CHAPTER 23 – JASPER’S 23RD USCT “RUNS OFF” TOM ROSSERS’ VIRGINIA CAVALRY NEAR CHANCELLORSVILLE by Jim Surkamp

3382 words.

CHAPTER OR STORY 23 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LJpJeIwFMw#t=1h43m06s Click Here and the link will take you to the beginning of this story at 1:43:06 within the longer video called “Jasper Thompson’s Destiny Day September 6, 1906”

https://web.archive.org/web/20190612202911/https://civilwarscholars.com/2017/03/story-23-lees-men-first-face-black-men-in-bluecoats-by-jim-surkamp/

FLICKR 26 images
https://www.flickr.com/photos/jimsurkamp/albums/72157678730919713

With support from American Public University System (apus.edu). The sentiments expressed do not in any way reflect modern-day policies of APUS, and are intended to encourage fact-based exchange for a better understanding of our nation’s foundational values.

That cloudy, soggy Sunday morning of May 15, 1864, Theodore Lyman’s doubts of colored men fighting were scotched.

Pvt. Luman Tenney and others in the 2nd Ohio Cavalry lazed about after breakfast disassembling and cleaning and drying out their guns in camp near Piney Branch Baptist Church and after several days of drenching rain.


Shortly after twelve noon, Confederate Brigade Cavalry commander Thomas Rosser, whose men were doing other business and easing north on Catharpin Road, saw them and pounced, sending the Ohio horseman jumping on their horses and the chase up Catharpin road began.


One of the Ohioans went northwest instead to get word to and help from Union General Edward Ferrero’s colored infantry troops who were guarding supply wagons kept at the ruins of the old Chancellor house.


Ferrero made Jasper’s 23rd infantry regiment a historical footnote by sending them marching the two miles at the double quick down Old Plank Road to their place in history, as one historian has termed it the first African-American Union unit to have “ordered, directed combat” with Gen. Robert. E. Lee’s redoubtable Army of Northern Virginia – and more. They prevailed.


After two miles of chasing the Ohioans and as the 23rd was on its way from the northwest, Rosser’s cavalry pressed down hard on the panicked fleeing Ohioans.


when as Rosser’s horsemen were reaching Old Plank Road were astonished to find themselves hit on their left by the 23rd with bayonets displayed. Rosser’s men, in an instant, went from the fighting router of an enemy to the retreating routed.


Ohioan Pvt. Luman Tenney drolly wrote in his diary” Rebs fell back as soon as the “dark cloud’ made its appearance.” In an account recently uncovered by


Historian Gordon C. Rhea, one of the Ohio cavalrymen wrote, “It did us good to see the long line of glittering bayonets approach. Those who bore them were blacks, and as they came nearer they were greeted by loud cheers.”


Jasper’s Division Commander Ferrero wrote in his report:
I immediately ordered the Fourth Division in readiness, and marched the Twenty-third U. S. Colored Troops to support the cavalry. On arriving at Alrichs, on the Plank Road, I found the Second Ohio driven across the road, and the enemy occupying the cross-roads. I ordered the colored regiment to advance on the enemy in line of battle, which they did, and drove the enemy in perfect rout. Not being able to pursue with infantry,


the Second Ohio formed and gave chase to Piney Branch Church, which they (the Second Ohio) now occupy. Recovering, the Ohioans joined the pursuit on horseback of Rosser back down Catharpin road where they regained their old position near the Piney Church by 4:30 that day. Both sides had a handful of wounded and each lost between 10-20 horses.


Rosser, perhaps flummoxed at facing determined black men in bluecoats, barely reported the event in his official report, and not mentioning anything about a soldier’s ethnicity.

City Point, Virginia. Negro soldier guarding 12-pdr. Napoleon. (Model 1857?) – loc.gov

References and Image Credits:

“In Our Midst: First Combat of the USCTs in Northern Virginia.” Noel G. Harrison, Posted June 15, 2010.
This small engagement has huge symbolic importance: it was the first directed combat between Union African American soldiers, known then as United States Colored Troops (USCT’s), and Confederates in the Army of Northern Virginia. . .

On May 15, 1864, Rosser’s men sought information on a Union army corps as it shifted southeastward towards Spotsylvania Court House. Apprised by the retreating Ohioans of Rosser’s approach, the 23rd United States Colored Infantry hastened southeast from Chancellorsville, where those and other African American regiments of Brig. Gen. Edward Ferrero’s division had bivouacked. Moving in column along the plank road, the reinforced 23rd first made contact through its deployed skirmishers with Rosser’s men. The Confederate troopers had stopped short of the Catharpin-plank road intersection to occupy the southwestern side of the Alrich clearing, holding an edge-of-treeline position that likely straddled Catharpin Road.

The climax of the action came when the column of the 23rd reached the intersection and faced right. In an account recently uncovered by historian Gordon C. Rhea, one of the Ohio cavalrymen wrote, “It did us good to see the long line of glittering bayonets approach, although those who bore them were Blacks, and as they came nearer they were greeted by loud cheers.” The 23rd charged southwest toward the treeline. Rosser’s men withdrew, pursued by the now-reformed Ohio cavalrymen.
npsfrsp.wordpress.com 7 April 2010 Web. 15 June 2010.
https://npsfrsp.wordpress.com/2010/06/15/in-our-midst-first-combat-of-the-uscts-north-of-the-james/

“The 23rd Regiment United States Colored Troops became the first colored troops to fight in “directed combat” against Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia.”
Steward T. Henderson – Fact List About the 23rd United States Colored Troops…Past and Present. Posted on February 16, 2012.
emergingcivilwar.com 16 September 2011 Web. 20 February 2017.

Fact List About the 23rd United States Colored Troops…Past and Present

At the beginning of the Overland Campaign, the 23rd Regiment United States Colored Troops was an infantry regiment in the 4th Division of the independent IX Army Corps. This regiment became the first black regiment to fight in directed combat against the Army of Northern Virginia. This happened 150 years ago today, on May 15, 1864.. . .
During the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, the 23rd Regiment USCT was at the Chancellorsville ruins, guarding wagon trains on May 15, 1864, when the 2nd Ohio Cavalry asked for assistance. The Ohioans were being attacked by General Thomas Rosser’s Confederate Cavalry Brigade. General Edward Ferrero marched the 23rd at the double quick to the intersection, now known as the Catharpin and Old Plank Roads intersection. “It did us good to see the long line of glittering bayonets approach, although those who bore them were Blacks,” one Buckeye wrote, “and as they came nearer they were greeted by loud cheers.”

The 23rd USCT formed a battle line and fired on the Confederate army and drove them away. They became the first African American soldiers to fight in “directed combat” against the Army of Northern Virginia. They were cheered by the white soldiers of the 2nd Ohio, who now knew that these black soldiers would fight against the Confederates.

Tenney, Luman H. (1914). “War Diary of Luman Harris Tenney 1861-1865.” Cleveland, OH: Evangelical Publishing House. babel.hathitrust.org
https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=loc.ark:/13960/t1pg2b07c&view=1up&seq=7&skin=2021

p. 116 – May 15, 1864 – Trains passing to the rear all night and today. Started teams for forage. Rainy day and cloudy today. Several from the Regt. down, Col. P Regt under Maj. Nettleton had a fight with a brigade of rebs. Lost 15 or 20 horses and four men were wounded. Rebs fell back as soon as the “dark cloud’ made its appearance. Big Reports came to the rear. Guess Dutton showed little pluck. – Tenney, Luman H. Pvt. p. 116. (actual #)

Tenney service record page
fold3.com 16 September 2011 Web. 10 January 2017.
https://www.fold3.com/image/292528472?terms=luman,h,tenney

Armstrong, Richard L. (1989). “11th Virginia Cavalry.” Lynchburg, Va.: H.E. Howard, Inc. pp. 72, 163.

Davis, Julia. (1967). “Mount Up: A True Story Based on the Reminiscences of Major E.A. H. McDonald of the confederate Cavalry.” New York, NY: Harcourt. Brace & World, Inc. p. 130.

Rhea, Gordon C.(2000). “To the north Anna River: Grant and Lee, May 13-25, 1864.” Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press. pp. 106; 412.
quoted in:
npsfrsp.wordpress.com 7 April 2010 Web. 15 June 2010.
https://npsfrsp.wordpress.com/2010/06/15/in-our-midst-first-combat-of-the-uscts-north-of-the-james/

The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies.; Series 1 – Volume 36 (Part I) Volume XXXVI – in Three Parts. 1891. (Vol. 36, Chap. 48)
Chapter XLVIII – Operations in Southeastern Virginia and North Carolina. May 1-June 12, 1864. Part I – Reports: babel.hathitrust.org
https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=coo.31924097311744&view=1up&seq=11&skin=2021

Report of Brig. Gen. Edward Ferrero U. S. Army, commanding Fourth Division. HDQRS. FOURTH DIvision, NINTH ARMY CORPS, Millers House, on Plank Road east of Alrich’s, May 15, 1864.
GENERAL: I have the honor to report that at 12.30 p.m. this day the Second Ohio Cavalry, stationed at Piney Branch Church, were compelled to fall back, being attacked by superior forces, consisting of one brigade of cavalry, with two pieces of artillery. I immediately ordered the Fourth Division in readiness, and marched the Twenty-third U. S. Colored Troops to support the cavalry. On arriving at Alrichs, on the Plank Road, I found the Second Ohio driven across the road, and the enemy occupying the cross-roads. I ordered the colored regiment to advance on the enemy in line of battle, which they did, and drove the enemy in perfect rout. Not being able to pursue with infantry, the Second Ohio formed and gave chase to Piney Branch Church, which they (the Second Ohio) now occupy. All quiet elsewhere. Our loss amounted to about 8 or 10 wounded. The enemy lost some 5 horses killed. I have changed my position to a more secure one, to protect the trains and roads leading to the army. I have since learned from one of my scouts that Hamptons brigade is in full retreat, in perfect disorder, toward Todd’s Tavern. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, EDW. FERRERO, Brigadier- General, Commanding.
hathitrust.org 11 December 1997 Web. 20 February 2017.
p. 986.
https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=coo.31924097311744&view=1up&seq=1004&skin=2021

Report of Lieut. Col. George A. Purington, Second Ohio Cavalry
About noon May 15 a rebel cavalry brigade, under command of Colonel Rosser, suddenly attacked us in two columns, driving in the pickets and causing us to fall back on the ford, which we held for some time, and until it was plain they outnumbered us 3 to 1, and were moving columns to our right and left with the intention of flanking our position. Major Nettleton, being in command of the regiment during my absence in Fredericksburg, then fell back slowly, fighting all the way, by forming alternate lines wherever the ground would admit it. On reaching Alrich’s he found that infantry had come to his support, when, by order of General Ferrero, he again advanced toward Piney Creek Church, coming upon the enemy’s rear several times. At 4 p.m. he re-established his picket at Piney Creek Church. Our loss in this affair was 4 men wounded and 18 horses killed and wounded. babel.hathitrust.org 11 December 1997 Web. 20 February 2017.
pp. 892-4. (actual #s)
https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=coo.31924097311744&view=1up&seq=910&skin=2021

Report of Brig. Gen. Thomas L. Rosser, C. S. Army, commanding brigade, of operations May 15, 1864.
I have just returned from an expedition in rear of the enemy’s position, and as General Hampton is not here, think it well to report directly to you. Near Piney Creek Church I found this morning a brigade of cavalry, which, after a brisk skirmish, I drove to the Plank Road, about 2 miles below Chancellorsville, below the Catharpin road, where I met a small force of infantry at Mr. Alrich’s.

Not more than a regiment was seen. Captured a few prisoners, who reported the Ninth Corps at this place. I then moved to the right, passing down the Ny River to Mr. Armstrong’s, where I found a new road cut by the enemy, leading out into the Spotsylvania Court-House and Fredericksburg road, passing between the poor house and Mr. Harris. Pressing down upon this road (which is almost impassable) I ran upon the Second Corps (so reported by the prisoners captured), which was just going into camp just to the right of the poor house. In going to this point I passed in rear of the enemy’s line for some distance, the right of which rests at this time (I think it will be moved to-night) on the heights opposite Captain Browns place (Mr. Rowe lives there now). All wagons, cattle, & c., which have been on the Plank Road have been moved off toward Fredericksburg. There is nothing but a few cavalry near Chancellorsville, one brigade head-quarters at Zion Church, about 3 miles from Chancellorsville, on the old pike. Yours, truly, THOS. L. ROSSER, Brigadier-General. babel.hathitrust.org 11 December 1997 Web. 20 February 2017.
pp. 1098-1099.(actual #s)
https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=coo.31924097311744&view=1up&seq=1116&skin=2021

Additional resources:

(Cited previously in these references in less detail) Fact List About the 23rd United States Colored Troops…Past and Present
Posted on February 16, 2012 by Steward T. Henderson

I wanted to convey some information about the 23rd United States Colored Troops. The unit proudly served in the Army of the Potomac and the Army of the James. Today, the unit is based out of Spotsylvania County Virginia, and I am one of the proud representatives that brings the unit and their stories back to life. We plan on participating in numerous Sesquicentennial events, including an upcoming event on February 25th at the John J. Wright Museum. I hope to meet some of our readers at the events. In the meantime, I have provided information on the wartime and current unit below.

Recruitment – The 23rd Regiment United States Colored Troops (or 23rd Regiment United States Colored Infantry) was recruited in Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, MD from November 23, 1863 until June 30, 1864. They were organized at Camp Casey, VA (near the location of the Pentagon today).

Armies – The 23rd was originally assigned to the 2nd Brigade, 4th Division, of the IX Army Corps. This was an independent unit until May 24, 1864, when it was assigned to the Army of the Potomac. From September to December 1864, the 23rd was assigned the 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, IX Corps, and in December, it was in the 3rd Brigade, 3rd Division of the XXV Corps (an all-black Corps) in the Army of the James. After the war, they were assigned to the 3rd Brigade, 1st Division of the XXV Corps in the Department of Texas

Officers – The General-in-Chief of the United States Army was Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant. The commanding officer of the IX Army Corps was Major General Ambrose E. Burnside, and the 4th Division commander was Brigadier General Edward Ferrero. The Brigade commander was Colonel Henry G. Thomas. When they became part of the Army of the Potomac, Major General George Gordon Meade was the commanding officer. In the Army of the James, the commanding officer was Major General Benjamin Butler until January 1865; then, General Edward Ord commanded that Army. General Godfrey Weitzel commanded the XXV Corps. Colonel Henry G. Thomas was promoted to Brigadier General and commanded the division.

Service – The 23rd served in the following battles and campaigns:

Overland Campaign, May to June 1864
Battle of Petersburg, June 15 – 18, 1864
Siege of Petersburg and Richmond June, 1864 – April 2, 1865
Battle of the Crater – July 30, 1864
Weldon Railroad – August 18-21, 1864
Fort Sedgwick-September 28, 1864
Poplar Grove Church – September 29-30, 1864
Boydton Plank Road, Hatcher’s Run – October 27-28, 1864
Bermuda Hundred – December 13, 1864
Bermuda Hundred Front – December 1864 – March 1865
Appomattox Campaign, March 28th to April 9th, 1864
Hatcher’s Run – March 29-31, 1865
Fall of Petersburg – April 2, 1865
Pursuit of Lee – April 3 – 9, 1865
Surrender of Army of Northern Virginia – April 9, 1865
Duty in Department of Virginia until May
Department of Texas from May until November 1865
Mustered out November 30, 1865
emergingcivilwar.com 16 September 2011 Web. 20 February 2017.
https://emergingcivilwar.com/2012/02/16/fact-list-about-the-23rd-united-states-colored-troops-past-and-present/

Chancellorsville,_Virginia
Coordinates: 38°18′30″N 77°38′4″W
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 10 December 2016.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chancellorsville,_Virginia

May 13–16: Reorienting the lines
Reorienting the lines, May 13–16

Despite the significant casualties of May 12, Grant was undeterred. He telegraphed to the Army’s chief of staff, Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck, “The enemy are obstinate and seemed to have found the last ditch.” He planned to reorient his lines and shift the center of potential action to the east of Spotsylvania, where he could renew the battle. He ordered the V and VI Corps to move behind the II Corps and take positions past the left flank of the IX Corps. On the night of May 13–14, the corps began a difficult march in heavy rain over treacherously muddy roads. Early on May 14, elements of the VI Corps occupied Myers Hill, which overlooked most of the Confederate line. Col. Emory Upton’s brigade skirmished most of the day to retain possession of the high ground. Grant’s command was too scattered and exhausted to undertake an assault against Spotsylvania Court House on May 14, which was unfortunate because Lee had left it practically undefended for most of the day. When he realized what Grant was up to, Lee shifted some units from Anderson’s First Corps to that area. Grant notified Washington that, having endured five days of almost continuous rain, his army could not resume offensive operations until they had 24 hours of dry weather.[42]
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 10 December 2016.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Spotsylvania_Court_House

Image Credits;

10727 Piney Branch Road address of African American school google.com/maps
https://www.google.com/maps/place/10727+Piney+Branch+Rd,+Spotsylvania+Courthouse,+VA+22553/@38.2559967,-77.6389095,880m/data=!3m2!1e3!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x89b6beb12df03ae1:0x73a28757842aae32!8m2!3d38.2559925!4d-77.6367208

Piney Branch Baptist Church
Added by: MKlump 8/25/2011
findagrave.com 2 February 2001 Web. 20 June 2016.
https://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=cr&CRid=2320364

Miller, Francis Trevelyan. (1912). “The photographic history of the civil war in ten volumes.” Vol. 4. New York, NY: The Review of Reviews Co. Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010. archive.org
p. 75 – Lancers in the Federal Cavalry
http://archive.org/stream/photographichis08lanigoog/page/n85/mode/1up?view=theater

Miller, Francis Trevelyan. (1912). “The photographic history of the civil war in ten volumes.” Vol. 4. New York, NY: The Review of Reviews Co. Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010. archive.org
p. 73 – Thomas Rosser
http://archive.org/stream/photographichis08lanigoog/page/n83/mode/1up?view=theater

Piney Branch Road and south showing Route 612 (Catharpin Road)
google.com/maps 13 October 2001 Web. 20 January 2017.
https://www.google.com/maps/place/Piney+Branch+Baptist+Church,+Spotsylvania+Courthouse,+VA+22553/@38.2557979,-77.6366089,15z/data=!4m2!3m1!1s0x89b6beb132eadb31:0xe9cda54a4152b32a

“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 1.” (1887). Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co. Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010. archive.org
p. 126 – An Affair of Outposts
https://archive.org/stream/battlesleadersof01cent/page/126/mode/1up?view=theater

Map of battle May 15, 1864
npsfrsp.wordpress.com 7 April 2010 Web. 15 June 2010.
https://npsfrsp.wordpress.com/2010/06/15/in-our-midst-first-combat-of-the-uscts-north-of-the-james/

Chancellor House was the headquarters of General Joseph Hooker during the Battle of Chancellorsville, 1863. The general was knocked off his feet with a possible concussion when a Confederate artillery round smashed into a column that he was standing beside. Later, the general would take flight leaving the house to fall prey to heavy Confederate fire.
Date Published 1911 (photo 1863)
Source File from The Photographic History of The Civil War in Ten Volumes: Volume Two, Two Years of Grim War. The Review of Reviews Co., New York. 1911. p. 126.
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 10 December 2016.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Chancellorsville/

Ruins of the Chancellorsville House (NOTE Previous entry)
Title: Chancellorsville (Ruins), State Routes 3 & 610, Chancellorsville, Spotsylvania County, VA. Historic American Buildings Survey, creator
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 10 December 2016.
https://www.loc.gov/item/va0921/

Catharpin Road and Old Plank Road Intersection today 610 and 612
Google maps
street view
google.com/maps 13 October 2001 Web. 20 January 2017.
https://www.google.com/maps/place/Piney+Branch+Baptist+Church/@38.286039,-77.6161999,184m/data=!3m1!1e3!4m5!3m4!1s0x89b6beb132eadb31:0xe9cda54a4152b32a!8m2!3d38.2559692!4d-77.6366845

or

https://www.google.com/maps/place/Old+Plank+Rd,+Fredericksburg,+VA+22407/@38.2859116,-77.6155089,3a,60y,90t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1sZi7FlhvfN2_TcvjGCdrcTA!2e0!7i13312!8i6656!4m5!3m4!1s0x89b6bf8fdbb558bb:0x4ada6c71e4a4b329!8m2!3d38.2861709!4d-77.590698

street view 11769 Catharpin Rd
Spotsylvania Courthouse, Virginia
google.com/maps 13 October 2001 Web. 20 January 2017.
https://www.google.com/maps/place/11769+Catharpin+Rd,+Spotsylvania+Courthouse,+VA+22553/@38.2830371,-77.6206127,3a,75y,34.04h,90t/data=!3m7!1e1!3m5!1s5ByvREUvoYzDxHVmzbD8Dg!2e0!6shttps:%2F%2Fstreetviewpixels-pa.googleapis.com%2Fv1%2Fthumbnail%3Fpanoid%3D5ByvREUvoYzDxHVmzbD8Dg%26cb_client%3Dsearch.gws-prod.gps%26w%3D86%26h%3D86%26yaw%3D34.040646%26pitch%3D0%26thumbfov%3D100!7i16384!8i8192!4m5!3m4!1s0x89b6bef0ad59de41:0xf16a94762ffade!8m2!3d38.2828692!4d-77.6202571

street view
11799 Catharpin Rd closer to old plank
Spotsylvania Courthouse, Virginia
google.com/maps 13 October 2001 Web. 20 January 2017.
https://www.google.com/maps/place/11799+Catharpin+Rd,+Spotsylvania+Courthouse,+VA+22553/@38.2835179,-77.6200625,3a,75y,229.23h,90t/data=!3m7!1e1!3m5!1ssopMg-GTm3AoN8RDI8n-gg!2e0!6shttps:%2F%2Fstreetviewpixels-pa.googleapis.com%2Fv1%2Fthumbnail%3Fpanoid%3DsopMg-GTm3AoN8RDI8n-gg%26cb_client%3Dsearch.gws-prod.gps%26w%3D86%26h%3D86%26yaw%3D229.22604%26pitch%3D0%26thumbfov%3D100!7i16384!8i8192!4m5!3m4!1s0x89b6bef0ad59de41:0x6a04af7d6da9fa99!8m2!3d38.2832644!4d-77.6198111

street view
11807 Catharpin Rd
Spotsylvania Courthouse, Virginia
google.com/maps 13 October 2001 Web. 20 January 2017.
https://www.google.com/maps/place/11807+Catharpin+Rd,+Spotsylvania+Courthouse,+VA+22553/@38.2833631,-77.6218532,17z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x89b6bef0ad59de41:0xe75371092a88c39e!8m2!3d38.2833589!4d-77.6196645

street view
11805 Catharpin Rd looking down Caparthin 23rd USCT view of Rosser
Spotsylvania Courthouse, Virginia
google.com/maps 13 October 2001 Web. 20 January 2017.

https://www.google.com/maps/place/11805+Catharpin+Rd,+Spotsylvania+Courthouse,+VA+22553/@38.2833379,-77.6218939,17z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x89b6bef0ad59de41:0x7cd144125304ba87!8m2!3d38.2833337!4d-77.6197052

Intersection of Old Plank Road and Catharpin Road
google.com/maps 13 October 2001 Web. 20 January 2017.
https://www.google.com/maps/place/Piney+Branch+Baptist+Church/@38.2866011,-77.6175115,879m/data=!3m1!1e3!4m5!3m4!1s0x89b6beb132eadb31:0xe9cda54a4152b32a!8m2!3d38.2559692!4d-77.6366845

Edward Allen Hitchcock McDonald – Julia Davis Adams.
findagrave.com
https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/143120024/edward-allen_hitchcock-mcdonald

Media Farm
National Register of Historic Places Inventory. Nomination Form for Media Farm / Media 1/1/93, last page not numbered
wvculture.org
https://wvculture.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Media-farm.pdf

“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 3”. (1887). Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co. Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010. archive.org
p. 1. In the Van.
http://www.archive.org/stream/battlesleadersof03cent/page/1/mode/1up?view=theater

L. H. Tenney – frontispiece.
Luman H. Tenney Diary 1865-1866 – babel.hathitrust.org
https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=loc.ark:/13960/t1pg2b07c&view=1up&seq=7&skin=2021

(detail) Siege of Petersburg – The colored Infantry Bringing in Captured Guns Amid Cheers of the Ohio Troops – Frank Leslie’s Weekly
Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. archive.org 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010.
http://www.archive.org/stream/importantevents00franrich/page/438/mode/2up?view=theater

Black cloud Luman Tenney Catharpin road May 15 1864 from Frank Leslies June 27, 1863 Port Hudson
Title: Bombardment of Port Hudson by Admiral Farragut’s fleet Assault of the Second Louisiana (Colored) regiment on the Rebel works at Port Hudson, May 27 from a sketch by our special artist. Illustration in Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, 1863 June 27 pp. 440-441.
Date Created/Published: 1863 June 27.
Medium: 1 print (2 pages) : wood engraving.
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 10 December 2016.
http://loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3c33081/

General Edward Ferrero
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 10 December 2016.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Ferrero

Also (For general reference):

Frank Leslie’s illustrated history of the Civil War. The most important events of the conflict between the States graphically pictured. Stirring battle scenes and grand naval engagements … portraits of principal participants.
Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. archive.org 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010.
http://www.archive.org/stream/importantevents00franrich/page/440/mode/2up?view=theater

The First Virginia Cavalry at a halt, Antietam campaign. Pencil drawing by Alfred R. Waud, 1862. Reproduction number: LC-DIG-ppmsca-21554
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 10 December 2016.
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/ppmsca.21554/

Thomas_L._Rosser
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 10 December 2016.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_L._Rosser

CHAPTER OR STORY 24 CLICK HERE https://civilwarscholars.com/uncategorized/chapter-24-the-crater-climax-jaspers-biggest-bravest-fight-by-jim-surkamp/