A People’s History of Jefferson County, WV (Part 1 to 1784) by Jim Surkamp

by Jim Surkamp on December 17, 2018 in American RevolutionCivilianIce AgeJefferson CountyNative AmericansPre-HistoryWartime

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“A People’s History of Jefferson County (WV) Part 1. Click Here. TRT: 33:29.

Welcome to the history of arguably the most historic rural county in America.

A People’s History of Jefferson County by Jim Surkamp (Introduction – Part 1 pre-history to 1784) copyright, 2018.

– wvgs.wvnet.edu 12 October 1997 Web. 10 December 2018.




– Life Magazine, Sept. 7, 1953, p. 60

600 million years ago — Jefferson County is within a shallow sun-drenched sea full of back-stroking craw-daddy like creatures — whose skeletal fragments accumulate on the sea

– Karst Topography – – Software used: Photoshop, Cinema 4D, Vue Infinite by Bill Melvin
canvas.pantone.com 15 October 2012 Web. 10 December 2018.

floor and become a layer of limestone .

– Pangea.jpg pl.benio123o-pl.wikia.com 5 November 2015 Web 10 December 2018.

Tectonic plate that we call Africa crashed into this continent pushing under our plate thrusting up under that sea.


– Satellite North & South America and Africa. google.com/maps 13 October 2001 Web.10 December 2018.

– Appalachian Mountains – NPS.

– Scene of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad and the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia by George Harvey – circa 1837. the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 10 December 2018.

The tall craggy rock faces in Harpers Ferry show the violence of these crushing mountain-forming forces over millions of years . . . The Appalachians Mountain Ridges are born.

– Sky truth of Shenandoah Valley
skytruthmtr.appspot.com 13 April 2017 Web. 10 December 2018.

Our home is within this fertile upland valley between the first and second wrinkles of our backed into continental fender.

– imnh.iri.isu.edu 18 April 2018 Web. 10 December 2018.

Come the Ice Age 25 to 12K years back, a mile high glacial mass, stopping in mid-Pennsylvania,

– Ice Sheet thick nationalgeographic.org 29 February 2000 Web. 10 December 2018.

americanmeadows.com 10 October 1999 Web. 10 December 2018.

that as it recedes leaves floodwaters making today’s Potomac & Shenandoah and a rich legacy of refugee wildlife birds, edible vegetation from the deep-frozen northlands.


– Jim Surkamp and Painting of Cornstalk, after a Smithsonian engraving by McKinney and Hall wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web 10 December 2018. Hal Sherman.

4a.1Map Moulthrop, Samuel P. (1901). “Iroquois.” Illustrated and arranged by Sadie Pierpont Barnard. Rochester, N.Y., E. Hart map – frontispiece – catalog.hathitrust.org 6 December 2009 Web. 18 October 2018.

– Long, E. F. , Canfield, William Walker. (1904). “The legends of the Iroquois / told by the Cornplanter.” New York : A. Wessels Co. catalog.hathitrust.org 6 December 2009 Web. 18 October 2018. frontispiece – Cornplanter. catalog.hathitrust.org 6 December 2009 Web. 18 October 2018. F. Bartoliwikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web 10 December 2018.

Iroquois tribes evolved trading paths moving south and trading with tribes to the south of the glacier.

– google.com/maps 13 October 2001 Web. 10 December 2018.

This stretch of the Potomack from Harpers Ferry to Cumberland, Maryland – was the trading

– Jim Surkamp

route and was marked by the migration path of Canadian geese – Cohongaroota (the Potomack sub-name for this section) – means “where the wild geese fly.”

– kansasdelaware.org/Tribute 24 July 2011 Web. 10 December 2018.

– video of Betty’s by Jim Surkamp.

Tom Hahn, retired Navy Captain, the president for 25 years of the American Canal Association who also wrote 30 volumes on the C&O Canal for the National Park Service, and a bona fide Delaware Indian Medicine man, Well, Tom and I were having coffee in Betty’s in Shepherdstown. “Tom, I said, “I left my brief case somewhere and can’t remember where I left it. His blue eyes became still then he said: “It’s on a hook in the corner of a large room.” Didn’t take the comment seriously until

– Jim Surkamp

– Shepherdstown Presbyterian Church social hall – Jim Surkamp

a few days later I chanced upon it spying the briefcase a hook on a coat rack in a corner of the Presbyterian church’s social hall.

– Trading path – google.com/maps 13 October 2001 Web. 10 December 2018.

– Warrior of the Secotan Indians in North Carolina by John White (created 1585-1586). Licensed by the Trustees of the British Museum. ©Copyright the British Museum. commons.wikimedia.org 5 June 2004 Web. 10 December 2018.

According to Tom, the north-south warrior trading path came thru here from New York to the Carolinas. Susquehannocks and Catawba used it. The Delaware were to the east and the Shawnee were to the west.

– Chuck Hulse Shepherd archeologist – Jim Surkamp.

Chuck Hulse explained to me that by 1000 AD, the very fertile soil in our County, specifically with that limestone ingredient and among the best lands in both WV and VA – transformed hunter gatherers

– Watercolor drawing “Village of the Secotan in North Carolina” wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web 10 December 2018.

– “Indian Village of Pomeiooc” by John White (created 1585-1586). Licensed by the Trustees of the British Museum. ©Copyright the British Museum. resobscura.blogspot.com 16 January 2011 Web. 10 December 2018.

into populous palisaded villages situated along the Potomac every mile or so, with corn fields outside the enclosure. But a prolonged, sharp drop in temperatures for several generations forced out-migrations.

– 1916 topo map detail wvgeohistory.org 5 October 2010 Web. 10 December 2018.

-Jim Surkamp video

The tribes struggled to survive, meeting to feast for up to a year at a time with other dwindling tribes to inter-marry and share. They met at a place where there has always been a continuous year round water fall coming out of a hillside.

– Thompson’s house and waterfall – Jim Surkamp

The Thompsons – the now deceased owners for over some 30 years of that place, would be visited unannounced some nine times, once while the Thompsons were having a wedding – people coming from Oklahoma, Long island, Ohio. Each time, it was the same. The visitor would get tears in their eyes and say: “It is just as our ancestors and songs said it would be”.

– Ship – hathitrust.org 19 September 2008 Web. 10 December 2019. Howard Pyle’s book of the American spirit. p. 117.

In the first years of the 1700s – appeared people from Europe

– Hamburg 1680 by Elias Gallis Konvoischiffe auf der Elbe; Date: circa 1680; Collection: Hamburg Museum wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web 10 December 2018.

The German Lutherans with their pastor seeking a freedom to worship their faith after being harassed by a French Catholic king;

– Map Emigration from Ulster scotsman.com 31 January 1998 Web. 10 December 2018.

– The Last of the Clan Thomas Faed RA HRSA – 1865 the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web 10 December 2018.

British Isle backcountry sheep-herders and hunters seeking to own their own lands without harassment from intruding British nobleman.

– Young George Washington as a surveyor on the American frontier. Steel engraving, 19th century, after Felix O.C. Darley. pinterest.com 2 February 2010 Web. 10 December 2018.


– Horatio Gates- 1782 commons.wikimedia.org 5 June 2004 Web. 10 December 2018.

– African Americans 1780s. Attributed to John Rose. The Old Plantation (Slaves Dancing on a South Carolina Plantation), ca. 1785-1795. watercolor on paper, attributed to John Rose, Beaufort County, South Carolina. Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Museum, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA. wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web 10 December 2018.

Nations, it is said, are formed by massive forgettings and massive rememberings. But the fourth group wanted to remember because they were torn from their already discovered Promised land in Africa.The four groups were pretty equal in their numbers, too.

– Map 1707 – loc.gov16 June 1997 Web. 10 December 2018.

Swiss explorer Francis Louis Michelle in 1707 reported he found in today’s Jefferson County
“Report of the Journey of Francis Louis Michell October 2, 1701-December 1, 1702.” The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography Vol XXIV July, 1916. archive.org 26 January 1997 Web. 10 December 2018. pp. 275-303.

– corn – Jim Surkamp justjefferson.com poster 21 March 2004 Web. 10 December 2018.

corn up to fifteen feet high, turkeys up to forty pounds, bullfrogs up to a foot long.

– North American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) 1 August 2004 Source Carl D. Howe, Stow, MA USA wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web 10 December 2018.

Deer and bear approached innocent of gunfire.

– Peaceable Kingdom by Edward Hicks – 1832-1834 the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web 10 December 2018.

– Love In Fontainebleau Woods (Fontainebleau Forest) by John Washington 1873. collection.imamuseum.org 21 December 2003 Web. 10 December 2018. Courtesy of the Indianapolis Museum of Art

The new arrivals found ancient forests that blocked out sunlight, struggled through fields full of waist-high pea vines.

– Montage A May Morning View of the Farm and Stock of David Leedon; Edward Hicks – 1849 the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web 10 December 2018.

– Grain cradle Ernst Henseler – Sensenmuseum: adh-mueschede.de – ernte01.jpg „Ernteabend“, Holzschnitt nach einem Gemälde von Ernst Henseler, 28 x 19 cm, Verlag von Franz Hanfstängl, München. – Abgebildet ist u.a. ein Schnitter mit Reff-Sense. wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web 10 December 2018.

– African Americans 1780s. Attributed to John Rose. The Old Plantation (Slaves Dancing on a South Carolina Plantation), ca. 1785-1795. watercolor on paper, attributed to John Rose, Beaufort County, South Carolina. Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Museum, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA. wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web 10 December 2018.

– George Washington, depicted as a 19-year-old surveyor. His sloping, pulled-back shoulders are the effects of wearing a corset as a young boy, a fashionable practice of the time. Mount Vernon Ladies Association. mountvernon.org 11 November 1996 Web. 10 December 2018.

-The-Last-of-the-Clan-Thomas-Faed-detaii.png the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web 10 December 2018.

What was taking shape in Jefferson Berkeley, Frederick County Va. and Clarke County, Va. – was a Cradle of American Values. The first four main ethnic groups of early America were here working and living together on the frontier writing from scratch a new game plan. Make no mistake. It was real. They acted free in every way. I call it All American Ornery – for three of the groups.

– Jubilee singers image Golden Voices of Gospel presents a Tribute to the 19th Century Jubilee Singers – A Celebration of early Negro Spirituals youtube.com 28 April 2005 Web. 10 December 2018.

But African Americans had to survive relying on singing that said everything and a new found deep Baptist faith in their depths.

– Shenandoah River crossing – Jim Surkamp

– George Washington, depicted as a 19-year-old surveyor. His sloping, pulled-back shoulders are the effects of wearing a corset as a young boy, a fashionable practice of the time. Mount Vernon Ladies Association. mountvernon.org 11 November 1996 Web. 10 December 2018. Also npr.org 10 December 1997 Web. 10 December 2018.

– Google maps – Ann Lewis Road google.com/maps 13 October 2001 Web. 10 December 2018.

– horseman in rain – Strother, David H. (August, 1867). “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harpers Magazine. catalog.hathitrust.org 6 December 2009 Web. 18 October 2018. p. 288.

– 1916 Topo Map Jefferson county wvgeohistory.org 5 October 2010 Web. 10 December 2018.

– Google maps – To Cave from Ann Lewis Road google.com/maps 13 October 2001 Web. 10 December 2018.

– Two men at cave – Buckles, Frank (1976). “George Washington Masonic Cave.” Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society. Volume XLII. Charles town, Wv. pp. 24-28

– Davies, William E. (July, 1955). “Caverns of West Virginia.” Geological and Economic Survey Volume XIX (A.) p. 150 (map)

– Davies, William E. (July, 195). “Caverns of West Virginia.” Geological and Economic Survey Volume XIX (A.) p. 151 (photo of signature)

George had just crossed the Shenandoah at what is today’s Ann Lewis Road. March 13th, 14th and 14th were plagued by rains. As Washington and his team surveyed lands of William Fairfax in the area of Long Marsh, it began raining hard. they sought shelter. In July, 1958 geologist William Davies, in researching a technical volume for the state on caverns of the West Virginia entered a cave about five miles northwest of the Long Marsh area. He mapped it out as a complex cave that had been used for ceremonies, according to Freemason tradition and was called George Washington’s masonic cave. On one wall Davies photographed a still legible inscription that said G. Washington 1748, The Washingtons had arrived.

Source: “A Journal of my Journey over the Mountains began Fryday the 11th. of March 1747/8,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/01-01-02-0001-0002. [Original source: The Diaries of George Washington, vol. 1, 11 March 1748?–?13 November 1765, ed. Donald Jackson. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1976, pp. 6–16.] & Jason William’s website George Washington Cave. start date 2018.


– Background – Mount Vernon Source Cropped by User:Richerman from original image by David Samuel, User:Hellodavey1902 at wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 10 December 2018.(Attribution of this image to the creator (David Samuel) is required in a clear location near to the image).

– Montage: Washington Siblings (l-r): Lawrence Washington – (Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association) It is possible the portrait was painted by Gustavus Hesselius, an itinerant painter working out of Annapolis, Maryland mountvernon.org 11 November 1996 Web. 1 October 2016.

– Montage: Washington Siblings (l-r): Young George Washington – Charles Willson Peale (1741–1827); Title: Portrait of George Washington Description: The earliest authenticated portrait of George Washington shows him wearing his colonel’s uniform of the Virginia Regiment from the French and Indian War. The portrait was painted about 12 years after Washington’s service in that war, and several years before he would reenter military service in the American Revolution. Oil on canvas. Date: 1772; Current location: Washington and Lee University
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 1 October 2016.

– Montage: Washington Siblings (l-r): John Augustine & Hannah Bushrod Washington – Wayland, John W. (1944). “The Washingtons and their Homes.” McClure Printing Company: Staunton, VA. babel.hathitrust.org 26 August 2015 Web. 20 September 2016. p. 112.

– Montage: Washington Siblings (l-r): Charles Washington Wayland, John W. (1944). “The Washingtons and their Homes.” McClure Printing Company: Staunton, VA. babel.hathitrust.org 26 August 2015 Web. 20 September 2016. p. 154.

– Montage: Washington Siblings (l-r): Samuel Washington (from painting at Harewood, Charles Town, WV) findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. 1 October 2016.

– Montage: Washington Siblings (l-r):Portrait of Betty Lewis, c. 1755-1757 Artist: Attributed to John Wollaston Origin: Fredericksburg, Virginia Image courtesy of the Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association kenmore.org 8 November 1996 Web. 1 October 2016.

After young George Washington surveyed the area in 1748 – the family – five of his siblings – two half brothers and three full brothers – bought about 10,000 acres of the best lands across the southern third of the county.



– Land Grants – Galtjo Geertsema and wvgeohistory.org 5 October 2010 Web. 10 December 2018. www.wvculture.org 2 March 2000 Web. 10 December 2018. TITLE: Map number 98-31 grants, Glengary quadrangle Berkeley and Morgan Co., W. Va., Frederick County, Virginia. AUTHOR: Geertsema, Galtjo. PUBLICATION: [s. l.], Geertsema, Galtjo, 1969. NOTES: Geographical land grant index. Cadastral index map. CALL NUMBER: Ma153-7 (A and B)

– Harewood by Diana Suttenfield – Jefferson County Museum, Charles town, WV.

– happyretreat.org 10 March 2007 Web. 10 December 2018.

Brothers Samuel built Harewood in 1770 and Charles came in 1780 founded Charles Town and built Happy Retreat.

John Augustine, George’s third full brother, never lived here but his descendants became the Mount Vernon line and the last three family members to own Mount Vernon had their personal home here – called Blakeley – from 1820 and through the Civil War.

– Mount Vernon from the Carriage Entrance, Edward Savage – 1791. Owner/Location: Private collection the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web 10 December 2018.

– google.com/maps 13 October 2001 Web. 10 December 2018; pinterest.com 2 February 2010 Web. 10 December 2018.


– Blakeley Property line (Galtjo Geertsema); image Blakeley – Wayland, John W. (1944). “The Washingtons and their Homes.” McClure Printing Company: Staunton, VA. babel.hathitrust.org 26 August 2015 Web. 20 September 2016. p. 226.

Initially George himself not expecting to soon own Mount Vernon bought land here and seemed to be weighing a life in Jefferson County. But the unexpected death in 1752 of his older half-brother Lawrence from tuberculosis – a family scourge to this day, then his daughter Sarah died in 1754. Then an arrangement between Lawrence’s re-married widow with George positioned him to own Mount Vernon in a few more years. in the 1840s and fifties, Mount Vernon’s longtime owner Jane Charlotte Blackburn Washington, the mother of American historic preservation, spurred the successful effort to save Mount Vernon for all of us to visit and enjoy today, an effort that was finalized by her son John Augustine Washington in 1858. Family members remember her fondly as “Grandma Jane.”

– gwmemorial.org 27 November 1999 Web. 10 December 2018.

– Mount Vernon 1853 (Mt. Vernon Ladies Association) mountvernon.org 11 November 1996 Web. 10 December 2018.

– tuberculosis bacteria healthcanal.com 4 April 2001 Web. 10 December 2018.

– : Jane Charlotte Washington and her Family – from “Mrs. J.A.W.” courtesy Augustine and Patty Washington by John Gadsby Chapman The George Washington Masonic National Memorial Assoc.) gwmemorial.org 27 November 1999 Web. 10 December 2018.

– Mount Vernon Visit.

– John A. Washington mountvernon.org 11 November 1996 Web. 10 December 2018.

– Jane Charlotte Blackburn Washington, Volume LXXIII December 2007 Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society, p. 29.


– John Augustine Washington from John Augustine & Hannah Bushrod Washington – Wayland, John W. (1944). “The Washingtons and their Homes.” McClure Printing Company: Staunton, VA. babel.hathitrust.org 26 August 2015 Web. 20 September 2016. p. 112wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 10 December 2018.

– TITLE “The Nation Makers”, Howard Pyle, 1903; George’s mystical bond with his ragged army. Some of the best had cabins and “people” here. brandywine.org 4 February 2014 Web. 10 December 2018.

– GW standing painting
Charles Willson Peale, American, (1741-1827) 1776 Commissioned by John Hancock The Brooklyn Museum, New York mountvernon.org 11 November 1996 Web 10 December 2018.

– William Trego – circa 1883 Colonial Hunting Shirt ‘Uniforms’ the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 20 December 2018.

As war neared Washington was tasked by the Continental Congress to find two hundred able bodied Virginians willing to go to Boston and fight.

SOURCE: Dandridge, Danske, (1910). “Historic Shepherdstown.” Charlottesville, Va.: Michie Co. catalog.hathitrust.org 6 December 2009 Web. 18 October 2018. – pp. 97 journal of the march begun July 17, 1775.

In three weeks he found them all in Shepherdstown and Winchester environs ready and hungry – with Liberty or Death stitched on the front of the blouses. They were famously good shots with their Kentucky long rifles.



– MAP Jefferson County Historic Landmarks Commission brochure on the Beeline march; North America from the French of Mr. d’Anville improved with the English surveys made since the peace. From Thomas Jefferys’ American atlas. 1776. No. 7. Contributor: Robert Sayer and John Bennett (Firm) – Anville, Jean Baptiste Bourguignon Date: 1775 loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 10 December 2018.
– Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 11, Issue: 63, (Aug., 1855). catalog.hathitrust.org 6 December 2009 Web. 18 October 2018. p. 300.

Along the way of their 600-mile 26-day march to meet George Washington in Cambridge, Massachusetts Shepherdstown’s not quite one hundred volunteers.

– fired musket civilwarscholars.com 9 June 2011 Web. 10 December 2018.

– rifleman americanrifleman.org 23 May 2002 Web. 10 December 2018.

accepted invitations to demonstrate their skills and several published reports recorded they could hit a target 200 yards away with regularity,

– John Hancock wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 10 December 2018.

why John Hancock declared them the best riflemen in the world.

– The Virginia Colonel, by Charles Volkmar, 1874, after Charles Willson Peale (Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association) mountvernon.org 11 November 1996 Web 10 December 2018.

Washington was waiting for them in Cambridge. Will my buddies come? Will my buddies from Fort Duquesne and all these years come? Why would they?


– “Don’t Tread On Me” Flag wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web 10 December 2018.

Boteler, Alexander R. (1860). “My ride to the barbecue; or, Revolutionary reminiscences of the Old Dominion. By an ex-member of Congress.” New York, S. A. Rollo.
catalog.hathitrust.org 6 December 2009 Web. 18 October 2018. p. 67. catalog.hathitrust.org 6 December 2009 Web. 18 October 2018. text pp. 63-70 catalog.hathitrust.org 6 December 2009 Web. 18 October 2018.

When he saw them on the edge of the parade field in Cambridge, so moved he galloped over, and instead of the perfunctory salute, he threw his reins to Billy Lee and commenced shaking each pair of hands with, not moisture on his face but manly tears – because they UNDERSTOOD. They – as Shakespeare and Washington recognized – Were the thing itself. And We now might have a country.

Why, thou wert better in thy grave than to answer with thy uncovered body this extremity of the skies. Is man no more than this? Consider him well. Thou owest the worm no silk, the beast no hide, the sheep no wool, the cat no perfume. Ha! Here’s three on ’s are sophisticated. Thou art the thing itself.
Unaccommodated man is no more but such a poor, bare, forked animal as thou art.— Off, off, you lendings! Come. Unbutton here. (tears at his clothes)
ENTER GLOUCESTER WITH A TORCH – Act 3 Scene 4 . . . sparknotes.com 7 April 2000 Web. 10 December 2018.

– William Shakespeare by John Taylor wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web 10 December 2018.

“To see men without clothes to cover their nakedness, without blankets to lie upon, without shoes … without a house or hut to cover them until those could be built, and submitting without a murmur, is a proof of patience and obedience which, in my opinion, can scarcely be paralleled.” – George Washington at Valley Forge, April 21, 1778 to the Continental Congress.

And he stayed with them through all the years of holding out until they won their new country. What would we have done without that mutual mystical bond that held the General with his ragged volunteers? When these men’s sacrifice won the heart and respect of George Washington was when he started becoming a great man.

– Montage Valley Forge paintings/drawings

7k.1.-–myemail.constantcontact.com 8 March 2011 Web. 10 December 2018.

– Baron von Steuben drilling the troops at Valley Forge, by E.A. Abbey. wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web 10 December 2018.

– The March to Valley Forge (1883), Museum of the American Revolution Oil painting by William B.T. Trego, 1883. Valley Forge Historical Society. wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web 10 December 2018.


– George Washington at Valley Forge Thompkins H Matteson – 1854 the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 20 December 2018.

– George Washington by N.C. Wyeth pinterest.com 2 February 2010 Web. 10 December 2018.

Beeline Monument – Jim Surkamp

Burial site of Revolutionary War Veteran Abraham Shepherd
– Shepherd Burial Ground – Jim Surkamp
Jim Surkamp Account – Shepherd Burial Ground flickr.com 26 February 2004 Web. 10 December 2018.

– Old Christ Reformed Church Graveyard historicshepherdstown.com 22 November 2004 Web. 10 December 2018.

The Revolutionary patriots buried at the Reformed Graveyard are) Henry Cookus Jr., Michael Cookus, John Haines, Jacob Haynes, Lawrence Hensel, John Hoffman, Nicholas Schell, Peter Seever, Peter Staley, Martin Walforth and Michael Yeasley.

– Plaque Old Christ Reformed Church Graveyard christreformedshepherdstown.org 21 March 2007 Web. 10 December 2018.

– Old Lutheran Churchyard – historicshepherdstown.com 22 November 2004 Web. 10 December 2018.

The Revolutionary patriots buried at the Lutheran Graveyard are) Michael Entler, Philip Entler Sr., Philip Entler Jr., Daniel Foulks, John Adam Link Jr., Andrew Ronemous, Lewis Ronemous and Philip Sheetz.

– Plaque Old Lutheran Churchyard tworiversturnings.com 25 August 2014 Web. 10 December 2018.

– Old Episcopal Churchyard – historicshepherdstown.com 22 November 2004 Web. 10 December 2018.

Henry Bedinger, Daniel Bedinger, Anthony Kerney, James Kerney Sr., William Morgan Jr., William Lemen, Caleb Levick, Robert Tabb, Cato Moore

– Plaque Old Episcopal Churchyard – Jim Surkamp


Teenager Daniel Bedinger ran off to join his two older brothers, Henry and Michael, even though they told him to stay home and take care of mom.

– New York City late in Revolution wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web 10 December 2018.

He was captured an in lower Manhattan nearly starved as a prisoner, then moved to a prisoner ship called the “Jersey”.

– almost starved Men sleeping by Walton Taber from Carpenter, Horace. (March, 1891). “Plain Living at Johnson’s Island.” The Century. Vol. 41 Issue 5. babel.hathitrust.org 6 December 2009 Web. 19 October 2017. p. 705.
– prisoner ship Jersey wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web 10 December 2018.

Near death, it seemed, he persuaded some Hessian soldiers to take him, even though they were going to leave for “dead.” He was eventually in the corner of a barn in southern New Jersey.

– Interior of the old Jersey prison ship, in the Revolutionary War / Darley ; Bookhout, eng. N.Y./ Interior view of the Jersey, a British prison ship during the Revolutionary War, showing prisoners and guard. Source indicates LOC as original source of image. Figure 1 from Recollections of the Jersey prison ship: from the original manuscripts of Capt. Thomas Dring, one of the prisoners. Captioned: “The Jersey Prison Ship as moored at the Wallabout near Long Island, in the year 1782.” loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 10 December 2018.
7r. –
– The Moravian settlement at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania – 1757 spiritualpilgrim.net 10 October 2016 Web. 10 December 2018.

In a million in one chance, his brother Michael walked into the dimly lit barn, looking for his young brother. As he turned to leave, Michael said: “Well, I don’t see anybody here that I know.”

-Volck lying down Artist: Adalbert John Volck (American (born Germany), Augsburg 1828–1912 Baltimore, Maryland) Date: 1861–63. metmuseum.org 11 November 1996 Web 10 December 2018.
– George Michael Bedinger catalog.hathitrust.org 6 December 2009 Web. 18 October 2018.
– Volck Matte Artist: Adalbert John Volck (American (born Germany), Augsburg 1828–1912 Baltimore, Maryland) Date: 1861–63. metmuseum.org 11 November 1996 Web 10 December 2018.

A faint whisper from the straw in the corner said: “There is one Michael.” So Michael embraced his younger brother, carried him to the home of Quakers, who gave him a meal and slowly helped him restore his health. And, when it was possible, Michael contrived a chair with pillows and leather straps, put his brother in it, strapped the whole thing to his back and began the long trek home.

– Daniel Bedinger tomb by Jim Surkamp

– Daniel Bedinger plaque on tomb – Jim Surkamp

– Episcopal Graveyard – Jim Surkamp


1. “Report of the Journey of Francis Louis Michell October 2, 1701-December 1, 1702.” The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography Vol XXIV July, 1916. archive.org 26 January 1997 Web. 10 December 2018. pp. 275-303
p. 288 Everyone would be willing to pay the passage money. The debtor then belongs to the creditor till he pays it off. The wages are fixed, namely, according to law each workman must pay his master for his board and lodging annually 400 pounds of tobacco and three barrels of corn, Whatever he can raise above that amount, he can sell, so that within a short time he can pay his passage money. Then he can hire out as a freeman or he can continue to work in the above manner until he has saved something and can himself set up an establishment. I also forgot to refer to the allspice, which is a certain medicine planted by the Indians and is sold by them. This plant has such strength and properties that it can be used in place of every other spice, as is also implied by the name. There also grows a sort of red shells, like crab’s claws, in which seeds are found which are very strong.

There are also a large number of glow-worms (fire-flies) which fly at night, through the trees in large numbers, as if they were full of fire and light. There is another kind of bugs or worms which are very harmful to the finest trees of the forest and cause destruction of a great many of them. In conclusion he who will take the trouble to read this imperfect essay will find that I have not been diligent to observe order, nor did I make a clean copy, hence it is difficult to read.
p. 288.

The reason why I have gone to Maryland is to collect my outstanding debts completely. But especially because of my journey, which is about to begin to the rather unknown western regions, of which the Indians here have wonders to tell, on account of their high mountains, warm waters, rich minerals, fruitful lands, large streams and abundance of game which is to be found there. To that end I associated myself with eight well-experienced Englishmen and four Indians, taking along eight horses, two of which are to carry skins at my own expence. Although we are taking provisions for only six days, we do not expect to return before four weeks. The game is so abundant that daily more can be caught than we can use. Some of the company, including myself have the intention to take up land, if it is feasible, some for to hunt, some to discover mines, I for my part to satisfy my old curiosity to seek out unknown things and to collect the wonders of nature, as I have already a large number of pieces, which cannot be examined without astonishment. Last evening I shot two ragun (raccoons) on a tree. I have also a live bossoon (opossum). It carries its young in an open poclets, which it opens and closes at will.
p. 295.

William J. Hinke, “Report of the Journey of Francis Louis Michel, from Berne, Switzerland, to Virginia, October 2, 1701–December 1, 1702,” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 24 (January 1916). pp. 1-41. archive.org 26 January 1997 Web. 10 December 2018.
Begins p. 29
Now as to the condition of the land. It consists of hills, valleys and plains, which are by nature covered with high trees, whose kinds and names I shall soon mention. The soil is
mostly light and partly sandy, except at Manigkinton, where it is black and heavy. The aborigines, namely the Indians, had reason to choose this place for their settlement. Their
city, called Manikinton by them, stood there. To-day there is a red, rough stone, standing four feet out of the ground, where at certain times they held religious services, as they supposed. What has become known to mc of their religious beliefs. I shall report, when I describe their arrival in Williamsburg. Beside the above mentioned stone there are also mulberry and peach
trees planted there. About thirty years ago they still dwelt there. But when they inflicted some injury upon the Christians, Colonel Bomn(49), who is still alive and who was then living
on the frontier, namely at Falensgrig [Falling Creek], as soon as he heard of this ravage, mounted at once his company (he was then captain) and attacked the Indians boldly (who had prom- ised obedience but had not kept it). He soon overcame them after some resistance and put all of them to the sword, without sparing any one: He also destroyed their settlement and what- ever they owned. For this service the then king of England granted him the whole district between his land and this place, which extends twenty-five miles in length and eighteen miles in width. Those Indians who were not at home or escaped, still camp during the summer not far from their former home.

Regarding the fruitfulness of the country it may be said that almost everything grows that is put into the ground. Especially tobacco is the principal article there, with which trade
is carried on. It passes for money, because gold and silver are seldom seen there, especially among the common people. All purchases or payments are made in tobacco. It is planted in
such quantities that this year 150 ships, large and small, but not more than twenty small ones among them, left the country laden with tobacco. Merchants pass up and down through the
country. They have their store houses or magazines filled with all kinds of goods which are needed there. When the inhabitants need something.they go to the nearest merchant, who gives
them what they want. It is recorded according to agreement. When the tobacco is ripe, the merchant arrives to take what is (49)-Prof. von Miilinen has very kindly verified the reading of this name. The original, he says, has undoubtedly Bornn. It is, however, probable that Miohel misunderstood the name or failed to remember ot correctly. He describes an event that happened before his time, **Col. Born” is probably intended for Col. Wm. Byrd, who owned much land on Falling Creek, though he lived at the site of the present Richmond. He received no such grant as Michel describes; but in April 1679, the General Assembly granted him a tract of land five miles long and three miles wide lying on both sides of James River at the falls, on condition that he kept 50 armed men there as settlers. It is possible, though not at all probable, that Michel may refer to Col. Wm. Claiborne, who though he neither owned land nor resided near Falling Creek, was a distinguished Indian fighter. There was a certificate of his valor, dated March 17, 1677, formerly on record at King William C. H.
coming to him. A hundred [poimds] are usually reckoned at twenty shillings. When the rainy season comes, the tobacco is packed solidly, one leaf above the other, into a barrel which
holds or weighs from 700 to 1000 pounds. It is a laborious job, demanding much care. Tobacco is planted after the soil has been prepared. Then with a broad hoe the soil is loosened on
top and made into round little heaps, six feet apart. It is planted in rainy weather. When it is fully grown it spreads so much that all the plants touch each other. It grows best in
new soil, but the land must be very good if it is to bear tobacco for tvv’enty years. However, it is not done. Hence the inhabitants do not live close together and the coimtry is not
settled in villages, because every twenty or thirty years new ground must be broken. A settler who has a piece of land, divides it into three parts, the first for tobacco and com, the
second and third parts as meadows for his cattle and as forest, if ‘he needs wood. When the tobacco field does not want to bear any more, he sows com in its place. After six or eight
years it does not yield com any more. Then he lets it lie fallow and takes up the second part and so forth. A workman must plant yearly from 15 to 2000 pounds of tobacco, besides six or
e^ight barrels of com. As to com, the **Wirden”(50) or Turkish com is grown in most cases. It is so productive that it yields fifty to a hundred fold. It makes pretty good bread. It is also pounded and cooked, called humin [hominy]. Its flour is taken and cooked thick in water. Then it is put into milk. It is mostly the food of servants. The flour is also frequently taken and a thick dough is made out of it with water. Then, by means of a hot fire and many coals, it is baked in a little while(51). When the corn is planted, a small hole is made and three or fotir grains are put into it. Then they are covered with ground. Like the tobacco they are always planted six feet apart. This grain is (50) This is the reading of the word, as confirmed by Prof, von Mulinen after renewed examination. What it m.eans is not known to the translator. He thought at first of “Welsh” com. But the original apparently does not admit of that interpretation. (51)-This com bread was called pone or ponn, cf. Beverley, History Book IV, p. 65f; Falkner, Curievse Nachricht Von Pennsylvania, 1702, p. 28 (see Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. XIV, p. 143).
raised in great quantities and is used for people and cattle. The stalks grow over ten and even fourteen feet high and are very thick. They bear usually from two to four ears, while
there are three or four stalks to a hole. Throughout the summer the weeds must be removed from time to time, as in the case of the tobacco. The ordinary price of this com is two
shillings a bushel, or about two measures as used here [in Switzerland]. The other kind is wheat, which is planted by every family for its use, in such places where the cattle have been penned in at night. After they have been in a field for three or four weeks, they are moved to another field. In this way the soil is fertilized, for no other manure is used. This grain bears twenty-five fold. It is planted as in our country and it costs in ordinary years three or four shillings per bushel. Barley and oats are also planted and they turn out well
usually. The inhabitants pay little attention to garden plants, except lettuce, although most everything grows here. But fresh seeds must be imported every year from Europe, for, if
the seed of this country is planted, it turns into the wild kind again. The custom of the country, when the harvest is to be gathered in, is to prepare a dinner, to which the neighbors are invited, and for which two men h^ve sufficient work to do. There are often from thirty to fifty persons cutting grain, so that frequently they have work for only two hours. This is one of the principal festivals or times of rejoicing. When I was unable to travel at one time, because of the rain, I stayed at a house, where they intended to cut wheat that day. When everything was ready to receive the guests at noon, it looked in the morning as if the weather was going to be favorable. Ten persons had already arrived, when the weather changed and turned into a violent rain, so that the hope to harvest in a few days came to nothing. Fresh meat cannot be kept in summer longer than twenty-four hours, hence the good people were compelled, if they did not want to let the sheep and chicken, which they had prepared, spoil, to entertain us, which
Fruit trees are growing in great abimdance. I shall describe them according to their several kinds. The apple trees are very numerous, most of them not very large nor high, like pear
trees. But they are exceedingly fruitful. I was at many places this year, where I could not estimate the large quantities which were rotting. They are the nicest apples that can be seen.There is a kind somewhat earlier than the others, they are called Cattalines. They are pointed and of a sour taste. The summer cider is made of them. A later kind is valued more highly and, like the first, cider is made of them, which keeps longer than the other. The gallon or four quarts cost one bit or four Batzen(52), according to our coin. It is drunk mostly during the winter. As the common man does not have good cellars, this drink cannot be kept during the summer, but it turns sour. There are also pears of all kinds, but they are not as common as the apples. There are several kinds of peaches, and in such quantities that people cannot eat the fotirth part of them. The rest is fed to the pigs. It should be noted that this fruit ripens in a few days. Cherries, especially the cultivated cherries, are found in great abundance, where they are planted. Good wine is made of them. All kinds of berries grow in the wilderness and also on the plantations, in such abundance that it cannot be estimated. There are also many different kinds, namely of black and white color. The best are brown, long and large. This berry is largely eaten by pigs and birds. Whoever has a desire for berries, does not need to buy them or ask for them, for the abundance is so great that no one pays any attention to them, nor are they used very much, because people do not want to take the trouble to pick them, as they have enough other food. There are also plums, but they are not common. Also many other kinds of fruit, but they are not known to me. There is, especially among the garden plants, a certain kind of beans, not unlike the Turkish, which is planted with the Indian com (53) It grows up along the stalks an d is very productive. It is (52)–A bit is worth 123^ cents, according to Webster, and a Batzen is a Swiss nickel coin of the value of ten centimes or two cents. (53)-The bean planted with the com. *’upon whose stalk it sustains itself,*’ is also mentioned by Beverly, History , Book II, p. 29.
nourishing food. There is another kind which creeps on the ground. There are also different kinds of peas, planted in the gardens, but growing also outside of them. Besides, there are
potatoes in great quantities and many kinds of melons. Some are cooked, others, like the water melons, are eaten raw, since this fruit is very refreshing in the hot summer because of its cool, sweet juice. They are grown in great quantities and one can get as many as he desires. The water is no less prolific, because an indescribably large number of big and little fish are fotuid in the many creeks, as well as in the large rivers. The abtmdance is so great and they are so easily caught that I was much siuprized. Many fish are dried, especially those that are fat. Those who have a line can catch as many as they please. Most of them are caught with the hook or the spear, as I know from personal experience, for when I went out several times with the line, I was surprized that I cotdd pull out one fish after another, and, through the clear water I cotdd see a large number of all kinds, whose names are unknown to me. They cannot be compared with otir fish, except the herring, which is caught and dried in large numbers. Thus the so-called catfish is not imlike the large turbot. A very
good fish and one easily caught is the eel, also like those here [in Switzerland]. There is also a kind like the pike. They have a long and pointed mouth, with which they like to bite
into the hook. They are not wild, but it happens rarely that one can keep them on the line, for they cut it in two with their sharp teeth. We always had our harpoons(54) and guns with
us when we went out fishing, and when the fish came near we shot at them or harpooned them. A good fish, which is common and found in large numbers, is the porpoise. They are so large that by their unusual leaps, especially when the weather changes, they make a great noise and often cause anxiety for the small boats or canoes. Especially do they endanger those
that bathe. Once I cooled and amused myself in the water with swinrmirg, not knowing that there was any danger, but (54)-Michel uses here the peculiar Swiss word **guerre,*’ which,
according to Prof, von Mulinen, is still used today, in the form of “Gehr” or *’Geer,” for a harpoon or spear.
p. 29-34.

pp. 30-31 corn planting
corn height p. 32
bullfrog size p. 35fn
bears shot without fear p. 37
animals all kinds pp. 36-37
mockingbird snakes pp. 38-39
trees pp. 40-41 none can be found that are superior to them (oaks cedar walnut)

From King Lear by William Shakespeare
Why, thou wert better in thy grave than to answer with thy uncovered body this extremity of the skies.—Is man no more than this? Consider him well.—Thou owest the worm no silk, the beast no hide, the sheep no wool, the cat no perfume. Ha! Here’s three on ’s are sophisticated. Thou art the thing itself.
Unaccommodated man is no more but such a poor, bare, forked animal as thou art.—
Off, off, you lendings! Come. Unbutton here. (tears at his clothes)
You’d be better off dead than facing the storm as naked as you are. Is this all a human being is? Look at him. (to EDGAR) You are not indebted to animals for your clothes since don’t wear silk, leather, or wool—not even perfume. Ha! The three of us are sophisticated compared to you. You’re the real thing.
The human being unburdened by the trappings of civilization is no more than a poor, naked, two-legged animal like you.
Off with these clothes borrowed from animals! Let me unbutton this. (he tears at his clothes)
Act 3 Scene 4
sparknotes.com 7 April 2000 Web 10 December 2018.


Boteler, Alexander R. (1860). “My ride to the barbecue; or, Revolutionary reminiscences of the Old Dominion. By an ex-member of Congress.” New York, S. A. Rollo.
catalog.hathitrust.org 6 December 2009 Web. 18 October 2018. p. 67. catalog.hathitrust.org 6 December 2009 Web. 18 October 2018.

From these speeches I was enabled to understand why “Morgan’s Spring” is so noted a place in this neighborhood. It seems that when the momentous drama of the Revolution was about to begin, and the heart of Virginia was throbbing in responsive unison with the eloquence of Patrick Henry, whose memorable words, “We must fight—I repeat it, sir, we must 64 fight!” leaped like “live thunder” through the land, nowhere within the borders of the good old Commonwealth was there a more prompt and determined response to the fervid appeal of the “forest-born Demosthenes” than among the patriotic citizens of Shepherdstown and its vicinity, where a company of riflemen, consisting of more than a hundred men, was immediately raised “for the protection of American liberty.” The officers of this celebrated corps were Hugh Stephenson, captain; Abraham Shepherd, first lieutenant; Pendleton, second lieutenant, and Scott, third; William Pyle was appointed ensign and Henry Bedinger sergeant. Their banner was emblazoned with the device of the ” Culpepper minute men”— a coiled rattlesnake ready to strike, and the significant motto, “Don’t tread on me.” For their uniform, they adopted homespun hunting-shirts, made of tow linen (fringed around the neck and down the front), leather leggins and moccasins. Each wore a buck-tail in his hat, and had a tomahawk and scalping-knife in his belt. Thus organized and equipped, these gallant men held themselves in readiness to march at a minute’s warning whenever and wherever their services 65 might be required to defend the rights of the Colonies from the encroachments of the British Crown. Accordingly, when, on the 14th of June, 1775, the Continental Congress resolved ” that six companies of expert riflemen be immediately raised in Pennsylvania, two in Maryland, and two in Virginia, and that each company, as soon as completed, shall march and join the army near Boston,” the Shepherdstown riflemen obeyed the summons with alacrity, and theirs was the first company from the
South that rallied to the side of Washington when Boston was beleaguered. “They left the plowshare In the mold, Their flocks and herds without a fold, The sickle in the unshorn grain,
Their crops half garnered on the plain, And mustered, in their simple dress, For wrongs to seek a stern redress.” The 17th of July, 1775, was the day set for their departure, and Morgan’s Spring was their rendez-vous. True to their appointment, they all met there on the morning designated; not a man was missing. Having partaken of a frugal meal, they arose from the grass and reverently received the blessing which a holy man of God invoked in their behalf, after which, solemnly agreeing together 66 that as many of them as might be alive on that day fifty years should meet again at Morgan’s Spring,* they shouldered their rifles and forthwith began their march, “making,” as one of them expressed it, ” a bee-line for Boston,” which they reached on the 10th of August, having made the journey of 600 miles in twenty-four days. As they approached the camp of Cambridge, Washington, who was making a reconnoissance in the neighborhood, descrying the Virginians in the distance, galloped up to meet them; and when Captain Stephenson, saluting him, reported his company “from the right bank of the Potomac,” the commander-in-chief, unable to resist the impulse, sprang from his horse, and beginning with the captain, went from man to man, shaking hands with each, tears of joy rolling down his cheeks as he recognized his friends and fellow-soldiers from the South. Morgan’s riflemen reached the camp a day or two after Stephenson, and Cresap’s company, from
• On the 17th July, 1825, there were but four of the riflemen living, viz.: Maj. Henry Bedinger, of Berkeley Co.; his brother, Michael Bedinger, of Blue Lick, Kentucky; Peter Lauck, of Winchester, Va.; and one other who&c name I do not know—the two Bedingers and Lauck only met according to appointment. 68 Western Maryland, arrived a few days after Morgan. An accurate idea of the men who were mnstered in these three rifle companies may be had from the following extract’ of a letter to a gentleman in Philadelphia, dated Fredericktown, Maryland,
August 1st, 1775. [Vide Am. Archives, vol. 3d, 1775, page 1, 2.] “Notwithstanding the urgency of my business, I have been detained three days in this place by an occurrence truly agreeable. I have had the happiness of seeing Captain Michael Cresap marching at the head of a formidable company of upward of one hundred and thirty men from the mountains and backwoods, painted like Indians, armed with tomahawks and rifles, dressed in hunting-shirts and moccasins; and though some of them had traveled hundreds of miles from the banks of the
Ohio, they seemed to walk light and easy, and not with less 6pirit than at the first hour of their march. “Health and vigor, after what they had undergone, declared them to be intimate with hardship and familiar .with danger. Joy and satisfaction were visible in the crowd that met them. Had Lord North been present, and been assured that 69 the brave leader could raise thousands of such-like to defend their country, what think you — would not the hatchet and the block have intruded upon his mind? “I had an opportunity of attending the Captain during his stay in town, and watched the behavior of his men and the manner in which he treated them; for it seems that all who go out to war under him do not only pay the most willing
obedience to him as their commander, but in every instance of distress look up to him as their friend or father. A great part of his time was spent in listening to and relieving their wants, without any apparent sense of fatigue and trouble When complaints were before him, he determined with kindness and spirit, and on every occasion condescended to please without losing his dignity. Yesterday [July 31st, 1775] the company were supplied with a small quantity of powder from the magazine, which wanted airing and was not in good order for rifles; in the evening, however, they were drawn out to show the gentlemen of the town their dexterity at shooting. A clap-board with a mark the size of a dollar was put up; they began to fire
off-hand, and the by standers were surprised, few shots being made that were not close or into the 70 paper. “When they had shot for some time in this way, some lay on their backs, some on their breasts or sides; others ran twenty or thirty steps, and, firing as they ran, appeared to be equally certain of the mark. With this performance the company were more than satisfied, when a young man took up the board in his hand, not by the end but by the side, and holding it up, his brother walked to the distance and coolly shot into the white; laying
down his rifle, he took the board, and holding it as it was held before, the second brother shot as the former had done. By this exhibition I was more astonished than pleased. But will you believe me when I tell you that one of the men took the board, and placing it between his legs, stood with his back to the tree while another drove the center? “What would a regular army of considerable strength in the forests of America do with one thousand of these men, who want nothing to preserve their health and courage but water from the spring, with a little parched corn (with what they can easily procure in hunting), and who, wrapped in their blankets, in the dead of night, would choose the shade of a tree for their covering and the earth for their bed?”
Boteler pp. 63-70.

Dandridge, Danske, (1910). “Historic Shepherdstown.” Charlottesville, Va.: Michie Co. hathitrust.org 6 December 2009 Web. 18 October 2018.

The Journal of Henry Bedinger—Roxbury Camp JULY 17th, 1775. Set out from Potomack toward Boston and Encamped at the Mirey springs about Three miles from Sharpsburgh. Next Morning
Took Leave of all Friends, Set off from thence & Marched to Strieker’s in the Mountains. Thence Marched to Frederick Town where Two Companies of Independents met us about Three Miles from the Town. We Marched before them into the Town. They then Marched by us and we halted, and we followed them out of the Town, when they Halted and we passed by. As soon as we Got Passed them they Gave three Loud Shouts and Turned and Left us. We also Answered them and made off. Thence we Crossed Monocosy, and Encamped at Mr. Yenlie’s. Thence set Off and Encamped in Peter Little’s Town, where the Neighbors Brought us Vegetables of all kinds. Set off from thence and went through McAllister’s Town. Saw my Uncle and Aunt, Got Dinner with them, our Coming from them Grieved them Much. I met with Dr. McCasery Before we came there, being in the Independent Company that met us about Three miles before we came to Town. We had some Conversation Together. Thence to Peter Wolfe’s Tavern, where we Encamped. There our Captain and William Pyle Over Took us. Thence Marched to York Town being Sunday, and were Met by Three Independent Companies, Used Extremely Honorable in every House. Went to see our Relations, Eat Dinner with Them, and at our parting they Lamented much. We went into Church
and heard the organs which were played for us.

After Church was over we were Conducted out of Town by all the Companies and about Fifteen Hundred of Men, Women, and Children. At our parting we had Shouting as Usual. We Marched to Susquehanna River and Crossed it and Encamped about half a mile from the River, but before the Company had all Crossed Several went to the Tavern on the Lancaster side where James Higgins Shott a wad into William Blair’s Legg from Which Time he was disabled to Walk, and we were soon after obliged to Leave him in rear. Next Morning we Started from the River
and about 30 of our men painted like Indians and Marched in that Manner Into Lancaster, but were met by a Rifle Company first about one Mile from Town, and thence By two Independent ditto. We marched in towards the Court House and thence were Divided into small parties as Taverns suited to Dine. Thence Marched About Seven Miles and Encamped, where we left John Keyes, Very Sick. Thence Marched, within four miles from Reading and Encamped, where Adam Sheets had such violent Fitts that we were afraid for his life. He Recovered but felt Very Unwell for a few days. We thence marched and waded through Schoolkill Near Reading whence we were Met with Hobies (Haut-Boys) and Small and Large Violins which (made) most beautiful
Musick. We then Marched to Allen’s Town, were met by a Company of Independents with Drums and Hoboys. We were Bileted in Different Taverns, Used Very well, in the Evening Robt. MoCann Behaved Scandalously towards the Officers—was put under Guard, and kept all Night. We Started from Thence and went to Bethlehem. Near Allen’s Town was the River Jordan, and about

half a mile from thence the Great Lehy (Lehigh), the western Branch of Delaware River. We Crossed in Boats and so Marched to Bethlehem, where we had Breakfast Got in about Fifteen Minutes, tho’ we came unawares to them. Bethlehem is situate on the Banks of the Lehy, and appears as Beautiful as I Ever Saw a Town, all Connected together. They allow but one Store and one Tavern. There is But one House allowed to each Trade, which is Supplied with work men according to the run of Custom. It Bears one Very Large house Most Elegantly Built about Five Stories high, Built in the Best and Neatest Manner, has Three Hundred and Sixty-five Windows in it, Built for the use of the old men and young Students. It has Organs in it, has about three Hundred Beds and Bedsteads in it, where there is watch kept of Nights to wake them if wanted. There is also a Nunery Consisting of about One Hundred and Thirty Young Women in another Large house, Dressed all alike. They have a small Yard to walk in, Do all Kinds of fine work, Make the finest of Lawn Cambrick, and Every Sort of finery that Can be Performed with Needles. There is another Large House for the Young Widows, and another for Widowers. We Saw all the water works, Especially that which drives the water up the Hill from an
Excellent Spring to the Door of Every House in Town, from where it Springs. I Saw Hemp Mill, Bark do, Oyl Do,* Fulling Do, Merchant Do, Fulling Mill for skins, and all kinds of water works, Built in the Best manner. *Oil mills were used for the manufacture of linseed oil from flax.

We were Led into a Beautiful Church, adorned with Pictures Representing our Saviour from his Birth to his Ascension. Every Garden and Yard are planted beautifully with pleasant Trees and Groves. It is the prettiest Place to its Size I ever saw. We then Marched about four miles to a Very fine Spring where there was a Court Martial Held over Robert McCann, (he) was sentenced to have Twenty five Lashes on his Bare Back and a Discharge to be Given him. He was then Striped and tied up to a Sapling, but a Couple of Gentlemen Volunteers from Reading Begg’d him off to a Ducking. All hands were then ordered with pails and Kettles to attend and Pour the Cold spring Water on him. He was then most Severely Ducked and Discharged. Thence we Marched for East Town (Easton) where we encamped. Rested the next Day, Got our Ammunition Ready, Guns in order, and Tried them. Thence set off on the 30th. We Crosst the River Delaware and Marched 18 Miles and Encamped. Thence we Marched about (left out) miles where we were Met by a Number of Men and Women out of the Country who Brought us churns of Beer, Cyder, and Buttermilk, apples, cheries, etc., etc. We honoured them by firing at our parting. Thence proceeded To Sussex Courthouse, and Encamped where the Butcher and Land-lady Used the Company Very ill. Thence Marched and Encamped three miles in New York. Thence marched to New Windsor on the North River. Were Bileted out at Night, Used Very well and met a fellow who Called himself Col’o Thompson of Penn’a, Col’o of the Rifle Battalion. Found him an HISTORIC SHEPHERDSTOWN 101 Imposter. We Took him in the Morning and Striped his Clothes, put him on the Highest place in Town, and Gave him a Severe Tarring and Feathering, and afterwards Took him to the River to one of the Wharfs and Gave him a Severe Ducking. This was Done 3d August. We thence Crossed the River in two periauges that sail’s Very fast across the River being about Three miles over, and Landed and Fixed all up again and went through Fishkill and Encamped at the Sign of the Black Horse. Thence marched to a Bloomery just over the line Between New York and Connecticut, by a Large Bridge over the River. Thence Started and went to Litchfield and were Used Extremely well. Thence to Farmington and Got Dinner where we Saw Some families of Regulars who had been Taken at Ticonderoga. Thence Marched Ten Miles to Hartford the Metropolis of Connecticut, and Encamped. Thence Crossed Connecticut River which runs by the Town, being about as large as Patomack at Shepherds Town. Vessels Go in Said River. Thence Marched Twenty five miles & Encamped. Thence Marched twenty seven miles and Encamped. Thence marched twenty nine Miles to a Tavern where there were Three Girls. Had some Diversion. Thence Started and Marched Sixteen miles before Breakfast. Thence Nine miles to Water Town. Saw Some Riflemen Belonging to the Camp. Thence three Miles and a half to Head Quarters in Cambridge, Being Friday, 11th August. Was Viewed By Generals Washington, Gates, and a Number of other Gentlemen. Was placed Into the Church. I was prevailed on to Breakfast with the Commissary Gen’l Trumbull. Thence went to see the Forts on Prospect and Winter.
p. 97 – Journal of the March July 17, 1775 from Dandridge, Danske, (1910). “Historic Shepherdstown.” Charlottesville, Va.: Michie Co. hathitrust.org 6 December 2009 Web. 18 October 2018.


Scudder, Horace E. (1889). “George Washington: A Historical Biography
George Washington: an Historical Biography.” New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Company.

a. (Washington) wrote reproachfully to Congress: —

“If we would pursue a right system of policy, in my opinion, … we should all, Congress and army, be considered as one people, embarked in one cause, in one interest; acting on the same principle, and to the same end. The distinction, the jealousies set up or perhaps only incautiously let out, can answer not a single good purpose. . . . No order of men in the thirteen States has paid a more sacred regard to the proceedings of Congress than the army; for without arrogance or the smallest deviation from truth, it may be said that no history now extant can furnish an instance of an army’s suffering such uncommon hardships as ours has done, and bearing them with the same patience and fortitude. To see men, without clothes to cover them, without blankets to lie on, without shoes (for the want of which their marches might be traced by the blood from their feet), and almost as often without provisions as with them, marching through the frost and snow, and at Christmas taking up their winter quarters within a day’s march of the enemy, without a house or hut to cover them, till they could be built, and submitting without a murmur, is a proof of patience and obedience, which, in my opinion, can scarcely be paralleled.”

The horses died of starvation, and the men harnessed themselves to trucks and sleds, hauling wood and provisions from storehouse to hut. At one time there was not a ration in camp. Washington seized the peril with a strong hand and compelled the people in the country about, who had been selling to the British army at Philadelphia, to give up their stores to the patriots at Valley Forge.

Meanwhile, the wives of the officers came to the camp, and these brave women gave of their cheer to its dreary life. Mrs. Washington was there with her husband. “The general’s apartment is very small,” she wrote to a friend; “he has had a log cabin built to dine in, which has made our quarters much more tolerable than they were at first.”
p. 175.

That winter of 1778 was the most terrible ordeal which the army endured, and one has but to read of the sufferings of the soldiers to learn at how great a cost independence was bought. It is worth while to tell again the familiar story, because the leader of the army himself shared the want and privation of the men. To read of Valley Forge is to read of Washington.

The place was chosen for winter quarters because of its position. It was equally distant with Philadelphia from the Brandywine and from the ferry across the Delaware into New Jersey. It was too far from’ Philadelphia to be in peril from attack, and yet it was so near that the American army could, if opportunity offered, descend quickly on the city. Then it was so protected by hills and streams that the addition of a few lines of fortification made it very secure.

But there was no town at Valley Forge, and it became necessary to provide some shelter for the soldiers other than the canvas tents which served in the field in summer. It was the middle of December when the army began preparations for the winter, and Washington gave directions for the building of the little village. The men were divided into parties of twelve, each party to build a hut to accommodate that number; and in order to stimulate the men, Washington promised a reward of twelve dollars to the party in each regiment which finished its hut first aud most satisfactorily. And as there was some difficulty in getting boards, he offered a hundred dollars to any officer or soldier who should invent some substitute which would be as cheap as boards and as quickly provided.

Each hut was to be fourteen feet by sixteen, the sides, ends, and roof to be made of logs, and the sides made tight with clay. There was to be a fireplace in the rear of each hut, built of wood, but lined with clay eighteen inches thick. The walls were to be six and a half feet high. Huts were also to be provided for the officers, and to be placed in the rear of those occupied by the troops. All these were to be regularly arranged in streets. A visitor to the camp when the huts were being built wrote of the army: “They appear to me like a family of beavers, every one busy; some carrying logs, others mud, and the rest plastering them together.” It was bitterly cold, and for a month the men were at work, making ready for the winter.

But in what sort of condition were the men themselves when they began this work? Here is a picture of one of those men on his way to Valley Forge: “His bare feet peep through his wornout shoes, his legs nearly naked from the tattered remains of an only pair of stockings, his breeches not enough to cover his nakedness, his shirt hanging in strings, his hair disheveled, his face wan and thin, his look hungry, his whole appearance that of a man forsaken and neglected.” And the snow was falling! This was one of the privates. The officers were scarcely better off. One was wrapped “in a sort of dressing-gown made of an old blanket or woolen bed-cover.” The uniforms were torn and ragged; the guns were rusty; a few only had bayonets; the soldiers carried their powder in tin boxes and cow-horns.

To explain why this army was so poor and forlorn would be to tell a long story. It may be summed up briefly in these words: The army was not taken care of because there was no country to take care of it. There were thirteen States, and each of these States sent troops into the field, but all the States were jealous of one another. There was a Congress, which undertook to direct the war, but all the members of Congress, coming from the several States, were jealous of one another. They were agreed on only one thing — that it was not prudent to give the army too much power. It is true that they had once given Washington large authority, but they had given it only for a short period. They were very much afraid that somehow the army would rule the country, and yet they were trying to free the country from the rule of England. But when they talked about freeing the country, each man thought only of his own State. The first fervor with which they had talked about a common country had died away; there were some very selfish men in Congress, who could not be patriotic enough to think of the whole country.
p. 170.

The Penn Germania: A Popular Journal of German History and Ideals …, Volume 13
January, 1912 Vol. 13 books.google.com 24 November 2005 Web. 109 December 2018. p. 841.

Dandridge, Danske. (1909). “George Michael Bedinger: a Kentucky pioneer.” Charlottesville, Va.: Michie Co., printers.
catalog.hathitrust.org 6 December 2009 Web. 18 October 2018.
“There is one, Michael” p. 28.

The Revolutionary patriots buried at the Reformed Graveyard are) Henry Cookus Jr., Michael Cookus, John Haines, Jacob Haynes, Lawrence Hensel, John Hoffman, Nicholas Schell, Peter Seever, Peter Staley, Martin Walforth and Michael Yeasley. shepherdstownchronicle.com 24 April 2001 Web. 10 December 2018.

Tombstone Inscriptions, Jefferson County, WV (1687-1980) by the Beeline Chapter of the NSDAR. Charles Town, WV. p. 219; p. 315.