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VIDEO: The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Part 4 – Skirmish TRT: 23:35/33:48 (incl. Credits). Click Here.
The Humble Harvest and Eternal Voices October, 1872 Jefferson County, West Virginia
After a great battle Deeds of valor are no longer dreams gone by. We live in knightly days; our men are dauntless men. Will there ever be one to write the life of the common soldier?
For most of October, 1862, federal and confederate picket lines faced one another on a line many miles long and running between Charles Town and Harpers Ferry. Then the massive Federal Army that had been resting on the Maryland side of the Potomac finally bestirred itself. A sizeable force crossed the Potomac at Shepherdstown under Andrew Humphreys, the other from their Bolivar Heights encampment near Harpers Ferry, under the command of Winfield Hancock. The latter force of some 9000 men drove in Confederate pickets from Halltown back to Charles Town. There they positioned four guns and some defense provided by the locally raised 12th Virginia Cavalry regiment. That small group faced and held off for some four hours on the edge of Charlestown a force three to four times greater than their own.
Once the size of the Confederate force was ascertained, helped by some spy work from African-American Charles Henry Trueman and local Unionist, Horatio Riddle, Gen. Hancock withdrew his force back to their camp at Bolivar Heights. William McCarter and St. Clair Mulholland of the 150th Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment took away two completely different memories of that first day in combat.
October 14 — Still on picket. This morning I saw a captive balloon anchored over the Yankee camp in the direction of Harper’s Ferry. Balloon reconnoitering seems to be a safe way of making observations of an enemy’s forces, movements, and encampments, and where the country is level and not too much wooded. October 15th The Confederate picket ran from Walpers Crossroad and railroad in Kearneysville to Berry’s Ferry with the main camp on Berryville Pike near Rippon on the farms of Mr. Frame and Mr. Fleming. This brigade, consisting of the Twelfth, Seventh, Sixth, and part of the Second Virginia Cavalries, was held to support the picket in rear of the town. The 12th Va. Cavalry, on the other hand, picketed at Charlestown with four artillery pieces: The Twelfth Virginia Cavalry was under the command of Lieut. Col. R. H. Burks. Capt. B. H. Smith, Jr. commanded the the Richmond Howitzers, using two, 10-pounder Parrotts and one from Watson’s battery. Lieut. J. W. Carter, manned one three-inch rifle gun provided by Roger Preston Chew’s Artillery.
October 16th 6:30 AM:
Left camp at 6:30 on Bolivar Heights – joined pickets at Halltown continued towards Charlestown. The reconnaissance was made by the First Division, Second Corps, reinforced by Campbell’s company of Horse Artillery and Tompkin’s Rhode Island Battery and a squadron of cavalry. The column soon struck the enemy’s picket which, after a few shots, retired towards the village of Charlestown. The advance of our column encountered the enemy’s pickets beyond Halltown, drove them in, and pursued until, when within short artillery range of the high ground this side of Charlestown, the enemy was found posted. Our cavalry under the command of General T. T. Munford retired before this force until they reached a point about half a mile below Charles Town, known as the Old Fair Grounds.
Here a section of Chew’s Battery under Lieutenant J. W. Carter and two guns of the Richmond Howitzers, and a third company under Captain B. H. Smith were all placed in position. The Federal batteries went into position near some large trees on Butler’s Hill, below Charlestown along the Pike. The Confederates opened fire upon us with artillery. (We) opened on the enemy, who had planted their batteries on the hill about three quarters of a mile below, known as Butler’s Hill. Shells began to fly and were seen bursting among the guns.
Then the order to advance; and when volunteers were called for to go ahead and tear down the fences, every one was anxious to be first to rush into what would seem to be a dangerous duty. How they made the fences fly and clear the way! Then the advance in the clear, bracing air. Oh, it was glorious war at last! Our lieutenant-colonel (St. Clair Mulholland) at the top of his voice shouted, “Steady, men, steady.” This was sufficient, no more “dodging” afterwards. The Confederates opened fire from four guns, and deployed dismounted cavalry as skirmishers in their front and flanks. The shell hit several hundred feet beyond, injuring no one, not even bursting. It came from a Rebel battery in a clump of woods on the other side of Charlestown hitherto unseen by us. The ball was now opened by the enemy.
Our horse artillery battery, supported by Capt. M. A. Reno’s First Cavalry, then engaged the enemy. “Boom, boom, boom,” was the reply from three guns of our artillery. The cannons shook the earth and sent howling and screeching missiles through the air into the very center of the town. The artillery men had fired three spherical case shot. This artillery round was a kind of shell, varying in size and powers of destruction. It contained from 50-100 musket balls, all connected or run together, in the center of which was a heavy charge of powder. The fuse, like that of a regular shell, was ignited when the shot left the gun. It caused the missile to burst in a designated area after the range of the place had been obtained. The length or form of the fuse was so regulated that the explosion of the shot took place exactly where and when it was intended to do, hurling the musket balls in every direction, each one of them being as deadly as if discharged from a rifle. After the discharge of the three shots, all was still and quiet for a moment. The gunners keenly followed with their eyes, as best they could through the smoke, their messengers of death until they were lost to view in the streets of the ill-fated town, where they were expected to explode. No reply whatever came from the Rebel battery on the opposite hill beyond Charlestown. Nor was there any advance made by his infantry to capture or attack our artillery. A moment longer, then “Boom, boom, boom,” from three more of our guns. This noise was followed by the same anxious gaze of the gunners looking for the results of their fire. They did not long remain in suspense.
Roger Preston Chew of the Confederate battery wrote:
A severe engagement between the artillery on either side took place at this point, although the enemy were greatly superior in number and guns. About ten minutes later, during which time our cannonade had ceased, a dense volume of smoke, then flame, burst high up in the air. It was located about at the center of town, threatening destruction all around. This seemed to arouse the enemy. Their battery, hitherto almost silent, opened a rapid and steady fire on ours, making the affair for a while an artillery duel. With four pieces of artillery, admirably handled, these gallant officers and men held at bay for four hours the advance of McClellan’s grand army.
The Rebels, now seeming to have got our exact range of our battery, commenced throwing solid shot, undoubtedly with the object of dismounting our guns. Our gunners worked with double energy. Up to this time, none of our artillerymen had been killed or hurt. But very soon afterwards, it was my own painful experience, as well as that of the great majority of my regiment, to witness the almost instant death of one of our brave artillerymen.
When in the act of sponging out one of the guns, a solid shot from the Rebel battery hit him fair and square, tearing completely away both legs close up to his body. He was carried to the rear of my own regiment, a little behind the battery on lower ground, where he died in a very few minutes without uttering a word. He was rolled up on his “Winding Sheet,” his blanket, and left on the field to be buried in his soldier’s grave, after the action was over, a martyr to the cause of liberty and humanity. A few seconds afterwards, another missile of the same description and from the same source, took the entire head off of one of his comrades manning another of the guns, as clean as if cut off with a knife or axe. His body was not moved from where it fell during our stay on that part of the field of strife. Ten minutes after this occurrence, two more artillery men had been severely wounded, one losing a hand, and the other run over by the wheel of a gun carriage changing position. There were four casualties in this battery alone, two of them being sadly and fearfully fatal.
McCarter’s commander Mulholland recalled differently:
Shells were screaming and bursting and the guns roaring and echoing. But while men were killed and wounded in the batteries, so far as the command was concerned the fight amounted to but sound and smoke, for not a man of the regiment was hit (The battery was not in his regiment.-JS). The force of the enemy proved to be but one battery of artillery supported by some cavalry and, after a vigorous exchange of shots, retired before the advancing infantry. Column was formed again and the march to Charlestown resumed. When passing the spot where the batteries stood the men had a chance to see a little of the horrors as well as the glories of a fight. Men were already digging shallow graves to which to bury bleeding masses of human flesh and bones that a few moments before had been men full of life and vigor, standing by their guns and in turn hurling death and defiance. The wounded were being carried to the rear on stretchers from which warm blood was dripping. Mammoth trees had been pierced through by the shells; and the earth was rent and torn in all directions. The Confederates, considering their numbers, had made a most gallant defense, and only yielded ground when the long line of Union infantry advanced. The battery that had fought the Union guns so nobly proved to be the Richmond Howitzer Artillery, commanded by Captain B. H. Smith, Jr. The brave fellow with his leg shot off was lying by the road side rejoicing that his guns got away safely. One gun of our (Confederate) battery and three pieces of the Richmond Howitzers fought them and held them in check until our ammunition was exhausted. We soon ascertained that the enemy had been driven away by the fire of our artillery, together with the threatened attacks by the infantry. His force only consisted of the artillery already referred to, and with two or three regiments of cavalry.
The town was at once taken possession of and the troops suitably disposed for defense. The command remained in Charlestown until about 2 pm on the 16th. We then retired from action, as it is perfectly indiscreet to try to hold a position without ammunition, especially under fire. The Yankees advanced as far as Charlestown. Toward evening our infantry advanced and occupied the heights surrounding the town, within artillery range.
Gen. Hancock reported that his successful count of the Confederate numbers was helped by his balloon but also by two good spies – Charles Henry Trueman, but who was a freed African-American from Pennsylvania who was captured by men in Munford’s brigade – and a local man named Horatio Riddle, whose place was located near Rippon and almost adjacent to Gen. Munford’s camp for his full brigade. Trueman escaped over to Hancock’s camp.
Charles Aglionby summarized that night in his diary:
There was considerable firing near Charlestown with cannon. Some few killed and wounded. A skirmish took place at Elk Branch church. One Yankee shot in the arm.
Captain Knott lightly wounded on the point of the shoulder. A body of cavalry were in our lower field in the evening – about thirty Yankee cavalry passed thru Mr. Moore’s and Mr. Ranson’s field in sight of our house. The retiring cavalry and artillery of the Confederates passed before our house. That night the Federals bivouacked on their left towards Berryville on the site of the hanging of martyr John Brown.
The regiment bivouacked in the field where old John Brown had been hanged, and great interest was manifested when the men learned of the fact. After dark, the rain fell in torrents, soaking everyone. Lieutenant Frank T. Quinlan was sent out in command of the picket, and reported next morning that his line had been charged in the darkness by a flock of sheep with, it was thought, a serious loss of life on behalf of the latter. Remaining in the town until evening of the following day, the whole command started on the return to Harper’s Ferry and camped in the fields near Halltown during the night. Quite a jolly evening it was. Everyone was in overflowing spirits. The camp fires crackled on all sides. Plenty of fence rails and even fresh bread seemed to come from somewhere, and fresh pork was plentiful. The regiment had not lost a man, to be sure, but had seen a genuine fight, heard the scream of the shells and seen a caisson blown up and men knocked over. Surely it was a taste of real war and now everyone could almost begin to feel like veterans.
(1) POST – The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Pt. 1 2753 words. (Repost from 5.17.2016)
(2) POST – The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Pt. 2. 3275 words.
(3) POST – The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Pt. 3. 2933 words.
(4) POST – The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Pt. 4. 5470 words.
(5) POST – The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Pt. 5 – Conclusion. 10,449 words.
UPDATED: The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Pt. 5 – Conclusion TRT: 29:00/53:34 (incl. Credits). Click Here.
The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Part 4 – Skirmish TRT: 23:35/33:48 (incl. Credits). Click Here.
The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Part 3 TRT: 14:08/26:14 (incl. Credits). Click Here.
The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Part 2 TRT: 21:48/27:40 (incl. Credits). Click Here.
The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Part 1. TRT: 17:25/21:14 (incl. Credits). Click Here.
Charles Aglionby Papers and Civil War Diary, Volume 2 Jefferson County Museum, Charles Town, WV.
Ambler, Anne W. (1971). “Diary of Anne Madison Willis Ambler (1836-1888): A Civil War Experience.” (submitted by her granddaughter, Anne Madison Ambler Baylor Mrs. Robert Garnet Baylor). Magazine of the Historical Society of Jefferson County.” Vol. Volume XXXVII. Charles Town, WV: Jefferson County Historical Society, p. 29.
Ames, Mary C. (1872). “Eirene, Or A Woman’s Right.” New York, NY: G. P. Putnam & Sons. googlebooks.com 5 February 2003 Web. 5 March 2016. pp. 155-177.
Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.” Richmond, VA: B. F. Johnson Publishing. archive.org 26 October 2004 Web. 20 June 2016.
Chew, Roger P. (1911). “Military Operations in Jefferson County, Virginia (and West Va.) 1861-1865.” [s.l.]: Charles Town, WV: published by authority of Jefferson County Camp, U.C.V. [by] Farmers Advocate Printing. pp. 36-37. archive.org 26 October 2004 Web. 20 June 2016.
Marmion, Annie P. (1959).”Under Fire: An Experience in the Civil War.” William V. Marmion, Jr. editor. self-published.
McCarter, William. (1996). “My Life in the Irish Brigade The Civil War Memoirs of Private William McCarter, 116th Pennsylvania Infantry.” edited by Kevin E. O’Brien. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books Group. googlebooks.com 5 February 2003 Web. 5 March 2016.
Mulholland, St. Clair Augustin. (1899). “The story of the 116th Regiment, Pennsylvania Infantry. War of secession, 1862-1865.” [Philadelphia, F. McManus, jr., & co.]. archive.org 26 October 2004 Web. 20 June 2016.
Neese, George. (1911). “Three years in the Confederate horse artillery.” New York, Washington: The Neale Publishing Co. archive.org 26 October 2004 Web. 20 June 2016.
Charles Henry Trueman – The New York Times, October 22, 1862 nytimes.com 12 November 1996 Web. 20 June 2016.
FROM BOLIVAR HEIGHTS.; The Story of a Free Negro–His Estimate of the Rebel Strength–Gen. Stuart’s Raid-Rebel Fears and Feelings.Published: October 22, 1862, The New York Times, October 22, 1862 nytimes.com 12 November 1996 Web. 20 June 2016.
wvgeohistory.org 5 October 2010 Web. 20 June 2016 (Map Gallery):
fold3.com 16 September 2011 Web 20 June 2016:
1860 Census, Jefferson County, p. 137. Fleming, Solomon (b. ~1809), Fleming, Jane (b. ~1840), Fleming, Sarah A (b. ~1810);
1860 Census, Jefferson County, Charlestown, p. 172 Riddle, Marry (b. ~1852), Riddle, Anna S. (b. ~1857), Riddle, Horatio R. (b. ~1812);
1860 Census, Jefferson County, Rippon, p. 131. Frame, Frances P (b. ~1811);
Colored Troops Service Records:
Henry Trueman 5th U.S. colored Heavy Artillery
The Official Record of the War of the Rebellion Report of W. Hancock, Chapter XIX, Official Record, Series I, Part 2, Vol. 19. Hancock, Caldwell, Zook, Munford reports. pp. 91-97.
From the Report of Winfield Hancock:
CHARLESTOWN, October , 1862. I have it from reliable authority, I think, that the enemy are in force at Winchester and Bunker Hill. My informant, a good Union man, certified to by Colonel Miles, a Northern man, says they are sending their wagons here every day and taking all the flour and wheat they can find in the country. They are destroying the railroad between here and Winchester. They were expected here to-day for the same purpose.
He says there are from (one-two regiment) 800 to 1,000 cavalry about here and five guns. They have an encampment of cavalry of several regiments 3 miles from here,
on the Berryville road. This gentleman says there is a very large force between Bunker Hill and Winchester, although he says he thinks they are packing up, preparatory to a move. This gentleman says he is certain that the enemy were at Winchester yesterday. Your obedient servant, WINFD S. HANCOCK, Brigadier- General, Commanding Division. Major WALKER. P. S.This gentleman is Mr. Riddle, brother-in-law to Colonel Strother (Porte Crayon). – p. 91.
Hancock’s full report:
HEADQUARTERS HANCOCKS DIVISION, Harpers Ferry, Va., October 22, 1862. MAJOR: On the 16th instant, in obedience to instructions, I marched toward Charlestown, Va., with my division and 1,500 men of other divisions, under command of Col. NY. H. Lee, Twentieth Massachusetts Volunteers, and a force of cavalry, with a battery of four guns (horse artillery), Colonel Devin being in command thereof. The advance, under Maj. C. J. Whiting, Second Regiment Cavalry, consisting of portions of the First, Second, Fifth, and Sixth Regular Cavalry, with the horse artillery battery of four guns, under command of Lieut. George Dickenson, Fourth Regiment of Artillery, started at daylight, and was immediately followed by the command. The advance of our column encountered the enemy’s pickets beyond Halltown, drove them in, and pursued until, w hen within short artillery range of the high ground this side of Charlestown, the enemy was found posted. He opened fire upon us with artillery. Our horse artillery battery, supported by Capt. M. A. Reno’s First Cavalry, then engaged the enemy, who opened fire from five guns, and deployed dis- mounted cavalry as skirmishers on their front and flanks. The infantry was brought up as soon as practicable and deployed, and our batteries placed in position. An advance was immediately made, Capt. William W. Tompkins battery, Third Regiment Artillery [John A. Tompkins battery, A, First Rhode Island], opening at the same time. We soon ascertained that the enemy had been driven away by the fire of our artillery, together with the threatened attack by the infantry. his force only consisted of the artillery already referred to, with two or three regiments of cavalry. The town was at once taken possession of and the troops suitably disposed for defense. Toward evening our infantry advanced and occupied the heights surrounding the town, within artillery range. The infantry was afterward withdrawn, and the roads guarded by the cavalry. A reconnaissance was then made a distance of several miles, in the direction of Bunker Hill, by the cavalry, under Capt. M. A. Reno, supported by Maj. C. J. Whiting’s command. Major-General McClellan, commanding the Army of the Potomac, having arrived in Charlestown shortly after we had occupied it, directed the movements last referred to, and, having obtained all the information for which the reconnaissance was made. No further operations were undertaken. The command remained in Charlestown until about 2 p. m. the next day, when we received orders to return. It then marched to Halltown, and occupied that position during the night. The next morning, after an examination of the roads, and it being found there was no enemy in front, the command returned to Harpers Ferry. Early on the morning of the 16th, I sent one squadron up the railroad as far as Kearneysville. It proceeded to that point without meeting General Humphreys command, as was expected, and, having performed the task assigned it, returned to camp, the commander making his report direct to the commander of the Second Corps d’Armee. I regret I have not the name of this officer. While in Charlestown I appointed Col. J. R. Brooke, of the Fifty-third Pennsylvania Volunteers, military governor, the better to preserve order. About 100 officers and soldiers of the Confederate Army were found in the town, consisting entirely, it is believed, of surgeons, hospital attendants, convalescents, and sick. Twenty-six were sent to the provost-marshal at Harpers Ferry, and 38 wounded and unable to be removed, were paroled. Time did not permit the paroling of all who were severely wounded, as they were scattered throughout the town, requiring more time than we had for the purpose, to find them. The casualties on either side were about equal, and were not numerous. I found some parts of artillery carriages belonging to the enemy, which I destroyed. The officers and troops behaved well. Col. J. R. Brooke, commanding the advance guard of infantry; Maj. C. J. Whiting, Second Regiment Cavalry; Capt. M. A. Reno, First Regiment Cavalry, commanding the supports to the horse artillery; First Lieut. George Dickenson, Fourth Artillery, commanding that battery; Second Lieut. Arthur Morris, Fourth Artillery, temporarily attached to said battery, and Capt. C. H. Morgan, Fourth Artillery, chief of artillery of the corps, who made the dispositions of the artillery, are the only officers whom it is thought deserve special mention. First Lieuts. N. Bowen and J. H. Wilson, Topographical Engineers, were present, and afforded me valuable assistance. Herewith please find the paroles of prisoners, and the reports of Brig. Gen. J. C. Caldwell, commanding Second Brigade; Col. S. K. Zook, commanding Third Brigade; Col. W. R. Lee, commanding Third Brigade, Second Division, and Maj. C. J. Whiting, Second Cavalry; also report of Lieutenant Ritzius, provost-marshal of this division. I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, WINFD S. HANCOCK, Brigadier- General, Commanding Division.
SUPPLEMENTAL From book by St. Clair Mulholland on the night after the skirmish:
The regiment bivouacked in the field where old John Brown had been hanged, and great interest was manifested when the men learned of the fact. After dark the rain fell in torrents, soaking everyone. Lieutenant Frank T. Quinlan was sent out in command of the picket, and reported next morning that his line had been charged in the darkness by a flock of sheep with, it was thought, a serious loss of life on behalf of the latter. Remaining in the town until evening of the following day, the whole command started on the return to Harper’s Ferry and camped in the fields near Halltown during the night. Quite a jolly evening it was. Everyone was in overflowing spirits. The camp fires crackled on all sides. Plenty of fence rails and even fresh bread seemed to come from somewhere, and fresh pork was plentiful. The regiment had not lost a man, to be sure, but had seen a genuine fight, heard the scream of the shells and seen a caisson blown up and men knocked over. Surely it was a taste of real war and now everyone could almost begin to feel like veterans.
While stationed at Harper’s Ferry a call was made for volunteers to fill up the depleted ranks of some of the field batteries of the regular army. Twelve men of the One Hundred and Sixteenth volunteered, and were transferred to Battery A, Fourth Artillery, where they served until the close of the war. Of the number, Michael Hickey, William Miller, Joseph Meander, and John McCormack were wounded at Gettysburg. – p. 38.
SUPPLEMENTAL From George Baylor’s “From Bull Run to Bull Run” on the skirmish:
On the 18th (September), Company B was ordered back to Harper’s Ferry, with instructions to picket the Potomac at that point and report any movement of the enemy in that direction.
This position was held by our company until the enemy crossed in force and drove us back to Halltown. We remained at Halltown until the i6th of October, when a column of the enemy under General Hancock advanced, and, after a brisk fight just east of Charlestown, our small force of cavalry under Colonel Mumford was driven back, and Charlestown was occupied by the enemy.
On the afternoon of the 17th, General Hancock withdrew his command to Harper’s Ferry, and Charlestown was again occupied by us and pickets posted at Halltown. General McClellan having now crossed the Potomac east of the Blue Ridge, began his march southward, and General Lee, who had been resting his army near Bunker Hill, moved across the mountains to confront him, but our company was left at its post.
On November 1st, while our company reserve was occupying a little woods on the Brown farm, we were surprised in our camp in the early morning by a dash made by the enemy’s cavalry. Our horses were unsaddled and unbridled and tied to trees. Awakening from our slumbers and realizing the situation, we fought the enemy on foot and drove them out of camp and over a hill in our front; then, while keeping up a fire with a few men, the others retired to camp, saddled, bridled, and mounted, and, making a charge on the enemy, drove them back to Halltown. Just in front of Mr. Shaeffer’s house my horse received a fatal wound and I a slight one in the calf of my leg, which was not sufficient to render me hors de combat, pp. 73-74.
SUPPLEMENTAL From Roger Preston Chew’s “Military operations in Jefferson County, Virginia (and West Va.) 1861-1865” on the skirmish:
MARKER NUMBER TWENTY-ONE – Artillery Duel at Old Fair Grounds Near Charles Town.
After the battle of Sharpsburg, McClellan remained north of the Potomac for about thirty days, when he crossed below Harpers Ferry with his artillery on October 16, 1863. To screen that movement he sent Hancock with a large force of infantry, cavalry and artillery to make a reconnaissance in the direction of Charles Town. Our cavalry under the command of General T. T. Munford retired before this force until they reached a point about half a mile below Charles Town, known as the Old Fair Grounds. Here a section of Chew’s Battery under Lieutenant J. W.
Carter and two guns of the Richmond Howitzers, third company under Captain B. H. Smith were placed in position, and opened on the enemy, who had planted their batteries on the hill about three quarters of a mile below, known as Butler’s Hill.
A severe engagement between the artillery on either side took place at this point, although the enemy were greatly superior in number and guns. The Confederate guns soon got the range and inflicted serious damage upon the enemy. The resistance on their part was so bold and determined that the Federals were delayed for several hours, and after the retirement of the guns they occupied Charles Town until the next day when they retired to Harpers Ferry.
Lieutenant J. W. Carter, who was greatly distinguished as an artillery officer and a man of superb courage and daring, was noticed in Official Report by General Munford, and recommended for promotion. Our forces retired towards Berryville undisturbed by the enemy. – pp. 36-37.
Image Credits – Includes images from the corresponding video:
Mary Ames – frontispiece – “From a New England Woman’s Diary in Dixie in 1865.”
docsouth.unc.edu 19 January 2001 Web. 20 June 2016.
Annie Marmion from book’s frontispiece.
St. Clair Mulholland – courtesy of the US Army HEC, Carlisle, PA.
William McCarter – from book’s frontispiece: googlebooks.com 5 February 2003 Web. 5 March 2016.
Charles Aglionby – from Vol. 2, Aglionby Papers, Jefferson County Museum – Charles Town, WV.
Semblance of Anne Madison Willis Ambler – see under wikigallery “Lady Writing a Letter.”
detail, Thomas F. Meagher The Huntington Library, San Marino, California.
Heros Von Borcke – Uploaded by bruceyrock632
fold3.com 16 September 2011 Web 20 June 2016.
George Neese – vagenweb.org/shenandoah 7 August 2008 Web. 20 June 2016.
hathitrust.org 9 September 2008, Web. 20 June 2016:
West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey: [County reports and maps.] Jefferson, Berkeley and Morgan counties. ([Wheeling, W. Va., Wheeling News Litho. Co., 1916.]) hathitrust.org 9 September 2008, Web. 20 June 2016.
The Library of Congress loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 20 June 2016:
(extreme detail). soldier in rear, right background)
Title: A lone grave on battle-field of Antietam
Summary: Photograph shows five soldiers near a single grave for Pvt. John Marshall, Company L, 28th Pennsylvania Volunteers under a tree on the battlefield of Antietam. Contributor Names: Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882, photographer, Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882, copyright claimant Created / Published: [1862 Sept.]
[Map of Loudoun County and part of Clarke County, Va., Jefferson County and part of Berkeley County, W. Va., and parts of Montgomery and Frederick counties, Md.]. Brown, Samuel Howell. Hoffmann, Paul. Created / Published 
Title: [The 1st Virginia Cavalry at a halt]
Creator(s): Waud, Alfred R. (Alfred Rudolph), 1828-1891, artist
Date Created/Published: [1862 September]
Title: Map of Jefferson County, Virginia
Summary: Shows Jefferson County before the formation of West Virginia in 1863.
Contributor Names: Brown, S. Howell.
Created / Published [S.l., s.n.,] 1852. ;
(Unidentified soldier in Confederate uniform]
Title: [Unidentified soldier in Richmond Howitzers uniform]
Creator(s): Rees, Charles R., photographer
Title: [Unidentified soldier in 1st Virginia cavalry great coat]
Date Created/Published: [between 1861 and 1865]
Title: [Spotsylvania Court House, Va., vicinity. Burial of soldier by Mrs. Alsop’s house, near which Ewell’s Corps attacked the Federal right on May 19, 1864]
Summary: Photograph from the main eastern theater of war, Grant’s Wilderness Campaign, May-June 1864.
Contributor Names: O’Sullivan, Timothy H., 1840-1882, photographer
Created / Published: [1864 May 20]
Title: Military map showing the topographical features of the country adjacent to Harper’s Ferry Va. : including Maryland, Loudoun, and Bolivar Heights, and portions of South and Short Mountains, with the positions of the defensive works : also the junction of the Potomac & Shenandoah Rivers, and their passage through the Blue Ridge
Contributor Names: Weyss, J. E., Michler, N. (Nathaniel); United States. Army of the Potomac. Created / Published [Washington, D.C.?] : Engineer Dept., Army of the Potomac, [1863?]
findagrave.org 2 February 2001 Web. 20 June 2016:
Rufus D. Pettit – Birth: Jul. 4, 1825, Bridgewater, Oneida County, New York, USA
Death: Oct. 24, 1891, New York, USA
wikipedia.org 27 November 2002 Web. 20 June 2016:
Marcus A. Reno
Born November 15, 1834
Died March 30, 1889 (aged 54)
Thomas T. Munford
Born March 29, 1831
Died February 27, 1918 (aged 86)
Field artillery in the American Civil War.
Roger Preston Chew
Born April 9, 1843
Loudoun County, Virginia
Died March 16, 1921 (aged 77)
Charles Town, West Virginia
Winfield Scott Hancock
Born February 14, 1824
Died February 9, 1886 (aged 61)
Governors Island, New York
Andrew A. Humphreys
Born November 2, 1810
Died December 27, 1883 (aged 73)
The balloon Washington aboard the George Washington Parke Custis;
USS George Washington Parke Custis (1861)
“John Brown ascending the scaffold preparatory to being hanged“, from the December 17, 1859 edition of Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper.
Victoria and Albert Museum, London, UK vam.ac.uk 14 September 2008 Web. 20 June 2016:
John Constable – Sketch at Hampstead, Evening (1820)
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 10 May 2016:
Union Soldiers Accepting A Drink (1865) – Carnegie Museum of Art – Pittsburgh, PA;
A Misty Day, November, date unknown –
Gathering Autumn Leaves, Date unknown
wikimedia.org 24 July 2003 Web. 20 June 2016:
Winslow Homer – Camp Fire (1880) – Metropolitan Museum of Art
ebooks.library.cornell.edu 28 August 2004 Web. 20 June 2016:
By “A Virginian” (David Hunter Strother), “Virginia Canaan,” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine Volume 0008 Issue 43 (December 1853).
p. 24 The alarm (camp fire scene)
Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. Volume 13, Issue: 75, (Aug., 1856).
p. 313 – the battering ram
wvhistoryonview.org 9 October 2010 Web. 20 June 2016 (by Thomas and Walter Biscoe, taken in 1884):
archive.org 26 October 2004 Web. 20 June 2016:
“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 1.” (1887). Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co.
p. 126 – A Affair of Outposts;
p. 419 – McAllister’s Battery at Fort Donelson;
Miller, Francis Trevelyan. (1912). “The photographic history of the civil war in ten volumes.” Vol. 4. New York, NY: The Review of Reviews Co.
p. 75 – 6th Pennsylvania Cavary – Lancers in the Federal Cavalry
collection1.libraries.psu.edu 21 May 2006 Web. 20 June 2016:
(Edwin Forbes drawings and etchings taken from ‘Life Studies of the Great Army’ series, documenting military life in the Army of the Potomac.” 1876:
1. home page for Edwin Forbes etchings.
third phase moon Janet Furlong, earthsky.org 2 September 2000 Web. 20 June 2016