“Did Virginia Commit Treason?” – Dennis Frye

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https://web.archive.org/web/20190710014822/https://civilwarscholars.com/2011/06/1410/

(video not available)

54: . . . when Virginia advances on the

armory at Harper’s Ferry to seize the weapons
there – to seize the machinery that belongs to the United States government – is Virginia, like John Brown, committing treason? . . .

1:16 Virginians would argue that they no longer are a part of the United States . . .

1:46 The same thing happened at

the Naval Yard, the U.S. Naval Yard at Norfolk, Virginia

2:06 But the very act of leaving the Union, was that an act of treason? . . .

2:25 Virginians would say, that, when the original Union was founded, it was a compact, it was an agreement, that they voluntarily came into this agreement. So, if you voluntarily join the compact, if you voluntarily come together to form this Union, you also have the right to voluntarily depart from it. . .

3:03 But by legal definition, any act against the United States, such as separation, could be considered treason . . .

3:49 Often this decision will be made by who wins . . .

4:31 I still think it’s ironic that when John Brown attacked the armory and the arsenal, he would be captured and he would be tried by Virginia, and one of the charges was treason, treason against the state . . .

Main References:

Guernsey, Alfred H., Henry Mills. (1894). “Harper’s pictorial history of the Civil War, Vol. 1.” Chicago, IL. : Puritan Press Co. Print.

Guernsey, Alfred H., Henry Mills. (1894). “Harper’s pictorial history of the Civil War, Vol. 1.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 May 2011.

Guernsey, Alfred H., Henry Mills. (1894). “Harper’s pictorial history of the Civil War, Vol. 2.” Chicago, IL.: Puritan Press Co. Print.

Guernsey, Alfred H., Henry Mills. (1894). “Harper’s pictorial history of the Civil War, Vol. 2.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 May 2011.

“Destruction of the Harper’s Ferry Armory: Extracts from Senate Rep. Com. No. 37, 37th Cong., 2d Sess.” West Virginia Archives and History. Latest update 31 July 2008. Web. 3 May 2011.

“Norfolk Naval Yard.” U.S. Gen Web Archives. Start date unavailable. Web. 3 May 2011.

Video:

Frye, Dennis. “Did Virginia Commit Treason?.” American Military University Civil War Scholars. 14 April 2011. Web. 2 May 2011.

Flickr Set:

harperphcw94and95c.jpg (two images)
“Destruction of the United States Navy Yard at Norfolk, Virginia, by Fire, by the United States Troops, on April 20, 1861. Destruction of the United States Ships at the Norfolk Navy Yard, by Order of the Government.” (1894). Harper’s Pictorial History of the Civil War. Chicago, IL.: Puritan Press Co. pp. 94, 95. Print.

“Norfolk Naval Yard.” U.S. Gen Web Archives. Latest update 30 July 2008. Web. 3 May 2011.

burninggosportcopy.jpg
“Burning of the Gosport Naval Yard by U. S. Authorities.” (May 11, 1861). New York Illustrated News. Print.

“Norfolk Naval Yard.” U.S. Gen Web Archives. Latest update 30 July 2008. Web. 3 May 2011

trial.jpg
Strother, David H. (Nov. 12, 1859). “The Trial of the Conspirators.” Harpers Weekly. pp.728-729. Print.

Strother, David H. (Nov. 12, 1859). “The Trial of the Conspirators.”
Digital History. Latest update 31 July 2008. Web. 3 May 2011.

Turning Point: 10 PM, April 18th, 1861 – Dennis Frye

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Turning Point: 10 PM, April 18th, 1861 – Dennis Frye

The following is a commentary by Historian Dennis Frye on the April 18, 1861 assault by Virginia militias on the arsenal/armory at Harper’s Ferry and its intentional destruction, on the orders of Lieut. Roger Jones of the U.S. Army. Following Frye’s comments, on video and in abbreviated text form here, is the report made by Lieut. Jones on the operations, the calculated losses, with replies from President Lincoln and his Cabinet.

:00 The burning of the arsenal at Harper’s Ferry April, 1861 is a transformative moment, not only in the history of Harper’s Ferry, but in the Shenandoah Valley, and the mid-Atlantic region, and it really did change the nature of Harper’s Ferry and Jefferson County setting the stage for what would become a bloody, bloody four years

This is what happens:

Virginia, following Lincoln’s call for 75,000 volunteers to squash the rebellion. This comes on April the 15th. Fort Sumter, of course, occurred on April the 12th and the President responds. This means Virginia had to dedicate troops. And they had to put troops to fight against their fellow Southerners . . .

1:03 . . . their brothers and sisters in fellow Southern states. This was too much. This was too much for Virginia. And, so on April the 17th, Virginia will decide to secede. Virginia will vote: 88 for, 55 against, but the majority will carry.

As that’s happening Virginia militia will be called forth and sent to Harper’s Ferry for the express purpose of capturing, not destroying, but capturing the United States’ arsenal and the armory at Harper’s Ferry. Virginia wanted those weapons.

1:36 There were thousands of weapons in storage at the arsenal. The estimate is up to 15,000 weapons were stored there in the two arsenal buildings. These are the two same arsenal buildings that John Brown attempted to seize in October, 1859. And the armory, the factory where the weapons were manufactured – all that valuable machinery, all those machines, all the machines that could produce the rifles and the barrels, and the locks, the stocks – all of it there. Virginia wanted wanted possession of that. They needed it now for their new country.

And so the Virginia militia, on the night of April the 18th, are en route, they’re coming from Charles Town principally, principally from Charles Town. They’re following the road from Charles Town, to Halltown, to Bolivar to Harper’s Ferry. But the U.S. commander, Lt. Roger Jones, knows they’re coming. He’s aware. He was there when former superintendent of the armory, Alfred M. Barbour, announced to the citizens of Harper’s Ferry that Virginia would seize the armory. He and his men heard this.

2:43 And so, on the 18th, Jones had his men spread powder and powder kegs throughout the armory and arsenal buildings in preparation for a possible Virginia advance, while about 9:30, 10 o’clock on the evening of the 18th of April Jones is informed that the lead advance, the Virginia militia, have actually arrived at Bolivar Heights. They are now less than two miles away from downtown Harper’s Ferry.

3:08 And then he gives the orders to the men to strike those powder kegs, put the match to them, and blow up the armory/arsenal buildings. At about ten PM Harper’s Ferry citizens are asleep, suddenly are rocked out of their beds, just shocked by this massive explosion that occurs. In fact, it is reported that the explosion is so intense and the flames shoot up so high and so brightly that every tree on Loudoun and Maryland Heights just lit up . . .

Continued on the video. Total Running Time (TRT): 5:04

The Burning of the Arsenal/Armory at Harper’s Ferry in Official Reports to the United States Government (taken from the Official Record of the War of the Rebellion):

Reports of First Lieut. R. Jones, Mounted Rifles, U. S. Army.

HEADQUARTERS UNITED STATES ARMORY,
Harpers Ferry, Va., April 18, 1861 9 p. m.
SIR:
Up to the present time no assault or attempt to seize the Government property here has been made, but there is decided evidence that the subject is in contemplation, and has been all day, by a large number of people living in the direction of Charlestown; and at sundown this evening several companies of troops had assembled at Halltown, about three or four miles from here on the road to Charlestown, with the intention of seizing the Government property, and the last report is that the attack will be made to-night. I telegraphed this evening to General Scott that I had received information confirming his dispatch of this morning, and later to the Adjutant-General that I expected an attack to-night. I have taken steps which ought to insure my receiving early intelligence of the advance of any forces, and my determination is to destroy what I cannot defend, and if the forces sent against me are clearly overwhelming, my present intention is to retreat into Pennsylvania.
The steps I have taken to destroy the arsenal, which contains nearly 15,000 stand of arms, are so complete that I can conceive of nothing that will prevent their entire destruction.
If the Government purposes maintaining its authority here, no time should be lost in sending large bodies of troops to my assistance, and as many of them as possible should be regulars.
A courier has just reported the advance of the troops from Halltown. Respectfully, I am, sir, your obedient servant,
R. JONES
First Lieutenant, Mounted Riflemen, Commanding
To the ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL,
Headquarters of the Army, Washington, D. C.

CHAMBERSBERG, PA. April 19, 1861.

Finding my position untenable, shortly after 10 o’clock last night I destroyed the arsenal, containing 15,000 stand of arms, and burned up the armory building proper, and under cover of the night withdrew my command almost in the presence of twenty five hundred or three thousand troops. This was accomplished with but four casualties. I believe the destruction must have been complete. I will await orders at Carlisle.
R. JONES.
General WINFIELD SCOTT.

CARLISLE BARRACKS, PA., April 20, 1861.

SIR: Immediately after finishing my dispatch of the night of the 18th instant, I received positive and reliable information that 2,500 or 3,000 State troops would reach Harper’s Ferry in two hours, from Winchester, and that the troops from Halltown, increased to 300 men, were advancing, and were at that time (few minutes after 10 o’clock) within twenty minutes march of the Ferry. Under these circumstances I decided the time had arrived to carry out my determination, as expressed in the dispatch above referred to, and accordingly gave the order to apply the torch. In three minutes, or less, both of the arsenal buildings, containing nearly 15,000 arms, together with the carpenter’s shop, which was at the upper end of a long and connected series of workshops of the armory property were a complete blaze.
There is every reason for believing the destruction was complete. After firing the buildings I withdrew my command, marching all night, and arrived here at 2 p.m. yesterday, where I shall await orders. Four men were missing on leaving the armory, and two deserted during the night.
Respectfully, I am, sir, your obedient servant,
R. JONES,
First Lieut. Mounted Riflemen, Comdg. Detachment Recruits.
To the ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL,
Headquarters of the Army, Washington, D. C.

CARLISLE BARRACKS, PA., April 22, 1861.

SIR: Last evening three of my missing men arrived here, having left Harper’s Ferry the previous afternoon. They report that fifteen minutes
after my command left the armory nine hundred troops marched into town, and that they continued to arrive every hour during the night, so
that by morning there were probably nearly five thousand troops there. They also report that the fire in the workshops was arrested, but that the arsenal buildings containing the arms, together with their contents, were completely demolished, and that it is probable not a single gun was saved from them.
I remain, sir, with respect, your obedient servant,
R. JONES,
First Lieutenant Mounted Riflemen.
To the ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL,
Headquarters of the Army, Washington, D. C.

No. 2.

Congratulatory letter from United States Secretary of War.

WAR DEPARTMENT,
Washington, April 22, 1861.
Lieut. ROGER JONES, Commanding at Harper’s Ferry:
MY DEAR SIR: I am directed by the President of the United States to communicate to you, and through you to the officers and men under your command at Harper’s Ferry Armory, the approbation of the Government of your and their judicious conduct there, and to tender to you and them the thanks of the Government for the same.
I am, sir, very respectfully,
SIMON CAMERON,
Secretary of War.

No. 3.

Report of Lieut. Col. William Maynadier, U. S. Ordnance Department, of the expenditures upon and losses at the armory.

ORDINANCE OFFICE
Washington, November 16, 1861.
SIR: In answer to the letter [following] of the Hon. John P. Hale, chairman of the committee of the Senate, which you referred to this office, I have the honor to report that the U. S. Armory at Harper’s Ferry was established in the year 1796.
The amount expended on the same is:
For land purchased at different times: $45,477
For improvements thereon for water-power, canals, embankments, walls, and
water privileges, and for hydraulic machinery and buildings of all
kinds: 1,787,430

Total, exclusive of the amount expended in the manufacture and repair of arms: 1,832,907

The latest annual inventory of the property belonging to the United States at that armory is dated June 30, 1860, in which the value of all the property on hand at that date is appraised as follows, viz:
1,669.5 acres of land: $37,457
Mill-dams, canals, water-powers, and hydraulic machinery: 233,279
Forges, rolling-mills, machine-shops, storehouses, dwellings, and other buildings: 341,221
(Total-ED): Amount of real estate: 611,957
Machines used in workshops: $270,235
Tools used in service: 109,560
(Total-ED): 379,795
Unwrought materials on hand: 100,043
Parts of arms in progress: 93,573
(Total-ED): 193,616
20,507 arms of different models in store: 285, 145
Total appraised value June 30, 1860 1,470,513

By the latest returns received at this office from the armory, it appears that the number of arms in store when the armory was destroyed in April, 1861, was reduced to 4,287, the value of which was about $64,000. We may assume that the quantity and value of all other property than the arms in store remained without material change from June, 1860, to April, 1861. The diminished number of arms in store at the latter date reduces that item in the inventory from $285,145 to $164,300, and the total appraised value of all the property from $1,470,513 to $1,207,668.
Respectfully, &c.,
WM. MAYNADIER,
Lieutenant-Colonel, Ordnance.
Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.

U. S. CAPITOL, November 14, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War:
SIR: The committee of the Senate “to inquire into the circumstances attending the destruction of the property of the United States at the armory at Harper’s Ferry,” &c., desire to be informed by the War Department of the date of the establishment of the Harper’s Ferry Armory, the amount expended upon the same by the Government previous to its destruction, the character of the buildings, machinery, &c., and the quantity and description of arms destroyed there, and of the material on hand at that time.
Respectfully, yours,
JOHN P. HALE, Chairman

Reference:

“The War of the Rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies.” (1902). NOTE on authors: Robert N. Scott compiled and edited v. 1-18, 1880-87, and also collected the greater part of the material for v. 19-36, 1887-91. After his death in 1887 the work was continued by Henry M. Lazelle, 1887-89, and by a board of publication, 1889-99, consisting of George B. Davis, 1889-97, Leslie J. Perry, 1889-99, Joseph W. Kirkley, 1889-99, and Fred C. Ainsworth, 1898-99; from 1899-1901 edited by Fred C. Ainsworth and Joesph W. Kirkley. Gettysburg, Pa: Gettysburg National Historical Society.

“The War of the Rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 10 Sept. 2010.

Series 1 – Volume II – Chapter IX:
Operations in Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia. Apr 16-Jul 31, 1861. PP. 3-6.

County Men Enlist, May 11, 1861


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Who Joined – May 11, 1861 – 2nd Virginia Infantry, Company B

According to Author Millard Bushong, these are many of the Jefferson County men who were mustered into Company B of the 2nd Virginia Infantry Regiment (C.S.A.) at Harper’s Ferry, May 11, 1861 and then were fiercely drilled and disciplined by the new commander, Col. Thomas Jackson,who had not yet gotten his famous nickname. A significant number of recruits moved over to a cavalry unit at first opportunity the following spring. Others persevered. (Much of this relies on the roster research done by Historian Dennis Frye) -ED

Census Summaries: The Censuses are 1850 and 1860 and are included in no particular order, except where they confirm the person’s existence within the County at those times.

The man who enlisted is represented by an “*” to the right of “W” or to the right of their profession.

The information represents: name – age – sex- color- profession – place of birth.

Service Records: utilize abbreviated terms such as POW (“prisoner of war”), AWOL (“absent without leave”), KIA (killed in action), MWIA (wounded and missing in action”)

The numbers to the left represent dwelling and family numbers in each Census. The person’s name follows

ADAMS, GEORGE E.: b. 3/21/43. Confectioner. enl. 4/29/61 in Co. B as Pvt. Absent sick Nov. 1861 and taken POW while on furlough. Exchanged 8/5/62. Surrendered at Appomattox. d. 9/29/05. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
8 251 253 Adams James A. 35 M W Confectioner MD
9 251 253 Adams Sarah 32 F W MD
10 251 253 Adams William 10 M W VA
11 251 253 Adams George 6 M W* VA
12 251 253 Kidwell John 19 M W Clerk VA
13 251 253 Ross Maria 14 F B VA

ARTHUR, WILLIAM: b. 1842? Laborer. enl. 4/18/61 at Halltown in Co. B as Pvt. To Sgt. 12/1/62. POW at Spotsylvania, 5/12/64 (Pt. Lookout, Elmira). Exchanged 3/14/65. Last official entry shows him receiving pay on 3/18/65.

SOURCE: 1860 Census
Arthur, William (b: 1841)*
Keshan, Ann E (b: 1810),
Cook, Anny (b: 1790),
Arthur, Margaret V (b: 1840),
Reshan, George E (b: 1851)

BARNHART, DANIEL E.: b. 1840. Carpenter. enl. 4/18/61 at Halltown in Co. B as Pvt. To Corp. 11/13/61. d. 4/25/62 at Gen. Hosp. #2, Lynchburg; disease. bur. City Cem. (Old Methodist Cem.), Lynchburg. “The Virginia Free Press” 9 Nov. 1865: “Daniel E. Barnhart wounded at Kernstown 23rd of March 1862 died at Hospital Lynchburg, April 25th, aged 22.”

BARNHART, GEORGE W.: b. 7/28/43. Carpenter. enl. 4/18/61 at Halltown in Co. B as Pvt. Absent sick July/Aug. 1861. Present again Sept./Oct. 1861. KIA at 2nd Manassas, 8/30/62. b. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va. “The Virginia Free Press” 9 Nov. 1865 states: “George W. Barnhart killed Aug. 28, 1862 at the second battle of Manassas, aged 20.”

BARNHART, HENRY F.: b. 1837. 5’5″. dark complexion, blue eyes, light hair. Carpenter. enl. 4/18/61 at Halltown as Sgt. in Co. B. To Lt. 11/18/62. To Capt. 6/13/63. POW at Fisher’s Hill, 9/22/64 (Ft. Delaware). Released 6/16/65. d. 1915. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1860 Census
Barnhart, Samuel D (b: 1798)
Barnhart, Mary A (b: 1810),
Barnhart, Henry F (b: 1837),*
Barnhart, Daniel E (b: 1840),*
Barnhart, George W (b: 1843),*
Barnhart, James E (b: 1846),
Barnhart, Samuel D (b: 1851)

BAST (BOST) GEORGE M.: b. 1818? Laborer. enl. 4/18/61 at Halltown in Co. B as Sgt. sick at Shepherdstown since 9/29/61. Present again Nov-Dec. 1861. Surgeon’s discharge, 4/27/62. d. 5/2/70. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
38 280 283 Bost George M. 35 M W Labourer* MD
39 280 283 Bost Mary 25 F W MD
40 280 283 Bost George W. 1 M W MD

BEDINGER, GEORGE RUST: b. 1841? Student. enl. 5/15/61 at Harper’s Ferry in Co. B as Pvt. Trans. to Rockbridge Artillery, 8/26/61 by Special Order 208 from General Johnston’s headquarters. KIA Gettysburg 7/63.

BOTELER, ALEXANDER R., JR.: b. 1843? in Jefferson Co. 5’9 1/2″. dark complexion, hazel eyes, brown hair. Clerk. enl. 6/10/61 at Camp Jackson on Bolivar Heights in Co. B as Pvt. On special duty, 4/18-6/30 1861. Present again July/Aug. 1861. Discharged by Secretary of War, 10/8/61, reason not given. Unofficial source states he served in the Rockbridge Artillery. “Cadet” Boteler assigned to Ord. Office, Hoke’s Brigade, Early’s Division, 2nd Corps. 4/13/63. Relieved from this duty 8/16/63 and ordered to duty “with some artillery co.in the army.”

SOURCE: 1850 Census
14 730 739 Boteler Alexander R. 35 M W Farmer VA
15 730 739 Boteler Helen M. C. 35 F W NJ
16 730 739 Boteler Elizabeth 13 F W VA
17 730 739 Boteler Angelina 11 F W VA
18 730 739 Boteler Helen 10 F W VA
19 730 739 Boteler Alexander R. 7 M W* VA
20 730 739 Boteler Charlotte R. 5 F W VA

BUTLER, VINCENT MOORE: b. 12/21/20. Physician. Apptd. Capt. of Hamtramck Guards, a pre-war militia company from Shepherdstown. 4/59. Capt. Co. B, 2nd Va. Vol. Inf., 5/3/61. Dropped from the roll, 4/20/62; not re-elected. d. 4/22/64. bur. Elmwood Cem. Shepherdstown, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
3 420 427 Butler Vincent M. 29 M W Physician*

BUTLER, WILLIAM: b. 8/23/41. enl. 4/18/61 at Halltown in Co. B as Pvt. To Corp. 8/17/61. Absent sick Nov./Dec. 1861-March/April 1862. Wded. at 2nd Manassas, date not specific. Present again Jan /Feb. 1863. d. 5/6 or 5/8 1863 at Chimborazo #5, pneumonia. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
1 1223 1238 Butler William G. 32 M W Farmer VA
2 1223 1238 Butler Lucinda 33 F W VA
3 1223 1238 Butler William 9 M W* VA
4 1223 1238 Butler Mary A. 7 F W VA
5 1223 1238 Butler James 5 M W VA
6 1223 1238 Butler Nancy 3 F W VA
7 1223 1238 Butler Lucy A. 1 F W VA

CAMERON, ALEXANDER B.: b. 1834? Clerk. enl. 6/18/61 at Winchester in Co. B as Pvt. Elected Lt. 4/20/62. Absent sick Nov/Dec. 1861. MWIA at 2nd Manassas, 8/28/62; d. 8/29/62. “The Virginia Free Press” 9 Nov. 1865: “Lt. A. B. Cameron wounded 28th of August, 1862 second battle of Manassas, died Aug. 30th, aged 27. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
14 234 236 White John K. 38 M W Merchant VA
15 234 236 White Ellen M. 31 F W VA
16 234 236 White Bettie 7 F W VA
17 234 236 White Robert b. 5 M W VA
18 234 236 White Nannie L. 3 F W VA
19 234 236 White John J. 8/12 M W VA
20 234 236 Tapscott Elizabeth 15 F W VA
21 234 236 Douglass Jackson 23 M W Clerk VA
22 234 236 Cameron Daniel 19 M W Clerk VA
23 234 236 Cameron Alexander B. 16 M W Clerk* VA

CAMERON, HENRY F.: b. 6/18/24. Tailor. enl. 4/18/61 at Halltown in Co. B as Sgt. Reduced to Pvt. Sept./Oct. 1861. AWOL 7/16-8/24 1861. Discharged 4/30-10/31 1862, overage. d. 11/11/88. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown,
W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
21 419 426 Cameron Henry 28 M W Tailor* VA
22 419 426 Cameron Elizabeth 24 F W VA
23 419 426 Cameron Elizabeth 2 F W VA
24 419 426 Cameron Mary 11/12 F W VA
25 419 426 Martin Elizabeth 18 F W VA

CONLEY, WILLIAM H.: b. 1833? Carpenter. enl. 6/15/61 at Camp Whiting in Co. B as Pvt. AWOL 9/31-13/1862. Wded. in finger on right hand at Payne’s Farm, 11/27/63. POW at Salem Church, 5/20/64 (Pt. Lookout). Exchanged 3/15/65. Chimborazo #2, 3/19/65; scorbutus. POW in Richmond hospital, 4/3/65. Paroled 4/22/65 from Libby Prison.

CONLEY, JAMES P.: enl. 2/28/62 at Winchester in Co. B as Pvt. POW at Kernstown, 3/23/62 (Ft. Delaware). Exchanged 8/5/62. No further record. NOTE: Conley was not in the early enlistment cycle.- ED.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
20 362 368 Conley Eli 53 M WHotel Keeper MD
21 362 368 Conley Prudence 45 F W VA
22 362 368 Conley William 13 M W* VA
23 362 368 Conley James 6 M W* VA
24 362 368 Conley Armetta 6 F W VA
25 362 368 Conley George 4 M W VA

COOKUS, GEORGE W.: b. 10/11/40. Mason. enl. 4/21/61 at Harper’s Ferry in Co. B as Pvt. Absent sick 6/30/61. Present again July/Aug., 1861. Absent sick 9/15/62 at home. POW at Shepherdstown, 4/23/63 (Ft. McHenry, Ft. Monroe). Paroled 4/30/63. Absent sick 5/21/63. Gen. Hosp. #11, Richmond, 6/5/62; diarrhea. Furloughed 60 days, 6/5/63. d. 10/5/63 at home in Shepherdstown, disease. bur. Old Reformed Graveyard, Shepherdstown, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
27 367 373 Cookus Jacob 45 M W Butcher VA
28 367 373 Cookus Margaret 42 F W VA
29 367 373 Cookus Mary C. 15 F W VA
30 367 373 Cookus Sarah E. 14 F W VA
31 367 373 Cookus Ann M. 12 F W VA
32 367 373 Cookus Jacob H. 11 M W VA
33 367 373 Cookus George W. 9 M W* VA
34 367 373 Cookus Joseph L. 1 M W VA

CROW, JACOB B. : b. 11/6/32. 5’8″. fair complexion, blue eyes, dark hair. Residence Jefferson Co. enl. 4/18/61 at Halltown in Co. B as Pvt. To Corp. 8/17/61. To Pvt. Nov/Dec. 1861. AWOL 7/16-8/10 1861. Detailed as teamster, 9/8/61. Detailed as teamster, 6/30-10/31 1862 through Jan/Feb. 1864. Detailed to report to Col. Nadenbousch at Staunton 2/64. POW near Lexington, 6/11/64 (Camp Chase). Exchanged 3/2/65. No further record. d. 2/24/97. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

Crow, Jacob (b: 1834)*
Crow, Ellen (b: 1836),
Crow, Emma (b: 1857),
Crow, Charles W
SOURCE: 1860 Census

CULP, JOHN WESLEY: b, 1839? Tailor. enl. 4/20/61 at Harper’s Ferry in Co. B as Pvt. Taken POW while absent on furlough, March/April 1862. Exchanged 8/5/62. KIA at Gettysburg on Culp’s Hill near family farm property
7/3/63.

ENTLER, CATO MOORE: b. 1822. Confectioner. enl. 6/18/61 at Winchester in Co. B as Pvt. sick at Manassas Hosp, 10/21/61. To Chimborazo #5, 1/13/61; diarrhea. To Gen. Hosp. Farmville, 5/7/62; torpor of liver. Returned to duty 7/16/62; however, last official entry shows him absent sick 6/30-10/31 1862.

ENTLER, WILLIAM M.: enl. in Co. B as Pvt. AWOL 9/20/62. No further record.
NOTE: Entler was not in the early enlistment cycle.- ED.

Entler, Cato M (b: 1822)*
Entler, Mary E (b: 1829),
Entler, William M (b: 1849),*
Entler, Ellen V (b: 1852),
Entler, Sallie G
SOURCE: 1860 Census

ENTLER, CHARLES E.: b. 1842. Clerk. enl. 4/20/61 at Harper’s Ferry in Co. B as Pvt. Deserted 6/15/61.

Entler, Elizabeth (b: 1805)
Entler, Leonora (b: 1839),
Entler, Charles E (b: 1844),*
Entler, Sallie (b: 1795)
SOURCE: 1860 Census

ENTLER, DANIEL M.: b. 1835. in Shepherdstown. 5’8”. dark complexion, hazel eyes, dark hair. Carpenter. enl. 4/18/61 at Halltown in Co. B as Pvt. Absent sick Nov-Dec. 1861. On furlough Jan-Feb, 1862. POW at Kernstown, 3/23/62 (Ft. Delaware). Exchanged 8/5/62. Detailed as asst. in commissary dept. (temporarily), Nov. 1862. Wded. in arm at Gettysburg, 7/2/63. Sent to Gen. Hosp. 7/15/63; fractured humerus, left arm. To Chimborazo #4, Richmond, 9/28/63. Surgeon’s Discharge 12/23/63, “wound is still open at elbow joint.”

SOURCE: 1850 Census
26 420 427 Entler Daniel 65 M W Hotel Keeper VA
27 420 427 Entler Margaret 55 F W VA
28 420 427 Entler Virginia 29 F W VA
29 420 427 Entler Frances Q. 24 F W VA
30 420 427 Entler Henry C. 21 M W VA
31 420 427 Entler Emily 18 F W VA
32 420 427 Entler Daniel M. 15 M W* VA
33 420 427 Entler Annetta 12 F W VA

ENTLER, JOHN PHIL: b. 8/22/38. Carpenter. enl. 4/21/61 at Harper’s Ferry in Co. B as Pvt. To Corp. 4/25/62· To Sgt. March 1864, Absent sick July/Aug. 1861. Present again Sept/Oct. 1861. POW at Spotsylvania, 5/20/64 (Pt. Lookout), Exchanged 3/14/65. No further record. d. 12/30/09. bur. Elmwood Cem. Shepherdstown, W.Va.

Entler, Philip (b: 1810)
Entler, Elizabeth A (b: 1816),
Entler, John P (b: 1837),*
Entler, Sarah M (b: 1842),
Entler, George W (b: 1847),
Entler, David A (b: 1856)
SOURCE: 1860 Census

FEAMAN, JOHN S.: b. 1825. Carpenter. enl. 4/18/61 at Halltown in Co. B as Pvt. KIA at Kernstown, 3/23/62.

FEAMAN, WELLS A.: Pvt Co. F. enl. Striders Mill 10/13/62. deserted 11/10/62. NOTE: Feaman was not in the early enlistment cycle.- ED.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
19 372 379 Feaman George 60 M WHatter VA
20 372 379 Feaman Fanny 40 F W VA
21 372 379 Feaman John 22 M WNone* VA
22 372 379 Feaman William 13 M W VA
23 372 379 Feaman Joseph 12 M W VA
24 372 379 Feaman Wells 10 M W* VA
25 372 379 Fowler Jane 35 F W VA
26 372 379 Feaman Philip 45 M WHatter VA

FERRELL, CHARLES F.: b. 8/23/42, Painter. enl. 4/20/61 at Harper’s Ferry in Co. B as Pvt. AWOL 7/17/61 while on march from Winchester to Manassas. Present again Sept-Oct. 1861. POW at Kernstown, 3/23/62 (Ft. Delaware). Exchanged 8/5/62. After exchange, went home without leave, and taken POW at home. On parole as of 10/31/62. Present again Nov.-Dec. 1862. Surrendered at Appomattox. d. 5/23/08. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
18 380 387 Ferrall Jacob 31 M W Chairmaker VA
19 380 387 Ferrall Susan 31 F W VA
20 380 387 Ferrall Charles 7 M W* VA

GROVE, FRANCIS T.: b. 1845? Student. enl. 5/17/61 at Harper’s Ferry in Co. B as Pvt. Last official entry shows him AWOL, March/April, 1862. d. 1924. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

GROVE, WILLIAM H.: b. 1842? Student. enl. 5/17/61 at Harpers Ferry in Co. B as Pvt. Absent sick July/Aug. 1861. AWOL March/April, 1862. Wded. at 2nd Manassas, date not specific. No further record.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
15 1416 1431 Grove Thomas 46 M W Labourer VA
16 1416 1431 Piper Mary A. 33 F W VA
17 1416 1431 Grove Henry 6 M W VA
18 1416 1431 Grove William 4 M W*? VA
19 1417 1432 Grove Abraham 46 M W Labourer MD
20 1417 1432 Grove Margaret 35 F W VA
21 1417 1432 Grove John 18 M W Labourer VA

HAMTRAMCK, SELBY M.: b. 11/24/42. Student enl. 4/20/61 at Harper’s Ferry in Co. B as Pvt. POW at Kernstown, 3/23/62. (Ft. Delaware). d. 6/9/62 at Ft. Delaware, cause not stated. Claim to C. S. government states that he died with no wife or children and that $180.30 was paid to his mother Sallie E. Hamtramck for his service. bur. Finn’s Point Nat. Cem., Ft. Delaware or Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1860 Census
Hamtramck, Selby (b: 1843)*
Hamtramck, Henry Selby (b: 1814),
Hamtramck, Sarah E (b: 1812),
Hamtramck, Florence (b: 1837),
Hamtramck, Sarah F (b: 1839)

HAWN, WILLIAM H. H.: b. 1840? Shoemaker. enl. 6/15/61 at Camp Whiting in Co. B as Pvt. Supposed to have been taken POW while falling back up the Valley, March/April 1862. Absent sick at home since 9/15/62. Present again Nov/Dec. 1862. AWOL 7/14/63. No further record.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
7 284 287 Hawn David 57 M WCarpenter PA
8 284 287 Hawn Mary 51 F W VA
9 284 287 Hawn Ellen 25 F W VA
10 284 287 Hawn John R. 15 M W VA
11 284 287 Hawn Ann R. 12 F W VA
12 284 287 Hawn William H. 0 M W* VA

HESSEY, CHARLES E.: b. 1836? Tailor. enl. 4/18/61 at Halltown in Co. B as Pvt. Absent sick at Shepherdstown, July/Aug. 1861. d. 1/3 or 1/30 1862 at Shepherdstown; disease. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
28 254 256 Rightstine William 42 M W Tailor VA
29 254 256 Rightstine Catharine 38 F W VA
30 254 256 Rightstine Marcella 12 F W VA
31 254 256 Rightstine Emily 10 F W VA
32 254 256 Rightstine Ann 7 F W VA
33 254 256 Rightstine James 4 M W VA
34 254 256 Rightstine William 9/12 M W VA
35 254 256 Hessey Charles 13 M W Apprentice* VA

HESSEY, EDWARD H.: b, 1826? Brickmaker. enl. 6/9/61 at Camp Jackson on Bolivar Heights in Co. B as Pvt. Absent sick at home in Winchester, March/April 1862-May/June 1863. Nurse at New School Presbyterian Church Hosp., Winchester, 10/20/62. Present again July/Aug, 1863. POW at Spotsylvania, 5/12/64 (Pt. Lookout, Elmira). Exchanged 10/29/64. No further record.

HESSEY, RICHARD AMOS: enl. 7/9/61 at Winchester in Co. B as Pvt. Absent on furlough Nov-Dec. 1861. Present again Jan/Feb. 1862. AWOL since 5/28/62, and dropped from the roll 12/22/62. No further record. bur. Edge Hill Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
1 225 227 Hessey Thomas 59 M W Farmer VA
2 225 227 Hessey Elizabeth 56 F W VA
3 225 227 Hessey James 26 M W Farmer VA
4 225 227 Hessey Edward 24 M W Farmer* VA
5 225 227 Hessey Elizabeth 22 F W VA
6 225 227 Hessey Richard 20 M W Farmer* VA
7 225 227 Hessey Ellen 18 F W VA
8 225 227 Hessey Frances 16 F W VA

HOUT, DAVID H.: b. 11/24/20. Carpenter. enl. 4/18/61 at Halltown in Co. B as Corp. To Sgt. 11/13/61. Discharged 4/30-10/31/1862, overage. d. 3/11/05. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

HOUT, GEORGE W.: enl. 6/1/63 Sharpsburg, Md. in Co. B as Musician. Surrendered at Appomattox. Postwar, went west. d. 2/13/20 at Warrensburg, Mo. NOTE: Hout was not in the early enlistment cycle.- ED.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
33 279 282 Hout David 28 M W Carpenter* VA
34 279 282 Hout Margaret 25 F W VA
35 279 282 Hout George W. 5 M W* VA

HUMRICKHOUSE, GEORGE W.: enl. 6/21/63 near Sharpsburg in Co. B as Musician. Surrendered at Appomattox. NOTE: Humrickhouse was not in the early enlistment cycle.- ED.

HUMRICKHOUSE, SAMUEL P.: b. 1830? in Shepherdstown. 5’3″. fair complexion, gray eyes, dark hair. Tailor. enl. 6/18/61 at Winchester in Co. B as Pvt. POW at Kernstown, 3/23/62 (Ft. Delaware). Exchanged 8/5/62. Absent sick Aug/5-Nov/Dec. 1862. Present again Jan/Feb, 1863. On furlough March/April 1863. Discharged 5/26/63 by reason of insanity; he was “taken very sick with Typhoid Fever.”

SOURCE: 1850 Census
1 395 402 Humrickhouse Eliza 50 F W VA
2 395 402 Humrickhouse George 25 M W Carpenter* VA
3 395 402 Humrickhouse Sarah J. 19 F W VA
4 395 402 Humrickhouse Samuel J. 21 M W Labourer* VA
5 395 402 Humrickhouse James 23 M W Labourer VA

HUTSON, JACOB: b. 1842? Carpenter. enl. 4/19/61 Harper’s Ferry. AWOL since 3/15/62.

HUTSON, ROBERT: b. 1842? Blacksmith. enl 4/18/61 at Halltown in Co. B as Pvt. d. 7/19/61 at hosp. in Winchester. “The Virginia Free Press” reported 9 Nov 1865 that a “Robert Hudson died at Winchester Hospital 19th July, 1861 aged 22 years.”

SOURCE: Census 1860
Hutson, Robert (b: 1841)*
Shell, John (b: 1823),
Shell, Margaret (b: 1828),
Shell, John R (b: 1847),
Shell, Charles C (b: 1848)

KEYES, WILLIAM H.: b. 7/15/41. Carpenter. enl. 4/18/61 at Halltown in Co. B as Pvt. Trans. to 1st Va. Cav., 7/14/61. KIA at Jenning’s Landing on the James River, 3/24/64. bur. Old Reformed Graveyard, Shepherdstown, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
19 346 352 Keyes Peter 39 M W Manufacturer VA
20 346 352 Keyes Frances 35 F W VA
21 346 352 Keyes Margaret 13 F W VA
22 346 352 Keyes Rachel 11 F W VA
23 346 352 Keyes William 9 M W* VA
24 346 352 Keyes John 7 M W VA
25 346 352 Keyes Joseph 3 M W VA

KIMES, HENRY: b. 1816? Painter. enl. 4/18/61 at Halltown in Co. B as Pvt. Absent sick at home in Shepherdstown, Sept/Oct. 1861. Present again Nov/Dec. 1861. Last official entry states he was taken POW while on furlough, March/April 1864. b. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

LEE, Edwin G. : b. 5/27/1836; residence: Shepherdstown, enlisted Co. B, re-assigned to Confederate Secret Service in Canada. died 8/24/1870.

LUCAS, BENJAMIN F.: b. 1838. Boatman. enl. 4/18/61 in Co. B at Halltown
SOURCE: Confederate Service Records

LUCAS, EDWARD D.: b. 1842? Lawyer. enl. 6/15/61 at Camp Whiting in Co. B as Pvt. Gen. Hosp. Charlottesville, 5/11-7/4/1864; wounded. Surrendered at Appomattox.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
5 360 366 Lucas Edward 37 M W Boatman VA
6 360 366 Lucas Eliza 34 F W VA
7 360 366 Lucas Benjamin 13 M W * VA
8 360 366 Lucas Edward 7 M W VA
9 360 366 Lucas Emily 5 F W VA
10 360 366 Lucas Margaret 3 F W VA
11 360 366 Lucas William B. 7/12 M W VA
12 361 367 Lucas Lewis 40 M W Boatman VA
13 361 367 Lucas Ellen 32 F W VA
14 361 367 Lucas George 10 M W VA
15 361 367 Lucas Edward 8 M W* VA
16 361 367 Lucas Lewis 6 M W VA
17 361 367 Lucas Franklin 2 M W VA

McENDREE, DANIEL M.: b. 1838? in Jefferson Co. 5’9″. fair complexion, gray eyes, brown hair. Clerk. enl. 4/27/61 at Harper’s Ferry in Co. B as Pvt. Absent sick Nov./Dec. 1861. Present again Jan/Feb. 1862. AWOL since 5/1/62. Discharged 7/27/62, being a “citizen of Kentucky and having served 90 days after expiration of this term.”

McENDREE, WILLIAM H.: b. 1841? Clerk. enl. 5/29/61 at Lemon’s Ferry in Co. B as Pvt. To Sgt. 4/18/62. Absent sick Jan/Feb. 1862. AWOL during July, 1862 and since 9/20/62. AWOL 10/10-12/1/62. Detailed clerk for QM of 2nd Va. Inf., Dec. 1862. Remained on this detail through last official entry which shows him present, 4/30-10/31/1864. Surrendered at Appomattox

SOURCE: 1850 Census
31 230 232 McEndree John H. 44 M W Merchant VA
32 230 232 McEndree Eugenia 36 F W VA
33 230 232 McEndree William 15 M W* VA
34 230 232 McEndree Daniel M. 13 M W* VA
35 230 232 McEndree Louisa P. 11 F W VA
36 230 232 McEndree Eugenia P. 9 F W VA
37 230 232 McEndree Ann H. T. 5 F W VA

MAGAHA, JACOB: enl. 2/18/62 at Winchester in Co. B as Pvt. Wded. at 2nd Manassas, date not specific. Present again by 10/31/62. d. 5/26/63 in hosp at Richmond “from wound. ” “The Virginia Free Press” 9 Nov. 1865: “Jacob Magaha, wounded at Chancellorsville, 5th of May, 1863 died the 9th, aged 30.”

SOURCE: 1850 Census
14 307 310 McGackey Jacob 37 M WLabourer* VA
15 307 310 Sigafoose Mary A. 29 F W MD
16 307 310 Widows Bushrod 14 M W VA
17 307 310 Widows David 27 M WLabourer MD
18 307 310 Wise John 43 M WPotter VA

MARMADUKE, JAMES J.: b. 1835? Farmer. enl. 6/15/61 at Camp Whiting in Co. B as Pvt. AWOL since 10/14/61. Present again Nov/Dec. 1861. POW at Manassas, 8/27/62, and paroled. Absent sick at home since 9/21/62. AWOL since 11/10/62. Arrested (Rebel deserter) at Baltimore, 6/29/63 (Ft McHenry). Oath of Allegiance to U.S., 8/26/63.

MARMADUKE, LUTHER: b. 1838? Tanner. enl. 6/18/61 at Winchester in Co. B as Pvt. Detailed as Musician to 2nd Regt. Band, May/June 1863. POW at Spotsylvania, 5/12/64 (Pt. Lookout, Elmira). d. 10/1/64 at Elmira; typhoid fever. bur. Woodlawn Nat. Cem., Elmira, N.Y., Section 9, grave 532.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
17 246 248 Marmaduke John A. 70 M W Tanner VA
18 246 248 Marmaduke Catharine 53 F W VA
19 246 248 Marmaduke Sampson 27 M W Tanner VA
20 246 248 Marmaduke Presley 24 M W Tanner VA
21 246 248 Marmaduke Mary 19 F W VA
22 246 248 Marmaduke Vincent 18 M W VA
23 246 248 Marmaduke James 15 M W* VA
24 246 248 Marmaduke Luther 12 M W* VA

MILLER, BENJAMIN: enl. 4/18/62 at Rude’s Hill in Co. B as Pvt. AWOL 4/20-8/1 1862. No further record except parole statement that says he was paroled 4/20/65 at Mt. Jackson.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
37 1428 1443 Miller Jacob 49 M W Farmer VA
38 1428 1443 Miller Lydia 38 F W VA
39 1428 1443 Miller Mary 16 F W VA
40 1428 1443 Miller John 13 M W VA
41 1428 1443 Miller George 11 M W VA
42 1428 1443 Miller Sarah 9 F W VA
1 1428 1443 Miller Jacob 7 M W VA
2 1428 1443 Miller Benjamin 5 M W* VA
3 1428 1443 Miller Ann 3 F W VA
4 1428 1443 Miller William 2 M W VA

MILLER, WILLIAM H.: b. 1830? Farmer. enl. 5/17/61 at Harper’s Ferry in Co. B as Pvt. Last official entry shows him AWOL. March/April, 1862.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
1 578 587 Miller John 53 M W Shoemaker VA
2 578 587 Miller Mary 51 F W Shoemaker VA
3 578 587 Miller Ann K. 23 F W VA
4 578 587 Miller Mary C. 13 F W VA
5 578 587 Miller John S. 11 M W VA
6 578 587 Miller William H. 9 M W* VA

MOLER, HENRY CLAY: enl. 12/8/62 at Camp Moss Neck in Co. B as Pvt. Wded. at Chancellorsville, 5/3/63. Present again Sept/Oct., 1863. Detailed in Pioneer Corps, Johnson’s Division, Jan/Feb. 1864. Last official entry shows him present, 4/30-10/31 1864.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
11 1357 1372 Moler Henry 49 M W Farmer VA
12 1357 1372 Moler Harriet 41 F W VA
13 1357 1372 Moler Henry C. 2 M W Farmer* VA
14 1357 1372 Moler John J. 21 M W Farmer VA
15 1357 1372 Moler George A. 20 M W Farmer VA
16 1357 1372 Moler Emily V. 17 F W VA
17 1357 1372 Moler Daniel J. 15 M W VA
18 1357 1372 Moler Rolly M. 13 M W VA
19 1357 1372 Moler Mary L. 11 F W VA
20 1357 1372 Moler Isaac N. 8 M W VA
21 1357 1372 Moler Milton M. 6 M W VA
22 1357 1372 Moler Benjamin F. 9/12 W VA

MOLER, LEE H.: b. 3/12/37. Farmer. enl. 4/18/61 at Halltown in Co. B as Lt. Elected Capt. 4/20/62. Resigned 8/15/62 due to “an old and large hernia at the left side.” d. 10/28/08. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
9 646 655 Moler Levi 47 M W Farmer 20,000 VA
10 646 655 Moler Hester 47 F W VA
11 646 655 Moler Ann 16 F W VA
12 646 655 Moler Mary E. 14 F W VA
13 646 655 Moler Lee H. 13 M W* VA

PENDLETON, BENJAMIN S.: b. 3/28/42. Clerk. enl. 6/18/61 at Winchester in Co. B as Pvt. Absent on leave 10/31/62. Absent on detail as brig. orderly, 11/26/62-May/June 1863. Last official entry shows him present, 4/30-10/31 1864. Surrendered at Appomattox. d. 1/19/31. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

REED, JOHN J.: b. 1834? Lawyer. enl. 4/18/61 at Halltown in Co. B as Pvt. Discharged 10/12/61, reason not stated.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
23 88 88 Reed John 50 M W Constable MD
24 88 88 Reed Margaret E. 40 F W VA
25 88 88 Reed Mary 18 F W VA
26 88 88 Reed John 16 M W* VA
27 88 88 Reed William B. 15 M W VA
28 88 88 Reed Albert d. 11 M W VA
29 88 88 Reed Daniel G. 3 M W VA

RICKARD, JAMES R.: b. 2/21/28. Residence Shepherdstown. enl. 6/20/63 near Sharpsburg, Md. in Co. B as Musician. Last official entry shows him absent in hosp. at Lynchburg, 4/30-10/31 1864. Paroled 4/14/65 at Lynchburg. d. 8/26/09. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1860 Census
Rickard, Elijah (b: 1795)
Rickard, Elizabeth (b: 1798),
Rickard, James R (b: 1828),*
Rickard, Mary E (b: 1833),
Rickard, Maria A (b: 1835*)

RIGHTSTINE, ADAM: enl. 10/10/62 at Bunker Hill in Co. B as Pvt. Absent sick 5/31/63. Last official entry shows him still absent sick, March/April 1864. NOTE” Rightstine was not in the first enlistment in 1861.-ED

SOURCE: 1850 Census
29 642 651 Rightstine Adam 36 M W Labourer* VA
30 642 651 Rightstine Mary 35 F W VA
31 642 651 Rightstine Elizabeth 10 F W VA
32 642 651 Rightstine James 6/12 M W VA

SHEPHERD, EDWARD CLARENCE: b. 1836? 5’8″. light complexion, blue eyes, light hair. grad. V.M.I. enl. 10/22/61 at Centerville as Pvt. Elected Lt. 4/18/62. Court-martialed for cowardice at 2nd Manassas, 10/28/62, and cashiered from the service. Went home to Jefferson Co. after the sentence. When Confederates approached his home in June 1863, he went to Baltimore. Arrested at Baltimore, 6/29/63 (Ft. McHenry, Ft. Delaware, Johnson’s Island). Oath of Allegiance to U.S., 5/19/65. Postwar, mathematics professor at Frederick, Md. College. d. 8/29/07 at Frederick, Md. NOTE: Shepherd was not in the early enlistment cycle.- ED.

SHEPHERD, H. SMITH: b. 1838? Clerk. enl. 6/18/61 at Winchester in Co. B as Pvt. Detailed to attend to sick in hosp. at Gettysburg, 7/4/63. POW at Gettysburg, 7/3/63 (sic) (U.S. Gen. Hosp., West Buildings, Baltimore; debility). Oath of Allegiance to U.S., 3/16/65.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
27 261 263 Shepherd James 62 M W Cabinet Maker VA
28 261 263 Shepherd America 45 F W PA
29 261 263 Shepherd Virginia 23 F W VA
30 261 263 Shepherd Serena 21 F W VA
31 261 263 Shepherd Clarence 15 M W* VA
32 261 263 Shepherd Smith 13 M W* VA
33 261 263 Shepherd Susan 11 F W VA
34 261 263 Shepherd Ann H. 9 F W VA

SMALL, JAMES N.: b. 1844? 5’4″; dark complexion, gray eyes, dark hair. enl. 9/16/61 at Charles Town in Co. A as Pvt. POW at Newtown, 7/28/63 (Ft. Delaware). Exchanged 3/10/65. Paroled 4/18/65 at Charles Town.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
21 35 35 Small James B. 42 M W Carpenter VA
22 35 35 Small Jane C. 27 F W VA
23 35 35 Small James N. 6 M W* VA
24 35 35 Small Alexander S. 4 M W VA

SMITH, CONRAD C.: b. 4/5/24. Unofficial source lists him in Co. B. d. 3/14/86. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
11 530 537 Shepherd Rezin D. 65 M W Farmer VA
12 530 537 Slone Eli 45 M W Overseer MD
13 530 537 Smith Conrad 26 M W Stonemason* GERMANY

STONEBRAKER, A.S.: Apptd. 6/19/61 Regt QM. Last official entry shows him present, Nov/Dec. 1861. Next official record says he was reassigned, 9/15/64; nature of reassignment not stated. No further record.

SOURCE: Census 1860
Stonebraker, Abraham (b: 1832)*
Stonebraker, Catharine E. (b: 1832),
Stonebraker, Joseph P. (b: 1859)

TAPSCOTT, SAMUEL B.: b. 1837? 5’7″. dark complexion, black eyes, black hair, brown whiskers. Clerk. enl. 4/30/61 at Harpers Ferry in Co. B as Pvt. AWOL May/June-July/Aug. 1861. Present again Sept/Oct. 1861 Absent sick March/April 1862. Gen. Hosp. Charlottesville, 9/4-9/16 1862; wounded (probably wded. at 2nd Manassas. although his entries state he was AWOL since 7/1/62, so there is a possibiity that he was wded. at Malvern Hill and turned up missing as a result). POW at Strasburg, 2/13/63 (Wheeling, Camp Chase). Exchanged 3/28/63. Present again March/April 1863. Gen. Hosp. #13, Richmond, 6/16/63; acute diarrhea Gen. Hosp. Charlottesville. 7/24-8/4 1863; debility. POW at Spotsylvania, 5/12/64 (Pt. Lookout, Elmira) . Exchanged 10/29/64. No further record. “The Virginia Free Press” 9 Nov. 1865: “Samuel Tapscott died March 23rd 1865 at Fortress Monroe, aged 28.”

SOURCE: Census 1860
Tapscott, Samuel (b: 1836)*
Kerney, Ariadne H (b: 1794),
Hamnill, Alevia A (b: 1819),
Hamnill, James A (b: 1846),
Hamnill, Giles C J (b: 1849)

TAYLOR, JOHN W.: b. 3/31/42. 5’5’/2 “. light complexion, blue eyes, light hair. Residence Jefferson Co. enl. 11/22/61 at Camp Stephenson in Co. B as Pvt. To Corp. 4/18/62. To Sgt. 8/1/62. Absent on furlough, Jan-Feb. 1862. Absent sick March/April 1862. Present again 4/30-10/31 1862. Gen. Hosp. Danville, June 1864; wounded neck. Gen. Hosp. Charlottesville, 9/26/64; wounded neck. To Lynchburg 9/28/64. Last official entry shows him present again by 10/31/64 muster POW at Ft. Steadman near Petersburg, 3/25/65 (Pt. Lookout). Oath of Allegiance to U.S. 6/11/65. d. 12/11/05. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
36 215 217 Taylor J. H. 34 M W Physician VA
37 215 217 Taylor Ann A. 30 F W VA
38 215 217 Taylor Levi 36 M W Farmer VA
39 215 217 Taylor John W. 7 M W* VA
40 215 217 Taylor Sally F. 25 F W VA
41 215 217 Taylor Margaretta 8 F W VA
42 215 217 Taylor Samuel 90 M W VA

TAYLOR, LEMUEL T.: b. 1825. Wagon maker. enl. 4/18/61 at Halltown in Co. B as Corp. To Sgt. 8/17/61. POW at Kernstown, 3/23/62 (Ft. Delaware). Exchanged 8/5/62. AWOL since 8/5/62 and dropped from the roll, Nov/Dec. 1862. No further record until 10/3/64 when he is shown in Gen. Hosp. #9, Richmond. To Gen. Hosp. #5, Richmond. 10/8/64. chronic diarrhea. d. 1/12/64 at Gen. Hosp. #5, Richmond.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
36 1284 1299 Wagely Jacob W. 29 M W Blacksmith VA
37 1284 1299 Wagely Martha J. 26 F W VA
38 1284 1299 Taylor Lemuel T. 23 M W Wagonmaker* VA
39 1284 1299 Roberts William 15 M W VA

TOWNER, JAMES L.: b. 1828? Postmaster. enl 4/18/61 at Halltown in Co. B as Pvt. Absent on recruiting service, July/Aug. 1861. Present again Sept/Oct. 1861. Absent sick Jan/Feb. 1862. Absent sick behind enemy lines, March/April 1862. No further record.

TOWNER. THOMAS HARRIS: b. 1822? Served 20 months during Mexican War. Lawyer. enl. 4/18/61 at Halltown in Co. B as Pvt. To Sgt. 8/14/61. MWIA at Kernstown, 3/23/62. d. 3/26/62 at Winchester. “The Virginia Free Press” 9 Nov. 1865: “T. Harris Towner, wounded a Kernstown, 23rd of March, 1862 and died the 25th at Winchester aged about 40.”

WALTERS, JOSEPH W.: b. 9/8/34. Laborer. Residence Augusta Co. enl. 4/18/61 at Halltown in Co. B as Pvt. Absent sick since 6/24/63. Detailed to wait on sick at Gettysburg. POW at Gettysburg, 7/3/63 (Ft. McHenry, Ft. Delaware, Pt. Lookout). Exchanged 9/30/64. Furloughed from Chimborazo #1, 10/10/64, length of furlough not stated. No further record. d. 11/23/68. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
8 1206 1221 Walters Jonathan 46 M W Overseer VA
9 1206 1221 Walters Elizabeth 46 F W VA
10 1206 1221 Walters Isaac 18 M W VA
11 1206 1221 Walters Joseph 15 M W* VA

WINTERMOYER, JACOB: b. 10/28/31. Painter. enl. 4/18/61 at Halltown in Co. B as Pvt. Absent sick 6/18/63-Jan. 1864. Deserted 2/1/64. d. 8/27/09. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
11 397 404 Wintermyer Henry 50 M W Weaver PA
12 397 404 Wintermyer Elizabeth 37 F W MD
13 397 404 Wintermyer Jacob 20 M W Weaver* VA

WINTERMOYER, THOMAS H.: b. 1834? 5’8″. light complexion, gray eyes, dark hair. Shoemaker. enl. 4/23/61 at Harpers Ferry in Co. B as Pvt. To Sgt. 12/1/62. Exchanged POW, 8/5/62. Where and when captured not stated. POW at Spotsylvania, 5/12/64 (Pt. Lookout, Elmira). Exchanged 10/29/64. Next record shows him in hosp. in Macon, Georgia, 11/15/64; diarrhea. Paroled 4/21/65 at Winchester.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
23 228 230 Wintermyer Henry 21 M W Shoemaker PA
24 228 230 Wintermyer Rebecca 19 F W VA
25 228 230 Wintermyer Sarah G. 4/12 F W VA
26 228 230 Wintermyer Thomas 16 M W Shoemaker* VA

WINTERMOYER, JOHN: b. 1827? Laborer. enl. 4/21/61 at Duffields in Co. H as Pvt. Last official entry shows him present, Nov/Dec. 1861. Exchanged POW, 8/5/62. Where and when captured not stated. No further record. d. 2/28/09. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census

32 310 314 Wintermyer Philip 62 M WWeaver PA
33 310 314 Wintermyer Mary 60 F W MD
34 310 314 Wintermyer William 19 M WWeaver VA
35 310 314 Wintermyer Margaret 23 F W VA
36 310 314 Wintermyer John 23 M WWeaver* VA
37 311 315 Wintermyer Jeptha 28 M WWeaver VA
38 311 315 Wintermyer Melinda 27 F W VA
39 311 315 Wintermyer Mary C. 2 F W VA
40 311 315 Wintermyer Eliza A. 30 F W VA

YONTZ, GEORGE W.: b. 1842 Shoemaker. enl.4/20/61 at Harpers Ferry in Co. B as Pvt To Corp. 8/1/62. Wded. at 2nd Manassas. date not specific. Present at 10/31/62 muster. Detailed in band, 6/20/63. Trans. to 2nd Regt Band, Jan/Feb. 1864. Last official entry shows him present, 4/30-10/13 1864. Surrendered at Appomattox.

SOURCE: Census 1860
Yontz, George (b: 1842)*
Wintermeyer, Henry (b: 1829),
Wintermeyer, Harriet R (b: 1831),
Wintermeyer, Sarah G (b: 1850),
Wintermeyer, Prudence E (b: 1852)

YONTZ, JOSEPH E,: enl. 2/18/62 at Winchester in Co. B as Pvt. To Corp 10/1/64. Surrendered at Appomattox. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va. NOTE: Yontz was not in the early enlistment cycle.- ED.

SOURCE: Census 1860
Yontz, Jacob (b: 1810)
Yontz, Emily E (b: 1814),
Yontz, Vanetta (b: 1842),
Yontz, Joseph (b: 1845),*
Yontz, Mary V (b: 1851)

ZITTLE, JOHN H.: b. 1835? Printer. enl. 4/18/61 at Halltown in Co. B as Lt. Last official entry shows him present, Jan/Feb. 1862. Dropped from the Register of Commissioned Officers, 5/18/62; reason not stated.

SOURCE: 1860 Census
Zittle, John H (b: 1830)*
Zittle, Elizabeth (b: 1831),
Mc Glincey, Richard P (b: 1841),
Mc Glincey, Virginia (b: 1843)

References:

Bushong, Millard K.(2007). “A History of Jefferson County, West Virginia [1719-1940].” Westminster, MD: Heritage Books. Print.

Bushong, Millard K. “A History of Jefferson County, West Virginia [1719-1940].” Google Books. 19 July 2008. Web. 24 Dec. 2010.

Confederate Service Records, National Archives

Frye, Dennis E. (1984). “2nd Virginia Infantry.” Lynchburg, Va.: H. E. Howard, Inc. Print.

United States. Bureau of the Census; United States. National Archives and Records Service. (1967). “Population schedules of the eighth census of the United States, 1860, Virginia [microform] (Volume Reel 1355 – 1860 Virginia Federal Population Census Schedules – James City and Jefferson Counties).” Jefferson, Kanawha, King George, King and Queen, and King William Counties).”Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 10 Sept. 2010.

United States. Bureau of the Census; United States. National Archives and Records Service. (1964). “Population schedules of the seventh census of the United States, 1850, Virginia.” [microform] (Volume Reel 0953 – 1850 Virginia Federal Population Census Free Schedules – Jackson, James City, and Jefferson Counties).” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 31 July 2008. Web. 3 March 2011.

“The Virginia Free Press,” Nov. 9, 1865.

“Why Did Virginia Secede?” – Dennis Frye

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https://web.archive.org/web/20190710022705/https://civilwarscholars.com/2011/06/why-did-virginia-secede-dennis-frye/

“Why Did Virginia Secede?” – Dennis Frye

:00 Why Did Virginia secede from the Union? Actually why did Virginia divorce itself from the Union. Sometimes the word “secede” is just a little too nice. This was total separation, total divorce, complete, complete separation from the United States of America.

:40 We were now the Divided States of America in 1861. And Virginia chose to go with the divided states rather than remain united. Very ironic considering all the efforts of the Founding Fathers to unite us as one nation. And, now, here we are, separating eighty years later into two nations.

It’s really interesting, with Washington and Madison and Monroe and Jefferson – all these great Virginians, that Americans, North and South, completely revered – to have the state – the mother state – the whole state of Virginia – the leader in the unification of the Country and the leader during the Revolution and the post-Revolution period –

1:15 . . . to find itself leaving the country it helped create. it was literally a divorce. It did not come easily. It was a very, very difficult thing for Virginia to do. Virginia was not a “hothead” state. It wasn’t the first to secede. South Carolina had left the Union in 1860 only a few weeks after Lincoln’s election.

Here we are in April – January, February, March and here we are in mid-April – three-and-a-half, four months have passed, and Virginia is still part of the United States. Virginia was really very uncomfortable about going with the South. It was a slave State. It was the largest of the slave holding states but it was very, very uncertain about the future of the Confederacy, and it was also uncertain about the future of a divided nation. After all, Virginia helped create the United States which was in response to the Articles of Confederation, which is what really the Confederacy amounted to in many respects.

2:28 And so this question of secession, leaving the Union, carving itself away from the Union, was not taken lightly. In fact, Virginia had voted on secession in previous months. It had voted it down. The state had a special secession convention. Delegates from each one of the counties went to the secession convention, representing the local folks back home. And time and again the vote was against secession. What changed it all? Why did they finally decide to cast their votes in favor of departure from the United States?

3:03 – Well, really it was war, the outbreak of war. When Fort Sumter was fired upon by South Carolinians – and President Lincoln requested that all of those states still within the United States, contribute troops to squash the rebellion in the Southern States, that was too much. Virginia said: “Now, wait a minute, wait a minute. We can’t go fight our brothers in the South. We can argue against them. We can certainly disagree with them and their perspective on the new Confederacy.

3:28 But we can’t have Virginians wearing United States Army uniforms, and launching invasions into the South. And with that, the argument shifted . . .

More County Men Enlist, May 11, 1861

5853 words

https://web.archive.org/web/20190710022507/https://civilwarscholars.com/2011/06/more-countians-enlisting-may-11-1861/

According to Author Millard Bushong, these are many of the Jefferson County men who were mustered into Company G (Bott’s Greys) of the 2nd Virginia Infantry Regiment (C.S.A.) at Harper’s Ferry, May 11, 1861 and then were fiercely drilled and disciplined by the new commander, Col. Thomas Jackson,who had not yet gotten his famous nickname. A significant number of recruits moved over to a cavalry unit at first opportunity the following spring. Others persevered. Much of this relies on the roster research done by Historian Dennis Frye. -ED

Where a man served in two units, he is recorded in the unit he was in the longest or with the most record.

Census Summaries: The Censuses are 1850 and 1860 and are included in no particular order, except where they confirm the person’s existence within the County at those times. Past estimates of those who enlisted in Confederate units from Jefferson County have been excessive due to the inclusion of many who enlisted in Jefferson County but were not from Jefferson County.

The man who enlisted is represented by an “*” to the right of “W” or to the right of their profession.

The information represents: name – age – sex- color- profession – place of birth.

Service Records: utilize abbreviated terms such as POW (“prisoner of war”), AWOL (“absent without leave”), KIA (killed in action), MWIA (“wounded and missing in action”)

The numbers to the left represent dwelling and family numbers in each Census. The person’s name follows.

Early Enlistees in 2nd Virginia Infantry Company G from Jefferson County

AISQUITH, ARCHIBALD H.: b. 5/11/45. 5’7″. light complexion, brown eyes, dark hair. Clerk. ent. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Pvt. Wded. at Chancellorsville, 5/3/63. Right arm amputated at Gen. Hosp. at Staunton. Listed as unfit for active duty. Attached to Gen. Hosp. Staunton, 5/28/63. Last official entry shows him still at same hospital in Sept./Oct. 1864. Paroled 4/22/65 at Winchester. d. 11/3/94. bur. Zion Episcopal Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

AISQUITH, CHARLES W.: b. in Jefferson Co. 5’8″. fair complexion, blue eyes, dark hair. Clerk. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Pvt. To Sgt., date not listed. Wded. in neck at 1st Manassas, 7/21/61. Returned to duty 9/25/61. Absent sick Nov./Dec. 1861. Present again 4/30-10/31, 1862. Hospitalized 4/5/63, chronic diarrhea. Last official entry shows him commissioned as hospital steward, 6/1/63. d. 4/2/92. bur. Zion Episcopal Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

AISQUITH, CHARLES M.: b. 1842? Listed in Co. G as Sgt. Last official entry shows him “slightly wounded by shell in Battle of Fredericksburg,” 2/13/62.

SOURCE:1850 Census
14 87 87 Moore Cato 66 M WCashier VA
15 87 87 Moore M. S. 60 F W VA
16 87 87 Moore Sarah 33 F W VA
17 87 87 Moore Edwin 19 M WClerk Bank VA
18 87 87 Moore Charles 17 M WClerk VA
19 87 87 Aisquith Margaret T. 30 F W VA
20 87 87 Aisquith Edward 6 M W VA
21 87 87 Aisquith Charles M. 8 M W* VA
22 87 87 Aisquith Archy A. 5 M W* VA

ALEXANDER, THOMAS B. b. 1840? Farmer. enl. 4/21/61 at Harper’s Ferry in Co. B as Pvt. d. in hospital at Staunton, 6/18 or 6/19 1862; cerebretis. bur. Thornrose Cem., Staunton.

ALEXANDER, WILLIAM FONTAINE: b. 8/13/41. Druggist. enl. 6/3/61 at Camp Jackson on Bolivar Heights in Co. G as Pvt. Absent sick 9/10/61. Present again Nov.-Dec. 1861. Apptd. Hospital Steward, Ladies Relief Hospital, Lynchburg, 5/27/62. Steward at University Hosp., Charlottesville, June, 1862. To Ladies Relief Hospital, Lynchburg, 12/62-11/63. “Request that Steward be permanently assigned to duty as druggist” at Chimborazo #5, 2/29/64. Last official entry states he received a furlough from Chimborazo, 9/30/64. d. 4/11/80. bur. Zion Episcopal Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

SOURCE:1850 Census
23 961 974 Alexander William P. 49 M WFarmer VA
24 961 974 Alexander Hannah L. 39 F W VA
25 961 974 Alexander Thomas B. 12 M W* VA
26 961 974 Alexander William 9 M W* VA
27 961 974 Alexander Jane 7 F W VA
28 961 974 Alexander Herbert 4 M W VA
29 961 974 Alexander Richard 1 M W VA

BACKHOUSE, DAVID H.: b. 1837? Farmer. enl. 4/21/61 at Harper’s Ferry in Co. G as Pvt. Fined $11.00 by court-martial, 8/13/61 (reason not stated). Detailed as Regt. teamster, Nov./Dec. 1862. Deserted 5/15/63.

BEALL, JOHN YATES: b. 1/1/35 in Jefferson Co. 5’8″. fair complexion, blue eyes, brown hair. Farmer. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Pvt. Detailed to convey a sick soldier to Jefferson Co., Sept./Oct. 1861. Wded. in chest in Battle of Bolivar Heights, 10/16/61. Discharged due to wound, 2/18/63. POW at Accomac Co., 1/16/63. Held as a political prisoner and pirate for his privateering in the Chesapeake Bay (Ft. McHenry, Ft. Monroe, Pt. Lookout). Paroled from Pt. Lookout, 3/3/64. Court-martialed as a guerrilla and spy after captured in his attempt to release Confederate prisoners held on Johnson’s Island. Hanged on Governor’s Island in New York Harbor, 2/24/65. bur. Zion Episcopal Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

BEALL, WILLIAM: b. 3/26/44. Student. Brother of John Yates Beall. enl. 6/8/61 at Camp Jackson on Bolivar Heights in Co. G as Pvt. Absent sick 10/3/61. POW near Manassas, 8/27/62. Exchanged and returned 11/20/62. On furlough, Jan.-Feb. 1863, Sent to hospital, 4/18/63. Gen. Hosp. Charlottesville, 5/2-7/20 1863; diarrhea. Detailed by Special Order 253 from Secretary of War to report to J. Y. Beall, 10/4/63. POW at Accomac Co., 11/16/63 (Ft. McHenry, Ft. Monroe). Exchanged 3/16/64. Surrendered at Appomattox. d. 6/16/07. bur. Zion Episcopal Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

SOURCE:1850 Census
9 1144 1159 Beall George B. 48 M WFarmer VA
10 1144 1159 Beall Janet 46 F W VA
11 1144 1159 Beall Mary Y. R. 21 F W VA
12 1144 1159 Beall Hezekiah 19 M W VA
13 1144 1159 Beall John Y. 15 M W* VA
14 1144 1159 Beall Ann O. 11 F W VA
15 1144 1159 Beall Elizabeth 8 F W VA
16 1144 1159 Beall William 6 M W* VA
17 1144 1159 Beall Janetta 4 F W VA

BERRY, CHARLES JAMES: b. Sept. 1844 at Charles Town. enl. 7/9/61 at Winchester in Co. G as Pvt. Discharged 10/14/62, no reason given. d. 4/20/89 at Albany, Georgia. bur. Edge Hill Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

BERRY, LAWRENCE LEE GRIBBS: b. 7/14/39 at Charles Town. Entered University of Virginia, 1857. grad. in political economy and moral philosophy. enl. 7/9/61 in Co. G as Pvt. KIA 9/21/61 while on picket duty at Natt’s Farm on Munson’s Hill near Falls Church. bur. Edge Hill Cem. Charles Town, W.Va.

Berry, Lawrence L (b: 1832)*
Berry, Charles J (b: 1845),*
Berry, Holmes (b: 1853),
Griggs, Frances M (b: 1822),
Griggs, Jane R (b: 1824)
SOURCE: 1860 Census

BOTTS, LAWSON: b. 7/25/25 at Fredericksburg. Attended V.M.I. 1841. Lawyer in Charles Town. m. Sarah Elizabeth Bibb Ranson, 1851. Defense attorney for John Brown during the early stages of Brown’s trial. Commissioned Capt. of Botts Greys, pre-war militia Co. from Charles Town, 11/4/59. Capt. Co. G. 2nd Va. Vol. lnf., 5/3/61. To Maj., 6/12/61. To Lt. Col., 9/11/61. To Col. 6/27/62. Provost Marshal at Winchester, Nov-Dec. 1861. MWIA when shot through cheek and mouth at 2nd Manassas, 8/28/62. d. 9/16/62 at Middleburg. bur. Zion Episcopal Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
26 3 3 Botts Lawson 24 M WLawyer* VA

BRISCOE, THOMAS W.: b. 9/4/33. Physician. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Pvt. MWIA in chest at 1st Manassas, 7/21/61. d. 7/24/61 at hospital at Culpeper Court House. bur. Zion Episcopal Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

SOURCE:1850 Census
31 1321 1336 Briscoe George 27 M WArmourer VA
32 1321 1336 Briscoe Sarah R. 22 F W VA
33 1321 1336 Briscoe Frances 4 F W VA
34 1321 1336 Briscoe George W. 1 M W VA
35 1321 1336 Hicks Frances 14 F W VA
36 1321 1336 Power John W. 23 M WLabourer VA
37 1321 1336 Briscoe Thomas 59 M WFarmer VA
38 1321 1336 Briscoe Juliet W. 48 F W VA
39 1321 1336 Briscoe Ellen M. 30 F W VA
40 1321 1336 Briscoe Ann 23 F W VA
41 1321 1336 Briscoe James 21 M W VA
42 1321 1336 Briscoe Thomas W. 17 M W* VA

BROTHERTON, ROBERT R.: b. 12/23/30. enl. 10/3/62 at Bunker Hill in Co. G as Pvt. Deserted near Bunker Hill, 10/16/62. d. 8/20/12. bur. Edge Hill Cem., Charles Town, W.Va. NOTE; Brotherton was not one of the early enlistees.-ED

Brotherton, Robert R (b: 1830)*
Brotherton, Lucinda (b: 1833),
Brotherton, Lydia A (b: 1858),
Brotherton, John W
SOURCE: 1860 Census

BROWN, JAMES H.: b. 1841. Dept. of the Post Master. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Corp. d. 8/13/61, measles. bur. Zion Episcopal Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

Brown, John P (b: 1809)
Brown, Mary E (b: 1810),
Brown, Margaret T (b: 1840),
Brown, James H (b: 1841),*
Brown, Robert F (b: 1843)
SOURCE: 1860 Census

BROWN, SAMUEL HOWELL: b. 1/14/31. Surveyor. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Sgt. Detailed as a recruiting officer, 8/2/61. Returned from recruiting 10/11/61. Detailed for special duty under Col. Angus W. McDonald by order of Gen. Jackson, Nov./Dec. 1861. Detailed in engineer corps, 4/18/62. Apptd. Lt. in engineer corps, 6/1/63. No further record. d. 1/24/05. bur. Zion Episcopal Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

Brown, Samuel H (b: 1831)*
Crawford, Joshua M (b: 1830),
Ranson, Lucy (b: 1846)
SOURCE: 1860 Census

BURNETT, THOMAS D.: b. 9/10/38. Druggist and farmer. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Corp. Detailed as Hospital Steward in 33rd Va. Vol. Inf., 9/10/61. d. 3/10/62. bur. Zion Episcopal Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

BURNETT, WILLIAM: b. 1837? 5’9″. fair complexion, gray eyes, brown hair. Lawyer. enl. 6/19/61 at Winchester in Co. G as Pvt. Absent sick Nov./Dec. 1861. Discharged 2/28/62, reason not stated. d. 5/12/88. bur. Zion Episcopal Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

Burnett, Ann J (b: 1812)
Burnett, Thomas D (b: 1839),*
Burnett, William (b: 1837)*
SOURCE: 1860 Census

BUTLER, FRANCIS G.: b. 4/10/21. Farmer. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Pvt. MWIA in chest at 1st Manassas, 7/21/61. d. 7/25/61 at Pringle’s House, Manassas. bur. Edge Hill Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

SOURCE:1850 Census
10 456 463 Butler Frances G. 29 M WFarmer* KY
11 456 463 Butler Hannah S. F. 28 F W VA
12 456 463 Butler Sarah E. 4 F W VA
13 456 463 Butler John D. 2 M W VA

CHAPMAN, JOSEPH H.: b. 1840? Laborer. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Pvt. Sent to hospital in Winchester, 12/16/61. Present by 10/31/62. Deserted 7/15/63. d. 8/25/77. NOTE; Brother John enlisted in 1862:

CHAPMAN, JOHN: b. 1839? 6′ 2″. dark complexion, blue eyes, dark hair. Residence Jefferson Co. enl. 4/18/62 near Harrisonburg in Co. G as Pvt. POW at Rippon, W.Va., 9/6/64 (Camp Chase). Oath of Allegiance to U.S., 6/11/65.

Chapman, Jos H (b: 1841)*
Chapman, Sarah J (b: 1846),
Chapman, John W (b: 1845),*
Chapman, Rachael (b: 1851),
Chapman, James M (b: 1853),
Chapman, George (b: 1857)
SOURCE: 1860 Census

COLBERT, GEORGE W.: b. 1838? 5’10”. florid complexion, gray eyes, black hair. Farmer. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Pvt. Absent sick since mid-May, 1861. Discharged 11/9/61, no reason stated.

COLBERT, JOHN JAMES: b. 12/18/39. Farmer. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Pvt. Absent sick Nov/Dec. 1861. Killed 9/9/62? bur. Edge Hill Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

SOURCE:1850 Census
12 1341 1356 Colbert Hezekiah 39 M WFarmer MD
13 1341 1356 Colbert Rebecca 35 F W MD
14 1341 1356 Colbert George 12 M W* VA
15 1341 1356 Colbert John J. 10 M W* VA
16 1341 1356 Colbert Joseph 8 M W VA
17 1341 1356 Colbert Martha 6 F W VA
18 1341 1356 Colbert Mary 4 F W VA
19 1341 1356 Colbert Harriet 5/12 F W VA
20 1341 1356 Jackson Sarah A. 15 F W MD
21 1341 1356 Jackson Archibald 52 M WLabourer VA
22 1341 1356 Cockrell Thomas 26 M W VA

CRAIGHILL, EDWARD A.: b. 11/2/40 at Charles Town. Physician. enl. 4/22/61 at Harper’s Ferry in Co. G as Pvt. To Asst. Surgeon, 11/16/61. Detailed as steward in hospital at Winchester, 6/25/61. Detailed as hospital steward at Camp Pickens, Manassas, 9/19/61. Trans. Nov/Dec. 1861, location not stated. Postwar, physician at Lynchburg.

CRAIGHILL, JAMES B.: b. 1839? Student. enl. 616/61 at Camp Jackson in Co. G as Pvt. Detailed in Ord. Dept., 7/11/61. Last official entry shows him as an Ord. Sgt. through 2/26/62. No further record.

SOURCE:1850 Census
1 446 453 Craighill William N. 42 M WTeller Bank VA
2 446 453 Craighill Sarah E. 38 F W VA
3 446 453 Craighill Ellen R. 13 F W VA
4 446 453 Craighill James B. 11 M W* VA
5 446 453 Craighill Edward A. 9 M W* VA
6 446 453 Craighill Robert T. 7 M W VA
7 446 453 Craighill Mary L. 5 F W VA
8 446 453 Craighill Frances A. 1 M W VA

EICHELBERGER, GEORGE F.: b. 12/18/43. 6′ 0″. dark complexion, brown eyes, dark hair. Student. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Pvt. To Sgt. 4/15/64. Wded. in arm at 2nd Manassas, 8/28/62. Returned to duty 2/20/62. Wded. at Spotsylvania, 5/12/64. Gen. Hosp. Charlottesville, 5/24/64. Furloughed 6/9/64. Paroled 4/24/65 at Charles Town. d. 2/6/10. bur. Edge Hill Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

EICHELBERGER, WEBSTER: b. 3/9/35. Minister. enl. 6/26/61 at Camp Stephens in Co. G as Pvt. Discharged 7/20/62, reason not stated.

SOURCE:1850 Census
17 624 633 Echilbuger Martin 53 M WFarmer MD
18 624 633 Echilbuger Maria 47 F W MD
19 624 633 Echilbuger Joseph L. 22 M W MD
20 624 633 Echilbuger Ann E. 19 F W MD
21 624 633 Echilbuger Catharine 15 F W MD
22 624 633 Echilbuger Jane E. 12 F W MD
23 624 633 Echilbuger Webster 17 M W* MD
24 624 633 Echilbuger George F. 8 M W* MD

ENGLISH, ROBERT M.: b. 9/27/24. Farmer. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Lt. Wded. in arm,leg, and breast at 1st Manassas, 7/21/61. Returned to duty 10/25/61. KIA at Port Republic, 6/9/62, bur. Edge Hill Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

English, Robert M (b: 1826)*
SOURCE: 1860 Census

FLAGG, GEORGE H.: b. 4/9/32. 5’7″. light complexion, blue eyes, light hair. Farmer. enl. 4/21/61 at Harper’s Ferry in Co. G as Pvt. Elected Lt. 4/20/62. Signs roll as commanding Co., Jan.-Feb. 1864. Stuart Hosp., Richmond, 3/26-4/2 1865; rheumatism. Paroled 4/19/65 at Winchester. d. 3/25/00. bur. Zion Episcopal Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

SOURCE:1850 Census
14 457 464 Flagg John R. 56 M WFarmer VA
15 457 464 Flagg Mary E. 50 F W VA
16 457 464 Flagg Sarah Ann 29 F W VA
17 457 464 Flagg George H. 18 M W* VA

FRAZIER, JAMES H.: b. 1838? Auctioneer. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Pvt. Special duty as harness-maker, Nov.-Dec. 1861. Discharged 7/30/62, reason not stated.

SOURCE:1850 Census
25 985 998 Frazier James H. 24 M WSaddler* VA

GALLAHER, CHARLES HORACE: b. 4/17/39. 5’10,”. florid complexion, blue eyes, amber hair. Clerk. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Pvt. To Sgt. 10/13/63. Wded. ln head at Payne’s Farm, 11/27/63.Chimborazo #3,11130/63. To Staunton, 12/8//63.Returned to duty 2/11/64. POW at Spotsylvania, 5/12/64(Pt. Lookout, Elmira). Exchanged 2/20/65. paroled 4/30//65at Staunton. d. 1/29/11. bur. Edge Hill Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

36 79 79 Gallaher H. N. 42 M WEditor VA
37 79 79 Gallaher Adeline B. 40 F W VA
38 79 79 Gallaher William B. 17 M W VA
39 79 79 Gallaher Charles H. 12 M W* VA
40 79 79 Gallaher James N. 10 M W VA
41 79 79 Gallaher Anna A. 7 F W VA
42 79 79 Gallaher John S. 5 M W VA
1 79 79 Gallaher Edwin F. 9/12 M W VA
2 79 79 Gallaher Ann C. 12 F W VA

GIBSON, JOSHUA GREGG: b. 1/3/23. Listed in Co. G, but never mustered “being of bad health” and because he “furnished a substitute uniformed.” d. 2/124/94. bur. Edge Hill Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

Gibson, Joshua G (b: 1823)*
Gibson, Susan (b: 1828),
Gibson, Fannie H (b: 1848),
Gibson, William W (b: 1850),
Gibson, Agnes (b: 1853),
Gibson, James (b: 1856)
SOURCE: 1860 Census

GREEN, THOMAS CLAIBORNE: b. 11/30/20 at Fredericksburg. Son of John W. Green, a Va. Supreme Court of Appeals judge. Practiced law with Col. Angus McDonald in Hampshire Co. at Romney. m. Mary Naylor McDonald, Col. McDonald’s oldest daughter. Mayor of Charles Town during the John Brown raid in 1859; also served as a defense attorney for Brown. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Pvt. On special duty in telegraph office, June 1861. Elected to Va. Legislature from Jefferson Co., 12/22/61. Apptd. chief collector of Confederate taxes in Va. by President Davis in 1863 and remained in this position until war’s end. Postwar, returned to Charles Town; apptd. to W.Va. Supreme Court of Appeals in 1876 and continued in this capacity until his death. d. 12/4/89. bur. Zion Episcopal Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

Green, Thomas C (b: 1821)*
Green, Mary W (b: 1828),
Green, Anna L (b: 1854),
Green, Thomas C (b: 1859)
SOURCE: 1860 Census

HENDERSON, DAVID E.: b. 6/23/32. Artist enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Pvt. Apptd. Lt in Topographical Engineers, date not stated. “Employed in making maps since the commencement of the war with the exception of a few weeks preceding the Battle of Manassas.” Detailed as draftsman to Gen. Johnston, 8/26/61. Draftsman at Gen. Lee’s headquarters, 6/30/62. No further record. d. 11/16/87. bur. Zion Episcopal Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

HENDERSON, RICHARD: b: 7/26/43. Student enl. 5/25/61 at Camp Lee in Co. G as Pvt. Absent sick since 10/13/61. Present again Nov/Dec. 1861. Detailed as teamster for QM’s train, Nov/Dec. 1862. Last official entry shows him present, 4/30-10/31 1864. Paroled at Appomattox. Postwar, farmer. d. 6/22/05. bur. Zion Episcopal Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

SOURCE:1850 Census
38 1339 1354 Henderson Richard 50 M WFarmer MD
39 1339 1354 Henderson Elizabeth A. 40 F W DC
40 1339 1354 Henderson John 20 M W DC
41 1339 1354 Henderson David E. 17 M W* VA
42 1339 1354 Henderson Janett L. 14 F W VA
1 1339 1354 Henderson Areanne T. 12 F W VA
2 1339 1354 Henderson Elizabeth S. 10 F W VA
3 1339 1354 Henderson Richard 8 M W* VA
4 1339 1354 Henderson Charles E. 7 M W VA
5 1339 1354 Henderson Robert M. 4 M W VA
6 1339 1354 Henderson Comilia 1 F W VA
7 1339 1354 Henderson Sarah 22 F W VA

HILBERT, JOHN E.: b. 1829, blacksmith enl. 4/18/61 Co. G

Hilbert, John E (b: 1829)*
Hilbert, John S Hilbert,
Elizabeth (b: 1832),
Hilbert, Charles L (b: 1853),
Hilbert, William H (b: 1856)
SOURCE: 1860 Census, Charlestown, P. 178

HOOFF, JAMES LAWRENCE: b. 10/2/25. enl. 7/6/61 at Darkesville in Co. G as Pvt. Last official entry shows him present, Nov/Dec. 1861. One record states he served as a QM Sgt. in the 2nd Va. Inf. and as Asst. QM in the 11th Va. Cav. Postwar, merchant in Charles Town; elected to W.Va. legislature in 1875; later became president of Jefferson Co. Court. d. 8/24/87. bur. Edge Hill Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

SOURCE:1850 Census
23 442 449 Hooff James L. 24 M WFarmer* VA

HOOFF, WILLIAM A.: b. 1839? 5’8″. dark complexion, gray eyes, dark hair. Farmer. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Pvt. Detailed as nurse to Gen. Hosp. #4, Richmond, 1/30/63. Ward master in Gen. Hosp. #4, Richmond, March/April 1863-Jan./Feb. 1864. Returned to regt. 3/14/64. POW at Salem Church, 5/12/64 (Pt. Lookout). Exchanged 3/14/65. Paroled 4/16/65 at Winchester.

Hooff, Francis R (b: 1827)
Hooff, Susan R (b: 1830),
Hooff, Anna C (b: 1854),
Hooff, Francis H (b: 1857),
Hooff, Sarah,
Hooff, Fannie R (b: 1803),
Hooff, William A (b: 1840),*
Hooff, Jane H (b: 1836)
SOURCE: Census 1860

HOWELL, DAVID, JR.: b. 8/25/38. Farmer. enl. 6/15/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Pvt. Elected Lt. 10/1/62. Signs roll as commanding Co., March/April 1864, Wded. Aug. 1864, exact battle and date not given. Sent to Richmond to forward recruits to army, 11/23/64. Retired to Invalid Corps, 3/6/65, and stationed at Newtown. Paroled 4/21/65 at Charles Town. d. 1/31/03. bur. Zion Episcopal Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

SOURCE:1850 Census
17 76 76 Howell David 51 M WTanner VA
18 76 76 Howell Samuel 19 M W VA
19 76 76 Howell Mary 13 F W VA
20 76 76 Howell David 11 M W* VA
21 76 76 Howell John W. P. 9 M W VA
22 76 76 Howell Ruth A. 8 F W VA

HUMPHREYS, DAVID: b. 5/2/32 at Charles Town. Farmer. enl. 5/14/61 at Harpers Ferry in Co. G as Pvt. Unofficial source states he was injured during drill in camp at Centreville (1861); disabled and discharged. Absent on special duty since 11/19/61. Re-enlisted in Co. B. 7th Va.Cav. Retired 12/23/64. Postwar, merchant; moved to Norfolk in 1869 and entered insurance business; helped with the development of Norfolk and was a member of the town council; author of “Heroes and Spies.” d. 7/5/05. bur. Edge Hill Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

SOURCE:1850 Census
12 481 488 Humphreys John 52 M WFarmer VA
13 481 488 Humphreys Mary 44 F W VA
14 481 488 Humphreys Elizabeth 22 F W VA
15 481 488 Humphreys John T. 20 M W VA
16 481 488 Humphreys David 18 M W* VA

ISLER, CHARLES H.: b. 1839 Farmer enl. 4/18/61 Co. G

Isler, Charles H (b: 1839)*
Isler, Abraham Isler (b: 1794),
Isler Sarah W (b: 1804),
Hooff, Harrison (b: 1842)
Hicks, Levi (b: 1802)
SOURCE: 1860 Census, Page 139

JOHNSON, JOHN W.: b. 1843? 6’0″. dark complexion, dark eyes, gray hair. Cooper. Residence Jefferson Co. Drafted 10/3/62 at Bunker Hill in Co. G as Pvt. Absent sick Nov.-Dec. 1862. Arrested and POW at Leetown. 12/29/62;”said to be at home when taken making barrels for the Confederate army.” (Wheeling, Camp Chase). Exchanged 3/28/63. Present again 4/8/63.Chimborazo #2, 6/11/64; diarrhea. To Lynchburg, 7/9/64. Paroled 4/20/65 at Winchester. d. 11/29/26. bur. Stonewall Cem., Winchester.

SOURCE:1850 Census
34 1270 1285 Johnson William 54 M WCooper 1,000 VA
35 1270 1285 Johnson Mary 38 F W VA
36 1270 1285 Johnson Emanuel 20 M W VA
37 1270 1285 Johnson John 9 M W* VA
38 1270 1285 Johnson Susannah F. 4 F W VA

KEERL, JOHN D. : b. 1840? Clerk. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Pvt. To Sgt. 9/1/63. Wded. at Chancellorsville, 5/3/63. Returned from sick furlough, 7/23/63. Last official entry shows him present, March/April 1864.

KEERL, WILLIAM L.: b. 1843? Clerk. enl. 6/6/61 at Camp Jackson on Bolivar Heights in Co. G as Pvt. Charged $2.00 for pair of shoes received, 8/29/61. Hosp. near Fairfax Court House, Sept/Oct. 1861; fever. Present again by 10/31/61. Wded. in forehead at 2nd Manassas, date not specific. Present by 10/31/62. Wded. when slightly bruised by shell at Fredericksburg, 12/13/62. Present again Jan-Feb. 1863. Last official entry shows him present, 4/30-10/31/1864. Surrendered at Appomattox.

SOURCE:1850 Census
24 763 772 Keerl William 45 M WFarmer MD
25 763 772 Keerl Ellen 40 F W MD
26 763 772 Keerl Annlia 16 F W PA
27 763 772 Keerl Henry 13 M W PA
28 763 772 Keerl Margaretta 11 F W PA
29 763 772 Keerl John 9 M W* VA
30 763 772 Keerl William 7 M W* VA
31 763 772 Keerl Robert 5 F W* VA
32 763 772 Keerl Eleanor 3 F W VA
33 763 772 Keerl Harris 1 M W VA
34 763 772 Haugton Susan D. 35 F W CT

LEE, RICHARD HENRY: b. 8/24/21. grandson of Richard Henry Lee, mover of the Declaration of Independence in the Continental Congress. Lawyer. Residence Charles Town. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Lt. Absent sick 6/26-9/13/1861. Wded. severely at Kernstown, 3/23/62. Recommended for service on a military court, Oct. 1862. Later became Judge Advocate and Col. in the 2nd Corps, Army of Northern Va. d. 6/18/02. bur. Old Chapel Cem., Millwood.

SOURCE:1850 Census
20 3 3 Lee Richard H. 28 M WLawyer* VA
21 3 3 Lee Eveline B. 24 F W VA
22 3 3 Lee Mary P. 1 F W VA

LEWIS, JOHN H. B. : b. 10/10/19. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Pvt. To Ord. Sgt. 4/30-10/31 1862. Absent sick since 11/12/62. No record again until Sept/Oct. 1863 when he is listed as present. Gen. Hosp. Charlottesville, 6/17-6/28 1864; febris remittens. Gen. Hosp. Charlottesville, 9/26/64; debility. Retired to Invalid Corps, 3/3/65, and stationed at Lexington. No further record. d. Dec. 1870. bur. Lewis-Muse Graveyard, Jefferson Co., W.Va.

Lewis, William H T (b: 1832)
Lewis, Belle S (b: 1834),
Lewis, Charles H (b: 1818),
Lewis, Estelle D P (b: 1831),
Lewis, Charles H (b: 1857),
Lewis, John S (b: 1859),
Lewis, John H. B. (b: 1820)*
SOURCE: 1860 Census

LOCK, WILLIAM M.: b. 9/17/37. Farmer. enl. 6/2/61 at Camp Jackson on Bolivar Heights in Co. G as Pvt. Last official entry shows him absent on special duty in Commissary Dept. since 1/16/61. Apptd. 9/9/62 Capt. of Commissary, 62nd Va. Partisan Rangers. POW at Hardy Co., 11/9/62 (Camp Chase). Exchanged at Vicksburg, Mississippi, 12/8/62. Promoted to Major and Commissary, 1/28/63, in Imboden’s Brig. Paroled 5/8/65 at Winchester. d. 5/16/92. bur. Edge Hill Cem., Charles Town, W.Va. NOTE: “LOCKE” IN BUSHONG-ED.

SOURCE:1850 Census
3 196 196 Lock William F. 62 M WFarmer VA
4 196 196 Lock Rachel 52 F W PA
5 196 196 Lock John J. 26 M WMerchant 300 VA
6 196 196 Lock Martha Ellen 20 F W VA
7 196 196 Lock Mary C. 19 F W VA
8 196 196 Lock Susan R. 17 F W VA
9 196 196 Lock Amanda 16 F W VA
10 196 196 Lock William M. 12 M W* VA
11 196 196 Lock Fanny 14 F W VA
12 196 196 Lock Lucy 8 F W VA
13 196 196 Lock John Milton 18 M WClerk VA
14 196 196 Allison William 30 M WLabourer VA

McDONALD, WILLIAM NAYLOR: b. 2/4/34 in Hampshire Co. Received Master’s Degree from University of Virginia and became a professor of rhetoric and principal of a high school in Louisville, Kentucky; then became a lawyer in Charles Town. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Pvt. Absent on special duty in Cav. of Angus W. McDonald, Nov/Dec. 1861. Last official record shows him on detail to engineer service, 3/26/62. Resigned from this and trans. to Co. D, 11th Va. Cav. Later promoted to Capt. of artillery and assigned to Ord. Dept. Wded. in side at Wilderness, 5/6/64. Another source says he also served on the staffs of Rosser and Mahone. Postwar, teacher; founder and principal of Shenandoah University School at Berryville; founder of Cool Spring School; author of “The Laurel Brigade.” d. 1/4/98. bur. Greenhill Cem., Berryville.

MEDLAR, NAPOLEON B.: b. 1840? Gunsmith. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G in Pvt. Detailed as musician for 2nd regt., July/Aug. 1861. Gen. Hosp. Howard’s Grove, Richmond, 7/21/63; severe contusion of left thigh by a fall. To Gen. Hosp. Charlottesville, 8/3/63. Present again Sept/Oct. 1863. Next official record shows him as an armorer in a repairing establishment at Charlottesville, 3/19-Aug. 1862. Final record shows him as an armorer at the C. S Carbine Factory, Richmond, 3/19/63. No further record.

SOURCE:1850 Census
12 1415 1430 Medlor Napoleon 9 M W* VA
13 1415 1430 Medlor Mary J. 12 F W VA
14 1415 1430 Medlor Elizabeth 4 F W VA

MOLER, DANIEL: b. 1840? 5’8″. dark complexion, gray eyes, dark hair. Farmer. enl. 4/25/61 at Harper’s Ferry in Co. G as Pvt. To Corp. 7/1/63. Absent sick at hosp., July/Aug.-10/25/62. Wded. at Gaines’s Mill or Malvern Hill, 6/27 or 7/1 1862. Present again by 10/31/62. Wded. slightly by shell at Fredericksburg. 12/13/62. Present by 12/31/62. Absent sick at hosp., 4/13/63. Gen. Hosp. Charlottesville, 5/2-6/9 1863; debility. Wded. in neck at Payne’s Farm, 11/27/63, Chimborazo #3, 11/30/63. To Staunton. 1/6/64. Returned to regt. 3/8/64. POW at Salem Church, 5/20/64 (Pt. Lookout, Elmira). Exchanged 3/14/65. Paroled 4/25/65 at Winchester.

SOURCE:1850 Census
23 1312 1327 Moler Daniel 48 M WFarmer VA
24 1312 1327 Moler Elizabeth 31 F W VA
25 1312 1327 Moler George G. 11 M W VA
26 1312 1327 Moler Daniel 9 M W* VA
27 1312 1327 Moler Sarah T. 7 F W VA
28 1312 1327 Moler Comelia 2 F W VA

MONROE, GEORGE B.: b. 8/8/18. Painter. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Pvt. Absent on special duty, 4/18-6/30/1861. Absent sick since 7/1/61. Discharged 1/19/61 for disability. d. 2/18/67. bur. Zion Episcopal Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

Monroe, George B (b: 1818)*
Monroe, Ann E (b: 1824),
Whittington, John W (b: 1839),
Barnett, Hannah (b: 1787)
SOURCE: 1860 Census, Charlestown, P. 182

MOORE, CLEON: b. 11/24/40. Teacher. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co G as Pvt. To Corp 8/23/61. To Lt Nov/Dec. 1862. Absent sick at hosp., 10/15/61 Present again Nov/Dec 186l Last official records state he was on duty with Provost Guard, 10/12/Nov. 1864. Surrendered at Appomattox. Postwar, lawyer d 12/26/14 bur. Edge Hill Charles Town, WVa.

Moore, Cleon (b: 1841)*
Moore, Thomas A (b: 1803), Moore, Maria J (b: 1813),
Moore, Berkely (b: 1844)
Moore, Myra (b: 1847)
SOURCE: 1860 Census, Charlestown, P. 163

MOORE, EDWIN L.: b 2/14/31. Banker enl. 4/18/61 Charles Town Co G. Elected Capt. to succeed Capt. Botts 6/13/61. To Maj. 9/16/62. Signs roll as commanding 2nd Va. lnf., 10/31/62. Absent on detail as acting inspector, 1st Division, 2nd Corps, Army of Northern Va., Nov/Dec. 1862-May/June 1863. Next official record lists him as AAG to Trimble’s Division, 1/6/64. No further record. d. 12/11/81. bur. Zion Episcopal Cem., Charles Town, W.Va. NOTE: “EDMUND” IN BUSHONG-ED.

SOURCE:1850 Census
14 87 87 Moore Cato 66 M WCashier Valley Bank VA
15 87 87 Moore M. S. 60 F W VA
16 87 87 Moore Sarah 33 F W VA
17 87 87 Moore Edwin 19 M WClerk Bank* VA
18 87 87 Moore Charles 17 M WClerk VA

NOLAND, JAMES HENRY: b. 12/7/34. Machinist. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Pvt. On duty at Col. Allen’s headquarters, Sept/Oct. 1861. Last official entry shows him absent sick in hosp., Nov/Dec. 1861. Unofficial source states he served in medical dept. Postwar, member of Turner Ashby Camp #22 at Winchester. d. 12/7/98. bur. Edge Hill Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

SOURCE:1850 Census
37 1404 1419 Noland Charles L. 40 M WCarpenter VA
38 1404 1419 Noland Elizabeth 44 F W VA
39 1404 1419 Noland Henry 17 M W* “JAMES HENRY” VA 40 1404 1419 Noland George 13 M W* VA
41 1404 1419 Noland Samuel C. 9 M W VA
42 1404 1419 Noland Charles 8 M W VA
1 1404 1419 Noland Gregory 6 M W VA
2 1404 1419 Whittington Ellen 19 F W VA
3 1404 1419 Noland Pearce 42 M WCarpenter VA

PAINTER, JAMES H.: b. 1841? Laborer. enl. 5/11/61 at Harpers Ferry in Co. G as Pvt. Wded in the thigh at 1st Manassas, 7/21/61. Returned to regt. 10/1/61. Last official entry shows him present, Nov/Dec· 1861. d. 1910. bur. Greenhill Cem., Stephens City. DIFFERENT FROM JAMES PAINTER LISTED IN THE 12TH VA CAVALRY

SOURCE:1850 Census
19 929 942 Painter George 45 M WLabourer VA
20 929 942 Painter Barbara 46 F W VA
21 929 942 Painter Mary J. 15 F W VA
22 929 942 Painter Jacob 13 M W VA
23 929 942 Painter James 10 M W* VA

RIDER, JOHN WILLIAM: b. 4/1/40. Teacher. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town Co. G as Pvt. Appears as Sgt. at 10/31/62 muster. Wded. in arm and chest at Harpers Ferry, 10/16/61. Wded. at 1st Winchester, 5/25/62. Gen. Hosp. Mt. Jackson, 6/1/62. Present again by 10/31/62. Detailed as Sgt. in charge of ambulances, May/June 1863-March/April 1864. Last official entry shows him present, 4/30-10/3 1864. Surrendered at Appomattox. d. 12/31/23 at Halltown. bur. Edge Hill Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

Rider, William (b: 1809)
Rider, Elizabeth (b: 1811,)
Rider, John W C (b: 1840),*
Rider, Susan E (b: 1843),
Rider, Rachael A (b: 1849)
SOURCE: Census 1860

RISSLER, GEORGE L.: b. 10/11/27 in Frederick Co. 5′ 10 1/2″. florid complexion, blue eyes, brown hair. Farmer. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Pvt. AWOL since 12/19/61. No further record. d. 7/20/16. bur. Edge Hill Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

RISSLER, SAMUEL J. (or L.): b. 9/30/30. 5’9″. dark complexion, brown eyes, dark hair. drafted 12/4/62 at Guinea’s Station in Co. G as Pvt. Detailed as ambulance driver for 2nd Regt., 12/14/62-July, 1864. POW near Harpers Ferry, 7/2/64 (Old Capitol Prison, Elmira). Exchanged 3/10/65. Paroled 4/19/65 at Charles Town. d. 9/3/05. bur. Edge Hill Cem., Charles Town, W.Va. NOTE: Samuel Rissler, as the record shows was drafted in 1862 and was not among those enlisting in April-May-ED

SOURCE:1850 Census
12 959 972 Rissler George 63 M WFarmer PA
13 959 972 Rissler Rebecca 23 F W VA
14 959 972 Rissler George 21 M W* VA
15 959 972 Rissler Samuel 18 M W* VA

ROBINSON, FREDERICK M.: b. 1831? Tailor and postal worker in Charles Town. enl. 5/9/61 at Harpers Ferry in Co. G as Pvt. AWOL since 12/27/61. Gen. Hosp. #13, Richmond, 10/31-11/15/1862; rheumatism. Gen. Hosp. Camp Winder, Richmond, 11/17-1/27 1862; acute diarrhea. Absent on detail with extra baggage, Jan/Feb.-May/June 1863. Absent on detail with Ord. train, May/June-8/6 1863. AWOL 2/11-3/20 1864. Chimborazo #5, 3/12/64; gonorrhea. To Chimborazo #2, 4/10/64. To Farmville, 5/5/64. To Chimborazo #4, 5/19-9/20 1864. Last official entry shows him present again by 10/31/64. POW (Rebel deserter) at Brandy Station, 4/6/65. Took oath and sent to New York City.

SADLER, JOHN N.: b. 11/26/29. enl. 6/11/62? at Winchester in Co. G as Pvt. Absent sick, captured at Charles Town, and paroled by 10/31/62. Absent sick at Staunton hosp., Jan/Feb-5/24/63. Gen. Hosp. Staunton, Jan./Feb-5/24/63; typhoid fever. Gen. Hasp. Staunton, 4/13/63; phthisis. Gen. Hosp. Charlottesville, 8/5/63; pneumonia. To Lynchburg, 9/21/63. Returned from sick leave, 10/3/63. Wded. in neck at Payne’s Farm, 11/27/63. Chimborazo #3, 11/30/63. To Staunton, 12/8/63. Listed as unfit for active service, Sept/Oct. 1864. On “duty” at Gen. Hosp. #9, Richmond, 11/23/65. No further record. d. 1/18/95. bur. Zion Episcopal Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

SOURCE:1850 Census
31 4 4 Sadler Leonard 56 M WCabinet Maker VA
32 4 4 Sadler Sarah 54 F W VA
33 4 4 Sadler George W. 30 M W VA
34 4 4 Sadler John N. 19 M WClerk* VA
35 4 4 Sadler Leonard L. 18 M WClerk VA
36 4 4 Nixon Jonathan 54 M WCabinet Maker VA
37 4 4 Miller Samuel 35 M WCabinet Maker VA
38 4 4 Crane John W. 33 M WMerchant VA
39 4 4 Crane Joseph C. 8 M W VA
40 4 4 Crane Charles H. 4 M W VA

SANBORN, JOHN J.: b. 1841? Teacher. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Pvt. Lost one bayonet sometime before 6/30/61. Fined $11.00 by court·martial, 8/15/61; reason not stated. Last official entry shows him present, Nov/Dec. 1861.

Sanborn, Laura (b: 1807),
Sanborn, John J (b: 1841),*
SOURCE: Census 1860

SHEERER. WM C.: b. 1834 enl. 4/18/61 Co. G, Sgt.

Sheerer, William C (b: 1833)*
Kearsley, George W T (b: 1819),
Kearsley, Rebecca (b: 1825),
Kearsley, William K (b: 1851),
Kearsley, Anna (b: 1853)
1860 Census – Charlestown, P. 170

SELDON (SELDEN), JOHN: b. 2/24/22 in Loudoun Co. 6’0″. florid complexion, blue eyes, light brown hair. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Pvt. Absent sick since 8/1/61. Discharged 12/5/61, “unfit for duty.” d. 1/8/96. bur. Zion Episcopal Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

SOURCE:1850 Census
34 816 828 Selden John 28 M WFarmer* IRELAND
35 816 828 Selden Anna R. 24 F W IRELAND
36 816 828 Selden Wilson C. 3 M W IRELAND
37 816 828 Selden Mary 2 F W IRELAND
38 816 828 Merchant Landon O. 29 M WOverseer IRELAND
39 816 828 Evens Robert B. 47 M WOverseer IRELAND
40 816 828 Evens Gertrude 40 F W IRELAND

STRAITH, JOHN ALEXANDER: b. 1/26/35. Physician. Apptd. Asst Surg., 2nd Va. Inf., 5/17/61. Last official entry shows him present, Nov/Dec. 1861. No further record. d. 1/4/72. bur. Zion Episcopal Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

SOURCE:1850 Census
41 20 20 Straith John J. H. 28 M WPhysician VA
42 20 20 Straith Mary A. E. 37 F W VA
1 20 20 Straith John A. 16 M W* VA
2 20 20 Straith Ellen S. 8 F W VA
3 20 20 Straith Rose 3 F W VA

TABB, CHARLES W. M.: b. 5 October 1844, served as a private in Company G of the 2nd Virginia Infantry, Confederate State Army. enlisted 28 May 1862, at Winchester, Virginia. Wounded at the Battle of Fredericksburg on 31 December, 1862. He was mortally wounded in action in the thigh at Paynes Farm on 27 Nov 1863, and died in the Confederate hospital at Gordonsville, VA., on 15 February 1864. He is buried in the military Cemetary at Stanton, Virginia.

Tabb, Dudley (b: 1859)
Tabb, Geo W (b: 1815),
Tabb, Mary E (b: 1823),
Tabb, Marry P (b: 1841),
Tabb, Charles W (b: 1844)*
SOURCE: Census 1860

TERRILL, JOHN URIEL: b. 5/23/43. 5’6″. fair complexion, gray eyes, brown hair. Residence Jefferson County. student enl. 6/10/61 at Camp Jackson on Bolivar Heights in Co. G. of 2nd Va. Inf as Pvt. Last Infantry record shows him present Nov./Dec 1861. enl. 3/1/62 at Woodstock in Co. B of 12th Va. Cav as Pvt on detail as courier to Maj Massie Sept 1862. Present Nov./Dec 1863-Jan./Feb. 1864. AWOL March/April 1864. No further record. Paroled at Winchester 4/18/65 d. 11/15/78. bur. Zion Episcopal Church Charles Town, W.Va.

SOURCE:1850 Census
5 489 496 Yates John 71 M WFarmer ENGLAND
6 489 496 Yates Julia 66 F W VA
7 489 496 Terrill Julia Y. 30 F W VA
8 489 496 Terrill Anna E. 9 F W VA
9 489 496 Terrill Julia L. 8 F W VA
10 489 496 Terrill John W. 6 M W* VA

TIMBERLAKE. BENJAMIN T.: b. 1839? Farmer. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Pvt. Absent sick 8/8-9/2 1861. POW at Salem Church, 5/20/64 (Pt. Lookout, Elmira). Exchanged 2/9/65. Paroled at Harpers Ferry, 3/24/65 (sic).

SOURCE:1850 Census
27 130 130 Timberlake Mildred C. 40 F W VA
28 130 130 Timberlake Henry Lee 21 M W VA
29 130 130 Timberlake Fanny M. 13 F W VA
30 130 130 Timberlake Benjamin F. 11 M W* VA
31 130 130 Brown Carver W. 22 M WTeacher VA

WASHINGTON, RICHARD BLACKBURN: b. 11/12/22. Attd. V.M.I., 1843. Farmer. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Pvt. Absent sick since 8/20/61. Discharged 10/14/61, reason not stated. Postwar, farmer at Charles Town. d. 10/15/10. bur. Zion Episcopal Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

SOURCE:1850 Census
34 963 976 Washington Jane C. 64 F W VA
35 963 976 Washington Richard B. 27 M WFarmer* VA
36 963 976 Washington Christian 23 F W VA
37 963 976 Washington Elizabeth 5 F W VA
38 963 976 Washington John A. 3 M W VA
39 963 976 Washington Anna b. 9/12 F W VA

WATSON, SAMUEL: b· 1839? Weaver. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Pvt. Absent on 30-day detail for manufacturing duty, 10/13/61. Absent on special duty, Nov/Dec. 1861; “time unllmited·” Type of duty not specified. No further record.

WATSON, WILLIAM: b. 1842? Weaver. enl. 4/18/61 at Charles Town in Co. G as Pvt. Absent on 30-day detail for manufacturlng duty, 10/13/61. Absent on special duty, Nov/Dec. 1861; “time unlimited. ” Type of duty not specified. No further record.

Watson, James (b: 1820)
Watson, Eliza (b: 1822),
Watson, William (b: 1843),*
Watson, Hannah (b: 1847),
Watson, James H (b: 1851),
Watson, George S (b: 1856),
Watson, Charles J (b: 1858),
Watson, Samuel (b: 1838),*
Watson, Squire (b: 1843)
SOURCE: Census 1860

WHITE, BENJAMIN S.: b. 9/28/42. Student. enl. 4/26/61 at Harpers Ferry in Co. G as Pvt. To Sgt., date not given. Absent sick 10/28-10/31 1862. KIA at Chancellorsville, 5/3/63. bur. Zion Episcopal Cem., Charles Town, W.Va

SOURCE:1850 Census
15 81 81 White Nathan S. 32 M WLawyer MD
16 81 81 White Fredericka 34 F W VA
17 81 81 White Benjamen S. 7 M W* VA
18 81 81 White Rebecca H. 5 F W VA
19 81 81 Macky Rebecca 51 F W VA
20 81 81 Tidball Nannie 5 F W VA

WILTSHIRE, JAMES B. : b. 1842? Farmer. enl. 6/12/61 at Camp Jackson on Bolivar Heights in Co. G as Pvt. Absent sick, Nov/Dec. 1861. No further record.

References:

Bushong, Millard K.(2007). “A History of Jefferson County, West Virginia [1719-1940].” Westminster, MD: Heritage Books. Print.

Bushong, Millard K. “A History of Jefferson County, West Virginia [1719-1940].” Google Books. 19 July 2008. Web. 24 Dec. 2010.

Confederate Service Records, National Archives

Frye, Dennis E. (1984). “2nd Virginia Infantry.” Lynchburg, Va.: H. E. Howard, Inc. Print.

United States. Bureau of the Census; United States. National Archives and Records Service. (1967). “Population schedules of the eighth census of the United States, 1860, Virginia [microform] (Volume Reel 1355 – 1860 Virginia Federal Population Census Schedules – James City and Jefferson Counties).” Jefferson, Kanawha, King George, King and Queen, and King William Counties).”Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 10 Sept. 2010.

United States. Bureau of the Census; United States. National Archives and Records Service. (1964). “Population schedules of the seventh census of the United States, 1850, Virginia.” [microform] (Volume Reel 0953 – 1850 Virginia Federal Population Census Free Schedules – Jackson, James City, and Jefferson Counties).” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 31 July 2008. Web. 3 March 2011.

“The Virginia Free Press,” Nov. 9, 1865.

More County Men Enlist, May 12, 1861

4198 words

https://web.archive.org/web/20190710014726/https://civilwarscholars.com/2011/06/still-more-countians-become-soldies-may-12-1861/

Still More Countians Become Soldiers, May 12, 1861

This group of men, who lived in the north-central part of the County near Uvilla, Duffields, and Shenandoah Junction, were more German and Scot-Irish than the more English, southern section of the County. These new soldiers had large families and farms. They gathered at Duffields initially April 18, 1861, the night of the assault by local militias on the armory and arsenal at Harper’s Ferry. They were mustered in on May 12, 1861, as the 2nd Virginia Infantry, Company H, also called Letcher’s Riflemen, after the Governor of the state.

Much of this relies on the roster research done by Historian Dennis Frye.

Where a man served in two units, he is recorded in the unit he was in the longest or with the most record.

Census Summaries: The Censuses are 1850 and 1860 and are included in no particular order, except where they confirm the person’s existence within the County at those times. Past estimates of those who enlisted in Confederate units from Jefferson County have been excessive due to the inclusion of many who enlisted in Jefferson County but were not from Jefferson County.

The man who enlisted is represented by an “*” to the right of “W” or to the right of their profession.

The information represents: name – age – sex- color- profession – place of birth.

Service Records: utilize abbreviated terms such as POW (“prisoner of war”), AWOL (“absent without leave”), KIA (“killed in action”), MWIA (“wounded and missing in action”)

The numbers to the left represent dwelling and family numbers in each Census. The person’s name follows.

A “?” is when dates between two official documents don’t agree.-ED

Early Recruits of Co. H, 2nd Virgina Infantry from Jefferson County Homes

ALLEN, JAMES WALKENSHAW: b. 7/2/29 in Shenandoah Co. 6’3″. “One eye lost in childhood when a piece from a spent cap blinded him.” Grad. V.M.I. 1849 (#5 of 24). V.M.I. faculty 1852, Asst. Professor of Mathematics. Farmer, Summit Point, Va., 1857. Commissioned Col. 2nd Va. Volunteer Militia, Jefferson Co., 1860. Apptd. Col. 2nd Va. Volunteer Infantry, 4/28/61. KIA when shot through the head at Gaines’s Mill, 6/27/62. bur. Hollywood Cem., Richmond. Re-interred Liberty, date not known.

Allen, Hugh P (b: 1858)
Allen, James W (b: 1829),*
Allen, Julia W (b: 1830)
SOURCE: 1860 Census

BANE, JOHN F.: b. 8/6/23. Merchant. enl. 4/18/61 at Duffields as Pvt. To Sgt., no date given. Elected Lt. 11/23/61. POW at Winchester, 5/3/62 (Ft. Delaware). Exchanged 8/5/62. No further record. d. 4/12/70.

Bane, John F (b: 1823)*
Bane, Elizabeth J (b: 1829),
Bane, John F (b: 1856),
Neal, Margaret (b: 1845)
SOURCE: 1860 Census

BARRINGER, GEORGE W.: b. 1830? Laborer. enl. 4/18/61 at Duffields in Co. H as Corp. To Pvt. Nov/Dec. 1861. AWOL 7/17-12/13/61. POW 6/10/62. No further record. NOT IN COUNTY IN 1860 CENSUS

SOURCE: 1850 Census
4 711 720 Barringer George 23 M WLabourer* VA
5 711 720 Barringer Mary 18 F W VA

BARRINGER, JAMES.: b. 1835? 6’0″. dark complexion, blue eyes, brown hair. Laborer. Residence Jefferson Co., Va. enl. 4/18/61 at Duffields in Co. H of 2nd Va. Inf. as Pvt. AWOL 7/17/61. Returned to ranks, 10/15/61. Last Infantry record shows him present Nov/Dec. 1861. enl. 4/17/62 at Conrad’s Store in Co. B of 12th Va. Cav. as a Pvt. POW 10/16/62 near Charles Town. Paroled at Ft. McHenry 10/25/62. Present Nov/Dec. 1863. AWOL Jan./Feb. 1864. POW at Halltown, Jefferson Co., W.Va. 8/24/64 (Old Capitol Prison, 6/25/64; Ft. Delaware, 9/20/64; Oath of Allegiance to U.S. at Ft. Delaware. 6/7/65). d. by 1900.

BRANTNER, GEORGE WARREN: b. 4/4/27. 5’10”. dark complexion, gray eyes, brown hair. Laborer and B&0 Railroad track inspector, enl. 4/18/61 at Duffields in Co. H of 2nd Va, Inf., as Pvt. AWOL July/Aug. 1861. No further Infantry record. enl. 9/26/62 at Shepherdstown in 12th Va. Cav. in Co. D as Pvt. POW at Beverly Ford 6/9/63 (Old Capitol Prison). Paroled 6/25/63. Present Sept./Oct. 1863-July/Aug, 1864, No further record. Paroled at Mt Jackson 4/18/65. m. Blanche Ann Hendricks d. 4/2/84 or ’82, bur. St. James Lutheran Cem., Uvilla, WVa.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
2 735 744 Engle Bennett 35 M WWagon Maker VA
3 735 744 Engle Ellen 32 F W VA
4 735 744 Engle Eliza 6 F W VA
5 735 744 Engle Sarah 3 F W VA
6 735 744 Chambers William 25 M WBlacksmith VA
7 735 744 Brantner* George 22 M WWagon Maker

CHAPMAN, JAMES W.: b. 1833? Blacksmith. enl. 4/19/61 at Duffields in Co. H as Sgt. To Pvt. 11/22/61. Absent sick July-Aug./Nov./Dec. 1861. AWOL at Bunker Hill, 10/15/62. No further record.

Chapman, James W (b: 1834)*
Chapman, Catharine V (b: 1835),
Chapman, John W (b: 1857),
Chapman, Anna A (b: 1859),
Whittington, Joseph (b: 1846)
SOURCE: 1860 Census

COLBERT, JOSEPH W.: b. 1842, Laborer. enl. 4/18/61 Co. H

Colbert, James W (b: 1819)
Colbert, Margaret (b: 1810),
Colbert, Joseph W (b: 1842),*
Colbert, Richard W (b: 1844)*
Colbert, Sallie A (b: 1850)
SOURCE: 1860 Census, P. 75

CURRIE, CHARLES W.: b. 1838. 5’3″. dark complexion, hazel eyes, dark hair. Farmer. Residence Jefferson Co. enl. 4/18/61 at Duffields in Co. H of 2nd Va. Inf. as Pvt. Wded. at Kernstown 3/23/62. POW near Harpers Ferry 10/16/62 (Ft. McHenry). Exchanged 10/25/62. enl. 12/62/62 at Shepherdstown in Co. D of 12th Va. Cav. as Pvt. Present Sept./Oct. 1863-July/Aug. 1864. Admitted to Chimborazo #1 8/20/64; debility. Discharged from hosp. 8/27/64. No further record. Paroled at Winchester 4/21/65. d. Dec. 1879 at Martinsburg, W.Va.

CURRIE, GEORGE E.: b. 3/21/39. Farmer. enl. 4/18/61 at Duffields in Co. H as Pvt. To Sgt. 6/30·10/31 1862. To Lt. Jan/Feb. 1863. Wded. at 1st Manassas, 7/21/61. Present again Sept/Oct. 1861. POW at Spotsylvania, 5/12/64 (Pt. Lookout). Exchanged 3/14/65. d. 2/24/95. bur. Edge Hill Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

ENGLE, BENJAMIN F.: b. 1843 Farmer enl. 4/18/61 Co. H, Pvt.

ENGLE, GEORGE W.: b. enl Dec., 1862 Co. H
Engle, Benjamin F (b: 1843)*
Engle, Edwin C (b: 1815),
Engle, Nancy A (b: 1814)
Engle, George W (b: 1839),*
Engle, Susan F (b: 1846)
SOURCE: 1860 Census, P. 38

ENGLE, JOHN M: b. 9/8/22. Farmer. enl. at Duffields in Co, H as Pvt. AWOL sometime before 6/30/61 and never mustered. d. 1/9/97. bur. Edge Hill Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

Engle, John M (b: 1823)*
Engle, Mary E (b: 1826),
Engle, Mary J (b: 1854),
Engle, Jesse M (b: 1855),
Engle, Sarah C (b: 1859)
SOURCE: 1860 Census

FAGHENDER, FENTON L.: b. 1843? Laborer. enl. 6/15/61 at Charles Town in Co. H as Pvt. last official entry shows him present, Nov.-Dec. 1861.

Faghender, Fenton L. (b: 1844)*
Faghender, George (b: 1801),
Faghender, Prudence (b: 1802),
Faghender, Joseph (b: 1828)
SOURCE: 1860 Census

FOLEY, JOHN F.: b. 10/22/40. Farmer. enl. 4/18/61 at Duffields in Co. H as Pvt. Shown as Sgt. 6/30-10/31/62. To. Lt. 11/18/62 for “exhibition of extraordinary valor and skill in the several battles in which this regt. has been engaged. ” Signs roll as commanding Co., Nov.-Dec. 1863. Surrendered at Appomattox. d. 6/3/26. bur. Harper’s Cem., Harper’s Ferry, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census:
4 1158 1173 Foley Michael 51 M WFarmer VA
5 1158 1173 Foley Ann C. 35 F W VA
6 1158 1173 Foley Anna M. 19 F W VA
7 1158 1173 Foley Sally E. 17 F W VA
8 1158 1173 Foley Virginia J. 13 F W VA
9 1158 1173 Foley John F. 10 M W* VA

GAGEBY, DAVID B.: b. 1826? Carpenter. enl. 4/19/61 at Duffields in Co. H as Pvt. To Corp. 8/1/61. To Sgt. 11/22/61. Absent sick 5/30/62-March/April 1863. AWOL 5/11/63. No further record. d. 1901. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

Gageby, David (b: 1833)*
Gageby, Mary A (b: 1834),
Gageby, Mary E (b: 1856),
Gageby, David A (b: 1859),
Gageby, Sarah W
SOURCE: 1860 Census

GRUBER, BENJAMIN F.: b. 1845? Laborer. enl. 5/15/61 at Harper’s Ferry in Co. H as Pvt. Last official entry shows him present, Nov./Dec. 1861.

Gruber, Jacob (b: 1818)
Gruber, Sarah C (b: 1845),
Gruber, Ann M (b: 1847),
Gruber, Benjamin F (b: 1851),*
Gruber, Charles W (b: 1853),
Gruber, Joseph M (b: 1858)
SOURCE: 1860 Census

HARDING, CHARLES B.: b. 1806 enl. 7/15/61 in Co. H.

Harding, Charles B (b: 1806)*
Buskirk, Ona M (b: 1805),
Parker, Cynthia (b: 1791),
Bell, Lewis (b: 1842)
SOURCE: 1860 Census, Charlestown, P. 169.

HARP. JOHN W.: b. 1846 enlisted 7/30/64 Winchester in Co. H. NOTE: Harp was not among the early enlistees.-ED.

Harp, Van (b: 1817)
Harp, Ann E (b: 1820),
Harp, Van R (b: 1844),
Harp, John W (b: 1846),*
Harp, James T (b: 1850),
Harp, Mary F (b: 1852),
Harp, Bettie L (b: 1854),
Harp, Mary A (b: 1857)
SOURCE: 1860 Census, Shepherdstown, P. 87

HASTINGS, DANIEL B.: b. 1816? Blacksmith. enl. 5/12/61 at Duffields in Co. H as Pvt. Wded. at 1st Manassas, 7/21/61. Absent sick in hosp. at Fairfax Court House, Sept/Oct. 1861; rheumatism. Surgeon’s Discharge, 11/7/61.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
32 1138 1153 Hastings Daniel 38 M W* VA

HENDRICKS, DANIEL WEBSTER: b. 7/26/38. Farrier. enl. 4/18/61 at Duffields in Co. H as Pvt. Listed as present through July/Aug. 1861; then no record again until shown absent sick, Sept./Oct., 1863. Also appears on rolls of Co. D, 12th Va. Cav. Present again Jan/Feb. 1864. Last official record shows him present, July/Aug. 1864. Paroled 4/18/65 at Harper’s Ferry. d. 1/15/10 near Duffields. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

Hendricks, Daniel W (b: 1839),*
Hendricks, Sarah M (b: 1840),
Hendricks, Walter G
Hendricks, Sophia (b: 1812),
Hendricks, Margaret A (b: 1841),
Hendricks, Virginia C (b: 1844)
Hendricks, Alice S (b: 1849)
SOURCE: 1860 Census

HENDRICKS, JAMES MADISON: b. 2/6/44. enl. 4/18/61 at Duffields in Co. H as Pvt. Re-enlisted in Co. D, 6th Va. Cav., 6/30-10/31/1862. d. 6/12/23. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
23 589 598 Hendricks Sophie 40 F W VA
24 589 598 Hendricks Mary E. 18 F W VA
25 589 598 Hendricks John W. 17 M W VA
26 589 598 Hendricks Elizabeth J. 16 F W VA
27 589 598 Hendricks Daniel 12 M W VA
28 589 598 Hendricks Margaret 10 F W VA
29 589 598 Hendricks Virginia C. 8 F W VA
30 589 598 Hendricks James M. 6 M W* VA
31 589 598 Hendricks Sophia A. 2 F W VA

HENDRICKS, WILLIAM: b. 12/32/21, Farmer. enl. 4/18/61 at Duffields in Co. H as Pvt. KIA at 1st Manassas, 7/21/61. bur. St. James Lutheran Cem., Uvilla, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
40 585 594 Hendricks Daniel 53 M WFarmer VA
41 585 594 Hendricks Mary 55 F W VA
42 585 594 Hendricks Sarah 27 F W VA
1 585 594 Hendricks Margaret 24 F W VA
2 585 594 Hendricks Blanch 21 F W VA
3 585 594 Hendricks Tobias 16 M WFarmer VA
4 585 594 Hendricks James 53 M WFarmer VA
5 586 595 Hendricks William 30 M WFarmer* VA
6 586 595 Hendricks Ruhanna 21 F W VA
7 586 595 Hendricks Adam 4 M W VA

HESS, CHARLES W.: b. 1844. Farmer. enl. 4/18/61 Co. H, Pvt.

Hess, Charles W (b: 1844)*
Hess, John (b: 1808),
Hess, Elizabeth (b: 1820),
Hess, Joseph A (b: 1842),
Hess, Nancy E (b: 1847)
SOURCE: 1860 Census, P. 38

HILL, JOHN: b. 12/18/20. 5’9″. light complexion, blue eyes, black hair. Tailor. Residence Jefferson Co. enl. 4/18/61 at Duffields in Co. H as Pvt. To. Corp. 11/22/61. Detailed to Staunton as nurse in hosp., 11/20/62-Nov/Dec. 1863. Deserted 1/16/64, Oath of Allegiance to U.S., date not given. d. 3/13/05, bur. Edge Hill Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
24 114 114 Hill John 29 M WTailor* VA
25 114 114 Hill Mary 31 F W VA
26 114 114 Hill Lauretta 3 F W VA

HORN, GEORGE: b. 8/6/19. Farmer. enl. at Duffields in Co. H as Pvt. AWOL and never mustered, 4/18-6/30 1861. No further record. d. 2/2/79. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

Horn, George (b: 1821)*?
Horn, Susan M (b: 1822),
Horn, Cornelia A (b: 1845),
Horn, Frances J (b: 1847),
Horn, Celia C (b: 1848),
Horn, Mary V (b: 1850),
Horn, George W (b: 1853),
Horn, Margaret E (b: 1854),
Horn, Susan E A (b: 1856),
Horn, Rosanna B (b: 1859)
SOURCE: Census 1860

HUNTER, JAMES H. L.: b. 4/9/30. Merchant. Capt. of Letcher Riflemen, a pre-war militia Co. in Jefferson Co., 11/25/59. To Capt., Co. H. 2nd Va. Vol. Inf., enl. 5/3/61. Last official entry shows him present, Nov/Dec. 1861. Dropped from Register of Commissioned Officers, 5/18/62; reason not stated. Paroled 4/26/65 at Ashland. d. 8/17/91. bur. Edge Hill Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

Hunter, James H L (b: 1827)*?
Household:
Hunter, Mary E (b: 1838),
Hunter, Rosa B (b: 1856)
SOURCE: Census 1860

HURST, JAMES A.: b. 12/19/29. Farmer. enl 4/18/61 at Duffields in Co. H as Lt. AWOL 9/20-1/11 1861. No further record. d. 7/24/91. bur. Edge Hill Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
3 488 495 Hurst James 22 M WFarmer* VA
4 488 495 Hurst Hannah F. 17 F W VA

JENKINS, JOSEPH J.: b. 1832? Shoemaker. enl. 4/18/61 at Duffields in Co. H as Sgt. Elected Capt. 4/20/62. Surrendered at Appomattox.

Jenkins, Joseph J (b: 1833)*
Jenkins, Ida (b: 1808),
Jenkins, Mary E (b: 1843),
Jenkins, Ida E (b: 1852)
SOURCE: Census 1860

LAMBRIGHT, GEORGE W.: b. 7/6/47 at Hancock, Md. enl. 7/20/64 at Winchester in Co. H as Pvt. Last official entry shows him present, 10/31/64. Surrendered at Appomattox. Postwar, spent 6 years in W.Va. and then moved to Knoxville, Tennessee, where he was a merchant. NOTE: Lambright enlisted later-ED

Lambright, William (b: 1817)
Lambright, Mary A (b: 1817),
Lambright, George W (b: 1847),*
Lambright, Mary E (b: 1853),
Lambright, Julia R (b: 1855)
SOURCE: Census 1860

LICKLIDER, GEORGE W.: b. 12/9/38. Farmer. enl. 6/20/61 at Charles Town in Co. H as Pvt. Absent. under arrest at Manassas Junction, July/Aug. 1861; reason not stated. Present again Sept/Oct. 1861. Last official entry shows him present, Nov/Dec. 1861. d. 2/6/05. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va. NOTE: THIS IS THE 12TH CAV ENTRY: b. 12/9/38. 5’11”. dark complexion, gray eyes, black hair. Residence Jefferson Co. enl. 7/1/63 at Orange Court House in Co. F as Pvt. Present July/Aug. 1863-July/Aug. 1864. Sorrel horse appraised at $800. KIA at Shady Grove (Todd’s Tavern), 5/5/64. No further record. Paroled at Winchester, 4/25/65. d. 2/6/05. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
23 492 499 Licklider George 46 M WFarmer VA
24 492 499 Licklider Jane 46 F W VA
25 492 499 Licklider Elizabeth 16 F W VA
26 492 499 Licklider John 15 M W VA
27 492 499 Licklider George 13 M W* VA
28 492 499 Licklider Margaret 11 F W VA
29 492 499 Licklider Mary J. 3 F W VA
30 492 499 Melvin Sarah 37 F W VA

LINK, ADAM, JR.: b. 10/16/17. Farmer. enl. 4/18/61 at Duffields in Co. H as Pvt. Surgeon’s discharge, 5/15/61,”for inability.” d. 3/27/62. bur. St. James Lutheran Cem., Uvilla, W.Va.

LINK, ADAM CRUZEN: b. 11/30/32. Farmer. enl. at Duffields in Co. H as Pvt. AWOL July/Aug. 1861. No further record. d. 3/28/62 at New Market; measles. bur. 1st at St. Matthew’s Lutheran Church Cem., New Market; body later removed to St. James Lutheran Cem., Uvilla, W.Va.

LINK, JOHN ALLEN: b. 4/21/42. Farmer. enl. at Duffields in Co. H as Pvt. AWOL July/Aug. 1861. No record again until he appears as wded. in stomach at Fredericksburg, 12/13/62. Absent wded. Jan/Feb. 1863. Wded. in hand at Chancellorsvllle, 5/3/63. Last official entry shows him still absent wded. and at home, 4/30-10/31 1864. Postwar. farmer. d. 6/19/35 at Uvilla, W.Va. “Last surviving Confederate veteran in Jefferson Co.” bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
32 590 599 Link Adam 52 M WFarmer* VA
33 590 599 Link Ann 35 F W VA
34 590 599 Link Adam C. 17 M WFarmer* VA
35 590 599 Link Daniel 16 M W VA
36 590 599 Link Sarah 10 F W VA
37 590 599 Link John A. 6 M W* VA
38 590 599 Link Mary C. 3 F W VA

LINK, THOMAS: b. 4/2/27. Farmer. Residence Dufflelds. enl. 4/18/61 at Duffields in Co. H. Elected Lt. 11/22/61. Absent sick in hosp. near Centerville. July/Aug-Sept/Oct. 1861. Last official entry shows him present, Nov-Dec. 1861. Dropped from Register of Commissioned Officers, 4/16/62. d. 4/21/74 at Duffields.

Link, Thomas (b: 1828)*
Link, Elizabeth J (b: 1834),
Link, Edward M (b: 1857),
Link, Thomas O (b: 1858),
Link, Jacob A
SOURCE: Census 1860

MADDOX, JAMES E.: b. 1821? Carpenter. Residence Jefferson Co. enl. 4/18/61 at Duffields in Co. H as Sgt. Elected Lt. 11/22/61. POW at Leetown, 5/3/62 (Ft. Delaware). Exchanged 8/5/62. No further record.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
25 575 584 Maddox Daniel 44 M WCooper MD
26 575 584 Maddox Sarah 40 F W VA
27 575 584 Maddox James E. 19 M W* VA
28 575 584 Maddox John 17 M W VA
29 575 584 Maddox Marinda 15 F W VA
30 575 584 Maddox Na**a 12 F W VA
31 575 584 Maddox David 10 M W VA
32 575 584 Maddox Thomas 8 M W VA
33 575 584 Maddox Elizabeth 5 F W VA
34 575 584 Maddox William 3 M W VA

MELVIN, JACOB S.: b. 1/6/30. Farmer. enl. 4/18/61 at Dufflelds in Co. H as Lt. Last official entry shows him present, Nov. Dec. 1861. Vouchers for the fall of 1862 list him as a Capt. and Asst. Commissary. d. 1/25/12. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
30 717 726 Snyder John 80 M WFarmer PA
31 717 726 Snyder Hester 45 F W VA
32 717 726 Snyder Mary A. 20 F W VA
33 717 726 Snyder Elizabeth 18 F W VA
34 717 726 Snyder John 16 M WNone VA
35 717 726 Snyder Catharine 14 F W VA
36 717 726 Snyder Susan 12 F W VA
37 717 726 Snyder William 10 M W VA
38 717 726 Melvin Jacob 21 M W* VA
39 717 726 Melvin Elizabeth 15 F W VA

MELVIN, WILLIAM: b. 8/27/41. enl. 3/18/63 at Camp Winder in Co. H as Pvt. Wded. by shell in left side of back below shoulder blade at Monocacy, 7/9/64. POW at Monocacy, 7/9/64 (U.S. Gen. Hosp West Buildings, Baltimore: Ft. McHenry). Exchanged 2/16/65. Surrendered at Appomattox. d. 2/17/12. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
22 581 590 Melvin John 41 M WFarmer VA
23 581 590 Melvin Catharine 37 F W VA
24 581 590 Melvin William 9 M W* VA
25 581 590 Melvin John H. 7 M W VA
26 581 590 Melvin James A. 4 M W VA
27 581 590 Melvin Mary C. 3/12 F W VA

MILLER, EMMANUEL: b. 1817? Shoemaker. enl. 4/18/61 at Duffields in Co. H as Pvt. AWOL and never mustered, 4/30-6/30 1861. No further record.

Miller, John (b: 1798)
Miller, Mary (b: 1800),
Miller, Emanuel (b: 1826),*
Miller, Mary S (b: 1846),
Miller, John H (b: 1849)*
SOURCE: Census 1860

MILLER, MILTON B. : b. 1832? Shoemaker. enl. 4/18/61 at Duffields in Co. H as Pvt. Last official entry shows him present, Nov/Dec. 1861.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
24 1194 1209 Miller Jacob J. 33 M WFarmer 4,000 VA
25 1194 1209 Miller Catharine A. 34 F W VA
26 1194 1209 Miller George W. 12 M W VA
27 1194 1209 Miller Susan E. 11 F W VA
28 1194 1209 Miller William H. H. 9 M W VA
29 1194 1209 Miller Milton S. 6 M W* VA
30 1194 1209 Miller Abraham S. 3 M W VA
31 1194 1209 Miller Jacob R. 8/12 M W VA

MILSTEAD, JAMES: b. 1845. res. Charles Town. enl 9/29/62 in Co. H. Present on all rolls thru 3/22/65 final roll, but reported by Richmond as deserter 2/26/65. Wded. and POW 4/1/65 at Hatcher’s Run. d. 5/23/65 at Lincoln Gen. Hosp. Washington, D.C. chronic diarrhea. Single effects given to his Aunt Bea. NOTE: Milstead enlisted later-ED

OSBOURN, ALEXANDER LINK: b. 11/1/44. Farmer. enl. 4/18/61 at Duffields in Co. H as Pvt. Trans. to Co. D, 12th Va. Cav. d. 1/19/11 at Shenandoah Jct. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va. NOTE ENTRY FROM 12TH VA CAV. OSBOURN (OSBORN) ALEXANDER LINK: b. 11/1/44. 5’8″. dark complexion. gray eyes, dark hair. Farmer in Jefferson Co. enl. 4/18/61 at Duffields in Co, H of 2nd Va. Inf. as Pvt. enl. 4/19/62 at Shepherdstown in Co. D of 12th Va. Cav. as Pvt. Shown as 4th Corp, on Jan./Feb. 1864 roll. Present Sept./Oct. 1863-March/ApriI 1864. POW at New Market 10/9/64 (Pt. Lookout 10/20/64), Oath of Allegiance to U.S. at Pt. Lookout 6/15/65. Postwar. resident of Shenandoah Junction in Jefferson Co. W.Va. Furnished rosters of Co. A and Co. D for McDonald’s Laurel Brigade book. d. 1/19/11 at Shenandoah Junction. Jefferson Co. W.Va. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown. W.Va

SOURCE: 1850 Census
36 726 735 Osbourn John 29 M W VA
37 726 735 Osbourn Jane 25 F W VA
38 726 735 Osbourn Alexander 6 M W* VA
39 726 735 Osbourn John A. 3 M W VA
40 727 736 Osbourn Daniel K. 25 M WFarmer VA
41 727 736 Osbourn Angelina 25 F W VA
42 727 736 Osbourn Emily 3 F W VA

OSBOURN, JAMES S. ALLEN: Unofficial source shows him in Co. H. d. 9/29/01. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
20 723 732 Osbourn William 37 M WFarmer VA
21 723 732 Osbourn Eliza 37 F W VA
22 723 732 Osbourn Robert L. 17 M W VA
23 724 733 Osbourn James A. 32 M WFarmer* VA
24 724 733 Osbourn Jane 25 F W VA
25 724 733 Osbourn James B. 6 M W VA
26 724 733 Osbourn Alice 4 F W VA
27 724 733 Osbourn Mary A. 19 F W VA
28 724 733 Osbourn Thomas 6 M W VA
29 724 733 Osbourn Henry 3 M W VA

ROBINSON, JAMES B. : b. 3/27/37. Farmer. enl. 5/15/61 at Harper’s Ferry in Co. H as Pvt. Last official entry shows him present, Nov/Dec. 1861. d. 6/22/85. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

RONEMOUS, LEWIS: b. 1826? Farmer. enl. 4/18/61 at Duffields in Co. H as Pvt. Last official entry shows him present, Nov/Dec. 1861.

RONEMOUS, WILLIAM: b. 1817? Farmer. enl. at Duffields in Co. H, date not given. Listed AWOL at both 6/30 and 8/31 musters. No further record.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
8 587 596 Ronemous John 41 M WFarmer VA
9 587 596 Ronemous Barbara 37 F W VA
10 587 596 Ronemous William 11 M W VA
11 587 596 Ronemous John 10 M W VA
12 587 596 Ronemous George 8 M W VA
13 587 596 Ronemous Helen 6 F W VA
14 587 596 Ronemous Ann L. 4 F W VA
15 587 596 Ronemous Lewis M. 1 M W VA
16 588 597 Ronemous Jane 68 F W VA
17 588 597 Ronemous William 33 M WFarmer* VA
18 588 597 Ronemous Lewis 28 M WFarmer* VA
19 588 597 Ronemous Catharine 38 F W VA
20 588 597 Ronemous Maria 30 F W VA
21 588 597 Ronemous John 11 M W VA
22 588 597 Reed Alcinda 8 F W VA

RUTHERFORD, JOHN A.: b. 1843? Carpenter. enl. 4/18/61 at Duffields in Co. H as Pvt. Last official entry shows him present, Nov./Dec. 1861.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
23 1218 1233 Rutherford James 38 M WLabourer VA
24 1218 1233 Rutherford Elizabeth 32 F W VA
25 1218 1233 Rutherford Thomas W. 10 M W VA
26 1218 1233 Rutherford Sarah E. 9 F W VA
27 1218 1233 Rutherford John A. 7 M W* VA
28 1218 1233 Rutherford Samuel D. 2 M W VA
29 1218 1233 Butt Margarett 13 F W VA

RUTHERFORD, THOMAS W.: b. 1838? Laborer. enl. 4/20/61 at Duffields in Co. H as Pvt. Wded. in arm at 2nd Manassas, 8/28/62. Absent sick at home Nov/Dec. 1862-Nov/Dec. 1863. AWOL 2/1/64. No further record.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
41 1213 1228 Rutherford John B. 44 M WFarmer VA
42 1213 1228 Rutherford Sarah 50 F W VA
1 1213 1228 Rutherford Virginia 16 F W VA
2 1213 1228 Rutherford Catharine 14 F W VA
3 1213 1228 Rutherford Thomas 11 M W* VA

SAPPINGTON, GEORGE W.: b. 1827? Laborer. enl. 4/18/61 at Duffields in Co. H as Pvt. To Corp. Aug. 1861. To Sgt. 11/22/61. To Lt. 4/20/62. Wded. at Kernstown, 3/23/62 and still absent from wounds at 10/31/62 muster. Dismissed from C.S.A. service, 12/16/62; reason not stated.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
36 626 635 McFarland John M. 25 M WFarmer VA
37 626 635 McFarland Maria L. 45 F W VA
38 626 635 Sappington George W. Jr. 24 M WLabourer* VA

SHARFF, JACOB K.: b. 3/2/24. Laborer. enl. 4/18/61 at Duffields in Co. H as Pvt. Detailed as cook with surgeon, Nov/Dec. 1862. Surrendered at Appomattox. d. 3/1/11. bur. Episcopal and Masonic Cem., Middleway, W.Va.

Sharff, Jacob K (b: 1833)*?
Link, Thomas (b: 1828),
Link, Elizabeth J (b: 1834),
Link, Edward M (b: 1857),
Link, Thomas O (b: 1858)
SOURCE: Census 1860

SHEPHERD, ALEXANDER H.: b. 1831. Farmer. enl. 4/18/61 at Duffields in Co. H as Pvt. d. 9/25 or 9/26/1861 at hosp. at Camp Harman; typhoid fever. bur. Shepherd Burial Ground, Shepherdstown, W.Va.

SHIRLEY, JOHN J.: b. 2/1/31. Laborer. enl. 4/21/61 at Duffields in Co. H as Pvt. AWOL 7/3-10/15 1861. Last official entry shows him present, Nov/Dec. 1861. d. 7/24/96. bur. Uvilla Methodist Cem., Uvilla, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
16 441 448 Shirley David 48 M WWagonmaker VA
17 441 448 Shirley Caroline 48 F W VA
18 441 448 Shirley John J. 19 M WWagonmaker* VA
19 441 448 Shirley William T. 14 M W VA
20 441 448 Shirley Lorena J. 12 F W VA
21 441 448 Shirley Eliza 8 F W VA
22 441 448 Knight Mary 81 F W VA

SNYDER, HENRY M.: b. 6/7/36. Farmer. enl. 5/1/61 at Harpers Ferry in Co. H as Pvt. Wded. in thigh at 1st Manassas, 7/21/61. Last official entry shows him still absent from wound, Nov./Dec. 1861. d. 11/11/64. bur Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

SNYDER, JOHN: b. 1822. enl. 10/1/62 at Bunker Hill in Co. H as Pvt. Absent sick at home since 11/6/62. Remained absent sick until 11/10/63 when he is listed as AWOL. Next record shows him wded. in right testicle and thigh at Spotsylvania, 5/12/64. POW at Spotsylvania, 5/12/64 (U S. Gen. Hosp., Alexandria; wounded). d. 5/1 or 6/1 1864 at U.S. Gen. Hosp., Alexandria; from wounds. bur. Elmwood Cem. Shepherdstown, W.Va.
NOTE: Snyder enlisted later-ED

TRUSSELL, JAMES M.: b. 1840? Farmer. enl. 6/17/61 at Charles Town in Co. H as Pvt. Wded., leg broken, at 1st Manassas, 7/21/61. Absent sick through Nov/Dec. 1861. Absent sick 6/30-10/31/62 through Sept/Oct. 1863. AWOL since 1/10/63. No further record.

SOURCE: 1860 Census
Trussell, Baylies (b: 1813),
Trussell, Angelica (b: 1815),
Trussell, Mary E (b: 1838),
Trussell, James M (b: 1841)*
Trussell, Sarah V (b: 1852)

WHITTINGTON, JAMES: b. 1843? Laborer. enl. 5/14/61 at Harper’s Ferry in Co. H as Pvt. AWOL 31 days, July/Aug. 1861, and fined $11.00 for absence by court-martial. Absent sick, Nov/Dec. 1861. No further record. Later appears on rolls of Co. B 12th Va. Cav. d. 10/28/01. bur. Edge Hill Cem., Charles Town, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
7 802 814 Whittington Joseph 45 M WOverseer VA
8 802 814 Whittington John 10 M W VA
9 802 814 Whittington James 8 M W* VA
10 802 814 Whittington Taylor 4 M W VA
11 802 814 Whittington Brown 6 M W VA

WHITTINGTON, CORNELIUS: b. 1838? 5’10”. light complexion, blue eyes, light hair. Laborer. enl. 4/21/61 at Duffields in Co. H as Pvt. Absent on detached service under Asst. AM, July/Aug. 1863-March/April 1864. Last official entry shows him present, 4/30-12/31 1864. Paroled 4/21/65 at Winchester.

Whittington, Cornelius (b: 1838)*
Whittington, Henry B (b: 1843),
Belt, Daniel J (b: 1812),
Belt, Mary C (b: 1845),
Belt, Sarah M (b: 1841)
SOURCE: Census 1860

WINTERMOYER, JOHN: b. 1827? Laborer. enl. 4/21/61 at Duffields in Co. H as Pvt. Last official entry shows him present, Nov/Dec. 1861. Exchanged POW, 8/5/62. Where and when captured not stated. No further record. d. 2/28/09. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va.

SOURCE: 1850 Census
32 310 314 Wintermyer Philip 62 M WWeaver PA
33 310 314 Wintermyer Mary 60 F W MD
34 310 314 Wintermyer William 19 M WWeaver VA
35 310 314 Wintermyer Margaret 23 F W VA
36 310 314 Wintermyer John 23 M WWeaver* VA
37 311 315 Wintermyer Jeptha 28 M WWeaver VA
38 311 315 Wintermyer Melinda 27 F W VA
39 311 315 Wintermyer Mary C. 2 F W VA
40 311 315 Wintermyer Eliza A. 30 F W VA

References:

Bushong, Millard K.(2007). “A History of Jefferson County, West Virginia [1719-1940].” Westminster, MD: Heritage Books. Print.

Bushong, Millard K. “A History of Jefferson County, West Virginia [1719-1940].” Google Books. 19 July 2008. Web. 24 Dec. 2010.

Confederate Service Records, National Archives

Frye, Dennis E. (1984). “2nd Virginia Infantry.” Lynchburg, Va.: H. E. Howard, Inc. Print.

United States. Bureau of the Census; United States. National Archives and Records Service. (1967). “Population schedules of the eighth census of the United States, 1860, Virginia [microform] (Volume Reel 1355 – 1860 Virginia Federal Population Census Schedules – James City and Jefferson Counties).” Jefferson, Kanawha, King George, King and Queen, and King William Counties).”Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 10 Sept. 2010.

United States. Bureau of the Census; United States. National Archives and Records Service. (1964). “Population schedules of the seventh census of the United States, 1850, Virginia.” [microform] (Volume Reel 0953 – 1850 Virginia Federal Population Census Free Schedules – Jackson, James City, and Jefferson Counties).” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 31 July 2008. Web. 3 March 2011.

“The Virginia Free Press,” Nov. 9, 1865.

Joe Crane and His Family (by Tom Steptoe)

8321 words

https://web.archive.org/web/20190710022343/https://civilwarscholars.com/2011/06/joe-crane-one-man-and-his-family-tom-steptoe/

Joseph Minor Crane
Company B, 12th Virginia Cavalry
Grandfather of Actor, Randolph Scott

By Tom Steptoe

jj-crane_-joe_-dec_-62-sick_-killed-e1309209477339-300×199

I was a beneficiary of many family stories from Margaret Crane Steptoe and Sara Sadler Crane (who, hereinafter, will be identified by her nickname, “Tay”). I regret that I did not do more to record their recollections while they were living. This is especially true in the case of Tay, who was a brilliant, and immensely entertaining, oral historian. My goal is to record as much of what they told me as I can remember, while I can still remember it. I hope that this information might be of interest to present and future Sadler/Lionberger/Crane descendants.

Background of Joseph Minor Crane

Joe Crane was born in Charlestown, Virginia circa 1842. He was the son of John William Crane and Margaret Sadler. He was the grandson of Joseph Minor Crane and Catherine Price (“Kitty”) Strother. He was the great-grandson of James Crane and Lucy Minor. James Crane had come from Spotsylvania County into what would become the Charles Town area circa 1765 as a land agent for Thomas, Lord Fairfax. James went on to become one of the original trustees of the newly-formed Charlestown, Virginia (1786). Later (1802), James was one of the first two delegates elected from the newly formed Jefferson County to the Virginia General Assembly. James was the son of John Scanland Crane, who served as Colonel of the Colonial Militia, Justice of the Peace, and Sheriff of Spotsylvania County. James’ mother was Elizabeth Ferguson. John Scanland Crane was born in 1700 in Spotsylvania County, and was the son of another John Crane. That is as far as I have been able to go back on the Cranes. I will leave it to others who might be interested to ascertain when and from whence the Cranes came to Virginia. However, it has been suggested to me that they may have had roots on the Isle of Man, UK.

Like many Jefferson Countians, Joe had deep roots in the Commonwealth of Virginia. He was a descendant of Robert Beheathland (of Cornwall), who was the only original settler at Jamestowne (1607) known to have left descendants in The New World. A recent article by Brantley Carter Bolling Knowles in the October 2009 Issue of the Jamestowne Society Newsletter goes even further by asserting that Robert Beheathland was the only member of the original expedition to now have living descendants anywhere, to-wit:

ROBERT BEHEATHLAND
“Ancient Planter”

Robert Beheathland is one of the “Gentlemen” listed as being on the three
ships that landed in what is now Virginia on that momentous day in May
of 1607. There are no exact listings of who was on each of the three ships,
but it is known that he was one of them. Recent research by John Frederick
Dorman has determined that Beheathland is the only person on the three
ships who has direct descendants living today.

Many of the original settlers were from near London. Research has revealed
the reason why Robert Beheathland, who hailed from the remote Parish of
St. Endelyon, Cornwall, was among this group. It is believed that Beheathland was a young cousin of Edward Maria Wingfield, one of the planners of the expedition to Virginia. The early settlers needed sheet copper to trade with the Indians. The Beheathland family was privileged and owned copper and
tin mines.

Robert Beheathland lived through the visits with Capt. John Smith for the
first Christmas at Kecoughtan, the Starving Time, and the Indian massacres.
He is listed as an “Ancient Planter” in the 1624/1625 muster roll, which
lists the survivors after the Indian attacks. His surname is unfamiliar today,
as Beheathland was survived by daughters.

Joe Crane shared this “bloodline” with quite a few members of Company B, including the Baylors and Aisquiths, through their common descent from Benjamin Strother.

The Strother Connection

It has been noted that Joe Crane’s grandmother was Catherine Price Strother Crane. The Strother connection to Jefferson County begins with Benjamin Strother. The following appears in Jamestown to Charles Town: Descendants of Robert Beheathland and Allied Families, an excellent book by Mary H. Tayloe (who was a Rutherford from Charles Town):

“Benjamin Strother, 1750-1807, son of Anthony Strother I, and his wife, Behethland Storke, m. 1778 Catherine Price, 1753-1805, daughter of William and Jane (Brown) Price of Westmoreland County. Benjamin was a midshipman in the Virginia Revolutionary Navy and later served in the Land Forces. Some of the Continental money with which he was paid for his services descended to his grandson, the late Gen. David Hunter Strother “Porte Crayon.” After the conclusion of the war, Benjamin immigrated with his family to the Valley of the Shenandoah and settled on a 600-acre farm he called “Park Forest,” three miles from Charles Town, then Berkeley County, now the County Seat of Charles Town, Jefferson County, West Virginia. (In the County Clerk’s Office in Martinsburg, WV, there is a deed dated September 2, 1788 from Bushrod Washington to Benjamin Strother for a tract of 302 acres and another deed dated 1796 from Henry Lee and wife to Benjamin Strother for 305 acres).”

Benjamin and Catherine had five children who had descendents, to-wit: Catherine Price Strother who married Joseph Minor Crane; Elizabeth Strother who married Benjamin Pendleton; Margaret Strother who married Cato Moore, II; Mary S. Strother who married Richard Duffield; and John Strother who married Elizabeth P. Hunter.

“Park Forest” has long since ceased to exist, but the house appears to have been off the Leetown Road, northwest of Ranson. Its location can be seen on the old Howell Brown maps. At the time that Howell Brown produced his maps, “Park Forest” appears to have been owned by the Thomson family.

Essentially, Benjamin Strother’s girls married into Jefferson County families that would go on to be loyal Confederates; his son John, though, moved to Martinsburg, married a Hunter, and eventually settled in Berkeley Springs where he operated a hotel. His son, David Hunter Strother, the renowned artist “Porte Crayon”, would try to stay neutral during the Civil War, but would end up as a Union General under the tutelage of his Berkeley County cousin (on his mother’s side)—-the infamous, pyromaniacal General David Hunter.

The Sadler Connection

Joe’s mother was Margaret Sadler. Her parents were Leonard Llewellyn Sadler and Sara Boley Sadler. Unfortunately, I know nothing of Leonard’s forebears, nor even the place of his birth. According to Tay, Sara Boley had roots in Terrebonne Parrish, Louisiana, which, if true, would suggest an Acadian connection. I believe that Leonard was born in 1799 and died circa 1860. What I do know is that Leonard was a successful furniture maker. He acquired what is known as the “Sadler Block” in Charles Town which fronted on West Washington Street (next to the former jail and current post office building) and extended back to West Congress Street (next to the former Board of Education building and current facility of American Public University). Over the years, a large building was constructed facing West Washington Street (which now houses Collins’ Barber Shop, Jumpin’ Java, and several other businesses and offices on the second floor) with a dependency (which recently housed a wine shop), and a small house facing West Congress Street (which Tay always called the “Link House” because a beloved teacher, a Miss Link, rented it as her residence for many years—the house is now owned by the American Public University and stands opposite their main facility in what used to be a hospital and, then, Knott Nursing Home), and a carriage shed extending back from West Congress Street (which was torn down in the 1960s to make room for the law offices of Avey & Steptoe— one of the partners, Thomas W. Steptoe, Sr., was married to a Sadler descendant).

Margaret Sadler (Crane) was the only girl of her generation; she had three brothers, John, George and Leonard, Jr. (who, in his youth, acquired the dubious nickname of “Loonie”). She was also the only Sadler to have children as the brothers remained bachelors. The boys continued to run and expand the business. Probably the most significant items of “furniture” that the Sadler Brothers fashioned were two coffins (in those days furniture makers were the precursors to the undertaking business which would develop more as a specialty later): a coffin for the body of John Brown and a coffin for the body of Confederate hero, Turner Ashby. As will be discussed later, there is, however, a question as to whether or not John Brown was actually buried in the Sadler coffin. With the onset of the Civil War, John and Leonard (“Loonie”) joined the Stonewall Brigade while George remained at home to keep the business afloat. John and “Loonie” survived the War and returned to the business. The last surviving brother was Leonard, Jr. At the time his closest living relative was Joe Crane, his nephew. However, perhaps because Joe had made some ill-advised business decisions, Leonard skipped over him to Joe’s son, my grandfather, Charles Leonard Crane—leaving everything to him.

After Leonard, Jr.’s death, the furniture and undertaking business were sold to the Strider family. Those businesses have survived into the present as the Strider Colonial Funeral Home and Ramey’s Furniture Store. But the family retained ownership of the Sadler Block. In the 1960s, Sadler descendants sold the old carriage shed to Avey & Steptoe, for the construction of a law office. Finally, in 19****, Sadler descendants Sara Sadler Crane and Margaret Crane Steptoe sold the remaining real estate to the Widmyer family of “Federal Hill.”

The Minor Connection

As previously noted, Lucy Minor was Joe’s great-grandmother. Like her future husband, James Crane, Lucy hailed from Spotsylvania County, Virginia. She was the daughter of a Thomas Minor by his wife, Alice Thomas. Thomas Minor owned about 2000 acres in Spotsylvania County including his primary estate, “Locust Grove.” James’ father, John Scanlon Crane, was a contemporary of Charles Washington in Spotsylvania County, where they both served as Justices. Because these families were acquainted, we have a possible clue as to why James Crane brought his young bride out to the “Bullskin Plantations,” leaving a commodious lifestyle in Spotsylvania behind to come to an area a generation or so removed from the frontier—he may have followed Charles Washington, who owned, along with other Washington family members, considerable real estate around present day Charles Town.

Uncle Joe—another Joseph Minor Crane

Tay always referred to this Joseph Minor Crane as “Uncle Joe” and I will do the same to avoid confusion between the “Joes.” Uncle Joe resided on the family home place, which has been referred to as “Locust Grove”—presumably being named after the Minor homeplace in Spotsylvania County. “Locust Grove” was a farm located at the end of present day “Crane’s Lane” which extends westerly from North Mildred Street (now State Route 115) in Ranson, crosses the N&W railroad tracks and goes back about a mile to the farm. It appears that this farm was originally a part of the greater “Park Forest” tract and probably represented Catherine Price Strother Crane’s inheritance from her father, Benjamin Strother. Uncle Joe was the last democratically elected Sheriff of Jefferson County, Virginia (1860). But he is best known in the family for what might be dubbed “The Battle of Locust Grove.” During the Civil War, two Yankee cavalrymen appeared at “Locust Grove” and started to take Uncle Joe’s horses. Although he was quite elderly at the time, Uncle Joe wasn’t going to suffer this theft without a fight. One Yankee slashed Uncle Joe with a saber and Uncle Joe shot and killed him. The surviving Yankee fled threatening to return with a squadron of cavalry to wreak vengeance. According to Tay, Uncle Joe then fortified himself in his barn with four muskets and his three daughters. Sure enough the Yankees returned in force. While the daughters reloaded the muskets, Uncle Joe kept the Yanks at bay and wounded the commanding lieutenant. Eventually Uncle Joe ran out of ammunition and the Yankees were able to seize him. This is when things really got interesting. The Yankees put him on one of his own horses and set out with him for their headquarters at Harpers Ferry. However, when they got east of Charles Town on the Harpers Ferry Pike (now US Route 340), they encountered General David Hunter Strother. According to Tay, Strother told the startled lieutenant: “That man is my cousin. If anything happens to him, I will personally shoot you!” An account of this incident appears in Strother’s A Virginia Yankee in the Civil War:

Several miles from town I saw a countryman riding down the
road guarded by a file of cavalry. I recognized my friend and
cousin, Joe Crane. He was riding a workhorse without a saddle.
His clothes were spotted with blood and his hand bloody and maimed.
His face was livid but firm. He said a trooper had come to his
house and was taking his horses before his eyes. He remonstrated
and resisted. The man sabred him and Joe shot him dead. I grasped
his hand, promised my best service, and advised him to immediately
report with his guard to headquarters. He rode on and left me sad
and appalled. Joe was my father’s favorite nephew and his best friend. He must be saved….

Had it not been for the intervention of David Hunter Strother, Uncle Joe would, in all likelihood, have been summarily executed. As it turned out, he got a fair trial before a military tribunal in Baltimore and was acquitted. According to Tay, the following dialogue took place between the presiding officer and Uncle Joe at the end of the proceedings:

Presiding Officer: Col. Crane, I have only one bone to pick
with you.
Uncle Joe: What is that, sir?

Presiding Officer: That you didn’t kill that damned lieutenant!

Another Uncle — Smith Slaughter Crane

Smith Crane had been involved with the company of Jefferson County men formed to go to California during the “Gold Rush.” The only story that I recall Tay recounting about Smith had to do with a youthful wager, a legend and St. George’s Chapel. Early on, St. George’s chapel had outgrown itself and it was abandoned in favor of the construction of a larger Episcopal Church in Charles Town—Zion Episcopal Church is the modern day incarnation of that project. Even in Smith Crane’s youth, St. George’s was a decaying edifice. According to Tay, the legend runs like this: A certain young lady was in love with two men—she could not decide between them. Eventually the young men fought a duel in which both died. Not long thereafter, the young woman died “of a broken heart.” All three were buried at St. George’s. At midnight on each anniversary of the duel, it was said that the young woman’s spirit would rise and flit back and forth between the graves of her two loves—still unable to choose between them.

And so, several of Smith Crane’s friends dared him to retrieve a specially marked Book of Common Prayer from a spot in the chapel ruins at midnight on the anniversary of the duel. He accepted the challenge. The specially marked book was placed in the chapel not long before midnight and Smith’s friends waited in Charles Town for his agreed return with the book not long after midnight. Smith rode out to St. George’s Chapel, collected the book and, then, suddenly, his horse bolted and raced back to Charles Town. Smith did not see a ghost, but apparently his horse did.

In his old age, Smith lived with Joe at “Glen Lavinia” in Rappahannock County, as his name appears on a census record of that household. It is also interesting to note Smith’s middle name—Slaughter. Since the Cranes generally used family names as middle names, that fact strongly suggests that the Cranes were kin to the Slaughters. I don’t know where the connection ties in, but I suspect that it comes through the Minor family.


Having discussed Joe’s background and relations, I will now come forward from 1859, with Joe, his brother, the Lionbergers, and his Sadler relatives.

The John Brown Execution

After John Brown was condemned to hang, the Sadlers were called upon to “handle the arrangements.” Brown was conveyed to the gallows in the Sadler’s wagon (which is now on exhibit in the Jefferson County Museum in the basement of the Old Charles Town Library), driven by George Sadler. In route, it appears that Sadler and Brown had a cordial conversation; however, I have seen so many different versions of it, that I am loath to pick one version over another, except that all versions appear to agree that the conversation ended with the following remark from Brown: “This is a beautiful country. I never had the opportunity to see it before.” After the execution, it was Sadler’s duty to convey the deceased, who had been secured in the coffin, to Mrs. Brown and a special train. According to Tay’s recitation of a Sadler family tradition, when Sadler arrived with the body, the door to a boxcar of the waiting train flung open, and several men jumped out, grabbed the coffin, flung it violently into the boxcar, jumped back in and slammed the door shut. Immediately thereafter, Sadler heard the sound of chisels and hammers. I do not know if this really happened, but it is plausible that an effort might have been made to ascertain if John Brown could be revived. And if it did happen, it is probable that the workmen did enough damage to the coffin that Brown’s body would necessarily have been transferred to another coffin for burial.

Stonewall Brigade

On May 28, 1861, Joe Crane enlisted in Company G of the 2nd Virginia Infantry at Camp Johnston at Harper’s Ferry. He remained in the infantry until his Baylor cousins formed a cavalry company, “The Baylor Light Horse”, later known as Company B, 12th Virginia Cavalry. Joe, and many others in the Stonewall Brigade from Charles Town, joined up. Joe brought along his younger brother, Charlie Crane, who was 15 or 16, and one of his uncles, Leonard L. Sadler, Jr. Another uncle, John Sadler, remained with the Stonewall Brigade.

Company B, 12th Virginia

George Baylor, in Bull Run to Bull Run, described Company B as follows: “Its members were principally the sons of farmers of Jefferson County, Virginia, mere school-boys, who had not attained their majority or completed their education…in its ranks were youths who today stand in the front of various occupations of civil life. There was ex-Postmaster-General William L. Wilson; Charles Broadway Rouss, the merchant prince and philanthropist, of New York; Charles Henderson, vice-president and general manager of the Reading Railroad; Hon. W. D. English, of California; Thomas D. Ransom, a prominent lawyer of the Staunton Bar; William L. Thomson, a leading member of the Atlanta Bar; H. D. Beall, of the Baltimore Sun; Julian Hutchinson, a capitalist and member of the City Council of Atlanta; Timberlakes, eight in number, all gallant soldiers; Washingtons, Mannings, Terrills, Cranes, Aisquiths, Gallahers, Alexanders, Craighill, Frazier, Mason, Sadler, Strider, McClure, Howell, Hunter, Lackland, Seldon, Yates, and many others whose names, in Virginia, suggest pride, prowess and parentage.”

Baylor, in Bull Run, continues: “No arms or equipments were furnished the company by the Confederate Government, the men owned their horses, and Uncle Sam very kindly and very soon provided us the very best pistols, sabers, saddles and bridles he had in stock. Everything but ourselves was branded U.S.” And again, “Early in the conflict we recognized the fact that the Federal officer was our equal, and that our chief strength and superiority lay in our rank and file. If our opponents were fought at long range, the officers had the opportunity to bring to their aid discipline and authority over the actions and conduct of their men; when in close contact, they lost control, and their men, lacking individuality, became as sheep without a shepherd; while with us, every private was a general and needed no guidance or direction from his officer. In the camp and in the field the Confederate soldier was ruled by affection and example, and was treated as an equal. Especially was this the case in our company, where we bore the relation of brother, cousin, school-mate, neighbor and friend.”

Early Exploits

One of Company B’s first missions was during the Battle of Kernstown (indeed, this incident occurred before “The Baylor Light Horse” was designated as Company B, 12th Virginia, and was just an independent company under the overall, but loose, command of Turner Ashby). Baylor relates the story in Bull Run: “In the beginning of this fight, a call was made for twenty men from our company to report to General Jackson. At this time a Federal battery a short distance off was pouring a vigorous fire into our ranks. When the call was made, it was accompanied with the report that Jackson wanted the men to charge that battery, and volunteers from the company were slow in responding. At this juncture, Charlie Crane, a youth then about sixteen, rode forward, saying, ‘Come on boys, we have but one time to die,’ took his place in the detachment, and, others following his example, the number was soon complete. Great was our relief, however, when on reporting to General Jackson, we were directed by him to take position on his extreme left and report any attempt of the enemy to outflank him.”

After the 1st Valley Campaign, General Jackson crossed the Blue Ridge to assist General Johnston and General Lee in the defense of Richmond, leaving only Company B to keep tabs on the enemy in the Shenandoah Valley. This assignment brought a detachment of Company B, under George Baylor, to Luray where Baylor had the initial misfortune of meeting one of our ancestors, John Lionberger. Lionberger, a former member of the Virginia General Assembly, was both elderly and outspoken. Baylor takes up the story in Bull Run: “Hospitable entertainment was afforded me that evening at the home of the Jordans, while Henry Beall and some others of the company had comfortable quarters at the Lionbergers. Mr. Lionberger was then quite an old gentleman, and having expressed in the presence of Beall a desire to see the officer commanding the company, Beall kindly offered to go over to the Jordans and introduce him. He came, he saw, and was sorely disappointed. At that time I was a mere stripling boy, just twenty years of age, weighing one hundred pounds, and not very attractive or warlike in appearance. Mr. Lionberger returned home much disgusted, and so expressed himself to Beall, saying, ‘What can you expect to accomplish with that stripling for a leader?’ Beall, like a true friend, reported his remark to me, and my blood boiled in my veins, but I said nothing—only thought. The next morning, with 25 men, I started on the road to Front Royal, inwardly resolved to do or die. No one knew how desperate the old gentleman’s disparaging remarks had made me…..About one-half mile south of the place (Front Royal), however, we came suddenly upon the enemy’s cavalry picket reserve, and finding the town occupied by a large infantry force. Our men were soon scattered, pursuing fleeing Yankees in every direction. Noticing a company forming in front of the hotel, with about 40 men in line, I called Henry Beall and Charlie Crane to my assistance, dashed in among them, and drawing my pistol on the officer in command, demanded a surrender. He turned to his men and commanded them to ground arms—an order quickly obeyed…Our handful of men were soon overwhelmed with prisoners, and I was satisfied that we must beat a hasty retreat…Our situation was critical indeed, and, gathering up as many of the prisoners as could hastily be gotten together, our retreat was begun. We left Front Royal with about 300 prisoners, most of them infantrymen, and among them a major and two captains….our little band returned to Luray, camping near that place for the night…On our return to Luray, the company met with an ovation and were feasted right royally. All doubts as to our fighting qualities were now removed, and Company B was on the ladder of fame. Mr. Lionberger very frankly congratulated me, and was ever after a warm friend and admirer, and one of his fair daughters composed and set to music a little song dedicated to the “Baylor Light Horse.” Only one verse can now be recalled:

At a town among the mountains,
Where amid the sparkling fountains
Camped a host of Yankees in their boasted might,
Baylor boldly charged among them;
From their sleep he did arouse them,
And, like Murat, rode bravely thro’ the fight.

Chorus

“Come, come, come boys, come,
Come all ye who’d live in story,
He will lead you to glory
O’er fields cold and gory,
He’ll lead you, boys, where honor’s to be won.”

I have not been able to determine which of John Lionberger’s daughters composed and played the song, but Lavinia Lionberger, one of his “fair daughters,” would, in 1865, become the wife of Joe Crane and, ultimately, the grandmother of Randolph Scott.

Who were the Lionbergers?

Before continuing with the adventures of Company B, this is as good a place as any to record the limited information I have on this family. According to Tay, the Lionbergers were German-speaking natives of Mulhouse in French-controlled Alsace. They were Protestants, then called Huguenots, who, due to the Counter Reformation, found it expedient to remove to the more tolerant environs of Bern in Switzerland. From that place they came to Virginia, probably as part of the migration sponsored by Joist Hite. They obtained a patent for 1000 acres from Lord Fairfax which appears to have covered bottom land and the flanks of Hawksbill Mountain, which places their holdings in the vicinity of present day Stanley, south of Luray. Eventually they moved to Luray and constructed one of those large, utilitarian houses like those one finds in Shepherdstown, on the main street of Luray. As of this writing the house still stands. I have seen some reference on the Internet from other Lionberger descendants who claim to have located the site of the original homeplace near Stanley, but I have not as yet located the same. According to Tay, the Lionbergers were extremely artistic and creative people.

French Leave

During the winter of 1863, Company B was in camp near New Market. Apparently the men pined for their native Jefferson County and sought permission to “scout” the Lower Valley. George Baylor, in Bull Run, takes up the story: “Permission was asked of General Jones for the company to make a scout in the lower Valley, but the request was refused on grounds we esteemed unreasonable and insufficient. Plans were laid by some of the men, including Lieutenant Rouss and myself, to outgeneral the General. The camp-itch, a disease peculiar to soldiers living on hard-tack and mess-pork, was then prevalent in our brigade. Taking into our confidence our regimental surgeon, Dr. Burton, one morning about a dozen of us appeared before the surgeon’s tent and made application to be sent to the hospital at Harrisonburg to be treated for this disease, and certificates were accordingly granted us. Reporting to the surgeon in charge of the hospital, Dr. Waddell, a Virginia gentleman of the old type, our certificates were presented and we were booked as patients at that institution. Without critical examination into our cases, some anointing ointment and a little bottle of Fowler’s Solution of Arsenic was furnished each of us and permission granted to make our stay with friends and acquaintances in the vicinity of the hospital, with directions to report occasionally at the surgeon’s office. Having now arranged our program satisfactorily, the following morning we started down the Valley, determined to try our hands on the Yankees in that section, well assured that a successful venture would make the amende honorable and sufficient excuse with our officers for our little deviation from the line of military rectitude. Our little band of about a baker’s dozen was composed of Lieutenant Rouss, John Chew, Billy Manning, Charlie Henderson, Charlie Crane, John Yates, John Coleman, George Crayton, Billy Gibson, Up Manning, Joe Crane, Duck English and myself. We crossed the mountain to Luray and passed through Front Royal, stopping at regular intervals with friends along the route. February 12th found us at Summit Point, where information was received of a small scouting party of the Twelfth Pennsylvania Cavalry, numbering 21 men, passing that place a short time before our arrival, going in the direction of Middleway or Smithfield…This information greatly pleased us, and off we started in pursuit of the Yankee scouting party. Passing “Happy Retreat,” the home of one of our sweethearts, we were urged not to pursue, as the enemy was too strong for us, but we had travelled 60 miles in hunt of a fracas, and nothing could dissuade us. In fact, we were spoiling for a fight. As Middleway is approached from the direction of Summit Point, there is a straight stretch of road, probably a mile in extent, just before entering the town. Here the enemy was in full view, slowly sauntering along, totally oblivious of the fact that any foe was in the vicinity. Nearing the hill just south of the town, our gait was accelerated, our pistols made ready, and we struck its rear, with the head of the column just over the hill. So intent were they in conversation and so unmindful of our presence, that the rear file was shot down and we were pressing into the column before they were aware of danger. No resistance was made, but pell-mell down through the town they ran, with our little band, yelling like hyenas, in close pursuit, suffering mostly from their mud-pelting, and closing the race at the toll-gate just north of the town…With the prisoners and horses we returned to Summit Point, and thence down to Locke’s Shop, where a stop was made to let Lieutenant Rouss have his horse shod. Fatal stop. The smith had nearly completed the job when a body of Yankee cavalry was seen approaching from the direction of Charlestown. The prisoners with horses and a small guard were hurried down Locke’s lane, and with a handful of men a dash was made on the advance of the enemy’s column, to hold it in check a few moments, to give prisoners, captured horses, and guard a little start. The movement was more successful than we anticipated, as the head of the column was broken and thrown into confusion. In this charge, John Chew and Charlie Crane displayed conspicuous gallantry.”

Brandy Station

In June 1863, Company B found itself in the thick of the largest cavalry battle of the Civil War, the Battle of Brandy Station, as it was the first Confederate unit on the field to contest the Yankee seizure of Fleetwood Hill, a strategic location.

Baylor takes up the story in Bull Run: “At this critical juncture, our regiment and White’s Battalion were ordered to repair in haste to Fleetwood Hill, about a mile in our rear, to meet a column of Federal cavalry under General Gregg which had passed to our right and rear and was in possession of Brandy Station. The Twelfth regiment moved off in a gallop, Company B in the advance, with instructions to charge the enemy as soon as he appeared in sight. The regiment, in the great haste with which it repaired to the point designated, became much scattered and lengthened out, with Company B considerably in advance. When the summit of Fleetwood Hill was gained, we discovered the enemy’s cavalry, which proved to be the First Maryland, coming up the southern slope of the hill, in platoons, with its flag and guidons fluttering in the breeze, closely followed by the First Pennsylvania and the First New Jersey to our left, all under the command of Colonel (Sir Percy) Wyndham, who, in 1862, our brigade had captured near Cross Keys. These Federal regiments presented a beautiful, but awe-inspiring, sight to our little troop; but Lieutenant Rouss, in obedience to orders, gave the command to charge, and down the slope we darted, striking the head of the column and throwing it into rout and confusion. But our success was of short duration, for the First Pennsylvania, now charging, by force of numbers pressed our company back to the top of the hill, when the residue of the Twelfth regiment coming up, the fight for the possession of the hill became general…..While the Twelfth Cavalry was wrestling with the enemy for the possession of Fleetwood Hill, Colonel White, with his battalion, arrived, and, making a gallant charge, drove the enemy back and seized their guns, just planted to the south of the hill; but after holding them for a few minutes was driven back. General Stuart in person now joined us in the fight, and the contest was renewed with increased vigor under General Stuart’s personal leadership, without much regimental or company organization, but more as a body-guard. Several times the enemy reached our guns, which had taken position on the hill and had become our rallying point; but after a desperate struggle had been driven back in confusion and with great loss. We were now fighting Gregg’s entire division of cavalry and Russell’s brigade of infantry. At this juncture, the Sixth, Seventh and Eleventh Virginia Cavalry of our brigade came up, and, charging the enemy, captured their guns and drove them back and away from Brandy Station, causing Gregg to retreat in rout and confusion, and so the day’s fight was virtually ended.”

Company B Impresses General Stuart and General Lee

On October 12, 1863, Company B was involved in action at Warrenton Springs. According to Baylor, in Bull Run, “Pressing on to the river at Warrenton Springs, we found the enemy had posted his artillery on an eminence beyond the stream and placed their dismounted men in rifle-pits near the banks of the river to contest our advance…At this juncture, General Stuart ordered me to charge with Company B across the river and drive the enemy from their rifle-pits…Generals Robert E. Lee, Ewell, Stuart and others were in full view, watching the movement. It was the occasion of our lives. The order was given, and down the road the company dashed amid a shower of bullets, and reached the bridge over the river, to find the flooring torn up. Here we were forced to halt, face about and strike for a ford below. This movement was effected without faltering, and soon the river was crossed and the rifle-pits, with a large number of prisoners, in our possession….As we passed up out of the river and our horses leaped over the rifle-pits, our infantry on the opposite banks greeted us with loud cheers. This was the first and only occasion during the war, that I know of or heard of, where the infantry showed such appreciation of the cavalry…General Stuart, in his report of this engagement, says: ‘This little band of the Twelfth Virginia Cavalry was worthy of special praise, as it was made under circumstances of great embarrassment. Charging first up to the pier of the bridge, it was discovered that it had been taken up, thus exposing them to a dangerous fire from the enemy on the opposite side. Nothing daunted in purpose, however, they turned about and took the road to the ford below, which they plunged into in the face of the enemy’s fire without halt or hesitation’….on the 20th we moved back and took up quarters near Culpeper, establishing pickets on the south bank of the Rappahannock. On the morning after our return, Company B was agreeably surprised by an order from General Lee, received through General Stuart, granting the company a furlough of ten days, with permission to return to our homes in Jefferson, as a reward for gallant conduct at Warrenton Springs. A shout went up as we moved off for home, friends and relatives; and, notwithstanding the fact that those homes were within the Federal lines, no blockade was sufficient to keep us out, and the time was happily spent.”

The End

Joe and his brother, Charlie Crane, were with a group of Company B on detached duty in Luray when word of Appomattox came. It was over. The Crane brothers had survived the War without serious wounds. This was particularly remarkable in the case of Charlie Crane, who had earned the reputation of being one of the most reckless combatants in a unit that enjoyed that reputation generally.

The Crane brothers started down the Valley to surrender at Winchester and then continue further down the Valley to home (or what was left of it) in Charlestown. But only Joe would make it home.

On an apparently warm spring day, the Cranes and their companions stopped by the Shenandoah River where Charlie Crane entertained the group with trick diving. When he did not resurface, his companions initially assumed that he was up to his usual pranks. They discovered, too late, that Charlie had struck his head on a submerged rock and drowned. His accidental death, which devastated Joe, was an irony of ironies considering what he had recently survived.

Charlestown, Virginia had become Charles Town, West Virginia

An entire paper could be devoted to the circumstances surrounding West Virginia’s expropriation of Jefferson County. But that is not my focus here, although some discussion of it is necessary to explain what Joe Crane did and why.

When the trans-Allegheny counties of Virginia were considering secession from Virginia, their representatives canvassed as far east as the Shenandoah Valley to ascertain if there existed any interest there in joining the new state of West Virginia. There was none, especially in Jefferson County, which, according to Tay, had sent a higher percentage of its fighting age male population to the Confederate military than any other county in Virginia, except Henrico. And all things being equal, the founders of West Virginia probably would have left Jefferson County alone, as they did Clarke County and Frederick County (Winchester). But all things were not equal because the B&O Railroad’s main line to the West crossed the Potomac at Harpers Ferry from Maryland into Jefferson County, Virginia, and continued through Jefferson County towards Martinsburg. The founders of West Virginia wanted that railroad in “their” state; the B&O, still smarting from Stonewall Jackson’s seizure of their locomotives, wanted their lines in a “friendly” state; and so it was decided that West Virginia must have Jefferson County. In this chicanery the founders of West Virginia found powerful allies in the Lincoln Administration, which had a cozy relationship with the B&O, and, by extension, the United States Army that by 1863 controlled most of Jefferson County, at least by day. But they needed to appear to have the support of the residents of Jefferson County which they knew would never be forthcoming. So they conducted an unpublicized “plebiscite” with polls open only at Harper’s Ferry and Shepherdstown where they were guarded by federal troops. Any voters who did show up were required to give an oath of allegiance to the United States in order to vote. Most residents of Jefferson County did not know of the plebiscite until after the fact. When they did become aware of it, they did not take it seriously as they still clung to the belief that the South would win its independence. By the time Joe Crane returned home, efforts were being made to seek reunification with Virginia. When the Virginia General Assembly was made aware of the fraud, Virginia sued in the United States Supreme Court for recovery of Jefferson County, and other counties where similar tactics had been employed. But there was to be no justice for ex-Confederates in the Supreme Court which turned a blind eye to one of the most fraudulent plebiscites ever conducted on American soil. When the residents of Jefferson County tried to vote for a Virginia congressman, the Governor of West Virginia sent in federal troops to restrain them. Charlestown, Virginia, which was closer to Richmond than Winchester, would be Charles Town, West Virginia forever.

“I’ll be damned if I’m going to live in West Virginia”

According to Tay, that is what Joe Crane said when Virginia’s effort to recover Jefferson County failed. Jefferson Countians were heartbroken over what one resident termed “the deep damnation of our taking off from our dearly loved mother.” Joe Crane left. He returned to Luray, his wartime home, where he married Lavinia Lionberger; and then, in time, took Lavinia east across the Blue Ridge to Rappahannock County where he, and some other expatriate Jefferson County families, settled. He built an extravagant house on property just east of Sperryville which he named “Glen Lavinia.” With the assistance of a distant cousin, James William Fletcher, Esq., of “Thornton Hill” near Sperryville, I have been able to locate “Glen Lavinia” as being about 2 miles east of Sperryville on US Route 522, off a road called Slaughter Lane, in a relatively flat area still known locally as “Crane’s Bottom.” When I visited this area I noticed two Victorian structures about 100 yards apart that looked like they might have been once connected as one structure—my speculation is that these two structures are, indeed, what is left of “Glen Lavinia.” Joe had exercised poor judgment in constructing such a mansion given the nature of farming in the Reconstruction South. Eventually he lost “Glen Lavinia” and moved to Roanoke where he wrote for the local newspaper while Lavinia ran a boarding house. In the fullness of time, though, Joe would return with his family to Charles Town.

The Next Generation

Joe and Lavinia Crane had six children, five girls and one son. The son was named Charles Leonard Crane in honor of Joe’s deceased brother. The girls were Mary Blanche Crane, Margaret Sadler Crane, Lucy Lionberger Crane, Georgia Newton Crane, and Elizabeth Isabel Crane. Charles L. Crane was born while the family lived in Rappahannock County. During his youth, Charles developed a friendship with a Henry Turner, an artist who lived nearby off Yancey Road. Turner was a widower who had also lost his only child, his daughter Lottie. He insisted that Charles Crane, whom he may have regarded as a surrogate son, have two of his most valued paintings: one of his daughter, Lottie, and the other, styled ‘The Convalescent’, which was a self-portrait, painted while he was studying art in Dusseldorf, Germany. Both paintings remain in the hands of Crane descendants.

In 1891, one of Charles’ sisters, Lucy Lionberger Crane, married George C. Scott. They would become the parents of George Randolph Scott, who would later drop his first name.

In 1899, with the passing of Leonard L. Sadler, Jr., the last of the Sadler brothers, Charles Crane inherited the Sadler estate which consisted of stocks and bonds, a furniture and undertaking business, and the business real estate known as the Sadler Block. So, at the age of 20, Charles Crane, who had grown up in post-Reconstruction Virginia in difficult circumstances, found himself to be “a man of property.” Because the inherited assets were in Charles Town and had to be managed, Joe swallowed his pride and returned with his family to his hometown.

Colonel Preston Chew was one of the most respected men in Charles Town at the time. He had led Stuart’s famous “Flying Artillery” unit and was credited, among other things, with having saved Charlottesville from George Armstrong Custer’s legions. After the war, Col. Chew became a stockbroker, but the boldness that distinguished him as a soldier did not serve him or his clients well in business. According to Tay, he convinced young Charles Crane to liquidate $20,000 (in 1900 dollars) in US Steel stock to invest the proceeds in a mid-western railroad venture that proceeded to go belly up. But, nonetheless, the Crane family continued to carry on in Charles Town in relative prosperity. In 1904, Joe died and was buried at Zion Episcopal Church.

Charles purchased the house at 201 West Washington Street (located across Washington Street from the library and across Samuel Street from the Old Moose Club, which is now owned or leased by the American Public University). This house is known now as the “Tate-Fairfax-Muse House” in honor of its original inhabitants, but during the first half of the twentieth century it was known as the Crane House, as the Cranes owned it longer than any other family. In 1909, Charles Crane married Annie Megquier Lionberger, of Booneville, Missouri. They had three children: Sara Sadler Crane (Tay), Margaret Leonard Crane (Steptoe) and Charles L. Crane, II. The Crane House appears to have been somewhat of a social center in Charles Town, reflecting Charles’ social personality, with the constant comings and goings of cousins and friends such as the Daniels, Browns, Alexanders, Wysongs, Nelsons (including the future Mrs. Edward McDonald), and Browses (including the future Mrs. J. Blackwell Davis).

Because Charles was, at the time, the most prosperous of his generation, he frequently entertained the families of his sisters, including that of Lucy Lionberger Crane Scott, then living in Charlotte, North Carolina. Because of the expense involved in travel, when family came to visit, they generally stayed for months. According to Tay, Charles Crane often complained that “from the first crocuses of spring until the last leaf of fall, I run a boarding house.” But his complaints were in jest, as it appears that he enjoyed his family, and generally liked people, and he was especially fond of the Lucy’s son, George Randolph Scott, who went by the nickname “Randy.”

Randy Scott and his family came to Charles Town almost every summer in the first two decades of the 20th Century. His uncle, Charles Crane, taught him how to ride, which would serve him well in later years, and another relative, “Unc” Perry, to whom he was related through the Strother connection, taught him how to swim. During his visitations, Randy also developed a friendship with John Peale Bishop, through whom he may have met F. Scott Fitzgerald.

Charles Crane either owned or leased a farm known as “The Tyler Farm” which was located down the Keyes Ferry Road near the Shenandoah. It was there that he and a group of friends, including Philip Nelson, grandfather of Philip Nelson McDonald of “Rock and Tile,” constructed the first 9-hole golf course in Jefferson County.That property has probably now been completely swallowed up by one of the limestone quarries operating in the Millville area. Their summer playground was a stretch of the Shenandoah River known locally as the “Big Eddy” where “Unc” Perry owned a property called “Camp Easy.” Later on, in 1929, Charles Crane and his friend Francis Daniel would acquire 100 acres on the western flank of the Blue Ridge directly above the Big Eddy, where Francis constructed a cabin and Charles maintained a cook-out spot, behind an overlook constructed by the highway department (which is now closed). A good portion of this land was eventually sold under threat of eminent domain to the Department of the Interior as a buffer for the Appalachian Trail, but a portion of the residue of that land remains to this time in the hands of descendants of Charles Crane, Thomas W. Steptoe, Jr., and Capt. James Ormond Crane.

Extra-Familial References

Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.” Richmond, VA: B. F. Johnson Publishing. Print.

Baylor, George. (1900). “Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.” Google Books. 19 July 2008. Web. 24 Dec. 2010.

Strother, David H., (1961). “A Virginia Yankee in the Civil War: The Diaries of David Hunter Strother.” ed. Cecil D. Eby, Jr. Chapel Hill, NC: Univ. of North Carolina Press. Print.

Strother, David H., (1961). “A Virginia Yankee in the Civil War: The Diaries of David Hunter Strother.” ed. Cecil D. Eby, Jr.

FLICKR SETS:

Joe Crane
Charles Crane
George Baylor
SOURCE:
Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.” Richmond, VA: B. F. Johnson Publishing. Print.

Baylor, George. (1900). “Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.” Google Books. 19 July 2008. Web. 24 Dec. 2010.

Park Forest
Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 33, Issue: 193, June, 1866. P. 4. Print.

Strother, David H. (June, 1866). “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 20 Oct. 2010.

The Recruit: “Half-Horse, Half-Alligator” by Jim Surkamp

1771 words

https://web.archive.org/web/20190710013657/https://civilwarscholars.com/2011/06/the-recruit-%e2%80%9chalf-horse-half-alligator%e2%80%9d/

David Hunter Strother

Tall, athletic, rough, and full of fire and vitality, the half-horse, half-alligator type still predominates in the lower and middle classes of the South while a more elegant but equally vigorous physique characterizes the polished, proud, subtle, ambitious, warlike, domineering class who will lead them.”

David Hunter Strother wrote thus in Harper’s Monthly, warning the conflict with Southern armies would be long and hard. George Baylor from Jefferson County wrote that young boys grew up shooting pistols and riding horses from the earliest age, making them martial material. Strother even-handedly skewers all points of view with real knowledge of the matter, having grown up amongst his subjects. He asks: “What motivates the young man to go to war?”

Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, June, 1866

This is certainly an efficient and virulent agent in the revolution which is brewing here.

The New York papers speak of the Southern people as “effete;” and there seems to be an impression prevailing generally in the North that the physique of the Southern people is deteriorated by a life of luxurious and dissolute idleness. If the dapper ideologist who entertains such an idea should happen to come in contact with

some hardy Southern mountaineer carrying a hundred and fifty pound buck on his shoulder – some stark and sinewy swamper with his swivel of a ducking-gun –

some hard-riding Tony Lumpkin of the rural gentry, the preux chevalier of tournaments, cock-fights, and quarter-races, he would presently find out who was “effete.”

There is probably not a population to be found who, by their habits of life, occupations, and amusements, are better fitted for soldiers than that of the Southern States. Horses and fire-arms are their playthings from childhood. Impatient of the restraints of school-houses and work-shops they seek life and pleasure in the soil, and thus early learn the topography of nature, the ways of the fields and forests, swamps, and mountains. Their social and political life, but little restrained by law or usage, develops a vigorous individuality. For the most part, ignorant of the luxuries and refinements of cities, they prefer bacon and whisky to venison and Champagne. Tall, athletic, rough, and full of fire and vitality, the half horse, half alligator type still predominates in the lower and middle classes of the South while a more elegant but equally vigorous physique characterizes the polished, proud, subtle, ambitious, warlike, domineering class who will lead them.

The Southern editors, on the other hand, jealous of assumed Northern pre-eminence in silly and brazen imposture, make haste to assure their readers that the people of the late United States are now a frantic mob of Yankees and abolitionists, manufacturers of wooden nutmegs and patent apple-peelers, seedy pedagogues and brain-sick ideologists, and won’t fight. Now if these adverse utterances are any thing more than the ravings of partisan passion – if the people of the sections do entertain such opinions of each other, it is high time they had a war. It will then be shown satisfactorily to both parties whether or not the hardy pioneers who have subjugated a rugged continent to the sons of the Vikings, who have driven whales from the high seas, will fight, and whether or not the domineering lords of Southern soil and serfs are effete.

This account describes the social pressures to enlist in Charles Town, then Virginia. – ED

D. H. Strother Virginia State Library
Harpers Weekly September 6, 1862

While there were still a few men found who stubbornly struggled against the sweeping current, the women of all ages and conditions threw themselves into it without hesitation or reserve. Their voluble tongues discussed the great question as rationally and philosophically as might be expected under the circumstances, while their nimble fingers aided more intelligently in solving the problem of clothing and equipping the hastily levied defenders of “God’s glory and Southern rights.”

Sewing societies were organized, and delicate hands which had never before engaged in ruder labor than the hemming of a ruffle now bled in the strife with gray jeans and tent cloth. Haversacks, knapsacks, caps, jackets, and tents were manufactured by hundreds and dozens.

The gift most in vogue from a young lady to her favored knight was a headdress imitated from those worn by the British troops in India and called a Havelock. Laden with musket, sabre, pistol, and bowie-knife, no youth considered his armament complete unless he had one of these silly clouts stretched over his hat. Woe to the youth who did not need a Havelock; who, owing to natural indisposition or the prudent counsel of a father or a friend, hesitated to join the army of the South.

NOTE: Gen. Thomas Jackson discouraged the Havelock as an unnecessary article of clothing.-ED

Jim Surkamp Collection

The curse of Clan Alpin on those who should prove recreant to the sign of the fiery cross was mere dramatic noise compared with the curse that blighted his soul. His schoolmates and companions who had already donned ‘the gray’ scarce concealed their scorn. His sisters, rallied, reproached, and pouted, blushing to acknowledge his ignominy. His Jeannette, lately so tender and loving, now refused his hand in the dance, and, passing him with nose in air, bestowed her smiles and her bouquet upon some gallant rival with belt and buttons. Day-after-day he saw the baskets loaded with choice viands, roasted fowls, pickles, cakes, and potted sweetmeats, but not for him. Wherever he went there was a braiding of caps and coats, a gathering of flowers and weaving of wreaths, but none for him – no scented and embroidered handkerchiefs waved from carriage-windows as he rode by.

Harper’s New Monthly July, 1878

The genial flood of social sympathy upon which he had hitherto floated so blandly had left him stranded on the icy shore. Then come the cheering regiments with their drums and banners, the snorting squadrons of glossy prancing steeds the jingling of knightly spurs, the stirring blast of the trumpets. There they went – companionship, love, life, glory, all sweeping by to Harper’s Ferry!

Alas! poor boy, what sense of duty or prudent counsels could hold him in the whirl of this moral maelstrom? What did he care for the vague terror of an indictment for treason, or the misty doctrine of Federal supremacy? What did he know of nationality beyond the circle of friends and kindred? What was his sneaking, apologetic, unsympathetic life worth after all? The very bondsman who held his horse as he mounted for his morning ride seemed to reproach him, as, touching his hat, he remarks, suggestively, “Young master, this horse of yours is mighty proud and mettlesome – he would look fine in the cavalry.” Very well; in two days – more or less – you might see young master in the cavalry, prancing gallantly with the rest of them, a Havelock flapping about his ears, spurs jingling on his heels, the light of manhood rekindled in his eye, and a fresh posy in his button-hole, atoning for his former hesitancy by distinguished seal in the great cause.

Harper’s New Monthly July, 1878

But according to my judgment the greater number of these young volunteers were moved neither by social pressure nor political prejudice. The all-pervading love of adventure and fighting instincts were the most successful recruiting officers of the occasion.

Harper’s New Monthly July, 1878

For they had heard of battles, and had longed to follow to the field some warlike lord – so at the first roll of the drum they rushed cheerily from school house and office, counter and work shop, field and fireside, earnest, eager, reckless fellows, marching with a free and vigorous step, sitting their horses like wild Pawnees, most admirable material for a rebellion, just as good soldiers for the Government if perchance the rub-a-dub of the Union drums had first aroused their martial ardor.

Harper’s New Monthly July, 1

References:

Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine pp. 1-25. hathitrust.org.

Flickr Set:

“David Hunter Strother.” Photo. Library of Congress.

“Effete man.” Drawing by David Hunter Strother.
Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 33, Issue: 193, June, 1866. pp. 6-7. Print.

“Little boy, girl flirting” Drawing by David Hunter Strother.
Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 33, Issue: 193, June, 1866. pp. 6-7. Print.

“Boy wearing havelock.” Drawing by David Hunter Strother.
Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 33, Issue: 193, June, 1866. p. 141. Print.

“Woodsmen with rifles.” Drawing Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 11, Issue: 63, (Aug., 1855). pp. 289-311. Print.

“Glove on sword.” Drawing by David Hunter Strother. From Jsurkamp. (24 December, 2008). “Ring Tournament.” 24 December 2008. Video posted to:

“Man with big beard, hat.” Drawing by David Hunter Strother.
Jsurkamp. (24 December, 2008). “Ring Tournament.” 24 December 2008. Video posted to: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dMkaZGwfr14

“Men sitting” Photo. Jim Surkamp Collection.

“Panorama of mountains.” Photo. Jim Surkamp Collection.

The Red Dawn of Sedition – April 18, 1861 by Jim Surkamp

8386 words

https://web.archive.org/web/20190612171148/https://civilwarscholars.com/2011/06/the-fires-of-sedition-david-hunter-strother/

This is a combination of two more pro-Union eye-witness accounts of the attack on the Harper’s Ferry arsenal by Virginia militias and the sabotage of same by Federal soldiers.

David Hunter Strother

David Hunter Strother, is described. Joseph Barry’s account follows Strother’s.

About David Hunter Strother:

David Hunter Strother, a native of the eastern Panhandle who sided and fought with the Union, wrote this very powerful and anxious account of the night he tried to dissuade men he had known from his youth to not destroy a federal armory for its arms. Read together with the recollection of John Imboden, a case could be made that this overtly hostile action before a May, 1861 referendum on secession smacks of a forcible take-over of the state of Virginia by “a cabal.”

Written in 1866 for Harper’s Monthly, a magazine through which Strother became “a household word” as a writer and illustrator, the article depicts rising flames and explosions of the armory at Harper’s Ferry in a cold, clear April night, as if it is second only to Fort Sumter as the very moment the juggernaut wheels of a terrible war first moved. It should be noted that three principals in this story would be dead of battle wounds within 18 months.

April 18, 1861. – This morning I took the cars at Sir John’s for the purpose of visiting Charlestown on personal business. A stranger from the West who sat beside me opened conversation on the all-absorbing subject: Would Virginia secede? I replied, somewhat dogmatically perhaps, “That she would not and could not.” I then went on to explain to him the grounds for my assertion the immense popular majority in the State opposed it, the decided majority in the Convention against secession under any circumstances. The high personal and political character of that body. The impossibility of their betraying their constituents. Their pledges, their interests, their common sense forbid the supposition. They would never dare to face the people of Virginia with the stain of so dark a treachery on their souls. By the time the train reached Harper’s Ferry I had quieted the apprehensions of my fellow-passenger, and had argued myself into a very contented frame of mind.

As we passed the Armory shops I observed they were closed. And the United States soldiers there on duty (fifty or sixty men) stood in groups about the grounds apparently awaiting orders. As the train stopped opposite the hotel I missed the mob of idlers that usually crowded the platform, but remarked a collection of half a dozen gentlemen standing near the steps which led to the telegraph office. While engaged in getting my baggage I heard my name called by one of the group, and on approaching recognized several acquaintances, whose presence there at that time struck me as ominous.

Turner Ashby

Among them were Captain H. Turner Ashby and a stranger whom I afterward ascertained was a

Mr. J.A. Seddon of Richmond. I felt assured, from the anxiety expressed in their faces and the restlessness of their manner, that some extraordinary occasion had assembled them here; but I was not allowed much time for speculation, for as Ashby advanced to shake hands with me he said, “We are here in the name of the State of Virginia to take possession of Harper’s Ferry. Three thousand Virginians are marching to support us, and I am expecting their arrival every moment. They should have been here ere this. An Ordinance of Secession has been passed by the Convention, and the Navy-yard at Norfolk is already in our hands.”

I was so stunned by these revelations that I had scarcely breath to utter the usual and appropriate ejaculation of astonishment – “The Devil!”

Ashby further stated that he had taken possession of the telegraph office, and then walking to and fro and looking at his watch at every turn, gave vent to reiterated expressions of impatience at the non-appearance of the expected forces.

As I rallied from the surprise into which I had been thrown by these sudden developments I began to wonder what the authorities at Washington were dreaming of, and why the Government troops were lying idle in their barracks. I saw but half a dozen men who seemed to be arranging their plans and awaiting reinforcements at their leisure. Why were they not immediately arrested or shot down?

I also began to feel annoyed at finding myself the recipient of these quasi-confidential communications from persons with whom I had formerly had agreeable social relations and some affinity in political sentiment, but whose present position was abhorrent to me. The frank and unreserved manner in which they detailed their plans seemed purposely designed to implicate me, at least by approval, and I was glad when a direct question afforded me the opportunity of undeceiving them.

R___ asked, “How many men can we bring from Martinsburg to sustain them?”

I answered, “None at all; we are all Union men in Martinsburg.” This reply appeared to startle them, and was followed by an interchange of significant glances among the party.

Ashby then said that he had always been a sincere Union man heretofore, but as the action of the General Government had already destroyed the Union he now felt bound to stand by his State.

R___ said that he too always have been a Union man, and was one now, but felt himself driven into the present movement as the only means of preserving the union. Although I could not perceive the adaptation of the means to the end, I wished him success.

The whistle of the Charlestown cars terminated a conversation which had become embarrassing, and I took leave of my acquaintances with the decidedly less of cordiality than had than had been exhibited at our meeting.

In passing around to the platform of the Winchester and Potomac Railroad, I became aware for the first time that the street in front of the Armory-yard was crowded with people, a number of whom were engaged in a rough-and-tumble fight, accompanied with the usual noise and hubbub appertaining to this Democratic amusement.

A by-stander informed me that the crowd was composed chiefly of Government employees, citizens of the town at large and from the surrounding country.

Federal Lt. Roger Jones

Lieutenant Jones, in command of the United States troops, had been endeavoring to enlist the Armory men in the defense of the place,

Arsenal Superintendent Alfred Barbour

NOTE: Barbour of Jefferson County had been voted by the populace to be one of two delegates to the Virginia Secession convention backed because he opposed secession secession by Virginia from the United states. During the Convention he voted on April 4th to oppose, then made himself absent on the day of the key vote because he chose to hurry to Harpers Ferry and the arsenal because he had fore-knowledge of the plan to send Virginia militia to capture the arsenal, its equipment and its completed weapons. After that moment he returned to Richmond and recorded his belated vote “in support” of secession. Maneuvers done because he held a job with the Federal government.

(Strother) while Alfred Barbour, late superintendent and member of the Convention, was there with other secession demagogues, endeavoring to induce them to join the State troops, or at least to remain neutral during the expected attack. The artisans in the employ of the Government had for several years past been organized and equipped for military service, and could have reinforced the guard to the extent of three hundred men well drilled and skilled in the use of arms.

As the great majority of these men were not native Virginians, but citizens of the country at large, depending upon the general Government for their means of support, and the perpetuity of the Armory for the continued value of any local property they might have acquired, it is natural to suppose they would have eagerly volunteered to resist a movement which menaced them with total and immediate ruin. But Harper’s Ferry had been for a long time little other than a political stew, more occupied with the intrigues of district politicians than devoted to the objects for which it had been founded and maintained. The United States officer found that he could not rely on any considerable number of them for assistance. Division of opinion, drunkenness, confusion, and fisticuff fights were the only results obtained. The sight of this tumultuous crowd, however, explained to me why the small guard was kept quiescent in the Armory grounds. Without delaying longer to unravel this entanglement I took the train and proceeded to Charlestown. Here there was as much excitement as at Harper’s Ferry, but among a different class of people, and consequently less noisy and vulgar in its demonstrations.

The Jefferson Volunteer Battalion, organized and armed under pretexts founded on the John Brown affair, stood paraded in the street, in marching order. As almost every family in the county had one or more representatives in the ranks, there was a hurrying to and fro of mothers, sisters, sweet-hearts, wives, and children of the Volunteers, showing their agitation and excitement in the most varied and opposite forms. In a community so secluded, and so essentially Virginian, there could not be found many uninterested spectators on an occasion like this. Every body was neighbor and cousin to every body else, and political dissension had not yet reached the point where it sears hearts and poisons the fountains of social sympathy. Even the negroes (blacks) were jubilant in view of the parade and unusual excitement among their masters and mistresses. Yet I thought I could discern in the eyes of some of the older and wiser heads a gleam of anxious speculation – a silent and tremulous questioning of the future.

There were also some among the white citizens who stood aloof in silence and sadness, protesting against the proceeding by an occasional bitter sigh or significant sneer, but nothing more. I recognized in the ranks some that I had known as Union men, whose restless and troubled looks seemed to question me as I passed.

Lawson Botts

I had scarcely got through greeting the friends I had come to visit when I was waited on by Captain Lawson Botts, an officer of the regiment, a citizen highly esteemed for his general intelligence and probity, and known as a decided and uncompromising opponent of secession doctrines. Calling me aside, in a manner which evidenced great and painful excitement, he asked “what I thought of the present state of affairs?” I replied by asking what was the meaning of this martial army, and why I saw him armed and equipped as a participator? He said that Ashby and Seddon had arrived that morning from Richmond, and, in the name of the Governor of Virginia, had ordered the regiment to which he belonged to assemble and march immediately on Harper’s Ferry, to take possession of the United States armories and arsenals there, and hold them for the State. I then gave him an account of my conversation with Ashby and his colleagues, and what I had seen at Harper’s Ferry.

As these gentleman had unadvisedly, perhaps, communicated their plans to me, I might under ordinary circumstances have felt averse to saying or doing anything calculated to thwart them. I had determined not to meddle with public affairs, and did not care to exhibit any officious zeal in a matter respecting which the Government was doubtless better informed than myself. If anything I could say would prevent Captain Botts or any of my young friends and kinsmen whom I had seen under arms, from taking a step which I was assured would be fatal to them, I certainly would not permit any trifling punctilio to interfere with a full expression of my views. I told him that I considered the whole movement an atrocious swindle, contrived by a set of desperate and unprincipled men conspirators at Richmond, who, fearing that their treasonable schemes would be denounced by the people at the polls, had determined to plunge the State irrevocably into a war with the General Government without allowing an opportunity for the expression of popular opinion on the question.

I did not believe the statements made to me at Harpers Ferry in regard to the passage of an act of Secession by the Convention and the seizure of the Norfolk Navy-yard. There was no public information that either of these events had occurred and it was impossible that these gentlemen, who had come by the inland route from Richmond, could have knowledge of occurrences at Norfolk in advance of the telegraph. On the other hand, it was clearly evident that they were agents of the Revolutionary Committee, whose business it was to precipitate the events referred to by accomplishing the seizure of Harpers Ferry. Moreover, what does it signify if all the agencies of the State – Governor, Legislature, and Convention combined – should order you to draw your sword against your country? Can you feel yourself in any manner bound to obey such an order? Does it not rather prove to you that those whom the people have entrusted with the management of their State affairs have themselves turned traitors and dare conspiring against our common Government? So far from feeling it my duty to obey under such circumstances, I would, if I had control of these troops, march them to Harper’s Ferry and, without hesitation, arrest and imprison every man I found there engaged in this infernal business, and then offer my services to the United States Government for the defence of the place. I believed that such action would be not only right and justifiable in itself, but would be highly applauded by the people of Virginia. Unless this rebellious movement was immediately met with some such decisive counter action we would presently find both our State and country involved in revolutionary anarchy, with a future of irretrievable ruin.

Without hoping to obtain his acquiescence in my extreme views, I was nevertheless gratified to perceive that what I said made its impression upon Captain Botts. Educated at a Southern college, the narrow political ideas so sedulously inculcated at those schools still combated the more liberal and national teachings of his maturer life. His social sympathies and soldierly pride were also enlisted in the struggle against his clearer and higher sense of duty to his country. Thanking me courteously for my frankness he left me for a time, and I saw him engaged in earnest and excited conversation with some of his brother-officers. Presently he returned and asked if I would repeat to the field-officers of the regiment what I had said to him. I consented without hesitation, and accompanied him to a private room,

James W. Allen

where I met Colonel Allen and some others. I here repeated substantially what I had said to Captain Botts – with somewhat more of reserve in language, however, as I was not so well acquainted with the gentlemen present. I was heard with respect and evident emotion.

A printed proclamation, which had been circulated by the Richmond emissaries, was brought in and subjected to critical discussion. It was a call upon the volunteer military and the people generally to rise and protect their honor, their property, and their rights, by seizing the national arsenals at Harper’s Ferry. It recited the passage of the Secession Ordinances, and the seizure of the Norfolk Navy-yard, and was signed by Turner Ashby, claiming to act by order of the Governor of Virginia. On examination it was pronounced unsatisfactory, and Colonel Allen declared that unless he had some better authority his regiment should not move. He moreover, became excited at the suggestion that there was an attempt to practice deception by the State agents; and declared that if they had dared to deceive him he would hold them to personal account.

Acquaintances of Messrs. Ashby and Seddon insisted that they were honorable men, and that their personal statements had been more clear and conclusive than the printed circular.

I asserted broadly that I did not believe either what they said or what was published, and that in times like the present I would trust no man’s word or honor who was acting with the revolutionary junto, whatever might have been his previous character.

After some further discussion it was determined by the Colonel, that the regiment should move to Halltown, the appointed place of rendez-vous, but they should go no further unless he obtained more satisfactory authority from the State Government.

I was disappointed at this conclusion, for I felt assured that, once at the rendez-vous, influences would be brought to bear which would carry Colonel Allen forward in spite of himself; and as he was disposed to acknowledge the validity of an order from a State officer commanding him to make war on the United States, I did not doubt he would be speedily furnished with such authority.

Although apparently acquiescing in the Colonel’s decision, I could perceive that Captain Botts was as much disappointed as myself and before parting he urged me to accompany them to the rendez-vous, with the expression of a vague hope that I might use some influence, even there, to avert the commission of a deed which he abhorred from his inmost soul. I promised to follow them. The regiment moved off, and after dinner I walked down the turnpike to Halltown, four miles distant from Charlestown. Here I found the troops halted, awaiting reinforcements, which were reported on the march from various quarters to join them.

Halltown (upper left), Bolivar & Harpers Ferry (lower right)

By this time, I had satisfactorily weighed the elements by which I was surrounded, and concluded not to meddle further with the business unless formally called upon for counsel. So I sat apart and amused myself sketching the animated and picturesque scene. In the course of the afternoon several of the expected companies arrived.

Captain Ashby and Mr. Seddon had come up from Harpers Ferry, while Dick Ashby, a brother of the Captain, had arrived from Fauquier with a small squad of cavalry. An earnest and excited discussion among the leaders was kept up for a long time, and while some countenances appeared vexed with doubt and indecision, others lowered with anger and dissatisfaction. I was not invited to join the council, but could easily divine the trouble. Ashby who had greeted me so frankly in the morning, now passed with averted face. As we supped together at a neighboring farm house he studiously avoided exchanging words or looks with me. I was glad that we had understood each other without the scandal of an open quarrel. This seed, however, bore evil fruit at a future day.

While we were at table a courier arrived from the direction of Winchester, man and horse bespattered with mud and reeling with fatigue. On opening his dispatch Ashby’s cloudy brow cleared, and rising hastily from his chair he handed the paper to Colonel Allen. As he read it Allen also sprung to his feet, and turning to me said, cheerily,” Now I can act with a clear conscience. Here is a paper I can recognize, a peremptory order to seize Harper’s Ferry, with the official endorsement of the Adjutant-General of the State.”

The arrival of this paper seemed to have satisfied all scruples and dispelled all doubts. Spurs jingled, sabers rattled, horses neighed and the voices of officers were heard in every direction marshaling their troops.

The men, flattered with the idea of being foremost in the enterprise, sprung to arms and formed their column with alacrity.

It was quite dark, and as I passed out of the house Captain Botts took my arm, and in an agitated manner inquired what I thought now of the posture of affairs.

I asked if he was sure the order which had arrived was not a forgery. He was fully assured of its authenticity. I then went on to repeat the views and arguments I had exhibited in the morning, urging them with still greater vehemence of manner, and, if possible in stronger language.

Admitting that he chose to recognize a right which I did not – the right of the Convention to pass an act of secession – this act could have no validity, even under the assumption of legality upon which it was based, until accepted and confirmed by a formal vote of the people. That vote had not been taken. It could not lawfully be taken for thirty days after the passage of an ordinance of secession by the Convention. The people of Virginia would never confirm such an act by their vote. The proposed movement on Harper’s Ferry was therefore not only a treasonable attack upon the government of the country, but it was also a most atrocious outrage and fraud upon the people of Virginia. In electing the Convention the people had demanded the right to consider and pronounce upon its action. By this rash and unauthorized move the people were betrayed, their rights trampled upon, and by those whom they had trusted with their guardianship.

“Yet, I hold my commission from the State, and am bound to obey the orders of the Governor,” said the Captain. “What would you have me to do?”

I answered with heat: “Can any miserable local functionary have the right to order a free citizen to commit a crime against his country? Can you feel bound to obey an order which involves so flagrant a violation both of State and National law; of all faith and honor both to Government and people? Does your commission bind you to this extent? If so, you should tear it to shreds and throw it to the winds.”

My friend listened without essaying to the reply, but sat with his elbows resting on his knees and covering his face with his clenched hands.

When I concluded he rose, and in a voice of anguish exclaimed: “Great God! I would willingly give my life to know at this moment what course I ought to pursue, and where my duty lies!” With this he hurried to join the column, which was already in motion.

I had intended to go no further than Halltown, but the entrancement of curiosity and interest was irresistible, and I continued to follow the march of the troops at a short distance. The stars twinkled clear and chill overhead, while the measured tread of the men and an occasional half-whispered word of command were the only sounds that broke the stillness of the night. It was an awful opportunity for reflection.

The column was suddenly brought to a halt by the peremptory and startling challenge of a sentinel in the road. It was too dark to see what was going on, but I presently heard the order given to load with ball-cartridge, followed by the ringing of ramrods and clicking of musket-locks. The leading company then fixed bayonets, and forming across the turnpike, swept forward at a double quick. The challenges had retired and the column resumed its march. At the toll-gate near Allstadt’s they were again challenged and halted, with the same result.

Here I overtook an acquaintance who was following the column in a buggy, and feeling fatigued from my walk accepted the vacant seat beside him. He professed himself greatly distressed at the proceedings and said he had done all in his power to stop them, but without avail. I told him I had “said my say,” and did not intend to meddle further with the business, yet, from present appearances, it was possible there would be a fight. I suggested that during the tremor which immediately precedes decisive action men are sometimes more willing to accept reasonable counsel, and conjured him to use his influence (which I knew was great) to stop the movement,

He said it was useless to attempt further interference, as every thing had been ordered and determined by high authority. He was doubtless better informed than I, at that time, of the power and deep design which directed the movement.

The troops were now marching up the southern slope of the hill, since called Bolivar Heights, the crest of which was covered with pinewoods and dense thickets of undergrowth, and furnished a favorable position from which to resist their advance. From certain unmistakable symptoms I concluded that very little force would have been required to drive back the raw soldiers and morally irresolute men who composed the advancing column. I expected momentarily to hear the opening volley from the summit, and advised my companion to drive his wagon aside from the line of fire. To my surprise the march was unmolested, and they moved on to the cemetery at the forks of the roads above the village of Bolivar. Here another challenge halted them for the third time.

Meanwhile emissaries from the town had brought information that the Armory employees and citizen volunteers had joined the United States troops, and would assist in defending the place. Taking advantage of this unreliable report I again urged my companion to attempt some interference which might avert the impending calamity. The defenders would now have the advantage in numbers as well as in the superior skill and hardihood of the men. An attempt to seize the national property must surely result in bloodshed and disaster, filling our whole district with mourning, and entailing upon those engaged the double dishonor of unsuccessful treason. While we were talking a group of the leaders came riding to the rear, engaged in high discussion. I heard Colonel Allen say in a peremptory tone, that his men should not move another step.

It appeared that instead of three thousand men expected by Ashby only three hundred and forty had been assembled, including the cavalry and some artilleries with an old iron six-pounder from Charlestown. At Halltown the paucity of numbers was overlooked in the eagerness to seize the virgin honors of the enterprise. Now when within musket-shot, more prudent counsels were entertained. A little less glory and a few more men would answer the purpose quite as well. It was not a fight they were seeking, but the possession of Harper’s Ferry, with its supplies of arms and valuable machinery. If this purpose could be better accomplished without bloodshed, why not wait for reinforcements now on their way? Colonel Harman, of Augusta, who had arrived since dark, reported them to be hastening forward from all points up the Valley. Mr. Seddon said, as he was not a man of war, he could not advise in the premises. But as Allen’s command comprised nearly the whole force present his decision was generally acquiesced in.

Ashby alone seemed impatient with the order to wait.

Harper’s Weekly

While the officers were thus discoursing, and looking toward the town there was a sudden flash that illuminated for miles around the romantic gorge where the rivers meet. Then followed a dull report, reverberating from mountain to mountain until it died away in a sullen roar.

The flashes and detonations were several times repeated; then a steadier flame was seen rising from two distinct points silently and rapidly increasing in volume until each rock and tree on the Loudoun and Maryland Heights were distinctly visible and the now over-clouded sky was ruddy with the sinister glare. This occurred I think between nine and ten o’clock. Some thought they heard artillery. But the more skillful presently guessed the truth and concluded that the officer in command had set fire to the arsenals and abandoned the town.

Ashby immediately dashed down the hill at the head of his cavalry to reconnoitre and ascertain the facts. The idea that there was to be no fight seemed to afford very general relief. My sympathy with this feeling was mingled with a deep sense of humiliation, in knowing that my Government had yielded so rich a prize to the revolution upon so feeble a demonstration.

Quietly withdrawing from the circle of acquaintances with whom I was conversing, I walked down to the town alone, by the Bolivar Road.

The Old Arsenal buildings on Shenandoah Street and several of the shops in the Armory inclosure on Potomac Street were in full blaze. The road was alive with men, women and children hurrying to and fro, laden with spoils from the workshops and soldiers’ barracks. There were women with their arms full of muskets, little girls loaded with sheaves of bayonets, boys dragging cartridge boxes ad cross belts enough to equip a platoon, men with barrels of pork or flour, kegs or molasses and boxes of hard bread on their shoulders or trundling in their wheel barrows.

Taking advantage of the first opportunity that had offered during their lives perhaps these people seem to have entered upon the work of sacking and plundering as promptly and skillfully as veteran soldiers could have done, where from I conclude this propensity is inherent in the human character, and only awaits opportunity for development.

The ground around the burning buildings was glittering with splinters of glass which had been blown out by the explosion of gunpowder used to ignite the fires. The streets in the vicinity were silent and vacant, the train of plunderers from the shops avoiding the route. I took my seat upon a barrel and commenced sketching the scene by fire-light, when a man called to me from a distance, advising me to leave, as the whole place was mined and would presently be blown up. I thanked him, but concluded to take my chances. As I thought all the powder had already burned.

This impression accounted for the loneliness of the neighborhood when I arrived. As I kept my position in apparent security the dread of a general explosion gradually disappeared and the reassured inhabitants began to swarm around the fires. Some of the workmen got out the engines and succeeded in extinguishing the flames at the stock factory.

The people were for the most part tongue-tied with terror. Overwhelmed with ruin, they either did not know who was responsible, or were afraid to speak their thoughts. Occasionally a woman would use the privilege of her sex and open her mind pretty freely, abusing Yankees and Southerners alternately, and consigning both parties to the bottom of the river.

When at length it seemed definitely to be ascertained that there were no mines to be exploded a noisier and more demonstrative company of actors appeared on the stage. These were the chronic loafers who used to crowd the bar-rooms discussing local politics and strong drinks, who were regular attendants on the platform on the arrival of the passenger trains, and prominent men about elections. These fellows were armed to the teeth, and ran hither and thither in high excitement, threatening blood and thunder against whomsoever it might concern. Reeking with dirt and whisky this worthy paraded the streets armed like a war mandarin of the Celestial Empire, carrying a rifle with sabre bayonet on either shoulder, and girt about with a belt containing several additional bayonets of the old pattern.

For some time, I was in doubt as to which side of the question these fellows had espoused, but at length the tendency of their sympathies was developed by a furious discussion as to whether they should pursue Lieutenant Jones, who was said to be retreating with his men toward Hagerstown, or whether they should go down to Washington forthwith and “jerk old Abe Lincoln out of the White House.” The majority in council having determined on sacrificing the Lieutenant, they started for the Potomac bridge with frightful yells and many formidable gesticulations.

A by-stander happening to suggest that the bridge might possibly be mined, they considered the question and concluded that Jones was not a bad fellow after all, and had only obeyed the orders of his rascally Government. Whereupon they retired, in search of more ammunition perhaps.

As the night advanced, the streets became more crowded with people from the town and neighborhood, but up to the hour of midnight no troops except Ashby’s squad of horse had made their appearance. By one o’clock the fires had sunk in ashes, I sought a bed at the house of an acquaintance.

As I ascended the hill I met Colonel Allen’s regiment coming down. From over-exertion and excitement I did not sleep soundly, and was frequently disturbed during the night by the sound of drums and the tramp of passing squadrons.

April 19 –

On going down into the town this morning I found that there had been considerable accessions to the State forces, seven or eight hundred having arrived during the night and morning, while as many more were reported on the way.

Confusion reigned supreme, ably seconded by whisky. The newly-arrived troops having nothing to eat, consoled themselves as usual by getting something to drink. Parties were detailed to search the houses for the arms and the public property which had been carried off the evening before. This search was stoutly resisted by the women, who skirmished after their fashion with the guard, with tongue and broomstick, holding them at bay, while their husbands endeavored to conceal the spoils they had acquired.

A rough estimate of the night’s work showed that about sixteen thousand muskets had perished by the burning of the arsenals and that one building (the carpenter shop) of the Potomac Armory had also been destroyed. On the other hand, several thousand new rifles and muskets complete, with all the costly material and machinery of the National Armory, had passed into the power of the revolution without a blow.

Such were the visible and material results, but the social and political consequences who could estimate?

I must confess that I felt this morning like a man wandering in a maze. The future exhibited but a dim and changing vista. Was the experiment of popular government indeed a failure, as our conservatives had been predicting from the commencement?

Was Macaulay right when he said that our system would crumble into anarchy upon the first trial? If the present Government of the United States, as many maintain, and as its own attitude of late seems to admit, has neither the right to punish privy conspiracy, nor the power to defend itself against factious aggression, then why should we regret it’s overthrow? Let the important imposture perish, and he American people will speedily establish a more respectable and manly system on its ruins.

While indulging in these speculations my attention was directed to the flag-staff which stood in the yard of the Old Arsenal. The national standard had been lowered, and in its place floated the State flag of Virginia.

It would be difficult to describe the mingled emotions excited in my mind by this simple incident.

Once in my early youth I visited the crater of Vesuvius and, venturing down the interior slope for some distance, I found myself upon a projecting cliff of lava. Here I stood for a time looking curiously down upon the sea of smoke that concealed every thing around and beneath, when a sudden breeze rolled the clouds away and for a moment my eyes beheld the hideous gulf that yawned below. A pit whose sulphurous horrors and immeasurable depth were revealed only by the glare of lurid flames and boiling lava – whose appalling aspect paralyzed the senses like the grasp of a nightmare. A sight which memory never recalls without the shudder that accompanied its first revelation.

So it seemed that the sudden gust of emotion, excited by the lowering of our starry flag, had swept away the mists of speculation and revealed in it’s depth and breadth the abyss of degradation opened by secession.

Yesterday I was a citizen of the great American republic. My country spanned a continent. Her northern border neared the frigid zone while her southern limit touched the tropics. Her eastern and western shores were washed by the two great oceans of the globe. Her commerce covering the most remote seas, her flag honored in every land. The strongest nation acknowledged her power. The great experiment which the pure and wise of all nations are watching with trembling solicitude and imperishable hope. It was something to belong to such a nationality . . .

Today, what am I? A citizen of Virginia. Virginia, a petty commonwealth with scarcely a million white inhabitants. What could she ever hope to be but a worthless fragment of the broken vase? A fallen splintered column of the once glorious temple.

Harper’s Ferry Resident Joseph Barry’s Account of Harper’s Ferry April 18-19, 1861

While in Richmond, however, attending the convention, Mr. Barbour is said to have been drawn into the vortex of rebellion through the powerful influences brought to bear by the secessionists on the members of that body. Mr. Barbour’s family is one of the oldest and most aristocratic in Virginia, and many of his relatives had seats in the convention and were ultra-southern in their views. These, no doubt, had great influence over him, and, anyway he was finally induced to vote for a separation of his native state from the union.

Indeed, many at Harper’s Ferry who voted for him at the election, did so with strong misgivings respecting his sincerity, but, as there was no better choice under the circumstances, they gave him their support. Some who enjoyed his confidence said that he afterward bitterly regretted his course, and the writer is convinced that Mr. Barbour acted from sheer compulsion. The author of these pages was then a young man — poor and without weight in the community, but Mr. Barbour appeared to have some confidence in his judgment, for he sought an interview with him and asked him his advice as to the proper course to pursue in the convention. The author told him that he had a fine chance to immortalize himself by holding out for the Union of the States; that he was of a prominent southern family and that, if he proved faithful, his loyalty under the circumstances would give him such a national reputation as he could not hope for from the opposite course. They parted to meet but once again, and that for only a minute. After the fatal vote of the convention, Mr. Barbour called on business at the place where the author was employed and said just three words to him — “You were right.”

These words told the tale of compulsion or, perhaps, of contrition. The ordinance of secession was passed by the Virginia convention on the 17th of April, 1861. and, on the following day Mr. Barbour made his appearance at Harper’s Ferry in company with Mr. Seddon, afterward prominent in the confederate government.

He made a speech to his old employees advising them to co-operate with their native state and give in their allegiance to the new order of things. He appeared to be laboring under great excitement caused, perhaps, by his consciousness of having done wrong and unwisely. This speech excited the anger of the unionists to a high pitch, as he had received their suffrages on the understanding that he was for the old government unconditionally.

A partial riot took place and the appearance soon after of a southern soldier, a young man named John Burk, on guard over the telegraph office, aroused the loyalists to frenzy. Lieutenant Roger Jones, with forty-two regular United States soldiers, was then stationed at Harper’s Ferry, a company of military having been kept there by the government for the protection of the place since the Brown raid. Hearing that a large force was marching from the south to take possession of the armory, he made some preparations to defend the post and called on the citizens for volunteers.

Many responded, prominent among whom was a gigantic Irishman named Jeremiah Donovan, who immediately shouldered a musket and stood guard at the armory gate. This man was the first — at least in that region — who took up arms in defense of the government and, as will be seen shortly, he was very near paying a heavy penalty for his patriotism. As before mentioned, a southern soldier was on guard at the telegraph office and he and Donovan were not fifty yards apart at their posts. To use a homely phrase, Harper’s Ferry was “between hawk and buzzard,” a condition in which it remained ’till the war was ended four years afterward. All day the wildest excitement prevailed in the town. All business was suspended except in the barrooms, and many fist fights came off between the adherents of the adverse factions. Mr. William F. Wilson, an Englishman by birth, but long a resident of the place, attempted to address the people in favor of the Union, but he was hustled about so that his words could not be heard distinctly. Mr. Wilson continued all through the war to be an ardent supporter of the Federal government.

The Koonce Family

Mr. George Koonce. a man of great activity and personal courage, and Mr. Wilson, above mentioned, who is also a man of great nerve, were very prompt in volunteering their aid to Lieutenant Jones, and the latter put great confidence in them.

With a few young men they advanced a little before midnight to meet the Virginia militia, about two thousand in number, who were marching towards Harper’s Ferry from Charlestown. They encountered and, it is said, actually halted them on Smallwood’s Ridge, near Bolivar. At this moment, however, news reached them that Lieutenant Jones, acting on orders from Washington City or under directions from Captain Kingsbury, who had been sent from the capital the day before to take charge of the armory, had set fire to the government buildings and, with his men, retreated towards the north.

This left the volunteers in a very awkward position, but they succeeded in escaping in the darkness from the host of enemies that confronted them. Mr. Koonce was obliged to leave the place immediately and remain away until the town again fell into the hands of the United States troops. A loud explosion and a thick column of fire and smoke arising in the direction of Harper’s Ferry, gave to the confederate force information of the burning, and they proceeded at double quick to save the machinery in the shops and the arms in the arsenal for the use of the revolutionary government. Before they had time to reach Harper’s Ferry the citizens of that place had extinguished the fire in the shops and saved them and the machinery. The arsenal, however, was totally consumed with about fifteen thousand stand of arms there stored — a very serious loss to the confederates, who had made calculations to get possession of them. Lieutenant Jones had put powder in the latter building and hence the explosion which had given notice to the confederates and, hence, also, the impossibility of saving the arsenal or its contents.

Just at 12 o’clock on the night of April 18th, 1861, the southern forces marched into Harper’s Ferry. Poor Donovan was seized and it is said that a rope was put ’round his neck by some citizens of the place who held secession views, and who threatened to hang him instanter. A better feeling, however, prevailed and Donovan was permitted to move north and seek employment under the government of his choice. The forces that first took possession of Harper’s Ferry were all of Virginia and this was lucky for Donovan, for the soldiers of that state were the most tolerant of the confederates, which is not giving them extravagant praise. Had he fallen into the hands of the men from the Gulf states who came on in a few days, he would not have escaped so easily. These latter were near lynching Dr. Joseph E. Cleggett and Mr. Solomon V. Yantis, citizens of the town, for their union opinions. The Virginia militia were commanded by Turner Ashby, afterward so famous for his exploits in the Valley of Virginia.

His career was short but glorious from a mere soldier’s view. He was killed near Port Republic June 6th, 1862, by a shot fired, it is said, by one of the Bucktail — Pennsylvania — regiment, and he and his equally gallant brother, Richard, who was killed in the summer of 1861 at Kelly’s Island, near Cumberland, Maryland, now sleep in one grave at Winchester, Virginia.

It may be noted that Donovan met with no valuable recognition of his gallantry. He worked all the rest of his days as a helper in a blacksmith’s shop at laborer’s wages, while many a smooth traitor who secretly favored the rebellion and many a weak-kneed patriot who was too cowardly to oppose it while there was any danger in doing so, prospered and grew fat on government patronage. There are many instances of this prudent patriotism not far from Harper’s Ferry and certain it is that few of the noisy politicians, so loyal now, exhibited the courage and disinterested attachment to our government that was shown by this obscure laborer.

Harper’s Ferry now ceased for a time to be in the possession of the national government. Next day — April 19th — news arrived of the disgraceful riot in Baltimore, when the 6th Massachusetts regiment was attacked while marching to the defense of the national capital. Exaggerated reports of the slaughter of “Yankee” soldiers were circulated and Maryland was truly represented as ready for revolt. Numbers of volunteers arrived from various parts of that state, especially from Baltimore, and many of those who participated in the riot came to Harper’s Ferry and for a season were lionized. In a few days the troops of Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky and other southern states arrived and were greeted with the utmost enthusiasm. The forces of Kentucky, like those of Maryland, were volunteers in the strictest sense. Neither of these last two states ever formally seceded and therefore their sons were not in any way compelled to join the confederate army. The Kentuckians who came to Harper’s Ferry were among the worst specimens of the force to which they were attached, being composed mostly of rough, Ohio boatsmen and low bummers from the purlieus of Louisville and and other river towns. Martial law was at once substituted for the civil and for the first time — if we except the Brown raid — the peaceful citizens experienced the dangers and inconveniences of military occupation. General Harper, a militia officer of Staunton, Virginia, was put in command, but in a few days the confederates wisely dispensed with “feather bed” and “corn stalk” officers and put into important commands West Pointers and men of regular military education. In consequence of an order to this effect many a “swell” who had strutted about for a few days in gorgeous uniform was shorn of his finery and it was amusing to see the crest-fallen, disappointed appearance of the deposed warriors. General Harper, like many of inferior grade, was removed and Colonel Jackson was put in command of the place. The latter officer was at this time quite obscure. He was known to few outside of the walls of the Virginia military academy at Lexington, but he afterwards gained a world-wide reputation under the name of “Stonewall Jackson.”

References:

Barry, Joseph. (1903). “The Strange Story of Harper’s Ferry: with legends of the surrounding country.” Martinsburg, WV.: Thompson Brothers. Print.

Barry, Joseph. (1903). “The Strange Story of Harper’s Ferry: with legends of the surrounding country.” Google Books. 19 July 2008. Web. 24 Dec. 2010.

“Turner Ashby.” Wikipedia English. Latest update 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 20 April 2011.

Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 33, Issue: 193, June, 1866. pp. 7-16. Print.

Strother, David H. (June, 1866). “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harpers Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 20 Oct. 2010.

“David Hunter Strother.” Wikipedia English. Latest update 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 20 April 2011.

Flickr Set:

“David Hunter Strother.” Photo. Library of Congress.

“Charlestown.” Drawing. (Detail from): Brown, S. Howell. (1852). “Map of Jefferson County, Virginia from actual survey with the farm limits.” United States. The Library of Congress: American Memory. Maps Collection. Print.

Brown, S. Howell. (1852). “Map of Jefferson County, Virginia from actual survey with the farm limits.” United States. The Library of Congress: American Memory. “Maps Collection.” 27 Oct. 2009 Web. 10 Sept. 2010.

“Alfred Barbour.” Photo. Harper’s Ferry National Historic Park Collection.

“Turner Ashby.” Photo. TurnerAshby184.com 8 Feb. 2009 Web. 20 June 2011.

“J. A. Seddon.” Photo. Spies and Conspiracy. The National Archives Begin date unavailable Web. 20 June 2011.

“Lawson Botts.” Photo. House Divided: The Civil War Research Engine at Dickinson College. 6 Oct. 2008 Web. 20 June 2011.

Lt. Roger Jones.” Drawing. Imboden, John D. (1888). “Jackson at Harpers Ferry in 1861.” Battles and Leaders. Vol. 1. Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co. pp. 111-125

Imboden, (later-Brigadier-General, C.S.A.) John D. (1888). “Jackson at Harpers Ferry in 1861.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010.

“James W. Allen.” Photo. VMI Online Archives. 11 March 2002 Web. 20 June 2011.

“Fire Explosions at Harpers Ferry.” Drawing. Strother, David H., Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 33, Issue: 193, June, 1866. pp. 7-16. Print.

Strother, David H. (June, 1866). “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” 7 May 2008. Web. 20 Oct. 2010.

“Fire, Looters at Harpers Ferry.” Drawing. Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 33, Issue: 193, June, 1866. pp. 7-16. Print.

Strother, David H. (June, 1866). “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harpers Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 20 Oct. 2010.

A Near ‘Coup d-Etat’ – John Imboden Recounts

3376 words

https://web.archive.org/web/20190710023257/https://civilwarscholars.com/2011/06/a-coup-detat-plan-at-the-exchange-hotel/

wikipedia.org Mathew Brady

This is an important, first-hand account of Harper’s Ferry events in mid-April, 1861 by (later Brigadier-General, C.S.A.) John D. Imboden. Imboden describes how he roused the Governor from bed to extract promises of support of military action, even before the Secession Convention has made its final vote to secede. He frankly describes encounters with opponents to his actions in his home County of Augusta and elsewhere. One senses what the Imboden group did was close to being an unauthorized seizure of power. The drama of the burning of the arsenal at Harper’s Ferry while Virginia militias are fast approaching is portrayed. He opines that the arsenal’s former superintendent, Alfred Barbour, disclosed their secret plan.

Following Imboden’s account is another memoir of what happened by
Thomas Gold, who came that night with militia from adjacent Clarke County and Berryville, Va. He later was in Co. I of the 2nd Virginia.-ED

JOHN IMBODEN’S FIRST-HAND STORY:

Battles & Leaders Vol. 1

The movement to capture Harper’s Ferry, Virginia, and the fire-arms manufactured and stored there was organized at the Exchange Hotel in Richmond on the night of April 16th, 1861.

Battles & Leaders Vol. 1

wikipedia.org

Ex-Governor Henry A. Wise was at the head of this purely impromptu affair. The Virginia Secession Convention, then sitting, was by a large majority “Union” in its sentiment till Sumter was fired on and captured, and Mr. Lincoln called for seventy-five thousand men to enforce the laws in certain Southern States. Virginia was then, as it were, forced to ‘take sides,’ and she did not hesitate.

I had been one of the candidates for a seat in that convention from Augusta county, but had been overwhelmingly defeated by the “Union” candidates, because I favored secession as the only “peace measure.” Virginia could then adopt, our aim being to put the State in an independent position to negotiate between the United States and the seceded Gulf and Cotton States for a new Union, to be formed on a compromise of the slavery question by a convention to be held for that purpose.

Late on April 15th I received a telegram from ‘Nat’ Tyler, the editor of the ‘Richmond Enquirer,’ summoning me to Richmond, where I arrived the next day. Before reaching the Exchange Hotel I met ex-Governor Wise on the street. He asked me to find as many officers of the armed and equipped volunteers of the inland towns and counties as I could, and request them to be at the hotel by 7 in the evening to confer about a military movement which he deemed important. Not many such officers were in town, but I found Captains Turner Ashby and Richard Ashby of Fauquier county, Oliver R. Funsten of Clarke county, all commanders of volunteer companies of cavalry; also Captain John A. Harman of Staunton my home and Alfred M. Barbour, the latter ex-civil superintendent of the Government works at Harper’s Ferry. These persons, with myself, promptly joined ex-Governor Wise, and a plan for the capture of Harper’s Ferry was at once discussed and settled upon. The movement, it was agreed, should commence the next day, the 17th, as soon as the convention voted to secede, provided we could get railway transportation and the concurrence of Governor Letcher. Colonel Edmund Fontaine, president of the Virginia Central railroad, and John S. Barbour, president of the Orange and Alexandria and Manassas Gap railroads, were sent for, and joined us at the hotel near midnight. They agreed to put the necessary trains in readiness next day to obey any request of Governor Letcher for the movement of troops.

A committee, of which I was chairman, waited on Governor Letcher after midnight, and, arousing him from his bed, laid the scheme before him. He stated that he would take no step till officially informed that the ordinance of secession was passed by the convention. He was then asked if contingent upon the event he would next day order the movement by telegraph. He consented.

We then informed him what companies would be under arms ready to move at a moment’s notice. All the persons I have named above are now dead, except John S. Barbour, ‘Nat’ Tyler, and myself. On returning to the hotel and reporting Governor Letcher’s promise, it was decided to telegraph the captains of companies along the railroads mentioned to be ready next day for orders from the governor. In that way I ordered the Staunton Artillery, which I commanded, to assemble at their armory by 4 PM on the 17th to receive orders from the governor to aid in the capture of the Portsmouth Navy Yard. This destination had been indicated in all our dispatches, to deceive the Government at Washington in case there should be a “leak” in the telegraph offices. Early in the evening a message had been received by ex-Governor Wise from his son-in-law Doctor Garnett of Washington, to the effect that a Massachusetts regiment, one thousand strong, had been ordered to Harper’s Ferry. Without this reinforcement we knew the guard there consisted of only forty-five men, who could be captured or driven away, perhaps without firing a shot, if we could reach the place secretly. The Ashbys, Funsten, Harman, and I remained up the entire night. The superintendent and commandant of the Virginia Armory at Richmond, Captain Charles Dimmock, a Northern man by birth and a West Point graduate, was in full sympathy with us, and that night filled our requisitions for ammunition and moved it to the railway station before sunrise. He also granted one hundred stand of arms for the Martinsburg Light Infantry, a new company just formed. All these I receipted for and saw placed on the train.

NPS.gov

Just before we moved out of the depot, Alfred Barbour made an unguarded remark in the car, which was overheard by a Northern traveler, who immediately wrote a message to President Lincoln and paid a negro a dollar to take it to the telegraph office. This act was discovered by one of our party, who induced a friend to follow the negro and take the dispatch from him. This perhaps prevented troops being sent to head us off. My telegram to the Staunton Artillery produced wild excitement, and spread rapidly through the county, and brought thousands of people to Staunton during the day. Augusta had been a strong Union county, and a doubt was raised by some whether I was acting under the orders of Governor Letcher. To satisfy them, my brother, George W. Imboden, sent a message to me at Gordonsville, inquiring under whose authority I had acted. On the arrival of the train at Gordonsville, Captain Harman received the message and replied to it in my name, that I was acting by order of the governor. Harman had been of the committee, the night before, that waited on Governor Letcher, and he assumed that by that hour noon the convention must have voted the State out of the Union, and that the governor had kept his promise to send orders by wire. Before we reached Staunton, Harman handed me the dispatch and told me what he had done. I was annoyed by his action till the train drew up at Staunton, where thousands of people were assembled, and my artillery company and the West Augusta Guards (the finest infantry company in the valley) were in line.

Major-General Kenton Harper, a native of Pennsylvania, “a born soldier” and Brigadier-General William H. Harman, both holding commissions in the Virginia militia, and both of whom had won their spurs in the regiment the State had sent to the Mexican war, met me as I alighted, with a telegram from Governor Letcher ordering them into service, and referring them to me for information as to our destination and troops.

Until I imparted to them confidentially what had occurred the night before, they thought, as did all the people assembled, that we were bound for the Portsmouth Navy Yard. For prudential reasons, we said nothing to dispel this illusion. The governor in his dispatch informed General Harper that he was to take chief command, and that full written instructions would reach him en route. He waited till after dark, and then set out for Winchester behind a good team. Brigadier- General Harman was ordered to take command of the trains and of all troops that might report en route.

About sunset we took train; our departure was an exciting and affecting scene. During the night, the Monticello Guards, Captain W. B. Mallory, and the Albemarle Rifles, under Captain R. T. W. Duke, came aboard. At Culpeper, a rifle company joined us, and just as the sun rose on the 18th we reached Manassas. The Ashbys and Funsten had gone on the day before to collect cavalry companies, and also the famous “Black Horse Cavalry,” a superb body of men and horses, under Captains John Scott and Welby Carter of Fauquier. By marching across the Blue Ridge, they were to rendezvous near Harper’s Ferry.

shenandoahatwar.org

Ashby had sent men on the night of the 17th to cut the wires between Manassas Junction and Alexandria, and to keep them cut for several days. Our advent at the Junction astounded the quiet people of the village. General Harman at once “impressed” the Manassas Gap train to take the lead, and switched two or three other trains to that line in order to proceed to Strasburg. I was put in command of the foremost train.

We had not gone five miles when I discovered that the engineer could not be trusted. He let his fire go down, and came to a dead standstill on a slight ascending grade. A cocked pistol induced him to fire up and go ahead. From there to Strasburg I rode in the engine-cab, and we made full forty miles an hour with the aid of good dry wood and a navy revolver. At Strasburg we left the cars, and before 10 o’clock the infantry companies took up the line of march for Winchester. I now had to procure horses for my guns.

The farmers were in their corn-fields, and some of them agreed to hire us horses as far as Winchester, eighteen miles, while others refused. The situation being urgent, we took the horses by force, under threats of being indicted by the next grand jury of the county. By noon we had a sufficient number of teams. We followed the infantry down the Valley Turnpike, reaching Winchester just at nightfall.

The people generally received us very coldly. The war spirit that bore them up through four years of trial and privation had not yet been aroused. General Harper was at Winchester, and had sent forward his infantry by rail to Charlestown, eight miles from Harper’s Ferry. In a short time a train returned for my battery. The farmers got their horses and went home rejoicing, and we set out for our destination.

The infantry moved out of Charlestown about midnight. We kept to our train as far as Halltown, only four miles from the ferry. There we set down our guns to be run forward by hand to Bolivar Heights, west of the town, from which we could shell the place if necessary.

A little before dawn of the next day, April 18th, a brilliant light arose from near the point of confluence of the Shenandoah and Potomac rivers. General Harper, who up to that moment had expected a conflict with the Massachusetts regiment supposed to be at Harper’s Ferry, was making his dispositions for an attack at daybreak, when this light convinced him that the enemy had fired the arsenal and fled. He marched in and took possession, but too late to extinguish the flames.

Nearly twenty thousand rifles and pistols were destroyed. The workshops had not been fired. The people of the town told us the catastrophe, for such it was to us, was owing to declarations made the day before by the ex-superintendent, Alfred Barbour. He reached Harper’s Ferry, via Washington, on the 17th about noon, and, collecting the mechanics in groups, informed them that the place would be captured within twenty-four hours by Virginia troops. He urged them to protect the property, and join the Southern cause, promising, if war ensued, that the place would be held by the South, and that they would be continued at work on high wages. His influence with the men was great, and most of them decided to accept his advice.

Battles & Leaders Vol. 1

But Lieutenant Roger Jones, who commanded the little guard of forty-five men, hearing what was going on, at once took measures to destroy the place if necessary.

Trains of gunpowder were laid through the buildings to be fired. In the shops the men of Southern sympathies managed to wet the powder in many places during the night, rendering it harmless. Jones’s troops, however, held the arsenal buildings and stores, and when their commander was advised of Harper’s rapid approach the gunpowder was fired, and he crossed into Maryland with his handful of men. So we secured only the machinery and the gun and pistol barrels and locks, which, however, were sent to Richmond and Columbia, South Carolina, and were worked over into excellent arms.

Library of Congress

Remembered by Thomas D. Gold:
Gold, Thomas D. (1914). “History of Clarke County, Virginia.” Berryville, VA: C. R. Hughes Publishers. Print.

Gold, Thomas D. (1914). “History of Clarke County, Virginia.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 28 Dec. 2010.

What was feared suddenly happened. Mr. Lincoln ordered out 75,000 troops and called on Virginia for her quota. Immediately the sentiment of all changed, and the convention determined to cast the fortunes of the old Commonwealth with her sister Southern states. Upon this being determined, orders were issued for the volunteer companies of the State to meet and prepare for the struggle.

On the morning of the 17th of April, 1861, Captain Bowen received orders to march with his company to Harper’s Ferry to aid in its capture. At Harper’s Ferry were the U. S. Armory and Arsenal, where were stored large quantities of arms and ammunition, very important for us to have. Messengers were sent hurrying through the county, ordering the members of the company to report in uniform and with arms at Berryville by 12 m. of that day, but with singular want of foresight no orders for rations were issued even for the one day. The men gathered promptly, and by 1 o’clock were ready for the march. There were hasty goodbyes, many tears by anxious mothers and wives over sons and husbands departing for no one could guess what fate. But among the men, especially the young and thoughtless, all was joy and hilarity. No idea of the terrible events which were so soon to follow. No idea of the long years of toil and danger entered into their minds. We would soon settle matters and be at home again. We were carried in four-horse wagons furnished by the farmers of the neighborhood, and from the top of what is now Cemetery Hill, we took our departure. On reaching Charlestown we found that the 2nd Regiment, under Col. J. W. Allen, composed of the companies from Jefferson County, had marched to Halltown, four miles from Harper’s Ferry. We pushed on, arriving there about sundown, as did also the Nelson Rifles, a company from Millwood under command of Capt. W. N. Nelson. After a supper of crackers and cheese and very fat middling, we started on the march.

About two miles from the Ferry we were halted, and for the first time heard the command, afterward to be so familiar, ‘load at will.’ That sounded like business. Intense excitement ensued. Some in their hurry loaded with the ball end of the cartridge foremost, others tore off the powder and left only the ball, all of which gave trouble later. One fellow became deadly sick and had to retire.

Fortunately just then a young man of the county who had followed, came up and there in the road they exchanged clothing, the sick man going back home, never to be of any account again. Fear so possessed him that he never rallied, and eventually left the service. But our excitement and flurry amounted to nothing. We marched into the Ferry, meeting no one. The U. S. troops there, a company of infantry, after setting fire to the armory, had crossed the bridge and marched to Chambersburg. We arrived on the scene in time to see the burning buildings and no more. We had quarters in the Catholic Church, and during the night arrested a number of citizens, attempting to secure guns stolen from the armory. On the next day we entered upon the real life of a soldier, never to be relaxed until that fateful day at Appomattox when, our toils, labors and sacrifices over, we laid down the arms so sanguinely taken up. Officers and men soon found that they had all to learn as to war and its affairs. No one knew how to make a cake of bread or cook a piece of meat, and only one man in the company could make a cup of coffee. I well remember with what curiosity we gathered around Bob Whittington to see him make coffee. At first for a few days we were in a Battallion of the two companies from Clarke under command of Capt. Wm. N. Nelson of Millwood, but soon we were placed in Colonel Allen’s regiment, which for a while was called the 1st Virginia.

The old 1st Virginia was formed from Richmond companies and claimed the right to retain their number, which the government conceded to them, although we were the first to organize in the field. We never envied them their name or reputation, as we felt that we were as well drilled, although not as well uniformed, and that we did as good service and we are sure that the 2nd Virginia earned by hard service and gallant fighting as good a name as they.

Useful Local Links:

“Did Virginia Commit Treason?” – Dennis Frye

The Red Dawn of Sedition – David Hunter Strother

References:

Gold, Thomas D. (1914). “History of Clarke County, Virginia.” Berryville, VA: C. R. Hughes Publishers. Print.

Gold, Thomas D. (1914). “Jackson at Harpers Ferry in 1861.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010.

First Operations in Virginia by Gen. John D. Imboden in
Johnson, Robert Underwood; Buel, Clarence Clough (1887-1888). “Battles and leaders of the civil war.” Vol. 1 New York, NY: Century Company. pp. 111-126 – archive.org


Portrait of Brig. Gen. John D. Imboden, officer of the Confederate Army. – Brady National Photographic Art Gallery – wikipedia.org