the other hand, had a different point of view. They believe we needed a change, ultimately that we needed abolition and emancipation. Freedom. That became a major cause. But they also wanted reunification of the country. Secession would not stand. We could not allow the Confederacy to stand. These were the two basic platforms that Lincoln eventually conducts the war upon: reunification of the Union and emancipation, the abolition of slavery. So very opposite points of view. Let me finish by saying: everybody knew George McClellan was going to be the Democratic candidate in 1864.

JS: Even in 1862?

DF: Yeah. There’s no question. That was the trajectory of George McClellan. He will be the Democratic nominee. In September of 1862 after Antietam, the most famous man in America is George McClellan. He is victorious. He has saved Pennsylvania. He has protected Maryland. The nation’s capital is safe. The invader has been thrown back to the land where he came from. He has defeated Lee not only once at South Mountain, but he has also defeated Lee at Antietam. Lee has gone backwards. He saves the country again when he blocks Lee at Williamsport. He doesn’t give him (Lee) the opportunity to continue the invasion after Antietam.

– (digitalcollections.baylor.edu).

– (sonofthesouth.net).
– (baylor.edu).
– (history.army.mil).

– (sonofthesouth.net).

– (digitalcollections.baylor.edu).
– (civilwarscholars.com).

So McClellan is heralded as a hero. The press will embrace him as a hero, even the Republican press, which hated McClellan, was willing to give him credit for stopping the invaders. Defeating Lee – something that had not happened before. So universally, in the immediate aftermath of Antietam and the end of the invasion,

– (sonofthesouth.net).

McClellan is great hero. “This cannot stand. We can’t allow this.” if you’re a Republican. So there is, not so much by President Lincoln, but a concerted Republican effort to denigrate McClellan, to demolish him, to ensure that he cannot stand on a podium of heroism and victory and it succeeds. This is in 1862, less than a month after the battle, there is the clamor, there is the cry: “We need to move. We need to crush the enemy. We need to destroy the enemy.” McClellan hesitates.

– (loc.gov).

Lincoln tries to compel him. His boss, Henry Halleck, tries to force him to move. McClellan just doesn’t. So there’s this sense that McClellan has reverted back to his old tendencies of: “Well, I’ve won. They’re not going to bother us.” McClellan’s plan was never to crush the enemy. McClellan’s plan was to negotiate with the Democratic plan. As a result, of course, McClellan will be fired – as he should have been by the President because of the odds – they ran up such odds on what the future of the country would be. McClellan should have been fired. Lincoln did the right thing.

JS: This is a big question I have. Here’s McClellan in the height of this glory. Once again – as we’ve said – if you go back to the time itself, we know that he (McClellan) was terrifically successful. He beat Lee at South Mountain. As you said, he blocked him (Lee) into going into Pennsylvania, never since being given credit for that largely because the Republican narrative became our history. How did McClellan feel when his great victory became the reason for the Emancipation Proclamation?

DF: Oh My. That was probably one of the lowest days in the life of George McClellan – September 22nd-September 23rd, 1862, when he learns of Lincoln’s preliminary Emancipation.

– (loc.gov).

JS: He served the Republican goal.

– (loc.gov).

– (loc.gov).

DF: McClellan thought it was unconstitutional. McClellan believed that the President of the United States did not have the power to declare emancipation – that the Emancipation Proclamation had gone way beyond the authority of the executive (branch). McClellan was very, very upset about this. Northern newspapers that were

– (lib.niu.edu).

Democratic newspapers – that leaned Democrat – absolutely excoriated Lincoln and the Republicans on the whole idea of emancipation – there was no way (they thought) that he had the authority to free any slave, anywhere, anyway, anytime. It was not necessarily unforeseen because the Republicans in the Congress had passed the First Confiscation Act, they passed the Second Confiscation Act, and Lincoln had actually warned the South in the summer of 1862 that possible emancipation would be coming as a result of congressional action on the Second Confiscation Act.

– (loc.gov).
– (loc.gov).

Lincoln believed it was legal and that the Congress had given him the legal authority to move forward with emancipation through the Second Confiscation Act in the summer of 1862. But McClellan dismissed all that as unconstitutional; that none of that is proper and appropriate and that the executive usurped his power as the Executive (Branch).

– (loc.gov).

So there was actually talk of a coup, of a military coup. This is unthinkable by Americans, that somebody in the military would actually consider a coup against an elected representative of a constitutional government. But there were Northern newspapers that were saying: “The President’s gone too far. It’s illegal. We need to return the government to within the bounds of its proper authority and George McClellan is the man to do that.” They even used, at times, the word “coup” at the time the word “coup.” McClellan actually received letters from people suggesting that he overthrow the government and establish a temporary military dictatorship. He admits this in his own letters. It’s a very troubling time. One thing we need to keep in mind is that following the Battle of Antietam, the most powerful man in the United States is George McClellan, not Abraham Lincoln. that George McClellan has a victorious army behind him. It’s an army that has supported him, has defended him, has protected his reputation. He’s given them victory. He’s given them the greatest victory. He’s given them the greatest morale boost. So the idea that George McClellan could never march upon Washington and never establish a military dictatorship – yeh, that’s possible.

JS: This is in your book the “temptation” you talked about?

DF: There’s a chapter in here where I discuss the opportunity for the United States Army and for George McClellan, in particular, to conduct a coup. It’s real. We can’t just dismiss it. There is a very dangerous time in the constitutional history of the United States; and McClellan says: “No. I will not do that.”

– (google.com/maps).

– (digitalcollections.baylor.edu).

– (loc.gov).

– (babel.hathitrust.org).

I think, McClellan’s greatest gift to history and McClellan’s greatest moment in history never happened on a battlefield, but occurred when he resisted a temptation to conduct a coup against a government that he detested, against a Republican President that he hated, that violated everything that he (George McClellan) seemed to believe in. Yet he resisted the temptation to overthrow the Republican government.

– (wikipedia.org).

He did that only a few miles from Shepherdstown at his headquarters, located just south of Sharpsburg. The building that was his headquarters – the Showman farm property still stands. At that point, that place, that moment on October 7th and 8th, 1862. George McClellan made American history and he gets zero credit for resisting the temptation. JS: As time went on, history took a different direction that was favoring a complete defeat of the South DF: and an absolute total annilhilation of slavery. Thank goodness that’s the direction it went.

JS: What my impression is is this: (Lincoln) ironically, he could only get rid of enslavement as commander-in-chief – tell me if I’m wrong – in response to an event on a battlefield. And when the war began, Lincoln started writing those enumerated powers and he could do that because it was kind of a vacuum.

DF: At no other time in American history, prior to the Civil War had the Executive (branch) had such power. Lincoln considered a civil war an emergency and rightfully so. So, in Lincoln’s mind – to meet the emergency – the power of the Executive must expand, and he did (that). A great example of that power was the suspension of the writ of habeus corpus, a unilateral suspension by the Executive (branch) like (in) Maryland. By the fall of 1862, habeus corpus had been suspended in every United State, for other reasons because of the draft and the violence they expected by an enforced, mandatory draft. So McClellan was convinced that Lincoln had usurped his power at the most significant way with the Emancipation Proclamation and the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation. Of course the Emancipation Proclamation – like an Executive Order – is not law. It is an executive decision. (It) is an executive imposition. That’s why we have the Thirteen Amendment, of course, because the only thing that could permanently eradicate slavery was a constitutional change. Even though the Emancipation Proclamation was, legally, a temporary document, McClellan did not see it as temporary. McClellan realized that the Emancipation Proclamation, the preliminary Emancipation, set in motion something that would not be reversed. It offended him greatly and he resisted the temptation to try to personally overthrow the government.

JS: Really, really huge moment. The hot potato of enslavement being abolished. Here’s Lee – mid-1862 – there’s talk of Lincoln intending “to go there,” to have emancipation. Then suddenly this quickened the motivation to really (have) impact – to go into the North to really affect the election (in November) so that (emancipation) doesn’t happen. You can see this almost exciting the effort because they see slavery being abolished in the North.

DF: The great irony of George McClellan is that he ensures a Republican victory in the election of 1862 because McClellan brought the Republicans a victory on the battlefield. The other great irony is that McClellan ensured the Emancipation Proclamation because he gave Lincoln the victory he needed before he could issue the Emancipation. So George McClellan’s victories in Maryland and his defeat of Lee and his forcing of Lee to end the invasion of 1862 brought about success for Republicans by their greatest Democratic enemy, George McClellan.

JS: A glimpse into his character. He’s only in his mid-thirties. He’s very smart. But he’s very young and you can a little insecurity in there, you know,

DF: A lot of insecurity.

JS: Once again we have to always forget those letters that come back later. In the current time, he was The Man. But again, as you said, the nobility that surfaced. He had everything. He saw his star rising so high and that moment of reflection, even though they turned his greatest victory – from the Democratic perspective – to an Emancipation Proclamation battle – with all of this reversing on him, he had the nobility to not be tempted by a coup.

DF: Correct, he resisted the opportunity for a coup. There was never in American history in my mind was the United States government ever so vulnerable to military coup as it was in the weeks immediately following Antietam and Lincoln’s issuance of the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.

JS: This is a great book. It breaks up a lot of assumptions. I’ll go back to one of the biggest things I’ve gotten out of this, because I, too, genuflected at the altar of The Firm – Palfrey, Murfin, and Sears – who also, again, were reflections of this narrative of American history that was finally accepted, which was not the McClellan perspective. All of those things served to make McClellan less important in history.

DF: Less respected, as you were about to say.

JS: You can paint somebody as really evil – completely evil and completely stupid or completely honest and completely smart. McClellan was a victim of one of those tracks. Maybe we can say it was a long-term political tendency. You can’t have context in a true historian’s role. You can’t re-create the context of the original moment until you peel off all these other motivations and look at what really happened. What I learned from your book is that at Antietam, McClellan stopped Lee with actions of South Mountain and on the night of September 16th (by) cutting him off on a path to Pennsylvania. He (McClellan) stopped a plan to invade Pennsylvania and he (Lee) planned to invade Pennsylvania absolutely. He (McClellan) stopped him (Lee) from trying again later and that’s always ignored. Secondly, he wasn’t dawdling or tardy in pursuing Lee after the Special Order with the all night march of the Ninth Corps and the victory at South Mountain – this is absolute refutation of The Firm’s perception of Antietam. But these (successes) have been suppressed or ignored because of this “McClellan issue.”

DF: What I try to do in “Antietam Shadows” is – the subtitle is purposeful: “Mystery, Myth, Machinations.” Not only do I like the alliteration, but each one of those words is so descriptive. “Mystery, Myth, Machinations” is what the book is all about. Jim, a historian has great power, great power. What I mean by that is that we’re detectives. The historian is doing the detective work, searching the records of the past and uncovering what we see. The historian has to be careful not to allow his or her own perspective, own point of view and own prejudices to control the narrative. That’s what The Firm did. The Firm made a conscious decision that it would be anti-McClellan. So, when Palfrey and Murfin, and Sears are doing their detective work, they’re looking for things that take this theory of “I don’t like George McClellan” and strenghten and bolster that position, that argument. But they present it as if it’s real history. It’s actually opinion about history. It’s not real history. That’s the power of the historian is that when we write and we present, people believe us. They give us believability. They think that we are credulous They don’t challenge. They don’t question. If it’s in writing, it’s true. From the moment history is created, it’s not true, because the actual creation of any historical moment is based upon someone’s opinion of that event or per point of view of that action. So it’s immediately filtered through the human mind, the human consciousness. So there is really no such thing as truth in history. It just doesn’t exist. A historian who writes history should not exacerbate, confine or define the boundaries of a historical event. We should present maximum points of view, maximum perspectives, maximum number of opinions in our narrative so that we are not reserving for ourselves power, but instead, we are presenting people’s opinions, and let the people that are the reader, then, form their own opinions. The job of the historian is to be a facilitator of these opinions, these points of view, these perspectives, rather than be a narrator of one perspective.

JS: Set the table. Thanks Dennis.


1. Frye, Dennis F. (2018). “Antietam Shadows: Mystery, Myth & Machinations.” Sharpsburg, MD: Antietam Rest Publishing.
amazon.com 12 December 1998 Web. 19 June 2018.

2. Palfrey, Francis Winthrop. (1881).”The Antietam and Fredericksburg.” New York, NY: C. Scribner’s Sons. Internet Archives archive.org 26 January 1997 Web. 19 June 2018.

3. LCol Francis Winthrop Palfrey – Antietam on the Web
antietam.aotw.org 3 June 2010 Web. 19 June 2018.

4. Murfin, James V. (1965). “The Gleam of Bayonets: Battle of Antietam and Robert E. Lee’s Maryland Campaign, September 1862.” Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University.
amazon.com 12 December 1998 Web. 19 June 2018.

5. Sears, Stephen W. (1983). “Landscape Turned Red: The Battle of Antietam.” New York, N.Y.: Houghton-Mifflin, Inc.
amazon.com 12 December 1998 Web. 19 June 2018.

6. The McClellan Problem
opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com 3 February 2006 Wed. 19 June 2018.

7. Battle of South Mountain
wikipedia.org 7 July 2001 Web. 19 June 2018.

8. American in Caricature 1765-1865 – Abraham Lincoln 1860-1865
indiana.edu 19 December 1996 Web. 19 June 2018.

9. Thomas Nast’s Rare Political Caricatures
lib.niu.edu 2 February 2001 Web. 19 June 2018.

10. The 2nd Confiscation Act
freedmen.umd.edu 16 July 2013 Web. 19 June 2018.

Image Credits:

1. Montage Title They Got It Wrong
2. Montage They Got It Wrong Quote
2a. Dennis – Frye Jim Surkamp
2b. Lt. Col. Francis Winthrop Palfrey Carte de visite
Carte de visite by James Wallace Black, 1862.From the 20th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment carte de visite album.
Photo. 67.6. masshist.org 5 April 1997 web. 19 June 2018.
2c. James V. Murfin
1929-1987 by Paula Degan
James V. Murfin (image Nancy Murfin)
nps.gov 13 April 1997 Web. 19 June 2018.
2d. Stephen Sears (Image)
c-span.org 18 October 1996 Web. 19 June 2018.
2e. Tom Clemens – Jim Surkamp

3. Montage Threat of Coup

3a. Dennis Frye – Jim Surkamp

3b. Title: [Antietam, Md. President Lincoln and Gen. George B. McClellan in the general’s tent]
Creator(s): Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882, photographer
Date Created/Published: 1862 October 3.
Medium: 1 negative : glass, wet collodion.
Summary: Photograph from the main eastern theater of the war, Battle of Antietam, September-October 1862.
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 19 June 2018.

3c. Lowering the Flag by D. H. Strother
Harper’s Ferry New Monthly Magazine March 1867 p.448
babel.hathitrust.org 6 December 2009 Web. 19 June 2018.

4. Montage Congress Facing Extinction
4awikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 19 June 2018.

4b. rotunda ceiling of the Capitol building, Washington, D.C.
chicstypes.info 3 May 2007 Web. 19 June 2018.

4c. [Abraham Lincoln]. Summary: Photograph shows full-length portrait of Lincoln seated at a table and leaning on a book. Contributor Names: Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882, photographer. .Created / Published
[Washington, D.C.], [9 August 1863] loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 19 June 2018.
4d. George B. McClellan Image by Mathew Brady wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 19 June 2018.

5. George Washington at Princeton by Charles Willson Peale (US Senate)
mountvernon.org 29 February @000 Web. 19 June 2018.

6. Andrew Jackson by Ralph Eleaser Whiteside Earl, Date: 1835
Copyright Credit Line: (Smithsonian American Art Museum Transfer from the National Institute)
americanart.si.edu 29 February 2000 Web. 19 June 2018.

7. Slow & Steady Wins the Race political cartoon, 1864
Permanent ID: 11756 Date: 1864. Image Description: Presidential candidates Abraham Lincoln and George McClellan are shown in the middle of a horse race. Publisher: Historical Society of Pennsylvania
hsp.org 16 August 2000 Web. 19 June 2018.

8. General of the Army Douglas MacArthur 1880-1964 archives.gov commons.wikimedia.org FINAL smoking his corncob pipe, probably at Manila, Philippine Islands, 2 August 1945.
Date 2 August 1945. Source Naval Historical Center; Direct link. Photo #: USA C-2413 (Color), photograph from the Army Signal Corps Collection in the U.S. National Archives. commons.wikimedia.org 5 June 2004 Web. 19 June 2018.

9. Ellen Mary Marcy McClellan
Posted on 04/23/2009 by Maggie MacLean
Wife of Union General George B. McClellan
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 19 June 2018.

10. United States presidential election, 1864
wikipedia.org 7 July 2001 Web. 19 June 2018.

11. McClellan Pressure Point 1 S. Mountain
Map No. 6. Date October 1862. Publication Date: 1891.
digitalcollections.baylor.edu 9 May 1997 Web. 19 June 2018.

11a. Montage South Mountain, September 1862
Battle of South Mountain by A.R. Waud.
Harper’s Weekly, October 25, 1862, p. 677
sonofthesouth.net start date unavailable Web. 19 June 2018.

11b. The American Soldier, 1862, by H. Charles McBarron, showing U.S. soldiers attacking the Confederates at Turner’s Gap in 1862
wikipedia.org 7 July 2001 Web. 19 June 2018.

12. McClellan Pressure Point 2 Williamsport
Map No. 6. Date October 1862. Publication Date: 1891.
digitalcollections.baylor.edu 9 May 1997 Web. 19 June 2018.

12a. Montage Williamsport recrossing
12b. Confederate Crossing Potomac Harper’s Weekly, September 27, 1862, p. 613.
sonofthesouth.net start date unavailable Web. 19 June 2018.

13. McClellan Pressure Point 3 Boteler’s Ford FINAL
13a. Montage Shepherdstown Battle September, 1862
13b. Map of the battle-fields of Harper’s Ferry and Sharpsburg
Creator Brown, S. Howell; Government Printing Office
Map No. 1 Date 1864/01/27; Publication Date: 1891
digitalcollections.baylor.edu 9 May 1997 Web. 19 June 2018.
13c. Graphic of battle late morning September 20, 1862
civilwarscholars.com 20 June 2011 Web. 19 June 2018.

14. President Lincoln and Gen. George B. McClellan in the general’s tent
Title: [Antietam, Md. President Lincoln and Gen. George B. McClellan in the general’s tent]
Creator(s): Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882, photographer. Date Created/Published: 1862 October 3.
Medium: 1 negative : glass, wet collodion. Summary: Photograph from the main eastern theater of the war, Battle of Antietam, September-October 1862. loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 19 June 2018.

15. McClellan in Frederick, MD September, 1862
Harper’s Weekly October 4, 1862 sonofthesouth.net start date unavailable Web. 19 June 2018.

16.Title: Emancipation / Th. Nast ; King & Baird, printers, 607 Sansom Street, Philadelphia.
Creator(s): King & Baird, engraver. Related Names: Nast, Thomas, 1840-1902 , artist; Bott, S. , publisher; Umpehent, J. W. , copyright claimant. Date Created/Published: [Philadelphia] : Published by S. Bott, no. 43 South Third Street, Philadelphia, Penna., c1865. (Library of Congress). loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 19 June 2018.

17.Title: Abraham Lincoln and his Emancipation Proclamation / The Strobridge Lith. Co., Cincinnati.
Creator(s): Strobridge & Co. Lith., Date Created/Published: Cincinnati : The Strobridge Lith. Co., c1888.
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 19 June 2018.

18. Man reading a newspaper report of the Emancipation Proclamation, painting by Henry Louis Stephens, c. 1863. Henry Louis Stephens/Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. (CaLC-USZC4-2442)
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 19 June 2018.

19. Dr. Lincoln’s New Elixir of Life — for the Southern States
Year: 1863. “Doctor Lincoln’s New Elixir of Life,” New York Illustrated News, April 12, 1862, 368. Courtesy, New York State Library Creator. nypl 3 January 1997 Web. 19 June 2018. Description: Abraham Lincoln sits by the bedside of an African American man labelled, “Slavery” lifting a bowl labelled “Emancipation” to the man’s lips. By 1862, Lincoln began to see slavery as part of the war. He began toying with the idea of emancipation as a way to undermine the Confederate war effort. lib.niu.edu 2 February 2001 Web. 19 June 2018.

20. Montage Confiscation Act No. 2

20a. Title: Contrabands escaping
Creator(s): Forbes, Edwin, 1839-1895, artist. Date Created/Published: 1864 May 29.
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 19 June 2018.

20b. Arrival at Chickasaw bayou of the Negro slaves of Jefferson Davis, from his plantation on the Mississippi 1863.
Illus. in: Frank Leslie’s illustrated newspaper, vol. 16 or 17 (1863 Aug. 8), p. 320.
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 19 June 2018.

21. Title: The first reading of the Emancipation Proclamation before the cabinet / painted by F.B. Carpenter ; engraved by A.H. Ritchie. loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 19 June 2018.

22. Repeat of Montage 3

23. Repeat of Image 14

24. Montage no coup

24a. O. Showman Farm 2018 4105 Mills Road – google maps 11 November 1998 Web. 19 June 2018.

24b. Antietam
Creator Michler, N., Bvt. Brig. Gen. ; Theilkuhl, F. ; Strasser, J. ; Thompson, G.
Publication Information Washington : Government Printing Office
Physical Description 1 map : col. Plate No. 29 Map No. 2 Scale 1:01
Publication Date: 1891. baylor.edu 9 May 1997 Web. 19 June 2018.

24c. Group of President Lincoln, Gen. McClellan, and suite, at headquarters Army of Potomac, previous to reviewing the troops and the battle-field of Antietam, 3d Oct., 1862
at Showman “Home Farm.” Photograph shows from left Buck Juit, Ward Hill Lamon, Ozias Hatch, Gen. Randolph B. Marcy, Capt. Wright Rives, Gen. McClernand, Pres. Lincoln, Lt. Col. Andrew B. Porter, Gen. McClellan, Joseph Kennedy, John Garrett, Col. Thomas S. Mather prior to the review of the troops. Created / Published 1862. loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 19 June 2018.

24d. Official Record (OR) Vol. 19 Part 2 pp. 395-396 from Home Farm of O. Showman
babel.hathitrust.org 6 December 2009 Web. 19 June 2018.


political cartoon “Your Plan and Mine”
lib.niu.edu 2 February 2001 Web. 19 June 2018.

25. Portrait George B. McClellan by Julian Scott National Portrait Gallery
wikipedia.org 7 July 2001 Web. 19 June 2018.

26. Orders 163 Oct. 7, 1862 McClellan
Official Record (OR) Vol. 19 Part 2 pp. 395-396 from Home Farm of O. Showman
babel.hathitrust.org 6 December 2009 Web. 19 June 2018.

27. Book Cover Antietam Shadows amazon.com 12 December 1998 Web. 19 June 2018.

28. “Historian” My Children’s Book House
babel.hathitrust.org 6 December 2009 Web. 19 June 2018.

29. Repeat of Montage/Image 2