D. Wilson Arnett – Jim Tolbert’s ancestor – “saw the elephant” – 14 Medals of Honor in one day


3,961 words


The Charge to the Crater Battles & Leaders Vol 4 p. 552

18-year-old Private D. Wilson Arnett could no longer hear a thing in his left ear, burst in the awe-inspiring explosion of 8,000 pounds of gunpowder that in the wee hours of July 30, 1864 in front of Petersburg heaved horses, men and 400,000 cubic feet of earth into the air. The Federals planted the dynamite underground at the end of a tunnel they dug in secret and it blew a swath in the Confederate line. From that moment on and into old age, Arnett could only hear a bit in his right ear, not at all in his left ear – only of faint shouted orders, conversation, the birds and life in general. It mattered.


The day before, Private Arnett’s 5th U.S. Colored Troops led . . .

wikipedia.org, fair use background film “Glory”
Civil War Preservation Trust

TITLE: September 29, 1864 – The Battle on Chaffin’s Farm

Congressional Medal of Honor (the highest combat honor) of 1864 wikipedia.org
All images of recipients are under their individual names on wikipedia.org
Recipients without available likeness: William Henry Barnes, James H. Bronson, Alfred B. Hilton, Miles James, Edward Ratcliff, Charles Veale,

Fourteen men of color are awarded the highest honor – the Congressional Medal of Honor for their extreme, individual decisions of great bravery.

Civil War historian James Price writes:

James Price – sablearm.blogspot.com

“Thursday, September 29, 1864 is arguably one of the most important days in American history. Without question, it is certainly one of the most (if not THE most important day in African-American military history.” – Price, James S. (2011). ”The Battle of New Market: Freedom Will Be Theirs By The Sword.” Charleston SC: The History Press, Inc. p. 9 first paragraph in the Preface.

He goes on to say that the fighting Arnett bore with others “broke the outer ring of defenses” protecting the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia.

fair use from the film Glory, map battlefields.org (Civil War Preservation Trust)

Arnett’s 5th U.S. Colored Troops infantry regiment had been given the heavy honor to lead an assault of 1,300 men – leading two other regiments: the 36th and 38th U.S. Colored Troops infantry regiments –

Battles & Leaders Vol. 4, p. 557

on a fortified position of seasoned Confederate Texans and Virginia artillerymen. The assault across an open field, part pine forest, part swamp, part ravine riddled with defensive abatis that needed to be breached – would come around 7:30 AM.

dead and wounded on battlefield near Richmond, 1864 B&L 4 p. 555

You could see dead and wounded on the field from an earlier failed assault by another.

Samuel A Duncan 1836-1895 MOLLUS

Gen. Duncan’s 1st Brigade,

Charles Jackson Paine (1833-1916) wikipedia.org

also in Gen. Paine’s Division to their right. Pvt. Arnett had to hear and follow any orders crossing that no man’s land –

Brig. Gen. Giles Waldo Shurtleff 1831-1904 findagrave.com

be it from the 5th’s Lt. Colonel Giles Shurtleff,

Ulysses L. Marvin 1839-1925 in later life S.A. Lane p. 269

Company I’s commander Ulysses Marvin

5f. Tolbert Robert Pinn 1843-1911 commons.wikimedia.org

or from his First Sergeant Robert Pinn.

Benjamin Butler 1818-1893 loc.gov
Fort Pillow Montage Leslie’s Weekly May 7, 1864

“Remember Fort Pillow and No quarter!!” exhorted their Major General Ben Butler, who commanded the overall Army of the River James, – the wholesale massacre of surrendering black Federal troops in that spring in Tennessee of which not a soldier listening that morning in that trench needed the slightest reminding.

detail Coffee Cooler by Edwin Forbes loc.gov

During the tense wait, sipping his coffee as the dawn came, Arnett perhaps thought how he came to this hinge-point in history: being born in October 28, 1846 in Martinsburg, serving as a teen coachman for Charles J. Faulkner Sr., one time Minister to France and a congressman at another, at Faulkner’s Boydville mansion.

Hon. Chas. J. Faulkner by Brady loc.gov; Mrs. Lydig and Her Daughter Greeting Their Guest by Edward Lamson Henry – the athenaeum.org
Boydville – boydville.com
Nathaniel P. Banks by Mathew Brady wikipedia.org; Martinsburg, then-Va. by Alfred Waud loc.gov

May, 1862 saw Federal General Nathaniel Banks Army fleeing Confederate General Stonewall Jackson’s men northward through Martinsburg heading north – literally, for some – to the Promised Lands,

detail Map of Summit Co., Ohio (Akron) loc.gov

very likely when Arnett got his chance to abscond, winding up in Akron, Ohio where, married to one Maria Louisa of Jefferson County.

A Waiter at the Galt House, Louisville, Kentucky Edward King, The Great South; Illustration by James Wells Champney p. 696 docsouth.edu

He took a job as a waiter to help pay their bills. He himself would enlist during that time near Akron August 28, 1863.

A portion of the 127th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, later re-designated the 5th USCT, in Delaware, Ohio wikipedia.org
Service Record D. W. Arnett USCT 5th Infantry fold3 p.3
Bomb proof quarters at Dutch Gap Canal Butlers p. 747 archive.org
Giles Waldo Shurtleff Oberlin College

Their cups of coffee emptied, Lt. Colonel Giles Shurtleff rose and said to them all: “If you are brave soldiers, the stigma — denying you full and equal rights of citizenship shall be swept away and your race forever rescued from the cruel prejudice and oppression which have been upon you from the foundation of the government.” (Price, p. 70)

TITLE: 7:30 AM Deep Bottom Camp –

Camp of Colored Volunteers before Richmond archive.org

To Shurtleff’s order the 1300 men rose and stepped out on to no man’s land, stacked in a single column — feet wide 800 yards ahead were the dug in Texas sharpshooters and artillery.

Detail charging U.S. Colored Troops B&L 4 p. 55

The 5th led them easily at first out of the sharp-shooters range. They clambered through the first abatis of fallen trees, some using axes to remove it. Closer to the Confederate earthworks fire picked up then became a storm of blood letting men falling right and left in front. Shurtleff went down, Co. I’s Marvin was wounded also — officer in all, leaving all those units without officers to lead.

Cheval_de_frise wikipedia.org
abatis wikipedia by by Pearson Scott Foresman

The 5th led the others forward hacking through a second abatis of trees then found themselves raked with gunfire and in a marshy ravine, slightly to the left in a ravine. The slaughter was terrific as blue coats climbed up the wall of the ravine closest to the Confederates earthworks.

J. D. Pickens of the Texas Brigade acknowledged the fighting qualities of their attackers, writing, ‘I want to say in this connection that, in my opinion, no troops up to that time had fought us with more bravery than did those Negroes.’

Brigade commander Alonzo Draper who was also wounded and the only one able to furnish an official report wrote of the carnage of the white officers:

Lieut. Col. G. W. Shurtleff, Fifth U. S. Colored Troops, though repeatedly wounded, still strove to lead his regiment; First Lieut. Edwin C. Gaskill, Thirty-sixth U. S. Colored Troops, rushed in front of his regiment, and, waving his sword, called on the men to follow. At this moment he was shot through the arm, within twenty yards of the enemy’s works; First Lieut. Richard F. Andrews, Thirty-sixth U. S. Colored Troops, had been two months sick with fever and was excused from duty. He volunteered, being scarcely able to walk. He rode to the thicket, dismounted, and charged to the swamp, where he was shot through the leg; First Lieut. James B. Backup, Thirty-sixth U. S. Colored Troops, excused from duty for lameness, one leg being partially shrunk so that he could walk but short distances, volunteered, hobbled in as far as the swamp, and was shot through the breast; Lieutenant Bancroft, Thirty-eighth U. S. Colored Troops, was shot in the hip at the swamp. He crawled forward on his hands and knees, waving his sword and calling on the men to follow. When the brigade was making its final charge, a rebel officer leaped upon the parapet, waved his sword amid shouting, “Hurrah, my brave men.” Private James Gardiner, Company I, Thirty-sixth U. S. Colored Troops, rushed in advance of the brigade, shot him, and then ran the bayonet through his body to the muzzle.

Gen. John Gregg’s Texas Brigade had urgent orders to abandon the defense of New Market Heights and hurry towards Richmond, the capital of the Confederacy just a few miles away to help defend the attacked and under-manned Fort Gilmer.

The erroneous racist-tainted deduction went: “We killed or wounded almost all the white leaders of the black men. Thus, they are defeated because the black men don’t know how to fight and win on their own. They will panic and run for the camp back at Deep Bottom.”

Instead, the black first sergeants in four companies of the 5th, including Arnett’s Company I rose like lions, seized their colors from the fallen, bared bayonets and swooped down upon the earthworks, crashed through sending the Confederates scattering far and wide.

Powhatan Beaty Co. G 5th USCT (same as Arnett) wikipedia.org

Powhatan Beatty of Co. G left his men who retreated back to the first abatis rose ran forward in a hail of gun fire to retrieve their colors, returned to his men and charged forward. towards the enemy.

Of Company G’s eight officers and eighty-three enlisted men who entered the battle, only sixteen enlisted men, including Beaty, survived the attack unwounded. With no officers remaining, Beaty took command of the company and led it through a second charge at the Confederate lines. The second attack successfully drove the Confederates from their fortified positions, at the cost of three more men from Company G. By the end of the battle, over fifty percent of the black division had been killed, captured, or wounded. For his actions,

All of Company D’s officers had been killed or wounded in the first charge. So, James H. Bronson, a private and listed as a “musician,” took command of Company D, rallied the men, and led a renewed attack against the Confederate lines. They successfully broke through the abatis and palisades and captured the Confederate positions after hand-to-hand combat with the defenders.

Milton M. Holland Sergeant Major 5th U.S. Colored Infantry took command of Company C, after all the officers had been killed or wounded, and gallantly led it wikipedia.org

Milton M. Holland Sergeant Major of Company C, took command of Company C, after all the officers had been killed or wounded, and gallantly led it.

Edward A. Moore archivedotorg

Rockbridge artilleryman Moore recalled:
We hurriedly broke camp, as did Gary’s brigade of cavalry camped close by, and scarcely had time to reach high ground and unlimber before we were attacked. The big gaps in our lines, entirely undefended, were soon penetrated, and the contest quickly became one of speed to reach the shorter line of fortifications some five miles nearer to and in sight of Richmond.

Colonel Shurtleff regained consciousness just in time to see his troops “chasing the rebels over a hill a quarter of a mile beyond the works they had captured.”

Arnett’s Company has to fight again at nearby Fort Gilmer;

Division commander Charles Paine, oblivious to the fight the 5th and others had just fought, ordered them to the Confederate-held Fort Gilmer, facing more withering fire. Private Arnett and Sergeant Pinn were among them.

Moore, whose Rockbridge Artillery traveled the five miles from New Market Heights saw what happened from their new position to the right of and close to Fort Gilmer:

The fact that a superb fight was made was fully apparent when we entered the fort an hour later, while the negroes who made the attack were still firing from behind stumps and depressions in the cornfield in front, to which our artillery replied with little effect. The Fort was occupied by about sixty men who, I understood, were Mississippians. The ditch in front was eight or ten feet deep and as many in width. Into it, the negroes leaped, and to scale the embankment on the Fort side climbed on each other’s shoulders, and were instantly shot down as their heads appeared above it.

Sergeant Pinn was shot through the right thorax, rendering his right arm useless for the rest of his life.

Pinn, Beaty, Holland and Bronson (Brunson) were all awarded Congress-approved Congressional Medals of Honor for their bravery that day along with eleven other men of color.

Butler’s report to Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton four days after the battle in part read: ‘My colored troops under General Paine…carried intrenchments at the point of a bayonet…It was most gallantly done, with most severe loss. Their praises are in the mouth of every officer in this army. Treated fairly and disciplined, they have fought most heroically.’


Arnett survived, eventually returned to live in Shepherdstown and remarried after the death of his first wife. A fire destroyed their Shepherdstown home. The Arnetts moved to Charlestown where began a long-term effort to obtain a pension for Arnett’s health, although he had a pension for his deafness.

In 1902, he was married to my great-great-great aunt Charlotte Arnett. Charlotte Arnett lived at 317 W. Academy Street here in Charles Town, West Virginia.

Google Maps

David (Daniel) Arnett) after the Civil War, his wife applied for a pension because his wife was hard of hearing, also he developed heart trouble and he died from heart trouble.

She put in an application to the Pension Bureau (in the Department of Interior at that particular time). She wanted to get a pension and contained in his pension records are affidavits, also statements from several physicians, who had indicated that there was no indication on the record that showed that Arnett developed heart trouble from being in the military and being in combat. She tried from several directions to get a pension for his heart trouble.

chronicling america – loc.gov

However, she did get a small pension – he got a small pension for his deafness.


He died. He was buried in Shepherdstown, West Virginia. His gravesite is clearly marked, of course.

He was also in the same group – the same company (Company I) – with Robert Pinn. Pinn was a Medal of Honor winner.

And when Arnett and his wife were trying to get the pension, Robert Pinn was asked for an affidavit,

Robert Pinn Medal of Honor recipient and after the war a lawyer who provided some confirmation that Arnett’s deafness was caused September 29-30, 1864 – wikipedia.org, civilwar.org

Pinn had returned to his home in Stark County, Ohio, and opened a contracting business. Later he attended Oberlin College, studied law and, after being admitted to the bar, served as a U.S. pension attorney.

Pinn only mentioned that he did serve with him (Arnett) was also there when the cannons were going off at New Market Heights, Virginia; but he, of course, could not verify that his (Arnett’s) heart trouble was from that, only that he served in the same unit with Arnett.

Charlotte Arnett even approached Congressman Brown from the State of West Virginia, trying to get a pension on Arnett’s behalf. But in the long run, she did not get that pension, because the army doctors had all certified that the heart trouble did not come from being in close proximity with the cannons.

The house that Charlotte and David (Daniel) Arnett lived in is still in the family at 317 West Academy Street, and every time I approach that particular house, I think of Aunt Charlotte and of course Uncle David.

Miller’s Photographic History of the Civil War
George Rutherford, Sen. Robert C. Byrd and Jim Tolbert. representing the WV NAACP

James Alvin Tolbert, Sr. | 1932 – 2017 | Obituary

James Alvin Tolbert, Sr. of Charles Town, WV passed on October 26, 2017. He was a guest of Hospice of the Panhandle, Kearneysville, WV. He was born in Charles Town on September 3, 1932 to the late Edward and Ollie Lightfoot Tolbert. He was the youngest of four siblings. He graduated from Page-Jackson High School in 1950.

After graduation James began his working career serving in US Air Force as a dental laboratory technician in Japan during the Korean War. After his military service, he attended West Virginia State (University) in Institute, West Virginia, earning a Bachelor of Science degree in Zoology in 1958. He became a medical technologist at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, MD before beginning a career with the Department of Veterans Affairs as a nuclear medical technologist at the Martinsburg VA Medical Center. He then served as a Personnel Staffing Specialist at the Baltimore Medical Center and retired in 1988 as a Personnel Staffing Specialist in the Washington, D.C. Central Office.

As a Life Member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, James served in numerous capacities and on various committees. He was President of the Jefferson County Branch from 1968 to 1974 and President of the West Virginia State Conference of Branches from 1986 – 2007. He also served as the Region III Chair for Michigan, Kentucky, Indiana, Wisconsin, Ohio, West Virginia, and Illinois.

From 1983 to 1985, he served as Most Worshipful Grand Master, Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge of WV, F&M, Inc.; Past Master and Secretary, Star Lodge #1, Charles Town; Past Recorder, Nile Temple #27 of the Shriners, Martinsburg; Prior, I.M. Carper Consistory #192, 32nd Degree, Martinsburg. James was also a member Allegheny Chapter #9 of the Royal Arch Masons of Fairmont and a member of Gibraltar Commandery #10 of the Knight Templars, Fairmont. He was Grand Inspector General, 33rd Degree, United Supreme Council, Prince Hall Affiliation, Washington, DC; Deborah Chapter #38, Order of the Eastern Star, Charles Town, Grand Historian, Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge of WV and a proud member of Alpha Iota Lambda Chapter, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Charleston, WV.

A lifelong member of St. Philips Episcopal Church, James served as a lay reader, chalice bearer, Vestry member, clerk and Sunday School Superintendent and as Senior and Junior Wardens. He was former Chair of the Episcopal Keymen of the Eastern Convocation, Diocese of West Virginia and served as former member of Executive Committee and Member and Past President of the Diocesan Committee on Racism. He served as a member of the Committee to elect the Fifth Bishop of West Virginia.

James was committed to numerous community activities. He was a board member of the Jefferson County Economic Development Authority; Chair of the African-American Community Association that was responsible for the restoration of Fisherman Hall; he was a Founder/Secretary of the Jefferson County Black History Preservation Society; he was a member of the West Virginia Martin Luther King Holiday Commission; member of the Community Relations Council, Harpers Ferry Job Corp; and a member Marshall- Holly Mason American Legion Post #102. James was the longest serving member of the Zenith Club, a social organization; and he supported a Multicultural Scholarship named in honor of his mother, Ollie Lightfoot Tolbert, at Shepherd University. James was the Chair and sat on the Board of Directors of the George Washington Carver Institute; served on the City of Charles Town Development Committee; was an interviewer on the Affirmative Action Committee for the Shepherd University Multicultural Leadership Scholarship. He was on the Boards of Directors of the Arts and Humanities Alliance; the Jefferson County American Red Cross; and the Jefferson County Boys and Girls Club. He served on the Board of Managers, Charles Town General Hospital; was President of the Board of Directors, Eastern Panhandle Mental Health Center. He was an organizer, leader, and committeeman of Cub Scout Pack #42; and organizer of the Charles Town Recreation League; Treasurer of the Jefferson County Civic League; and served on the EEO Committee, Baker VA Medical Center, Martinsburg. He served on numerous committees for the Jefferson County Schools.

Because of his dedicated service to his local, state, and national communities, James was honored with various awards and recognition. The James A. Tolbert, Sr. Civil Rights Scholarship was donated in perpetuity by Attorney and Mrs. J. Franklin Long of Bluefield WV and Hilton NC. He was awarded the 2011 Martin Luther King, Jr. Achievement Award from the West Virginia University Center for Black Culture and Research and the 1976 T.G. Nutter Award from the West Virginia NAACP. He received the 2003 West Virginia Civil Rights Day Award by the Governor’s Office; the Charleston Job Corp Center; West Virginia State University; and the West Virginia Human Rights Commission. In 1987, he received the Community Service Award given by Kappa Lambda Mu Sorority and in 2008, he was awarded the Community Service Award from the Eastern Panhandle Alumnae Chapter, Delta Sigma Theta, Inc. In 1988, he received the Living the Dream Award from the West Virginia Martin L. King Holiday Commission for Human and Civil Rights. In 1991 & 2002, he received the Dr. Benjamin Hooks Award, NAACP Midwest Region III as State President of Year. He was recognized in 1987 by the West Virginia Blue Ribbon Commission on Educational Reform and was honored by the West Virginia Human Rights Commission Task Force in 1992. In 2003, he received the 2003 Earl Ray Tomblin Community Service Award from the Southern West Virginia Community and Technical College.

James is survived by his wife of 61 years, Shirley Tolbert; his sons James Jr. (Constance) of Pittsburg, California; Michael (Erica) of Charles Town, WV and Stephen (Kim) of Ellicott City, Maryland; three grandsons, Miles, Aidan, and Logan; step-grandsons, Garik Pugh and William Lewis, Jr. and step-great granddaughters Alexis and Aniya Hemingway-Lewis. In addition to his parents, he was predeceased by a son Gregory and three siblings, Marion Tolbert Taylor, Edwina Tolbert, and William Tolbert, Sr. Survivors also include many nieces, nephews, cousins, and friends. He is also survived by former daughter-in-law Rachel Mahoney Tolbert.

Visitation will be from 6 pm to 8 pm, Wednesday, November 1, 2017 at the Eackles-Spencer & Norton Funeral Home, 256 Halltown Rd, Harpers Ferry, WV 25425. The funeral; service will be held at Zion Episcopal Church, 301 East Congress St., Charles Town, WV. 25414 at 11 am on Thursday, November 2, 2017. The service will be conducted by Reverend Joseph Rivers of St. Philips Episcopal Church, Charles Town and Reverend Michael Morgan of Zion Episcopal Church.

Interment will be in Milton Valley Cemetery in Berryville, Virginia.

In lieu of flowers, it is suggested that donations be made to Hospice of the Panhandle, 30 Hospice Ln, Kearneysville, WV 25430.


Links to previous two posts no longer available on the main web, but in the wayback machine’s web.archive:

Daniel Arnett & The Medal of Honor Moment – New Market Heights, Va. Sept. 29, 1864 by Jim Surkamp https://web.archive.org/web/20181024145240/https://civilwarscholars.com/2018/03/daniel-arnett-the-medal-of-honor-moment-new-market-heights-va-sept-29-1864-by-jim-surkamp/

Daniel Arnett and the Medal of Honor Moment – by Jim Surkamp References


18-year-old Private D. Wilson Arnett could no longer hear a thing in his left ear, burst in the awe-inspiring explosion of 8,000 pounds of gunpowder that in the wee hours of July 30, 1864 in front of Petersburg heaved horses, men and 400,000 cubic feet of earth into the air. The Federals planted the dynamite underground at the end of a tunnel they dug in secret and it blew a swath in the Confederate line. From that moment on and into old age, Arnett could only hear a bit in his right ear, not at all in his left ear – only of faint shouted orders, conversation, the birds and life in general. It mattered.

The Charge to the Crater Battles & Leaders Vol 4 p. 552

The deafening explosion that destroyed Arnett’s hearing is narrated here with the ensuing fight on September 30, 1864 near to where the fight the day before occurred on Chaffin’s Farm, Va.

STORY 24 – THE CRATER CLIMAX FROM 1.47:41 to 1:58.39