They Moved 18 Locomotives 38 Miles With No Rail! – (1861-2) by Jim Surkamp

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Pt. 1 VIDEO: They Moved 18 Locomotives 38 MIles . . . With No Rail! (1861-2) by Jim Surkamp TRT: 26:08

Pt. 2 VIDEO: They Moved 18 Locomotives 38 Miles . . . With No Rail!! (1861-2) Pt. 2 by Jim Surkamp TRT: 12:52

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Stonewall’s Train Trick May-June, 1861 by Jim Surkamp 3:36

Where We Left Off . . .

When the smoke cleared, the debris had settled, and explosions faded in Berkeley, Jefferson County, Virginia and nearby Maryland in June, 1861 . . .

the buildings of the Harper’s Ferry armory complex were smoking ruins;

the bridge crossing the Potomac at Point of Rocks was destroyed;

as was the bridge upriver at Berlin, MD (today’s Brunswick).

The massive y-span bridge at Harper’s Ferry in ruins from a mighty, pre-dawn, set charge;

a Winans’ “camelback” engine squatted in the bridge’s river debris and

three sabotaged freight cars were in the drink nearby;

Hall’s Rifle works was a ruined shell;

the covered bridge over the Shenandoah River at Harper’s Ferry was wrecked;

the wooden covered bridge at Shepherdstown was, at once, just the piers;

likewise, the railroad bridge over the Opequon at Martinsburg;

likewise, the beautiful colonnade viaduct demolished nearby;

42 locomotives lay in the coal-fueled heat of their own pyres in a ravine near Martinsburg’s roundhouse;

and workmen continued pulling up rails, in order to heat and bend.

All these grim scenes were an astonishing assault and the foul fruit of many busy hands on the wheels of war. They were the railroad wheels either army could travel on. And that is the point.

The account here is about what happened to eighteen B&O locomotives, commandeered in Martinsburg and taken South without benefit of railroad tracks while also chronicling the assorted railroad depredations that occurred before and during. This is told through Ernest Schriver’s account for McClure’s Magazine in the late 19th century. (A very similar account also appeared on the first page of the Martinsburg Statesman of Feb 2, 1897). – ED.

Schriver wrote:

Smiling fortune could hardly have fashioned a situation more favorable to the plans of the Confederates, covetous of northern locomotives . . .

Between the hostile lines, and yet generally within the grasp of the southern forces, ran the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, a prosperous trunk line of standard gauge, extending from Baltimore to St. Louis and completely equipped with first-class rolling stock. And when this rolling stock was at Martinsburg, it was only only thirty-eight miles from the nearest southern

railroad, and but eighteen miles from Winchester, the terminus of one of the divisions of this trunk line, with shops and roundhouse, a point of assembly and distribution for cars and engines. The difficulties were by no means small as will be

seen. The sole means of transporting the prizes from Martinsburg (the point whence most of them were taken) to Strasburg, Virginia – where they could be placed on the tracks of the Manassas Gap railroad – was by way of Winchester over a turnpike.

It is generally conceded that the idea of taking the Baltimore and Ohio rolling stock originated with Colonel Thomas R. Sharp, who at the time of the occurrences narrated, was captain and acting quartermaster in the Confederate army.

He was a civil engineer by profession and a thorough railroad man, self-reliant and resourceful.

Orders To Thomas Sharp from Confederate Quartermaster General A. C. Myers:

Confederate States of America
Quarter Mr Genls department
June 18/ 1861

Thos. R. Sharp Esq

Dear Sir,
I think you can move the Engines & Tenders specified at least two at a time with the following force, viz 60 oxen or their equivalent in horses, 10 wagons & fifty men, including carpenters for strengthening Bridges &c. This number you can employ and also purchase such chains ropes & blocks as may be necessary.
A. C. Myers
Q Mr Genl

If the above force cannot be had for hire, you are hereby authorized to press it into the force.
S. Cooper
Adjt & Insp Genl
NA, QM 6/18/1861

(Source – National Archives (NARA); Thomas R. Sharp
Confederate Railroads. csa-railroads.com 6 April 2002 Web. 9 June 2012. The contents of this web site are copyrighted. Data may be used from these pages for non-commercial purposes as long as credit is given to David L. Bright and the address of this site is given www.csa-railroads.com. c 2002-2012).

From Sharp’s Diary:

June 25 In Winchester – Saw Genl. Jos. E. Johnston. Started to Martinsburg at 12; arrived there 3 3/4 pm and saw 36 locomotives and many cars partially destroyed by fire. At 5 1/2 pm went to Col. T. J. Jacksons headquarters and got from him orders to his officers to stop any further destruction of machinery.

(Source – Confederate Services Records, National Archives (NARA); Thomas R. Sharp
Confederate Railroads. csa-railroads.com 6 April 2002 Web. 9 June 2012. The contents of this web site are copyrighted. Data may be used from these pages for non-commercial purposes as long as credit is given to David L. Bright and the address of this site is given www.csa-railroads.com. c 2002-2012).

Johnston Reports on Order to Jackson

Headquarters
Winchester
June 24, 1861

General S. Cooper
Adjutant and Inspector General
Richmond, Va.

General,
. . . ** Colonel Jackson, who is in the neighborhood of Martinsburg to support the cavalry which is observing the enemy, has, according to his instructions, destroyed all the rolling stock of the road within his reach.**. . .
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. E. Johnston
Brigadier-General, C. S. Army

(SOURCE: Excerpt from letter from J. E. Johnston to Simon Cooper, June 24, 1861 – “The War of the Rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies.” (1902). Series I, Volume II, Chapter IX. p. 949).

Most of the facts given are obtained from J. E. Duke, and in 1861 Colonel Sharp’s confidential clerk. Mr. Duke, who enlisted

in the army from Jefferson County, Virginia, was detailed for duty in the quartermaster’s department (and) was present when some of the locomotives were taken. His memory has been refreshed and his facts substantiated from other sources when thought necessary.

In June, 1861, “Stonewall” Jackson, acting under the orders of General Johnston, went to Martinsburg and burned a number of cars and engines belonging to the Baltimore and Ohio road. The locomotives were but slightly injured (only the woodwork having been damaged), and were among those afterward carried off by a “railroad corps.”

Everything having been previously arranged, the forces selected to do this work – consisting of about thirty-five men, including six machinists, detailed from the ranks, ten teamsters and about a dozen laborers, left Winchester before daybreak and proceeded by the pike to Martinsburg.

They were under the immediate charge of Hugh Longest, an experienced railroad man from Richmond.

Forty horses, hired and where necessary impressed from the farmers in the rich valley, and in some cases driven by their well-to-do owners, formed a highly picturesque feature of the expedition. They were to furnish the motive power.

Fine specimens of horseflesh they were; big, brawny-limbed, well-fed and in the very pink of condition for draught work.

They would need all their strength before the day was over, for there were some troublesome hills along the route over which the ponderous iron horses were to be pulled.

Upon arrival at Martinsburg, Mr. Longest, a swarthy, wiry little man, looked about him until his eye fell upon a big locomotive standing on a side track near the roundhouse.

“That’s the fellow we’ve got to begin on. Go in, boys” he shouted. And then the skilled men and laborers began to work, using all expedition possible, for no one could say how soon they might be interrupted by the enemy. First, the tender was uncoupled,

then the engine was raised by means of jackscrews and stripped of all the parts that could be removed, such as side and piston rods, valves, levers, lamps, bell, whistle and sandbox.

All the wheels were taken off except the flange drivers at the rear. The stripping was done to lighten weight, secure greater ease in handling and for the better preservation of the running gear.

When this work had been completed, what a few minutes before had been a splendid iron Pegasus, was a helpless, inert mass; a mere shell, deformed and crippled, and ready to submit to any indignity, even to that of being hauled over a country road by the flesh and blood horses whose office it had so long usurped.

The next step was to swing the prize around until it hung poised in the air at right angles with the tracks and to replace the missing forward wheels with a heavy truck, made especially for the purpose, furnished with iron-shod wooden wheels, and

fastened to the engine’s bumper by an iron bolt serving as a linch pin. When the jacks were removed, the engine rested on the flange drivers and the wheels of the truck. A powerful chain formed the connecting link between the locomotive and the team

of horses. This chain was fastened to the single, double and “fourble” trees, by means of which the horses pulled. The arrangement was very ingenious and insured steady and united effort. The horses went four abreast and the forty,

(and) when strung along in pulling position, covered the entire width of the road and over 100 feet of its length. Probably no similar team had ever before been seen on an American road.

When all was in readiness, a teamster mounted the end of each four, Longest gave the signal, the cracks of ten whips rang out and the locomotive novel trip was begun. The off-start was merry and inspiring enough to such of the townspeople as happened

to be in sympathy with the movement and to the small boy who was as usual prime in force, it was an event keenly and long to be remembered, an experience to be treasured along with that of donning his initial pair of long trou.

but to the sturdy band of workers who had the prize in charge, the trip was anything but a holiday jaunt.

Miss Sarah Morgan McKown from near Martinsburg writes of seeing the train works

August 22st, 1861 — We all went to Martinsburg, Kitty, Mary Kate McKown, Mr. Mc, Manie, and I. we saw a very unusual sight. We met the engines and Cars going up the Pike to Winchester drawn by horses. 32 were hitched to one engine. The Southerners have full sway now.

(Sources – Berkeley-Martinsburg Public Library, West Virginia Room; Thomas R. Sharp
Confederate Railroads. csa-railroads.com 6 April 2002 Web. 9 June 2012. The contents of this web site are copyrighted. Data may be used from these pages for non-commercial purposes as long as credit is given to David L. Bright and the address of this site is given www.csa-railroads.com. c 2002-2012).

The time made varied according to the state of the weather, the roads, the condition of the teams and various other causes.

Sometimes the whole distance to Winchester – eighteen miles – was made in a single day, while at others only three or four miles would be covered in the same time.

The average time of the entire trip was three days to Strasburg, thirty-eight miles south of Martinsburg. Often the macadam covering of the road would break through under the unwonted weight and let the iron monster down into the soft earth.

Then there was hustling. The indispensable jackscrews came into use and timbers were placed under the wheels until after, perhaps, an hour’s work a fresh start could be made. On levels, where there was good, solid road and all went well, the teams

proceeded at a fast walk; up the hills they generally went faster, because it was only by a good running start that they could get to the top at all. As it was, the big horses had to strain every muscle in ascending the grades.

Before the first trip was made, a prospecting party went over the route and examined the bridges on the line of the pike. In most instances these were not equal to supporting a heavy locomotive and it was necessary to go into the woods, cut timber

and strengthen them for the unusual burden. One of the hardest problems to solve was that of regulating the speed in descending hills. Just what the cyclist does for his wheel with his little spoon-shaped brake, the men in charge of the locomotive did for that unwieldy mass of iron, for had it once got beyond control on a sharp down-grade, nothing could have saved the horses or anything else that happened to be in the way. After considerable experiment and thought, the all-useful

jackscrew was again called into requisition and used as a brake, being fastened to the engine frame and placed sidewise against the drive wheel and tightened or loosened as the necessity arose by a man who rode on the engine.

It is hardly needful to add that this man’s position was no sinecure.

The tenders were conveyed to Strasburg in the same manner as engines, eight horses being employed to the team. Cars were not so much in demand as engines, but a number of these were taken in the same manner. They were not only used afterward for transporting war supplies on the southern roads, but served the immediate purpose of carrying the detached portions of the locomotives.

When the engines reached Strasburg they were placed on the tracks of the Manassas Gap road, which had the same gauge as the Baltimore & Ohio — five feet (SHOULD BE:”four feet”-ED), eight and a half inches — by the process employed in taking them from the rails at Martinsburg, and the tenders having been attached, they were hauled, by means of other steam power, over the road mentioned and the Orange & Alexandria and Virginia Central roads to Richmond, the detached parts remaining in the cars.

At Richmond they were assembled and kept until all had been brought from the line of the Baltimore & Ohio. Nearly a year was occupied in conveying the seized locomotives, nineteen (“eighteen” is more documented, with one not making the full trip.-ED) in all, from the Baltimore & Ohio to Richmond, most of them coming from Martinsburg, though a few were taken from Harper’s Ferry and Duffields. The reason so long a period was covered in the collection of the seized stock was that the Baltimore & Ohio road was not continuously in the possession of the Confederates.

Two or three of the locomotives which were started out of Martinsburg on the pike never got to Winchester, the Union forces having suddenly appeared upon the scene and driven off the party engaged in hauling them.

The attempt to convey them to Strasburg was never renewed and they stood by the pike between Martinsburg and Winchester until recovered by the Baltimore & Ohio people at the close of the war, somewhat the worse for their exposure to the elements, but still capable, after repairs, of doing good service.

Some of the engines were the long, lean freight haulers of the day; some were passenger locomotives, but the majority

were of the now-vanished “camelback” type, designed by Ross Winans of Baltimore. These “camelbacks” were sturdy pullers, and did excellent service in their time, but they were marvels of ugliness.

The cab was perched on top of, and well to the front of the high boiler, and the engineer stood almost over the front wheels.

In Blind Tom‘s pianistic description of the “Battle of Manassas,” he used to imitate, with that robust voice of his, the whistle of a “camelback,” and weird and blood-curdling as was the sound emitted from his lips, it was but a faithful reproduction of the original.

Now and then, the squad in “turnpiking” the engines, found it advisable in view of information received from scouts, to retire at night to Bunker Hill, a point well within the Confederate lines, to avoid the risk of capture, returning early next morning to resume operations.

Notwithstanding the length of time over which the operations extended, and the frequent proximity of the Union forces, there was never as much as a skirmish. To carry off bodily such a great mass of heavy material from points at intervals within the clutch of the opposing forces, without the loss of a single man, was indeed a remarkable feat.

Julia Chase of Winchester describes the ‘Train Haul’ in her diary

August 21st, 1861 — * The company who left {Winchester, Va.} for Martinsburg last Saturday have brought some of the Engines here, which had been thrown into the river by the Army when at the Ferry.

Julia Chase’s Second Diary Entry:

September 2nd, 1861 — One of the Engines {Baltimore & Ohio RR Engine No. 208} that was thrown into the river at Martinsburg, when the Confederate Army was at Harpers Ferry, has been brought into town {Fredericksburg} today by 32 horses, to be taken on to Richmond. It was quite a sight to see as it passed by — looking very much like an iron monster.

Julia Chase’s Third Diary Entry:

September 5th, 1861 — * A company of Militia have gone to Duffields this afternoon to bring some more Machinery or Engines {to Winchester}. (NOTE: The head of the militia involved was Turner Ashby shown here.-ED).

“Tracking” Progress From Capt. Sharp’s Diary:

September 4 Left Martinsburg at 10 am and arrived at Stevenson’s at 12 1/2 pm and took train to Winchester. Ordered part of my force to Duffields {a station on the Baltimore & Ohio RR 3 1/2 miles west of Harper’s Ferry} to remove engines from there to Halltown {a station on the Winchester & Potomac RR}.

Capt. Sharp’s Second Set of Diary Entries:

October
2 In Winchester Engine 231 put on track at Strasburg
3 In Winchester Accepted appointment of Chief Engineer, Winchester & Potomac RR
4 Left by RR to Cameron {Charleston?} and from thence to Camp Jefferson (Col. Ashby)

Capt. Sharp’s Third Set of Diary Entries

December 5 In Winchester Longest left for a visit to Harpers Ferry. Am built a temporary bridge and brought off Engine 50, four B&O cars and some arsenal machinery;
December 6 In Winchester More cars brought from Harpers Ferry today

(Source – Thomas R. Sharp
Confederate Railroads. csa-railroads.com 6 April 2002 Web. 9 June 2012. The contents of this web site are copyrighted. Data may be used from these pages for non-commercial purposes as long as credit is given to David L. Bright and the address of this site is given www.csa-railroads.com. c 2002-2012).

The Special Problem of Moving One Locomotive – “Old 199″

The last time the “railroad corps” handled one of the captured locomotives was in the spring of 1862, when the Confederates evacuated Manassas just after the Second Bull Run. At that time the “199,” a “camelback,” and the last of the engines to be taken from Martinsburg, was at Strasburg ready to be conveyed by the way of railroads to Richmond.

The sudden move of the army rendered this impossible, as the direct route to the capital had been cut off; so the night of the evacuation the railroad force were ordered to get that “camelback” to Richmond by the only route left open,

namely, the very circuitous one by way of Mount Jackson and Staunton. Accordingly, the “199,” which had already cost so much time and trouble, was put on the tracks of the Manassas Gap railroad and taken to Mount Jackson, a distance of twenty-five miles, and thence by team over the pike, a matter of seventy miles more, to Staunton, where it was again placed on the rails, this time those of the Virginia Central, and hauled to Richmond. The trip occupied about four days, and the movement was the most hurried and exciting of the series.

Many bridges had to be strengthened en route, and in crossing some of them it was found necessary to substitute a block and fall for the horses. Staunton was reached early in the morning, and though it was scarcely daylight, the major portion of the population were up and out to see the novel cavalcade.

All the engines were kept at Richmond until the last one had been seized, the original intention having been to do the repairing and refitting there, but in May, 1862, when McClellan began his movement up the Peninsula and preparations to evacuate the capital were made, the dismantled locomotives and their dislocated members were among the very first freight started out of Richmond.

To have allowed those precious “camelbacks ” to fall into the hands of the northern troops after such risks and the expenditure of so much time, ingenuity and labor, would have been galling indeed. Colonel Sharp, who had them in charge, directed me to hurry the prizes by rail to a safe point in the South.

They were accordingly taken to a place on the North Carolina Central road, in Alamance county, North Carolina, about fifty miles west of Raleigh. The movement was successfully accomplished, and the engines found another temporary resting place. Meantime the large shop buildings of the Raleigh & Gaston railroad at Raleigh were leased by the Southern government, fitted up with improved machinery, and the Confederate States locomotive shops were established. The shops were ready for work by July, 1862, and the captured locomotives and the carloads of accessories were hauled back to Raleigh and a large force of workmen began the refitting and repairing.

* About ten months were occupied in turning out the locomotives, and it was over eighteen months, from the date of the first raid on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, before they were all in active use again.* They proved highly valuable in subsequent operations, coming into use as they did when much of the southern rolling stock was completely worn out.

The long time covered, first in securing and transporting the rolling stock, and afterwards in placing it in running order after the dismantling, showed no lack of skill or enterprise on the part of those engaged in the task . . . .

The delay was owing, in some degree, to the peculiar character of the mechanical obstacles to be overcome, but much more to the frequent changes in the positions of the contending armies. The “railroad corps” had always to follow the army.

The operations were not confined to the carrying off of cars and engines. The best portion of the equipment of the Raleigh shops, above described, including lathes, planers, drill presses and last, but not least, a turn-table were all conveyed to Raleigh in cars, by the way of the pike and railroads, from the Baltimore & Ohio roundhouse at Martinsburg.

B&O Railroad Museum Roundtable. (March 13, 2010 – A demonstration of the roundtable at the B&O Railroad Museum. One man turns the 45-ton “Thatcher Perkins” steam locomotive) – TRT: :58

More than this, at a later period of the war, the “railroad corps,” who seemed to have stopped at nothing, actually tore up and hauled away the ties, rails, chairs and spikes, forming about five miles of the Baltimore & Ohio road between Duffields and Kearneysville and relaid it from Manassas Gap to Centerville for the use of the army.

Jackson wrote from Winchester an update to Maj. Thomas Rhett, December 2nd 1861

The enemy are using the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad as far east as the Little Cacapon, and from official information received last night they commenced working on the Little Cacapon railroad bridge at 3 p.m. on Friday last, and will soon complete the work, as they had all the building material on hand. They are energetically pressing the railroad repairs eastward.

With but comparative little exception both tracks have been by our Government taken up from the Furnace Hill, near Harper’s Ferry, to Martinsburg, and about 7½ miles of one of the tracks has also been removed west of Martinsburg. One track is as yet preserved for the purpose of hauling away the other to the vicinity of Martinsburg.

Captain Sharp, assistant quartermaster, has repaired a locomotive for the purpose of removing the track more rapidly, and today I expect it to commence running, and Captain Sharp expects to be able with it to remove 1 mile per day of the single track. I have made a detail of 50 men from the militia for the purpose of expediting the work as rapidly as possible.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,
T. J. Jackson
Major-General, P. A. C. S., Commanding Valley District

(Jackson to Rhett, December 2, 1861 – Official Record of the War of the Rebellion, Series 1, Vol. 5, Chapter XIV, p. 976)

J.L. Sullivan of the B&O told Union Gen. George McClellan pretty much the same thing with more detail in a letter September 7, 1861:

. . . Have just heard that Confederates have taken up about 9 miles of the iron on our track above Martinsburg for repairs of their roads toward Richmond, and have also removed a considerable portion of our telegraph wires for transfer in the same direction. All this is in addition to five locomotives and some $40,000 worth of valuable machinists tools and materials for railroad repairs, & c., lately taken from our Martinsburg shops, and of which they stated they were greatly in need at the South. The engines were hauled by turnpike through Winchester to Strasburg or some other point on Manassas road . . .

(Sullivan to McClellan, September 7, 1861 – “Official Record of the War of the Rebellion.” Series 1, Vol. 5, Chapter XIV, p. 587.

Mr. Duke remembers and relates with dry humor how, after most strenuous efforts, this piece of track was got into position late Saturday evening and how the very next day, Sunday, it was captured by the Union forces. This episode occurred just prior to Second Bull Run and was a striking example of the extreme uncertainty of war movements.

T. K. Cartmell Recalls Train Times

This writer witnessed several of these dangerous exploits. . . . the rails were rapidly torn up; cross ties piled in heaps, and great fires made. On these, the rails were thrown and soon misshapen and useless iron rails were tumbling around. Then the troopers would jump into their saddles again, and move rapidly to another point and await the arrival of the long freights, so rich with the things soldiers needed; and in the rear of this train at a safe point, more track would be torn up, and the raiders waited for the big freight to hurry back from the scene the Rebels had so lately made for them.

On their backward movement, they would run into the break last made, and while the train men were in confusion, the cavalry boys dashed up with yells and pistol firing that demoralized the B&O crew . . . The B&O was equal to the emergency, and with the aid of the Government soon got their road bed in shape, but too late to deliver reinforcements. . . It was in constant use, the government paying millions for the transfer of shifting armies from East to West, Oftener, however, from West to East, to recruit the great army of the Potomac.

(Cartmell, pp. 60-62).

Then-Colonel Sharp was, not many years after the war, made master of transportation of the Baltimore & Ohio road and filled that important position for a number of years under President John W. Garrett, who was at the head of the road during the war,

and who was able to appreciate enterprise and ability, even when for a season directed against his own interests.

References:

Baldwin Locomotive Works; Burnham, Parry, Williams & Co. (1881). “Illustrated catalogue of Locomotives.” Philadelphia : J.B. Lippincott & Co. Print.

Baldwin Locomotive Works; Burnham, Parry, Williams & Co. (1881). “Illustrated catalogue of Locomotives.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 13 June 2012.

“The War of the Rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies.” (1902). NOTE on authors: Robert N. Scott compiled and edited v. 1-18, 1880-87, and also collected the greater part of the material for v. 19-36, 1887-91. After his death in 1887 the work was continued by Henry M. Lazelle, 1887-89, and by a board of publication, 1889-99, consisting of George B. Davis, 1889-97, Leslie J. Perry, 1889-99, Joseph W. Kirkley, 1889-99, and Fred C. Ainsworth, 1898-99; from 1899-1901 edited by Fred C. Ainsworth and Joesph W. Kirkley. Gettysburg, Pa: Gettysburg National Historical Society. Print. Series I, Volume V – Chapter XIV, p. 976; p. 949;

“The War of the Rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies.” (1902). Series I, Volume V – Chapter XIV.

“The War of the Rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies.” (1902). Series I, Volume II, Chapter IX. p. 949.

Jackson and the Locomotive Haul – Confederate Railroads. csa-railroads.com
6 April 2002 Web. 9 June 2012. The contents of this web site are copyrighted. Data may be used from these pages for non-commercial purposes as long as credit is given to David L. Bright and the address of this site is given www.csa-railroads.com. c 2002-2012.

Cartmell, Thomas K. (1909). “Shenandoah Valley Pioneers and their Descendants: A History of Frederick County, VA.” Winchester, VA.: Eddy Press Corp. pp. 60-62. Print.

Cartmell, Thomas K. (1909). “Shenandoah Valley Pioneers and their Descendants: A History of Frederick County, VA.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2012.

Chase, Julia; Lee, Laura. (2002). “Winchester Divided: The Civil War Diaries of Julia Chase and Laura Lee.” edited by Michael G. Mahon. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Press. pp. 8-17. Print.

Dwyer, Thomas. “Map of the Manassas Gap Railroad and its extensions; September, 1855.” Baltimore, MD. Print.

Dwyer, Thomas. (1855). “Map of the Manassas Gap Railroad and its extensions; September, 1855.” United States. The Library of Congress: American Memory. “Maps Collection.” 27 Oct. 2009 Web. 14 June 2012.

(SUMMARY: Topographical map of part of northern Virginia showing relief by hachures, drainage, cities and towns, counties, roads, and railroads with distances. Includes profiles. Chartered March 11, 1850. Opened in 1854 from Manassas Junction to Strasburg. Va. Consolidated June 1, 1867, with the Orange and Alexandria, forming the Orange, Alexandria, and Manassas Railroad).

Eggleston, George Cary. (1875). “A Rebel’s Recollections.” New York, NY: Hurd & Houghton. Print

Eggleston, George Cary. (1875). “A Rebel’s Recollections” Documenting the American South, University of North Carolina Library. 22 Aug. 2008 Web. 28 Dec. 2010.

Chase, Julia; Lee, Laura. (2002). “Winchester Divided: The Civil War Diaries of Julia Chase and Laura Lee.” edited by Michael G. Mahon. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Press. pp. 8-17. Print.

“War-Time Diary of Miss Sarah Morgan McKown” – Berkeley-Martinsburg Public Library.

Schriver, Ernest. “Stealing Railroad Engines.” (1889 or 1898-ED). from “Tales from McClure’s: War, being true stories of camp and battlefield.” New York, NY: Doubleday & McClure co. Print.

Ernest Schriver. (1898 or 1889-ED). “Stealing Railroad Engines.” Wikisource. 31 August 2010 Web. 3 April 2012.

Captured from Baltimore & Ohio Railroad by Jackson in June 1861 and hauled to Confederate railroads by Capt. Thomas Sharp – Captured Union Locomotives. csa-railroads.com 6 April 2002 Web. 9 June 2012.
The contents of this web site are copyrighted. Data may be used from these pages for non-commercial purposes as long as credit is given to David L. Bright and the address of this site is given www.csa-railroads.com. c 2002-2012

Steam Locomotive Glossary. Railway Technical Web Pages. 10 October 2004 Web. 12 June 2012.

Video – B&O Railroad Museum Roundtable. (March 13, 2010 – A demonstration of the roundtable at the B&O Railroad Museum. One man turns the 45-ton “Thatcher Perkins” steam locomotive) – TRT: 00:58

Martinsburg Statesman Feb 2, 1897, P. 1.

Flickr Set/Image Credits:

Point of Rocks, MD. by Meyer Brantz, p. 595 –
Mayer, Brantz. (April, 1857). “June Jaunt.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Vol. 14, Issue: 83. April, 1857. pp. 592-612. Print.

Mayer, Brantz. (April, 1857). “June Jaunt.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 20 Oct. 2010.

Bridge Destroyed, Harper’s Ferry, Va. 1861
Gardner #7649 “Harper’s Ferry, W. Va. View of town; railroad bridge in ruins.” plate 1861-1865. (Library of Congress).

Ruins Shepherdstown Bridge today by Jim Surkamp – using Googlemaps.

Hall’s Rifle Works, Harper’s Ferry, Va.
Photographs from the West Virginia and Regional History Collection. 9 October 2010 Web. 9 April 2012.nsus

Drawing of Colonnade viaduct by D. H. Strother
Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 33, Issue: 194, July, 1866. p. 146. Print.

Strother, David H. (July, 1866). “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 20 Oct. 2010.

Gen. Joseph E. Johnston
Wikipedia English. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 9 January 2012.

Stonewall Jackson full-body
“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 1. Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co. p. 123. Print.

Battles and Leaders. Vol. 1. Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010.

Stonewall Jackson (head)
“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 1. Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co. p. 121. Print.

Battles and Leaders. Vol. 1. Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010.

Ruins of the Depot by Alfred Waud

Title: Martins burg

Creator(s): Waud, Alfred R. (Alfred Rudolph), 1828-1891, artist

Date Created/Published: 1864 [ca. December 3]

Medium: 1 drawing on light green paper : pencil and Chinese white ; 23.5 x 32.7 cm (sheet).

Summary: Includes four scenes: Ruins of the depot; The Square; The Barricades; On the Opequan n. Martinsburg 64.

Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ppmsca-21187 (digital file from original item) LC-USZ62-15146 (b&w film copy neg.)

Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.

Call Number: DRWG/US – Waud, no. 308 (A size) [P&P]

Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

Destruction of Railway Cars at Harper’s Ferry – Harper’s Weekly July 20, 1861, p. 455.

Camelback Locomotive in the River at Harper’s Ferry – Harper’s Weekly July 20, 1861, p. 452.

Piers of destroyed bridge at Berlin, MD. (Brunswick/Barry)
Miller, Francis Trevelyan. (1911). “The photographic history of the Civil War: in ten volumes. Vol. 2 New York : Review of Reviews Co. p. 57. Print.

Piers of destroyed bridge at Berlin, MD. (Brunswick/Barry)
Miller, Francis Trevelyan. (1912). “The photographic history of the civil war in ten volumes.” Vol. 2. Perseus Digital Library at Tufts University. 10 May 2008. Web. 16 Feb. 2011.

Military railroad operations in northern Virginia: men using levers for loosening rails
About This Item Obtaining Copies Access to Original
Title: [Military railroad operations in northern Virginia: men using levers for loosening rails]
Creator(s): Russell, Andrew J., photographer
Related Names:
United States. Army. Military Railway Service.
Date Created/Published: [1862 or 1863]
Medium: 1 photographic print : salted paper.
Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ppmsca-10396 (digital file from original photo, front) LC-USZ62-90111 (b&w film copy neg.)
Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.
Call Number: LOT 9209, no. 49b [P&P]
Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA.

[Military railroad operations in northern Virginia: two piles of rails and wooden ties]
Title: [Military railroad operations in northern Virginia: two piles of rails and wooden ties]
Creator(s): Russell, Andrew J., photographer
Related Names:
United States. Army. Military Railway Service.
Date Created/Published: [1862 or 1863]
Medium: 1 photographic print : salted paper.
Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ppmsca-10398 (digital file from original photo, front) LC-USZ62-90112 (b&w film copy neg.)
Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.
Call Number: LOT 9209, no. 52 [P&P]
Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA.

Mason Locomotive 1860
Old Milwaukee Road.com. 15 May 2008 Web. 12 March 2012.

Antique locomotive screw jack
Wikipedia English. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 9 January 2012.

camel 1855, detail camel 1864
Wikipedia English. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 9 January 2012.

Macadam Road 1850s
Wikipedia English. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 9 January 2012.

Blind Tom Bethune
Wikipedia English. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 9 January 2012.

“The Tale of ‘Blind Tom’ Wiggins – Play Chronicles Life of Slave Pianist Who Awed Audiences in 1800s.” npr.org. 4 April 2002 Web. 1 June 2012.

Thomas R. Sharp
Confederate Railroads. csa-railroads.com. 6 April 2002 Web. 9 June 2012. The contents of this web site are copyrighted. Data may be used from these pages for non-commercial purposes as long as credit is given to David L. Bright and the address of this site is given (www.csa-railroads.com). c 2002-2012.

Sharps’ Map detail Martinsburg Harpers Ferry
Sharp’s Raid Map
Confederate Railroads. csa-railroads.com.
6 April 2002 Web. 9 June 2012
The contents of this web site are copyrighted. Data may be used from these pages for non-commercial purposes as long as credit is given to David L. Bright and the address of this site is given (www.csa-railroads.com).
c 2002-2012

Sharp’s Raid Map -Confederate Railroads. 6 April 2002 Web. 5 April 2012.

Furnace Hill property; Robt Duke’s heirs property
Brown, Howell S. “Map of Jefferson County, Virginia From Actual Surveys With Farm Limits, 1852.” Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society Vol. XLV. (1979): pp. 1-7. Print.

Brown, S. Howell. (1852). “Map of Jefferson County, Virginia from actual survey with the farm limits.” United States. The Library of Congress: American Memory. “Maps Collection.” 27 Oct. 2009 Web. 10 Sept. 2010.

Thomas Sharp, Hugh Longest, J. E. Duke
Census records – National Archives Records Administration (NARA)

G. C. Eggleston
Eggleston, George Cary. (1910). “Recollections of a varied life.”
New York, NY: H. Holt and company. Print.

Eggleston, George Cary. (1910). “Recollections of a varied life.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2012.

Strasburg.MtJackson.Staunton.Richmond – Jim Surkamp, maps – Dwyer, Vaisz

Strasburg.MtJackson.Staunton.Richmond with Googlemaps
Map showing Strasburg, Mt. Jackson, Staunton and Richmond , VA. – Googlemaps added artwork by Jim Surkamp

strasburg.mtjackson.map,
Dwyer, Thomas. “Map of the Manassas Gap Railroad and its extensions; September, 1855.” Baltimore, MD. Print.

Dwyer, Thomas. (1855). “Map of the Manassas Gap Railroad and its extensions; September, 1855.” United States. The Library of Congress: American Memory. “Maps Collection.” 27 Oct. 2009 Web. 14 June 2012.

(SUMMARY: Topographical map of part of northern Virginia showing relief by hachures, drainage, cities and towns, counties, roads, and railroads with distances. Includes profiles. Chartered March 11, 1850. Opened in 1854 from Manassas Junction to Strasburg. Va. Consolidated June 1, 1867, with the Orange and Alexandria, forming the Orange, Alexandria, and Manassas Railroad).

staunton.vacentral.richmond
Vaisz, W. (1852). “Map of the Virginia Central Rail Road showing the connection between tide water Virginia, and the Ohio River at Big Sandy, Guyandotte and Point Pleasant.” Philadelphia, PA. Print.

Vaisz, W. (1852). “Map of the Virginia Central Rail Road showing the connection between tide water Virginia, and the Ohio River at Big Sandy, Guyandotte and Point Pleasant.” United States. The Library of Congress: American Memory. “Maps Collection.” 27 Oct. 2009 Web. 10 Sept. 2010.

flanges on locomotive wheels
Steam Locomotive Glossary. Railway Technical Web Pages. 10 October 2004 Web. 12 June 2012

google.mb.winchester.strasburg – Googlemaps and Jim Surkamp

loco.woodenwheel.baltd.p12
Baldwin Locomotive Works; Burnham, Parry, Williams & Co. (1881). “Illustrated catalogue of Locomotives.” Philadelphia : J.B. Lippincott & Co. p. 12. Print.

Baldwin Locomotive Works; Burnham, Parry, Williams & Co. (1881). “Illustrated catalogue of Locomotives.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 13 June 2012.

baldwin.loco.6wheel.p21
Baldwin Locomotive Works; Burnham, Parry, Williams & Co. (1881). “Illustrated catalogue of Locomotives.” Philadelphia : J.B. Lippincott & Co. p. 21. Print.

Baldwin Locomotive Works; Burnham, Parry, Williams & Co. (1881). “Illustrated catalogue of Locomotives.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 13 June 2012.

baldwin.loco.american.p66
Baldwin Locomotive Works; Burnham, Parry, Williams & Co. (1881). “Illustrated catalogue of Locomotives.” Philadelphia : J.B. Lippincott & Co. p. 21. Print.

Baldwin Locomotive Works; Burnham, Parry, Williams & Co. (1881). “Illustrated catalogue of Locomotives.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 13 June 2012.

Cameron’s Depot, VA. – with artwork by Jim Surkamp
Map of the routes examined and surveyed for the Winchester and Potomac Rail Road, State of Virginia, under the direction of Capt. J. D. Graham, U.S. Top. Eng., 1831 and 1832; surveyed by Lts. A. D. Mackay and E. French, 1st Arty., assistants in 1831, and Lts. E. French and J. F. Izard, assistants in 1832; drawn from the original plot by Lt. Humphreys, 2d Artillery.

Locomotive General.com. 10 May 2002 Web. 12 June 2012.

The Great Locomotive Chase Civil War, Railroad Learning Activity:
The Parts of a 19th Century Railroad Engine. 3 May 2005 Web. 12 June 2012.

Old Strasburg Passenger Depot 1. Civilwaralbum.com. 5 March 2012 Web. 12 June 2012.

Old Strasburg Passenger Depot 2. Civilwaralbum.com. 5 March 2012 Web. 12 June 2012.

B&O train going over a bridge, June, 1857
Porter, W. E. “Keeping the Baltimore and Ohio in Repair in War time was a Task for Hercules.” Book of the Royal Blue. Vol. X (June, 1907). Print.

Porter, W. E. “Keeping the Baltimore and Ohio in Repair in War time was a Task for Hercules.” Book of the Royal Blue. Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 28 March 2012.

A “Terminus” Rough
king206a
The Great South; A Record of Journeys in Louisiana, Texas, the Indian Territory, Missouri, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland:
Electronic Edition.
King, Edward, 1848-1896
Illustrated by Champney, James Wells, 1843-1903
iv, [17]-802, [4] p., ill.
Hartford, Conn. American Publishing Co. 1875
docsouth.unc.edu/nc/king/king.html
© This work is the property of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. It may be used freely by individuals for research, teaching and personal use as long as this statement of availability is included in the text.

Pair of MuleBoots
king434b
The Great South; A Record of Journeys in Louisiana, Texas, the Indian Territory, Missouri, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland:
Electronic Edition.
King, Edward, 1848-1896
Illustrated by Champney, James Wells, 1843-1903
xiv, [17]-802, [4] p., ill.
Hartford, Conn. American Publishing Co. 1875
docsouth.unc.edu/nc/king/king.html
© This work is the property of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. It may be used freely by individuals for research, teaching and personal use as long as this statement of availability is included in the text.

The Carpenter
king487
The Great South; A Record of Journeys in Louisiana, Texas, the Indian Territory, Missouri, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland:
Electronic Edition.
King, Edward, 1848-1896
Illustrated by Champney, James Wells, 1843-1903
xiv, [17]-802, [4] p., ill.
Hartford, Conn. American Publishing Co. 1875
docsouth.unc.edu/nc/king/king.html
© This work is the property of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. It may be used freely by individuals for research, teaching and personal use as long as this statement of availability is included in the text.

A Wayside Sketch
king 473
The Great South; A Record of Journeys in Louisiana, Texas, the Indian Territory, Missouri, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland:
Electronic Edition.
King, Edward, 1848-1896
Illustrated by Champney, James Wells, 1843-1903
docsouth.unc.edu/nc/king/king.html
© This work is the property of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. It may be used freely by individuals for research, teaching and personal use as long as this statement of availability is included in the text.

dhs.mts7.p680.cuttimber
Crayon, Porte. “The Mountains – Pt. VII.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, Volume 46, Issue: 275, April, 1873, pp. 669-681. Print.

Crayon, Porte. (April, 1873). “ The Mountains – VII.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 29 May 2011.

dhs.p.300 wagon-driver
Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 10, Issue: 57, Feb., 1855. p. 66. Print.

Strother, David H. (Feb., 1855). “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 29 May 2011.

dhs.va2.p303 driver with cattle
Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 10, Issue: 57, Feb., 1855. pp. 289-310. Print.

Strother, David H. (Feb., 1855). “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 29 May 2011.

dhs.va3.p289.tomlongbow
Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 11, Issue: 63, (August, 1855). pp. 289-311. Print.

Strother, David H. (August, 1855). “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 29 May 2011

dhs.va3.p292.twohorses
Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 11, Issue: 63, August, 1855. pp. 289-311. Print.

Strother, David H. (August, 1855). “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 29 May 2011

dhs.va3.p295.womanchairtwist
Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 11, Issue: 63, August, 1855. pp. 289-311. Print.

Strother, David H. (August, 1855). “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 29 May 2011

dhs.va4.p159.emigrantshalt
Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 12, Issue 68, Jan., 1856. pp. 158-179. Print.

Strother, David H., (Jan., 1856). “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 29 May 2011

dhs.dec.1853.camp.p24
A Virginian. “Virginia Canaan.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 8, Issue 43, December, 1853. pp. 18-36. Print.

A Virginian. (December, 1853). “Virginia Canaan.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 29 May 2011.

dhs.dec.1853.horsestrain.p25
A Virginian. “Virginia Canaan.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 8, Issue 43, December, 1853. pp. 18-36. Print.

A Virginian. (December, 1853). “Virginia Canaan.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 29 May 2011.

dhs.dec1853.p31.boots
A Virginian. “Virginia Canaan.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 8, Issue 43, December, 1853. pp. 18-36. Print.

A Virginian. (December, 1853). “Virginia Canaan.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 29 May 2011.

turnerashby.jan.1867.p189
Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 34, Issue: 200, January, 1867. pp. 172-192. Print.

Strother, David H., (Jan., 1867). “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harpers Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 20 Oct. 2010.
dhs.aug.1867.hay.p275
Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 35, Issue: 207, August, 1867. pp. 273-296. Print.

Strother, David H. (August, 1867). “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harpers Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 20 Oct. 2010

dhs.va4.p172.manonhorse
Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 12, Issue: 68, Jan., 1856. pp. 158-179. Print.

Strother, David H. (Jan., 1856). “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 29 May 2011

dhs.va5.p316.woodchopper
Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 13, Issue: 75, August, 1856. pp. 303-323. Print.

Strother, David H. (August, 1856). “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 29 May 2011
dhs.va5.p322.saddler
Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 13, Issue: 75, August, 1856. pp. 303-323. Print.

Strother, David H. (August, 1856). “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 29 May 2011

dhs.mt2.applejack.p814
Strother, David H., “The Mountains. Pt. II.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 44, Issue: 264, May, 1872. pp. 801-815. Print.

Strother, David H. (May, 1872). “The Mountains. Pt. II.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 29 May 2011.

dhs.mt3.p31.clerk
Strother, David H., “The Mountains. Pt. III.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 45, Issue: 265, (June, 1872). pp. 21-35. Print.

Strother, David H., “The Mountains. Pt. III.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 29 May 2011.

reversals of the bachelor
Strother, David H., “The Mountains. Pt. IV.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 44, Issue: 267, August, 1872. p. 362. Print.

Strother, David H. (August, 1872). “The Mountains. Pt. IV.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 29 May 2011.

dhs.mt4.p353.hiredboy
Strother, David H., “The Mountains. Pt. IV.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 44, Issue: 267, August, 1872. pp. 347-366. Print.

Strother, David H. (August, 1872). “The Mountains. Pt. IV.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 29 May 2011.

dhs.mt4.p354.dishingup
Strother, David H., “The Mountains. Pt. IV.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 44, Issue: 267, August, 1872. pp. 347-366. Print.

Strother, David H. (August, 1872). “The Mountains. Pt. IV.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 29 May 2011.

dhs.mt4.p360.job
Strother, David H., “The Mountains. Pt. IV.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 44, Issue: 267, August, 1872. pp. 347-366. Print.

Strother, David H., (August, 1872). “The Mountains. Pt. IV.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 29 May 2011.

cutting timber. p. 680
Crayon, Porte. “The Mountains. Pt. VII.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 46 Issue: 275 April, 1873. pp. 669-681. Print.

Crayon, Porte. (April, 1873). “The Mountains. Pt. VII.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 29 May 2011.

dhs.mts6.p803.majorspartner
Crayon, Porte. “The Mountains. Pt. VI.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, Volume 45, Issue: 270, November 1872, pp. 801-816

Crayon, Porte. (November, 1872). “The Mountains. Pt. VI.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 29 May 2011.

dhs.fixbridge.april1868.p570
Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 36, Issue: 215, April, 1868. pp. 567-582. Print.

Strother, David H. (April, 1868). “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 20 Oct. 2010.

dhs.mts6.p811.horseback
Crayon, Porte. (November, 1872). “The Mountains. Pt. VI.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, Volume 45, Issue: 270, November, 1872, pp. 801-816. Print.

Crayon, Porte. “The Mountains. Pt. VI.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 20 Oct. 2010.

dhs.mts5.p.506.soldierwhite
Crayon, Porte. “The Mountains, Pt. V.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, Volume 45, Issue: 268, September 1872, pp. 502-516. Print.

Crayon, Porte. (September 1872). “The Mountains, Pt. V.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 29 May 2011.

Crayon, Porte. “The Mountains, Pt. VI.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, Volume 45, Issue:
Harper’s New Monthly Magazine November 1872, pp. 801-816. Print.

Crayon, Porte. (November 1872). “The Mountains, Pt. VI.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 29 May 2011.

Strother, David H., “The Mountains. Pt. III.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 45, Issue: 265, June, 1872. pp. 21-35. Print.

Strother, David H. (June, 1872). “The Mountains. Pt. III.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 29 May 2011.

Strother, David H., “The Mountains. Pt. II.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 44, Issue: 264, May, 1872. pp. 801-815. Print.

Strother, David H. (May, 1872). “The Mountains. Pt. II.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 29 May 2011.

The Library of Congress:

Title: [Military railroad operations in northern Virginia: pieces of rail and wood chained around a tree]
Creator(s): Russell, Andrew J., photographer
Related Names:
United States. Army. Military Railway Service.
Date Created/Published: [ca. 1862 or 1863]
Medium: 1 photographic print : salted paper.
Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ppmsca-10401 (digital file from original photo, front)
Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.
Call Number: LOT 9209, no. 55 [P&P]
Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

Valley Pike – Shenandoah Valley
Title: Valley Pike – Shanandoah Valley
Date Created/Published: [1922]
Medium: 1 negative : glass ; 4 x 5 in. or smaller
Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-npcc-07473 (digital file from original)
Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.
Call Number: LC-F8- 21649 [P&P]
Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

[Five sketches along the Valley Pike in the vicinity of Fishers Hill, Strasburg, Cottontown, Mount Hope, Toms Brook, etc.]. CREATED/PUBLISHED. [186-]

[Map of the vicinity of Strasburg, Virginia].
CREATED/PUBLISHED [186-] NOTES: Relief shown by hachures. Title, date, and scale from Stephenson’s Civil War maps, 1989.
Pen-and-ink and pencil (some col.) over 1/2 inch pencil grid, mounted on cloth.
Reference: LC Civil War maps (2nd ed.), H190. In pencil on verso: 479. Scale [ca. 1:126,720].

The escape of Stonewall Jackson’s Army down the valley pike at Strausburg [sic], Va.
Title: The escape of Stonewall Jackson’s Army down the valley pike at Strausburg [sic], Va.
Creator(s): Forbes, Edwin, 1839-1895, artist
Date Created/Published: 1862 June 2.
Medium: 1 drawing.
Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ppmsca-22374 (digital file from original item) LC-USZ62-79156 (b&w film copy neg.)
Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.
Call Number: DRWG/US – Forbes, no. 27a (B size) [P&P]
Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

Richmond,Va. Crippled locomotive, Richmond & Petersburg Railroad depot
Title: [Richmond, Va. Crippled locomotive, Richmond & Petersburg Railroad depot]
Date Created/Published: [1865]
Medium: 1 negative (2 plates) : glass, stereograph, wet collodion.
Summary: Photograph of the main eastern theater of war, fallen Richmond, April-June 1865.
Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-cwpb-02704 (digital file from original neg. of left half) LC-DIG-cwpb-02705 (digital file from original neg. of right half) LC-B8171-3258 (b&w film copy neg.)
Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.
Call Number: LC-B811- 3258 [P&P] LOT 4162-E (corresponding print) LOT 4177 (corresponding print)
Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

Richmond, Va. Damaged locomotives
Title: [Richmond, Va. Damaged locomotives]
Date Created/Published: [1865]
Medium: 1 negative (2 plates) : glass, stereograph, wet collodion.
Summary: Photograph of the main eastern theater of war, fallen Richmond, April-June 1865.
Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-cwpb-02496 (digital file from original neg. of left half) LC-DIG-cwpb-02497 (digital file from original neg. of right half) LC-B8171-3155 (b&w film copy neg.)
Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.
Call Number: LC-B811- 3155 [P&P]
Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

Culpeper Court House, Virginia. View near depot showing locomotive on Orange & Alexandria Railroad
Title: Culpeper Court House, Virginia. View near depot showing locomotive on Orange & Alexandria Railroad
Creator(s): O’Sullivan, Timothy H., 1840-1882, photographer
Date Created/Published: 1862 Aug.
Medium: 1 negative : glass, stereograph, wet collodion ; 4 x 10 in.
Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-cwpb-00224 (digital file from original neg.)
Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.
Call Number: LC-B815- 530 [P&P] LOT 4164-F (corresponding print)
Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

Locomotive
Title: [Locomotive]
Creator(s): Waud, Alfred R. (Alfred Rudolph), 1828-1891, artist
Date Created/Published: [between 1860 and 1865]
Medium: 1 drawing on tan paper : pencil ; 11.3 x 14.1 cm. (sheet).
Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ppmsca-20146 (digital file from original item) LC-USZ62-137133 (b&w film copy neg.)
Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.
Call Number: DRWG/US – Waud, no. 773 recto (AA size) [P&P]
Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

Virginia. Locomotive on the Orange & Alexandria Railroad
Title: [Virginia. Locomotive on the Orange & Alexandria Railroad]
Creator(s): O’Sullivan, Timothy H., 1840-1882, photographer. Date Created/Published: 1862 August.
Medium: 1 negative : glass, stereograph, wet collodion ; 4 x 10 in. Summary: Photograph from the main eastern theater of the war, Bull Run, 2nd Battle of, Va., 1862, July-August 1862. Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-cwpb-00236 (digital file from original neg.) LC-B8171-0546 (b&w film neg.). Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication. Call Number: LC-B815- 546 [P&P] LOT 4166-K (corresponding print) LOT 4177 (corresponding print). Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

Amish farmer and his team of draft horses, Lancaster, Pennsylvania Digital ID: (digital file from original) highsm 15975 Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-highsm-15975 (digital file from original) LC-HS503-5476 (color film transparency). Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

Amish farmer and his team of draft horses, Lancaster, Pennsylvania
Title: Amish farmer and his team of draft horses, Lancaster, Pennsylvania
Creator(s): Highsmith, Carol M., 1946-, photographer. Date Created/Published: [between 1980 and 2006]
Medium: 1 transparency : color ; 4 x 5 in. or smaller. Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-highsm-16027 (digital file from original) LC-HS503-5534 (color film transparency). Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.
Call Number: LC-HS503- 5534 (ONLINE) [P&P] Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

Amish farmer and his team of draft horses, Lancaster, Pennsylvania
Title: Amish farmer and his team of draft horses, Lancaster, Pennsylvania
Creator(s): Highsmith, Carol M., 1946-, photographer. Date Created/Published: [between 1980 and 2006]
Medium: 1 transparency : color ; 4 x 5 in. or smaller. Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-highsm-15984 (digital file from original) LC-HS503-5485 (color film transparency). Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.
Call Number: LC-HS503- 5485 (ONLINE) [P&P]. Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

Harper’s Ferry, W. Va. Ruins of arsenal
Title: [Harper’s Ferry, W. Va. Ruins of arsenal]
Creator(s): Holmes, S. A. (Silas A.), 1819 or 20-1886, photographer. Related Names: Woodbury, D. B. (David B.), d. 1866 , photographer. Date Created/Published: 1862 October. Medium: 1 negative : glass, stereograph, wet collodion ; 4 x 10 in.
Summary: Photograph from the main eastern theater of the war, Battle of Antietam, September-October 1862.
Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-cwpb-00302 (digital file from original neg.) LC-B8171-0655 (b&w film neg.). Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication. Call Number: LC-B815- 655 [P&P] LOT 4164-G (corresponding print)
Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

Destruction of a railroad bridge
Creator(s): O’Sullivan, Timothy H., 1840-1882, photographer. Date Created/Published: Hartford, Conn. : War Photograph & Exhibition Company, [photographed May 26, 1864, printed later]. Medium: 1 photographic print on stereo card : albumen ; 4 x 7 in. Summary: Photo shows a smoldering railroad bridge on the North Ana River in Virginia. Confederate troops destroyed the bridge to slow down advancing Union soldiers. (Source: Zeller, p. 73). Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-stereo-1s02801 (digital file from original stereograph, front) LC-DIG-stereo-2s02801 (digital file from original stereograph, back) LC-USZC4-1802 (color film copy transparency). Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication. Call Number: LOT 4177, no. 201 [item] [P&P]. Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA.

Ruins of the bridge over the Shenandoah. Loudon Heights beyond
Title: Ruins of the bridge over the Shenandoah. Loudon Heights beyond
Creator(s): Waud, Alfred R. (Alfred Rudolph), 1828-1891, artist. Date Created/Published: 1864 [Autumn]
Medium: 1 drawing on light green paper: pencil and Chinese white ; 19.5. x 35.0 cm. (sheet).
Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ppmsca-21434 (digital file from original item) LC-DIG-ppmsca-21773 (digital file from original item, text) LC-USZ62-11684 (b&w film copy neg.). Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.
Call Number: DRWG/US – Waud, no. 516 (A size) [P&P]. Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

Preparation and technical administration by Jim Surkamp.