In Jefferson County in 1860, of a total population of 14,535, 10,575 were free; 4,471 were black, either enslaved or free.
Farm Sizes: 2 between 3-9 acres; 4 between 10-19 acres; 22 between 20-49 acres; 67 between 50-99 acres; 356 between 100-499 acres; 12 between 500-999 acres; none over a thousand acres.
Total improved acres: 85,735. Total farms: 463.
Rank in 1860 among ten Shenandoah Valley Counties in bushels of wheat: No. 1; bushels of corn: No. 4; bushels of oats: No. 6; bushels of Rye: No. 7.
Rank in 1860 among ten Shenandoah Valley Counties in horses: No. 6; swine: No. 4; sheep No, 5; beef cattle: No. 5.
NOTE: Jefferson County is considerably smaller than some of these counties.
“Schools were among the first to suffer (from war-ED). All four counties of the lower Valley had public school systems directed by elected school commissioners and county superintendents. In Frederick, Clarke, and Berkeley counties, the public schools were merely poor law schools to provide elementary education for all the white children whose parents could not pay for their schooling. Jefferson County had a system of ‘free schools for the education of all classes.’ Actually even the latter charge of fifty cents per quarter was remitted, as were the cost of books and stationery, for those who could not pay. In 1860, the thirty-two schools in Jefferson County system had 1,594 students enrolled, or three-fourths as many as the combined pauper schools of the other three counties.”
SOURCE: Phillips, P. 90
According to the 1850 Census, twenty-seven public schools served about “1,000” white children and seven private academies each taught an average of 25 regular students.
Three Episcopal Churches, seating a total of 1500 each; six Methodist Churches, seating 3100; four Presbyterian Churches seating 2,900 (counting only those in Old or New School, 1400 congregants in fewer churches); one Roman Catholic Church seating 700; one German Reformed Church, seating 800; one Lutheran Church, seating 600; and one church affiliated with the General Baptist Association of Virginia, seating 300 congregants.
A log church existed in Shepherdstown for black citizens prior to the Civil War near the site of the south goal posts of the Shepherd University football field. Freed blacks and the enslaved, who wished to have church instruction, for the most part, listened to sermons through open windows or from balconies of generally white churches, especially Methodist. (The Methodist Church in the Baltimore Conference was torn by the issue of enslavement).
“Distribution of Virginia Evangelicals in 1860 by Denomination and County.” Table 4, Appendix B. from Irons, Charles F. (2008). “Origins of Pro-slavery Christianity: White and Black Evangelicals in Colonial and Antebellum Virginia.” Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. Print. P. 274.
Total manufacturing establishments: 114
United States. Bureau of the Census; United States. National Archives and Records Service. (1967). Schedule 5 Products of Industry in the County of Jefferson of Virginia during the year ending June 1, 1860. as enumerated by J. A. Coyle. PP. 207-210.
NOTE: This is not the exact table but four main types of information taken therefrom: from left-to-right 1) The business owner – 2) the nature of the business – 3) capital investment (“5K” is $5,000 in period value) – 4) the output for the previous year in product. Spellings are as shown in the handwritten record.
John Chamberlin Flouring Mill 5K 12000 bu. wheat
Martin P. Chapman Flouring Mill 5K 8500 bu. wheat
Solomon Billmyer FM 10K 10000 bu. wheat
Charles Noland Saw Mill 1.5K 600 logs
William J. Grantham Distillery 1400 1000 bu.
Benjamin Hoffman Flouring Mill 3K 4000 bu. wheat
John B. Lowman Flouring Mill 3.5K 3500 bu. wheat
Archibald Lamar James Tannery 2.5K 200 hides
Thomas Watson Flouring Mill 3K 1000 bu. wheat
Jeremiah N. Snyder Flouring Mill 14K 20000 bu. wheat
Same Saw Mill 1650 400 logs
Jacob G. Miller Saw Mill 1500 300 logs
John H. Miller Woolen Factory 6K 12000 lbs. wool, yarn employs ten
William Wise Pottery 700 630 cords 800 lbs. of lead
Jonathan Nixon Chair Factory 700 600 lbs. of chair stuff
Presley Marmaduke Tannery 4K 425 hides
Joseph Entler Sr. Coopering 650 15000 staves and poles
John P. Hoffman Coach Factory 1.5K 6500 lbs. coal, iron, lumber, steel
William Shearer Flouring Mill 5K 15000 bu. wheat
Jacob Line Tannery 3K 400 hides
All except Entler, Nixon, Wise rely on water for power
paid between $8-$25 per month for each employee
Barney Ott Wagon Maker 500 700 timbers
John Winpigler Flouring Mill 8K 8400 bu. wheat
George Ridgeway Flouring Mill 2K 1500 bu. wheat, corn
Thaddeus Baney Flouring Mill 6K 13000 bu. wheat
Colin Porter Woolen Factory 8K 22500 lbs. wool, yarn
George W. Kerfoot Blacksmith 500 12 tons coal, iron
Joseph Gardner Blacksmith 300 5 tons coal, iron
Conrad Rhineman Cooper 100 6000 staves, poles
Daniel Coleman Flouring Mill 7K 11000 bu. wheat
Langdon, Philips Saw Planing Mill 3K 80000 feet plank, logs
Felix Conly Cooper 300 22500 staves, poles
James Watson Woolen Factory 6K 24000 lbs. wool, yarn
Robert R. Brotherton Saw Mill 200 200 logs
Sampson H. Turner Flouring Mill 2K 2500 bu. wheat
John G. Cockrill Flouring Mill 15K 28000 bu. wheat
Henry Niswanner Flouring Mill 2.7K 2000 bu. wheat
Lewis Baker Blacksmith 300 7 tons coal, iron
William Hackney Wagon Maker 200 5 loads lumber
Thaddeus Baney Cooper 200 1800 staves, poles
George W. Eichelberger Chopping Mill 1K 1000 bu. corn, rye
Except for Conly, Kerfoot, Rhineman, Gardner, and Ott blacksmiths, coopers, and a wagon-maker, all used water power
Except for Langdon Philips who employed five at top dollar of $25/mo. and
James Watson employing ten at $22/mo. All others worked with no more than three employees
David Johnson Woolen Factory 10K 24000 lbs. wool, yarn
John H. B. Lewis Flouring Mill 3K 6000 bu. wheat
John Kable Shoe Factory 200 110 lbs. leather
Henry W. Castleman Chopping Mill 1K 3000 bu. corn, rye
Same Plaster 900 100 tons plaster
Same Saw Mill 300 400 logs
Joseph Myers Blacksmith 800 11 tons coal, iron
Leander Burgess Wagon Making 250 10 loads of wagon stuff
Jacob Werking Wagon Making 200 8 loads of wagon stuff
Nathaniel R. Langdon Plaster Mill 600 60 tons plaster
Same Flouring Mill 8K 11000 bu. wheat
Same Saw Mill 250 150 logs
George L. Garrett Shoemaker 275 336 lbs. leather
– Zimmerman Cooper 175 15000 staves, poles
Charles H. Langdon Blacksmith 550 13 tons coal, iron
Samuel M. Clip Cooper 175 15000 staves, poles
McCurdy, Turner Flouring Mill 10K 25000 bu. wheat
Same Saw Mill 200 75 logs
John W. Ware Blacksmith 500 10 tons coal, iron
James J or T Coyle Coopering 500 30000 staves, poles
George Anderson Blacksmith 600 10 tons coal, iron
NOTE: All driven by water except for blacksmiths, coopering, shoe-making, wagon-making. All have less than six employees. Watson has two women at his woolen factory paid comparable wage to men ave. $13.50/mo.; Men are paid $6-$20/mo
James P. Johnson Shoe Factory 3K 500 lbs. leather
John J. Lock Flouring Mill 14K (illegible) wheat
Same Plaster Mill 1.4K 200 tons plaster
John F. Conley Merchant Factory 2.5K 700 yds. cloths
Samuel W. Waddy Shoe Factory 3K 1000 hides leather
Albert Miller Tin Stoneware 2K various tin
John F. Blessing Confectioner 1.5K 100 barrels flour, sugar
Thomas Dobson Cooperage 400 24000 staves, poles
Charles Barrett Planing Factory 250 1800 feet of planks
David Howell Tannery 10K 1000 hides
George W. Spotts Blacksmith 450 12 tons iron
Same Wagon Shop 400 various timber
William P. Easterday Tin Stone Factory 1K various tin
Alfred O’Bannon Wagon Factory 300 various timber
Hiram O’Bannon Blacksmith 400 10 tons iron
Reason Shugert Saddlery 1.8K various leather
Charles G. Stewart Silversmith 250 various silver
George W. Sadler Cabinet Factory 3K various timber
William Rowe Machine Builder 1.5K various lumber
Henderson Bishop Gunsmith 400 gun barrels
Wells J. Hawks Carriage Shop 8K various lumber
Thos W. Davis Blacksmith 600 15tons iron
Same Wagon Maker 400 various lumber
W. A. Suddith & Co. Wheat Drill 1K various lumber
Weirick & Weller Thresher 2.5K various, lumber, iron
W. J. Stephens Merchant-Tailor 15K 5000 yds. of cloth
Jno. T. Riley Shoemaker 4.5K various leather
Frederick Rohr Confectioner 1K 3200 lbs. sugar
John McCall Shoemaker 700 200 sides leather
Thomas M. Beall Tinner 300 various tinware
Joseph Manuel Blacksmith 500 9 tons iron, coal
Frederick Bremmerman Cooper 3K 750,000 staves, poles
Rohr & Brittner Wagon Maker 1.2K various lumber
Same Blacksmith 600 14 tons iron, coal
Herr & Welsh Flouring Mill 30K 145,000 bu. wheat
Herr & Snap Iron Foundry 2K 100 tons pig iron
Solomon V. Yantis Tobacconist 1.2K 3000 lbs. tobacco
Andrew P. Johnson Cooper 381 30000 staves, poles
Thomas E. Woodward Cooper 185 15000 staves, poles
Joshua Clip Cooper 30 3000 staves, poles
Joseph Herrell Cooper 100 7500 staves, poles
John West Cooper 200 35000 staves, poles
Armstead Orem Blacksmith 100 3 tons coal, iron
Nathaniel W. Manning Blacksmith 125 4 tons coal, iron
John West Saw Mill 5K 1000 logs
John West Blacksmith 250 5 tons iron, coal
Jacob Vorus Blacksmith 200 7 tons iron, coal
Charles Ashley Blacksmith 150 3 tons iron, coal
George Smith Sadler 200 35 leather
Henry Bull Sadler 250 40 leather
Nathan Banes Blacksmith 400 10 tons of iron, coal
John Ring Tinner 7K Various tin
Thomas Johnson Blacksmith 300 10 tons iron
James J or T Coyle Cooper 400 (illegible) staves, poles
ENSLAVEMENT: Total households claiming twenty or more enslaved persons: 14
Division of School Districts
Brown, S. Howell. (1852). “Map of Jefferson County, Virginia from actual survey with the farm limits.” United States. The Library of Congress: American Memory. Maps Collection. Print.
Brown, S. Howell. (1852). “Map of Jefferson County, Virginia from actual survey with the farm limits.” United States. The Library of Congress: American Memory. Maps Collection. 27 Oct. 2009 Web. 10 Sept. 2010.
Green, Linda L. (1963). “West Virginia 1860 Agricultural Census, Volume 2.”
West Virginia State Dept. of Archives and History. pp. 82-90. Print.
Green, Linda L. “West Virginia 1860 Agricultural Census, Volume 2.” Google Books. 19 July 2008. Web. 29 Dec. 2010.
Irons, Charles F. (2008). “Origins of Proslavery Christianity: White and Black Evangelicals in Colonial and Antebellum Virginia.” Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. Print.
Irons, Charles F. (2008). “Origins of Proslavery Christianity: White and Black Evangelicals in Colonial and Antebellum Virginia.” 2008. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.
Maddox, William A. (1918). “The Free School Idea in Virginia before the Civil War; A Phase of Political and Social Evolution.” New York, NY: Teachers College, Columbia University. Print.
Mahon, Michael G. (1999). “The Shenandoah Valley, 1861-1865: the destruction of the granary of the Confederacy.” Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Publishers, Print.
Mahon, Michael G. “The Shenandoah Valley, 1861-1865: the destruction of the granary of the Confederacy.” Google Books. 19 July 2008. Web. 28 Dec. 2010.
Phillips, Edward H. (1993). “The Lower Shenandoah Valley in the Civil War: The Impact of War Upon the Civilian Population and Upon Civilian Institutions.” Lynchburg, Virginia: H. E. Howard, Inc. Print.
United States “Historical Census Browser.” University of Virginia. 2 Dec. 2009 Web. 10 September 2011.
United States. Bureau of the Census; United States. National Archives and Records Service. (1967). “Population schedules of the eighth census of the United States, 1860, Virginia [microform] (Volume Reel 1355 – 1860 Virginia Federal Population Census Schedules – James City and Jefferson Counties).” Jefferson, Kanawha, King George, King and Queen, and King William Counties).” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 10 Sept. 2010.
United States. Bureau of the Census; United States. National Archives and Records Service. (1967). Schedule 5 Products of Industry in the County of Jefferson of Virginia during the year ending June 1, 1860. as enumerated by J. A. Coyle.
United States. Bureau of the Census; United States. National Archives and Records Service. (1967). “Population schedules of the eighth census of the United States, 1860, Virginia. [microform] (Volume Reel 1392 – 1860 Virginia Federal Population Census Schedules Slave – Henrico, James City, Jefferson, Kanawha, King George, King and Queen, and King William Counties).” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 10 Sept. 2010.
All photos are by Jim Surkamp
portermillmuseum.jpg is courtesy the Jefferson County Museum