The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Pt. 5 – Conclusion by Jim Surkamp TRT: 28:00/53:34 (incl. Credits). Click Here.
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The Humble Harvest and Eternal Voices – Part 5
I asked how the child had been killed. The reply given was, in substance, the same as thee old man’s With both hands, she slowly and solemnly raised the blood stained cover off the little breast, saying in sobs as she did so, “Just look here.”
Deeds of valor are no longer dreams gone by. We live in knightly days; our men are dauntless men. Will there ever be one to write the life of the common soldier?
The regiment had not lost a man to be sure, but had seen a genuine fight, heard the scream of the shells, and heard a caisson blowing up and men knocked over.
Last night it rained for an hour or so. It put the ground in fine order for seeding. I sent the wagon to Mr. Moore and 27 bushels by measure. No military to be seen on our side of the hill.
Anne Willis Ambler sees all from her parents farm Rock Hall: Pa is becoming rather tired of our South Carolina soldier. Thinks he is sufficiently well to leave.
And Heros Von Borcke keeps one eye out for an empty seat at a dinner table: It was a sparkling beautiful morning of autumn and I enjoyed the ride home the more for being fortunate enough firing from my horses back with my revolver to kill a grey squirrel, which, as our mess arrangements had been thrown into utter disorder by the events of the last two days, was gladly welcomed the same evening on our dinner table.
October 17th 1862 – The Day after Battle William McCarter sees Lillie in Charlestown and the price of war. Farms continue their ways. And both armies move down the valley to clash again. The day before, Charles Aglionby at his Mt. Pleasant farm had written in his diary:
The Yankees drove in the Confederate pickets. There was considerable firing near Charlestown with cannon. Some few killed & wounded. A body of cavalry were in our lower field in the evening about thirty Yankee cavalry passed through Mr. Moore’s & Mr. Ranson’s field in sight of our house. The retiring cavalry and artillery of the Confederates passed before our house. October 17th Friday Last night it rained for an hour or so. It put the ground in fine order for seeding. Some cannonading was heard at different times at points from Shepherdstown to Leetown. Miss Belle Compton stayed all night and spent the day.
Last night (October 16-17th) was about as dark as they generally get in this country. I was on guard duty during the fore part of the night and it rained very hard all through my whole watch. We had no fire until after midnight, the ground, wood, and everything else being soaking wet; even the darkness felt like a wet blanket. I made my bed on top of a rock pile. It was a little hardish at first, but it was the driest place.
An intelligent negro arrived here this morning from Berryville. He left there last night. He said there is one regiment of cavalry and four pieces of artillery between here and Berryville; at and near Berryville, the Second, Third, Sixth, Seventh, Ninth, and Twelfth Virginia Cavalries;
The next day, when we received orders to return, it then marched to Halltown, and occupied that position during the night. The next morning (Oct. 18th), after an examination of the roads, and it being found there was no enemy in front, the command returned to Harper’s Ferry. I appointed Col. J. R. Brooke, of the Fifty-third Pennsylvania Volunteers, military governor, the better to preserve order. About 100 officers and soldiers of the Confederate Army were found in the town, consisting entirely, it is believed, of surgeons, hospital attendants, convalescents, and sick. Twenty-six were sent to the provost-marshal at Harper’s Ferry, and 38 wounded and unable to be removed, were paroled. Time did not permit the paroling of all who were severely wounded, as they were scattered throughout the town, requiring more time than we had for the purpose, to find them.
My God, My Father, while I stray/ Far from my home in life’s rough way/ Oh teach me from my heart to say: “Thy Will Be Done.”
Though dark my path and sad my lot/ Let me be still and murmur not;
Or breathe the prayer divinely taught But civil war, be it long or short Thy Will Be Done.”
But tho’ in lonely grief I sigh/ For friends beloved no longer nigh/ Submissive still I would reply/ Thy Will Be Done.
Oct 16, 1862 in the late afternoon: Pvt. McCarter was sent into town to assist Brooke’s men in arresting and paroling wounded Confederate soldiers in Charlestown. He wrote later of what he saw: War is truly said to be a sad necessity. But civil war, be it long or short and under almost any circumstance, is indeed sadder and more desolating in its effects. History may record the ravages and desolations made and left in the tracks of the bloody feet of war, even in this most unnatural contest of our own.
Painters of the rarest talents may one day paint the destruction in masterly styles and glowing colors. Yet, all these efforts fall far short in showing to the eye or to the mind war’s real effects upon people and country. Our attention was attracted to a three-story house, one of the better class of dwellings there, by crowds of soldiers and a few citizens going into it. These visitors came immediately out again with dull and saddened countenances and, in. Or a few cases, with tearful eyes. the front door had apparently been smashed and laid about in pieces upon the cobblestone pavement opposite. we stopped and, following the example of others, entered the house and then the room on the first floor. Merciful heaven what a sight met our eyes. God save me the pain of another’s such sight as long as I live. The room was long and narrow. From one end to the other, regardless of those present, paced a lady apparently not over thirty years of age. She appeared to be in terrible grief, refusing entirely any comfort or consolation from those of her friends and neighbors there congregated. The woman was clad in black, In some manner her dress had been almost torn from her body.
She would now and then burst out into heart-rending fits of weeping, exclaiming, “Oh, my child, My Lilly.” Not knowing exactly the cause of the lady’s sorrow, I quietly inquired of an old man leaning against the door what it was. He replied that her child, had been killed about an hour ago by a ball from the federal battery. The round passed through a window at which the child had been standing, looking down at soldiers on the street. At one end of the room, a few women and several members of our Irish Brigade were gathered around what seemed to me to be a melodeon, gazing sadly and silently at something lying on its top. As soon as opportunity presented to approach the spot, we did so. There on the top of the instrument laid a sweet little girl. Cold and stiff and dead. Except for the dead yet still beautiful, innocent pale face, all the rest of the body was covered with a large sheet, or white quilt.
On this quilt, particularly that part of it over the child’s breast were large spots of blood. A young colored woman was cutting the long. down curls from the child’s head and perfectly saturating them with her tears. Approaching still nearer, I asked how the child had been killed. The reply given was in substance the same as the old man’s. With both hands, she slowly and solemnly raised the blood stained cover off the little breast, saying in sobs as she did so, “Just look here.” My companion and I gazed for a moment at the object in horror and dismay, unable to utter a word. then turning slowly and sadly away, we left the room. My heart was too full and my eyes positively refused to shelter any longer streams of hot water that. burst from them. The ball had struck the child on the left breast, tearing it and ripping the left arm completely away. Only a small portion of the right breast remained. It presented a most ghastly, sickening appearance. Yet, that dear little face seemed as calm and as peaceful as in a quiet, sweet slumber. Oh, cruel, cruel war! must the innocent suffer with the guilty.
Friday, October 17th: Yesterday evening there came the news that two fights had occurred in town and our men had to retreat, leaving the enemy in possession. They occupied the “Inn” and advanced on every road, driving in our pickets early this morning. Nat left us to search for his company but returned and passed the night. Saturday, October 18th: The news is that the Yankees have fallen back from Charlestown and our troops are advancing. About 2,000 cavalry passed by our gate.
The forage masters were here again today. Pa sold them a barrel of whiskey for $10 gallon. October 16th Nat came in just as we got up from breakfast but there were some nice hot rolls brought in for him which he enjoys immensely. Told me about his trip into Maryland and Pennsylvania with General Stuart. A man came here who has been getting Pa’s hay and insisted he had a right to Pa’s hay, but Pa got very angry and got his pistol and said he would shoot him if he did and when Nat went out the man pretended he was satisfied. The man departed but we were all frightened and fear he may turn up again. Pa called him a scoundrel. Had so much to write about today I forgot to say a little on the uninteresting subject of its being my 24th birthday.
George Neese writes from camp: This morning we moved to our old camp again, four miles from Charlestown on the Berryville pike. This afternoon the first piece was ordered to go on picket at our old post one mile below Charlestown, on the Harper’s Ferry pike. This evening we left our post and came one mile south of Charlestown and camped with the Sixth Virginia Cavalry. They had a prayer meeting in their camp in the early evening by candlelight, which I attended. The Sixth seems to be the citadel of religion of the brigade, as they have more religious service in the Sixth than in any of the other regiments, yet I do not know as the plane of practical ethics in general is any higher in this than in any of the other regiments of the brigade. I suppose that their code of imprecations is of about the same standard as that adopted by the rest of the brigade, and perhaps employed with about equal frequency.
During the recent skirmish at Charlestown, the Federals had also sent a force under Generals Andrew Humphreys and Alfred Pleasonton down Leetown Pike to try and rout out Gen. Jeb Stuart’s men, headquartered at the Dandridge’s home called The Bower; and but for making a turn with their cavalry down the wrong road near Strider’s Mill they could well have captured Stuart. Afterwards men under Confederate Gen. A.P. Hill, who had moved on down towards Berryville as the Federals advanced, told Josiah Ware at his Clarke County home, called Springfield just what had happened to Jeb Stuart:
Drawing from some of what Gen. A. P. Hill’s infantrymen men related: While cavalry General Stuart’s headquarters were at Dandridge’s in Jefferson, he was dancing with the girls when the Yankees had planned a raid and would have caught him and his staff (only they missed the road) and in the pursuit & fighting the enemy Stuart was only saved from being caught by losing his hat & jumping with his horse a garden railing. Stuart’s men had, indeed, completed a second full-blown ball at The Bower just on the night of the 15th that extended into the wee hours of the 16th.
German-born Heros Von Borcke, one of J.E.B. Stuart’s staff officers, confirms Stuart’s very close call after a good party:The beams of the morrow’s sun were just making their way through the intricacies of the foliage above our heads, as we lay in camp resting from the fatigues of the night’s dancing, when a blast of the bugle brought the whole command to their feet, with its summons to new and serious activity. We found a full division of the Federal infantry moving upon us in admirable order, their cavalry operating on either flank, and their artillery seeking to get into position upon some heights in our front, where several pieces had already arrived and had opened a brisk and annoying fire upon our horsemen. Large clouds of dust rising all along the road towards Shepherdstown indicated the approach of other bodies of the enemy, and it was quite plain that our resistance to odds so overwhelming could only be of short duration. The Bower, where only a few hours before the violin and banjo had sent forth their enlivening strains, riding forward to the scene of action, which already resounded with wilder music. About dusk the Federals came to a halt, and, to our infinite surprise, turned slowly back for a mile and a half, where we soon saw the main body go quietly into bivouac. During the chase offered them by Gen. Humphreys and Gen. Pleasonton, Gen. Stuart and his men found themselves caught in that same rain from that day: The General then proceeded his Staff to headquarters at “The Bower,” which was only a few miles distant. Before we reached there we were overtaken by a drenching shower of rain, and we thankfully accepted Mr. Dandridge’s kind invitation upon our arrival to dry our dripping garments and warm our chilled bodies before a roaring wood fire in the large and comfortable family drawing-room. A renewed assault the next morning (Oct. 17th) put
Von Borcke with some men further south in Middleway/Smithfield to watch for the enemy. Finding none, he found another social windfall: I had not been more than an hour in the village of Smithfield when our outposts from the Shepherdstown road came galloping along in furious haste, reporting a tremendous host of cavalry right behind them in hot pursuit. The squadron had come from Harper’s Ferry along a by-road which struck the turnpike at a point about midway between Kearneysville and Smithfield. I established my men and myself at the house of an interesting young widow who, with her sister, enlivened our evening with songs and spirited discourse. The next morning we received orders to return to the Bower.
It was a sparkling beautiful morning of autumn and I enjoyed the ride home the more for being fortunate enough firing from my horseback with my revolver to kill a grey squirrel, which, as our mess arrangements had been thrown into utter disorder by the events of the last two days, was gladly welcomed the same evening on our dinner table.
A month later at Mt. Pleasant the Aglionby’s farm: Wednesday November 19th Pleasant, but a little cloudy. The hands cutting and mauling wood. Ralf doing some odd jobs, setting out cabbage stocks and fixing gate hinges. R. Bowerly and son cleaned out the pool. Captain Buck’s company went by and returned this morning and by again this evening. Mrs. A. and Frank went to Charlestown this evening. No news of any consequence from the war. Mr. Whittington is cutting up some dead trees on the halves. I went to Captain Abell’s in the afternoon, met Col. Marshall and Lieutenant Buck there. The Captain loaned me some small pieces of pork if I should ever have need for them.
Wednesday, November 19th: Mr. Thompson was here and seemed to have some hope of the war ending. He and Pa both agree that the best thing that could happen would be a reconstruction of the Union. Can it be possible? I am sure I know not but it seems not to me. I don’t see how we could ever live in peace and love one another though I am sure we can never be a great nation separate. Oh that God may bring order out of confusion and bring our once peaceful and happy country out of this cruel war.
Charles Aglionby Papers and Civil War Diary, Volume 2 – Jefferson County Museum, Charles Town, WV.
Ambler, Anne W. (1971). “Diary of Anne Madison Willis Ambler (1836-1888): A Civil War Experience.” (submitted by her granddaughter, Anne Madison Ambler Baylor – Mrs. Robert Garnet Baylor). Magazine of the Historical Society of Jefferson County.” Vol. Volume XXXVII. Charles Town, WV: Jefferson County Historical Society, pp. 28-29.
Thursday, October 16th:
Nat came in just as we got up from breakfast but there were some nice hot rolls brought in for him which he enjoys immensely. Told me about his trip into Maryland and Pennsylvania with General Stuart, took 2000 horses and burned government stores at Chambersburg. . . .They met a man with a fine horse and when told to give him up the man burst into tears, exclaiming, “Oh, don’t take poor old Billie.” Nat say they took him, of course. A man came here who has been getting Pa’s hay and insisted he had a right to Pa’s hay, but Pa got very angry and got his pistol and said he would shoot him if he did and when Nat went out the man pretended he was satisfied. The man departed but we were all frightened and fear he may turn up again . . . Pa called him a scoundrel. Had so much to write about today I forgot to say a little on the uninteresting subject of its being my 24th birthday.
(Entries for Oct. 17 and 18 – are in the main transcript)
Monday, October 20th:
I heard today of James B’s death today. He took the oath when the Yankees were in here and was taken up on conscript law and was so much distressed about it that he died the day he was to go into the army.
Wednesday, October 22nd:
Heard last night of poor Mrs. Mary Johnson losing five children with the scarlet fever. She has seven. All gone but the oldest and the youngest.
Saturday, October 25th:
Cousin Edward Willis came by to see us. Seems to be an exceedingly clever person. Says that Cousin Frank’s sentiments are precisely like Pa’s at which Pa was overjoyed as he had predicted they would be. Said he felt five years younger. Cousin Edward seems to have an impartial view and description of the war. Says it is all untrue about the Yankees not fighting that we have been taught to respect them on more battlefields than one.
Sunday, October 26th:
A company of 75 men asked to stay all night and get supper. Pa consented to let them sleep at the barn and made fires for them in the cellar and quarters for them today as it had been raining all day. Gave each man a drink., Fannie and Bertie assisted in the kitchen and were most expeditious. The men arrived about half past five and by half past eight, they had gotten their suppers.
Ames, Mary C. (1872). “Eirene, Or A Woman’s Right.” New York, NY: G. P. Putnam & Sons. googlebooks.com 5 February 2003 Web. 5 March 2016. pp. 155-177.
McCarter, William. (1996). “My Life in the Irish Brigade – The Civil War Memoirs of Private William McCarter, 116th Pennsylvania Infantry.” edited by Kevin E. O’Brien. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books Group. googlebooks.com 5 February 2003 Web. 5 March 2016.
Mulholland, St. Clair Augustin. (1899). “The story of the 116th Regiment, Pennsylvania Infantry. War of secession, 1862-1865.” [Philadelphia, F. McManus, jr., & co.]. archive.org 26 October 2004 Web. 20 June 2016.
George Neese . (1911). “Three years in the Confederate horse artillery.” New York, Washington: The Neale Publishing Co. archive.org 26 October 2004 Web. 20 June 2016.
Charles Henry Trueman – The New York Times, October 22, 1862 nytimes.com 12 November 1996 Web. 20 June 2016; Census Records at ancestry.com 28 October 1996 Web. 20 June 2016.
1. New York Times Report No. 1 FROM BOLIVAR HEIGHTS.; The Story of a Free Negro–His Estimate of the Rebel Strength–Gen. Stuart’s Raid-Rebel Fears and Feelings.Published: October 22, 1862, The New York Times, October 22, 1862 nytimes.com 12 November 1996 Web. 20 June 2016.
NOTE: Digitized version has been reviewed and based on fact-checking – “TRUFMAN” is corrected to “TRUEMAN,” “GECK” is corrected to “CHEW,” “PINCENEY” corrected to “PINCKNEY,” “MRS. GEN. MARDY” corrected to “MARCY,” and “FROMER” corrected to “FRAME.”
BOLIVAR HEIGHTS, ABOVE HARPER’s FERRY, Va.,
Monday evening, Oct. 20, 1862.
As a general thing, but little importance can be attached to the statements of contrabands. In addition to being naturally endowed with “gift of tongue,” their Munchausen proclivities are largely developed by contact with their white masters. In common with refugees and deserters, they are also anxious to secure the attention and treatment which the bearer of much information is expected to receive. I have, however, been conversing with an escaped free negro, who betrays such unusual intelligence and whose statements correspond so nearly with what I have previously learned, that I set him down as a truthful negro worthy of belief. His name is CHARLES HENRY TRUEMAN; he was brought up in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, learned to read and write, and nearly a year since became employed in Gen. BANKS’ Commissary Department. He was captured, five months ago, at Strasburgh, and immediately pressed into the Confederate service as a driver. Objecting to this, on the plea that he was a free man, they replied to him that “it was their say about that matter now, and he might consider himself lucky if he was not shot for having been caught in the Yankee army.” After “teaming” it three weeks, he was given to Capt. SAMUEL MARSH, of Company H, Seventh Virginia Cavalry, whose servant he continued until the time of his escape into our lines at Charlestown last Friday. Not knowing that he could read and write, he was frequently intrusted with the carrying of written messages, which he never let slip an opportunity of perusing, anxious as he was to procure all the news he could before escaping. He also learned much from conversations which he overheard between Capt. MARSH and other officers. The entire rebel army on the Upper Potomac numbers one hundred and twenty five thousand men. Gen. JACKSON has a large force at Bunker Hill. There is also another large force in the vicinity of Winchester. He does not know who commands them. There are between four and five thousand troops stationed at Smithfield, under command of Brig.-Gen. TALIAFERRO, of North Carolina; also two thousand at Leetown. The safe return of Gen. STUART from this late raid was the occasion of much joy. When our heavy firing along the Potomac was heard, a week ago Sunday, the rebels became prey to the most fearful forebodings, expecting to hear that STUART and his 2,500 followers had been intercepted and cut off. Imagine, then, their joy when they learned the next day from Leesburgh that the river had been crossed in safety, and not many hours after, saw their pet cavalrymen coming through Snicker’s Gap with one thousand Yankee horses. Gen. STUART immediately located his headquarters at Berryvllie. The stolen horses were, however, driven further forward, and quartered on Mr. FLEMING’s farm, 3 1/2 miles from Charlestown, on the Winchester road. He was here when our forces advanced last Thursday morning. The troops which met us and disputed our advance belonged to the Twelfth Virginia Cavalry, Col. MUMFORD, and are doing [???] around Charlestown. Three guns of Capt. CHEW’s Battery constituted all their artillery. Capt. CHEW, who lived below Charlestown, on the Shenandoah, was killed by our artillerists. He saw the corpse as it was being carried to Mr. FLEMING’s, a shell had entered his body below the right armpit, and passed out above the left breast. As soon as the artillery [???] opened the Second Virginia Cavalry moved to the support of the Twelfth, and soon after, his own regiment, the Seventh Virginia,, both of which were encamped in Messrs. FRAME and FLEMING’s woods, three and a half miles out of town. Word was also sent to Gen. STUART at Berryville, and he came up in the course of the day with the Sixth and Ninth Virginia Cavalry. When our forces had silenced the rebel guns, drove the Second and Twelfth Cavalry Regiments before them, and reached the village, a considerable panic occurred. The captured horses were immediately collected preparatory to being driven back to Berryville. Had we marched on immediately, he is confident we could have retaken every one of them. Our meagre knowledge of the whereabouts of the enemy would have made such an undertaking, however, extremely hazardous. On my asking him why they did not open upon us when we appeared so boldly on the high ground about the village, he replied that they were afraid to, lest their position would be revealed. In the evening (Thursday) word came that JACKSON was marching down to their support with a large body of infantry. This may have been the reason of the withdrawal of our forces on the following day. He made his escape on the next morning, taking advantage of the thick mist to creep through the rebel lines. While the battle was progressing at Sharpsburgh, he remained on the other side or the river at Shepherdstown. Every one there understood that “we (rebels) were getting badly whipped.” Such was the purport of all the conversation held by the citizens with the wounded and disabled which were being brought over. So the messengers reported. He heard one state in reply to an inquiry, that the “Yankees are cutting us all to pieces.”
Whatever the rebel Generals may say in their official dispatches, all of the soldiers who participated, know and confess that they were severely defeated.
The old fortifications at Winchester are being repaired. Several miles of the railroad track between Charlestown and Winchester have been torn up, and the iron appropriated for army use. It was currently reported that the “Yanks” had burned the bodies of the rebel dead at Antietam to avoid the trouble consequent upon interring them.
“LINCOLN’s Proclamation” is the theme of much conversation, and has caused many of the slaves to be transferred further southward. There is much apprehension among all the officers lest Richmond may be attacked by a large army while the bulk of their forces remain in Northern Virginia.
You wonder at the knowledge thus betrayed by this negro. He is certainly the most intelligent one I have met since the outbreak of the troubles, exhibiting more knowledge as regards both armies than nine-tenths of the rebel privates possess. And yet he is “too stupid” to bear arms in support of the Stars and Stripes.
Our New-York regiments are waiting anxiously the enforcement of the draft in that State when their decimated ranks are to be filled up. This is especially true of the Fifty-second, Col. FRANK; Fifty-seventh, Major CHAPMAN; Sixty-sixth, Col. PINCKNEY. I am pleased to observe that the damaging practice of filling vacant commissions with favorites, or men who will pay for a position, is rapidly giving way to the wholesome one of promoting from the rank and file those who have distinguished themselves on the battle-field. The Sixty-ninth, as you are aware, has lost nearly all its Line officers. Col. NUGENT is now filling their places with privates who have exhibited bravery while under fire. The following are his appointments thus far: From First Lieutenant to Captain, RICHARD MARONY, JOHN H. DONOVAN; from Second to First Lieutenant, JOHN TOOL, TERRENCE DUFFY; from Sergeant to Lieutenant, RICHARD KELLY, M. BRENNAN, M. MURPHY, B. O’NEILL, P. CARNEY, Sergt.-Major CALLAGHAN and Q.M. Sergt. P. BUCKLEY have been promoted to be Lieutenants. Let this worthy example be emulated in other regiments.
2. New York Times Report No. 2: (NOTE ?? question marks in the text are in the reproduced digitized version at nytimes.org).
FROM THE ARMY OF THE POTOMAC.; Advance of Our Cavalry Pickets Two Miles Into Virginia. The Rebels in Force This Side of Charlestown. JACKSON STILL AT BUNKER’S HILL, A Successful Expedition After Rebel Cavalry. Thirty-two Captured and Several Killed and Wounded. SPECIAL DISPATCH FROM HARPER’S FERRY LATEST REPORTS FROM HEADQUARTERS. SPECIAL DISPATCH FROM FREDERICK. Published: October 22, 1862. The New York Times, October 22, 1862 nytimes.com 12 November 1996 Web. 20 June 2016
WASHINGTON, Tuesday, Oct. 21.
The following dispatch has just been received from our special correspondent at Harper’s Ferry:
Nine o’clock P.M. Our cavalry pickets have been extended two miles, and are now some distance beyond Halltown, now held by our infantry.
A balloon reconnaissance was made last night, and discovered the enemy this side of Charlestown.
Deserters coming in, report JACKSON, with a large force, still in the neighborhood of Bunker’s Hill.
Capt. J.F. PELL, First Minnesota, Provost-Marshal of Harper’s Ferry; who went to Charlestown with last Thursday’s reconnaissance, while returning alone at 7, P.M., was captured by the enemy in a raid on our rear. He is a brave man, universally loved and respected.
There is great dissatisfaction in the army respecting Order No. 154, authorizing regulars to fill up their regiments from those of volunteers.
HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE POTOMAC, Tuesday Evening, Oct. 21.
An expedition started from Gen. SLOCUM’s command this morning, for the purpose of intercepting and capturing a force of rebel cavalry, under Capt. Duo, who were foraging near Lovettsville, Loudon County, Va. It was in every respect successful, but the details are not known.
We took thirty-two prisoners, among whom was the Captain, and killed ten of the enemy. Our loss was one man killed and four wounded. Due’s was an independent company, raised in Loudon County.
Mrs. Gen. MCCLELLAN and Mrs. Gen. MARCY, having finished their visit to the Army of the Potomac, left for Washington to-day.
WASHINGTON. Tuesday. Oct. 21.
We have just received the following dispatch, dated Frederick. Oct. 21 – 10 P.M.
During the recent rebel raid into this State, a wife of a National officer, the latter of whom is connected with the Potomac Home Guard, seized some ninety rifles belonging to the men and threw them into a well in a main street in this city to prevent their falling into the hands of the rebels.
It is but true to state that this lady is the wife of Lieut. [???], of the regiment referred to. Her patriotism has been the subject of warm commendation in social [???] during the week. To-day the rifles were shipped to Washington by L.E. [???], Government [???].
Capt. [???]. Provost-Marshal at Harper’s Ferry, captured by the rebels in a raid near Charlestown a few days since, was heard from to-day. He is at Richmond, in good health.
Lieut. CHURCH [???] is new acting at Marshal at Harper’s Ferry.
The case of Dr. MORAN continued to-day. Three witnesses were examined, the evidence implicating the Doctor. The case will be continued until the Commission consults with the Governor of the State
We may hear from a reconnaissance to-night, though it is doubtful.
A Commission appointed to appraise damages of the United States troops has been appointed in this city. It is composed of Col. LEWIS, H. BUCKLEY, Capt. JAMES A. BETTS, and Capt. [???]. It will sit for three day.
end New York Times report, October 22, 1862.
Von Borcke, Heros. (1867). “Memoirs of the Confederate war for independence.” Vol. 2 Philadelphia. PA: J. B. Lippincott & Co. archive.org 9 August 2002 Web. 20 April 2014. p. 316.
Diary of Josiah Ware of Spring Farm, Clarke County, Va. copyright Judy Ware:(with permission)
Springfield Farm January 7, 1863
My Dear Son,
Yours of October 9th has reached me and I was surprised at your saying the last letter you received from me was from W. (William) Smith, near Staunton. Kee acknowledged letters later than that. Charles has not been a prisoner and I do not know who Lt. Ware was. Jackson made a dash down the Valley; the Yankees are at Strasburg and Front Royal. Jackson came first to Front Royal – not being expected. General Ewell was in the advance and captured their pickets and the Yankees amusing themselves pitching quoits–when to their utter dismay they found the much dreaded New Orleans Tigers in their midst. Havoc, of course, ensued. Gen. Banks, hearing of their descent at Strasburg, mounted his horse – said to his landlord he had not time to settle his bill – and dashed off at full speed.
In Winchester his horse fell. He remounted and never stopped until in Martinsburg – leaving his army behind. Jackson pursued them out of Virginia capturing many prisoners, many wagons, horses, stores and medicines. Banks had the impudence to report to his government of his orderly, successful and masterly retreat; losing very few wagons, stores or horses. General [Turner] Ashby had requested me to take one of his regiments; he would assist in organizing it. He was a fine horseman, a brave man, but no drill officer and wished me with him, but while Jackson was about cannonading Harper’s Ferry, I was at home. Lee telegraphed to Jackson to fall back as quick as possible; that General McDowell from Fredricksburg and Milroy from western Virginia were on their march to meet at Strasburg and cut off his retreat. Jackson made forced marches and as his rear reached and crossed the Cedar Creek this side of Strasburg, the enemy’s advance united on the banks north of the creek. Jackson left 300 stragglers to the enemy – worn out by the previous days’ hard work. I knew nothing of the move, was cut off, and made prisoner. I was taken prisoner and carried to Strasburg – where the Provost Marshall, Capt Brown of Massachusetts, stole my horse (Cymon), saddle and bridle. All the prisoners were taken to Strasburg to make a show in marching them to Winchester, and started me on foot. We had not gone far before a rough looking young man (a cavalry private), came to me, got off his horse, and insisted on my riding his horse. I thanked him but declined. He insisted and held the bridle and stirrup for me to mount and said he would not ride if I did not – then he left the horse after I mounted and mingled and conversed freely with our men. I had been offered bundles of cigars and matches by privates on the route. When I arrived in Winchester they offered me a parole to report myself next morning at nine o’clock. I declined on the ground that it required me not to take up arms against the US but said I was willing to sign one not to take up arms while I held the parole. This was agreed to. I reported every day – then they extended it two weeks to stay home. While at home they sent their prisoners away to forts, inquired for me but my time was not out, and I escaped. It was afterwards extended to me to report at pleasure and after that, the army under General Pope moved on towards Gordonsville. In this time, Gen. Turner Ashby was killed and my scheme was broken up. The government then, instead of permitting the regiments to organize under the law and elect their officers, appointed Jones (who had been rejected by a regiment after trying him) Colonel of one of them – and Hannan (of Augusta) Colonel of the other – who was no officer at all and never will be – all this in violation of law and the regiment’s rights. Before Jackson came down, in going out of the line, I took Toledo, The Don (not broke), and Cymon, and Dr. Ganahl’s black stallion over in the mountains to Hanson Elliotts and hid them there. When I had to leave, neither The Don or the black would lead or ride and let me lead. The Don would not ride, and I had to leave them. They were well hid but a Negro, who about that time run off for a fee (no doubt counterfeit) showed some members of the Carter’s Indiana Cavalry where they were and they stole them. About this time (while I was out) they were about to cross over the river General Blenker’s (a Dutch lager beer saloon) Brigade of Dutch, into the Valley. The river was high and they were kept a long time in the mountains as there were no boats. They tried an old boat at Berry’s Ferry and 75 of them were drowned. While in the mountains they ate every cat and dog that had any flesh on them – killed cows and sheep and sows to get their young out of them to eat, and were particularly fond of unhatched chickens and ate soap grease and kitchen slop for cows and hogs. Finally they got over; killed all my hogs, took all my oats, nearly all my corn – not leaving half enough corn to bread me. Henry had hid some oats, but Old Jim Bell found them & showed them where they were. Old Jim and young Jim left with the Yankees, and Book stole my two-horse sheep wagon & my wife’s carriage mare & another, and took them and his family off with him. All this happened before Gen. Banks went out and I came home – after I was a prisoner. I went to Banks and told him of his Provost Marshall at Strasburg taking my horse, saddle, and bridle to his own use, and Banks said it was a theft, he had no right to do so, and he would have him given up. While reporting myself in Winchester, the 1st Maryland Cavalry Regiment (stationed at Snicker’s Ferry and composed almost entirely of Pennsylvanians) were ordered from there, & as they passed us, two of their men called in and stole Decca & Maygo. Henry brought me word to Winchester & I followed them on to Banks’ headquarters at Middletown with a letter from General John P. Hatch, chief of cavalry – to Major Perkins, chief of Banks’ staff – who ordered the officer in command (when my mares were stolen) to report himself to him at once. He told me he wanted no evidence from me – they should furnish it. The officer he asked said he knew nothing about it. I never heard any man receive such a cursing. Perkins called him a damned liar, a damned horse thief (all of them were so) and damned cowards. When fighting was to be done, they were all off and if the mares were not brought to him the next morning by 9 o’clock, he would have him branded as a horse thief and drummed out of camp. They were there by 8 o’clock and Perkins gave me a statement that they were stolen from me and restored by General Banks’ orders and were not to be disturbed again – & I brought them home. I found my wagon (that Book stole) in the streets of Winchester in the Yankee army & went to Col. Batchelder of Massachusetts (Banks’ chief Provost Marshall in Winchester) about it, and he had it delivered up to me. I did not find the mares and supposed Jackson got them in his rush. He captured 300 horses. I suppose they were broken down. I never could find them in either army. Batchelder also gave me an order to go through the army and wherever I found my horses, to take them – but about this time the army moved off towards Gordonsville under Pope’s command, and I was advised not to follow it up under Pope’s proclamation which superseded Banks’ orders. Then came the flight and pursuit after the battle of Slaughter Mountain (in which they were awfully slaughtered) across to Washington City. Charles was actively in this, and after being in the saddle night and day for some time, they stopped in the streets of Warrenton and he dismounted to rest and Vista (his mare) laid down and went to sleep. He was in the raid at Catletts Station & while getting the good things there, they were fired on by Yankee infantry and narrowly escaped. They fed for some days on apples, peaches, & green corn – not allowed fire to cook it – the cavalry constantly being on close picket. They were near catching Pope – he had just time to get in the car & steam off. They got his military boots, hat, sword, coat, his baggage, shirt studs (his name in full on them) and his horses. In the secret drawer of his writing desk was found a pair of polished steel handcuffs – it was said he put them there thinking to catch Jackson, but not having confidence in his ability to hold him – wished to use them on him. This is only talk. Some of our cavalry were barefooted with spurs buckled around their naked feet, some painted their feet black to represent boots & shoes, it was said. One was barefoot with spurs, on a mule, & the ladies cheered him so that he stopped to enquire if they cheered him or his mule. Many, very many, of our men were barefoot . They passed over the hotbed of unionism of Maryland – Frederick & Hagerstown – thence to Willamsport, Martinsburg – driving the Yankees and runaway Negroes from there into Harper’s Ferry. Then Jackson and A.P. Hill invested it & soon captured it – an immense number of prisoners (I believe 13,000), any amount of stores, ammunition, arms, & etc. – allowing them to take private property away with them. This, of course, they abused. Soldiers were permitted to go off with boots & shoes – extra strapped to their knapsacks, extra clothing, stolen horses. General Hill told me a French Colonel was riding a good looking horse which a farmer came to him and claimed. The Col. asked him how long since he lost his horse? “Six months since he was stolen from me.” “Gentleman, I have had this horse for 18 months & I can prove it.” He brought forward several Yankee officers who swore he had the horse 18 months. The farmer brought up his neighbors to prove his horse & General Hill told the officer his proof was not sufficient – – – give up the horse. But General Hill did wrong about the negroes in Harpers Ferry. The capture was on Monday & then no farmer was permitted to go in until Tuesday – by which time, no strictness of guard being established, numbers of negro men went out. And General Hill told me he gave papers to one squad of Yankees for 40 negroes – they proving they were their servants brought from the north with them. They lied of course, for citizens had taken some of them out of their lines as they were going off with them (with Hill’s papers on them) & took them to jail. Hill ought not to have regarded their evidence for if they brought them, Virginia law deprives every negro of his freedom who comes into her lines from a free state & the Yankees themselves made negroes contraband & had no business with slaves. Young Jim Bell was there Monday night & when I got there Tuesday morning, he was gone & I lost him. This was the case with many – the reason given was McClellan’s whole army was advancing on Lee and they were hurrying to join Lee. I said if they had let the farmers in Monday, they would have united under the General’s leave, searched every place, and taken every negro to Charlestown or Winchester and at leisure investigated every right and relieved the army of them altogether and thus saved time (and millions of money) to the South. We captured splendid cannon, small arms, wagons & horses – & our army are now operating almost entirely on the enemy’s means captured from them. Our army then met General McClellan at Antietam where we whipped them back, under terrible slaughter, from all their positions to the mountain where their strong position was. General Jackson thought they could dislodge them from there but with their cannon raking the plain, General Lee thought the sacrifice of our troops necessary for it, would not pay for it, & fell back into Virginia. The Yankees then crossed at Shepherdstown, not knowing the force we had concealed there. After crossing the river, Jackson opened on them. After a little firing they hastened back. In their terror in wading (crossing) the river, many fell or pushed for the bluffs – fell over and were pushed over by the multitudes in their rear (not knowing the state of things in front) and broke their necks & lay there in immense heaps. The river and dams of the canals was blocked up with dead Yankees and were never taken out. The slaughter was immense – awful. Comparatively, but a small part of it, was done by our troops. Then they fell back again to Maryland. Lee then, I suppose, heard somehow or other that the enemy intended to march through Loudon to Richmond via Fredericksburg & moved the main body of our army to Fredericksburg – leaving Jackson here to watch the enemy’s movements, & A.P. Hill’s division encamped in the woods. I thought of Neills estate – here I became acquainted with Generals Hill, Gregg, Archer, Thomas, and many other officers – some of whom took meals with me every day – John & William Pollack also, and some of your college-mates – & they almost destroyed all that woods. When they moved off, the 12th regiment of Virginia cavalry was encamped opposite Tom McCormick’s on the Charlestown pike and commanded by one of the Hannans and White’s batallion of cavalry on Mr. Smith’s land opposite my Mill woods. While there, General Stahel (a Dutchman commanding Yankee cavalry) came up from Fairfax County to make a raid on them. They got into White’s camp completely by surprise (so loosely did they picket) and scattered them in every direction & after that got the 12th on the run and scattered them. On returning, they opened my fences & drove off all my cattle consisting of 9 oxen & 13 milch cows – took all of William P. McCormick’s the same way – – 13 fine colts from William Smith. My colts were in my field at the same time, but Henry got them out & they did not interrupt them. I was busy getting Toledo & some mares out of the way. On my return at night (finding my cattle gone) I went off next morning and followed them. William Smith and P. McCormick joined me on the road. But Stahel, much alarmed at an attack or pursuit (which was not thought of) traveled all night and after getting half way, McCormick thought it would be fruitless & might put us under arrest so he determined to come back, & give it up. Smith agreed to join him and I told them I could not go by myself but would return with them & take Jaqueline with me. On our way back, McCormick found 6 of his cattle that strayed out on the way – none of mine – & half way home, William again changed his mind & determined to go with me & we went to Stahel’s headquarters. I put our claim before him in writing – he replied he would refer the matter to General Siegel (another Dutchman in command of the post) and that we would be answered in 3 hours. We waited two days longer. Receiving no answer, we came on home – leaving the matter in a friend’s hands. On reaching home, we found General Geary had made a raid to Charlestown – thence to Berryville, to Winchester, & on to Smithfield & back to Harpers Ferry in much haste & alarm, fearing an attack. But General Jones, with a brigade of cavalry (Maryland line of infantry & artillery not inferior I am told to Geary’s), instead of attacking him, fell back to Newmarket – 50 miles or more and is there yet. Fortunately Geary’s command did not come below Berryville & Milroy’s force now occupies Winchester – smaller force than Jones, I understand. Jones is called in Winchester the “flying General.” When Geary went through here, Jaqueline took Toledo out. He (Geary) is a bad man and was in command at Warrenton when some of his ruffians killed Robert E. Scott. Milroy is a bad man also, & has stuck placards in Winchester informing the negroes they are free & warning them to arm themselves and defend themselves if their masters attempt to exercise ownership. Rumor now says they have taken Mrs. Portia Baldwin and sent her to Alexandria – a prisoner. While cavalry General Stuart’s headquarters were at Dandridge’s in Berkely, he was dancing with the girls when the Yankees had planned a raid and would have caught him and his staff (only they missed the road) and in the pursuit & fighting the enemy from Gordonsville on to Washington – he was only saved from being caught by losing his hat & jumping with his horse a garden railing. On the other hand – below Richmond, General Lee had so laid his plans that if Generals Huger & Magruder had come up to orders, he would have captured General McClellan & his whole army. Upon their failure, he remarked “too late, as usual.” McClellan saw his danger & despaired; had prepared his papers to be burnt & his army to surrender. Then came our grand victory at Fredericksburg – you have seen that in the papers. The Yankee papers acknowledged a loss of from 60 to 80,000 but most of these by desertion. After the battle, the Yankees hollered across the river to our men to know if they had any sorry corporal – they wanted to swap Gen. Burnside for him; he was “such a damned fool”. They inquired, “Where was Jackson?” Answer-“He has resigned.” “What for?” “They took his quartermaster away from him.” Yankee—“He must have been a good officer that caused the resignation, who was he?” Confederate-“Gen’l Banks.” When General Lee returned into Virginia, Stuart (with his cavalry) made a raid into Pennsylvania through Maryland, destroyed much stores(army), and got a great many horses, but they were lubberly, overgrown, and of no use. Many gave out just leading them back. Nearly all the others died from exposure. While there, hearing a machine running, they sent to stop the machine and bring the horses. While taking the horses, the owner came out and said “Men, you is cutting up strong this morning-whose command is you of anyhow?” Answer-“The so called Rebel General Jackson. Dutch – “Shackson, mein Gott!” in great alarm. While Hill’s division was encamped here after being in Maryland, many of them were barefooted-many without hats-but few had blankets (they much worn and thin) and no tents. Yet these men had traveled and fought over those turnpikes and rugged mountains in high spirits and were thirsting for more fights, and would buy anything at any price. They offered $2.50 for a dozen of apples, any price for potatoes and honey, milk, butter, eggs, chickens, poultry. The citizens generally gave them everything they could spare and their meals. They did not like this and was anxious to pay. One man said he was very hungry but was no beggar, and if they would not take pay, he would not eat the meat and bread. He put it down and went away. While here, they gave $100.00 for two canteens of apple brandy (fresh from the still) and one soldier, perfectly barefooted, gave $10.00 for a very small paper of candy. They would climb the tallest trees to catch squirrels, surround fields & run down partridges, rabbits, and in one instance, a fox. And if my children (particularly Robert ) went to camp, the greatest fuss would be made of them and they would give them anything. If I took Rob behind me, they would hollow out “put the boy down-let me have him.” J.W. Ware
To – Capt. JA Ware Texas
waregenealogy.com 10 December 2013 Web. 20 June 2016.
The Official Record of the War of the Rebellion – Report of W. Hancock, Chapter XIX, Official Record, Series I, Part 2, Vol. 19. Hancock, Caldwell, Zook, Munford reports. pp. 91-97.
wvgeohistory.org 5 October 2010 Web. 20 June 2016 (Map Gallery):
1850 Charlestown, Va. plat; Jefferson County broken up into parcels; 1864 S. Howell Brown War Map.
fold3.com 16 September 2011 Web 20 June 2016:
Image Credits (Includes images in the corresponding video):
Mary Ames – frontispiece – “From a New England Woman’s Diary in Dixie in 1865.”
docsouth.unc.edu 19 January 2001 Web. 20 June 2016.
St. Clair Mulholland – courtesy of the US Army HEC, Carlisle, PA.
William McCarter – from book’s frontispiece: googlebooks.com 5 February 2003 Web. 5 March 2016.
Charles Aglionby – from Vol. 2, Aglionby Papers, Jefferson County Museum – Charles Town, WV.
Semblance of Anne Madison Willis Ambler – see under wikigallery “Lady Writing a Letter.”
Heros Von Borcke – Uploaded by bruceyrock632
fold3.com 16 September 2011 Web 20 June 2016.
George Neese – vagenweb.org/shenandoah 7 August 2008 Web. 20 June 2016.
hathitrust.org 9 September 2008, Web. 20 June 2016:
West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey: [County reports and maps.] Jefferson, Berkeley and Morgan counties. ([Wheeling, W. Va., Wheeling News Litho. Co., 1916.]) hathitrust.org 9 September 2008, Web. 20 June 2016.
Volck, Adalbert J. (1864). “Sketches from the civil war in North America, 1861, ’62, ’63, / by V. Blada [pseud.]. London, Baltimore. reprinted in The Magazine of History with NOTES and QUERIES Extra Number No. 60. 1917. Tarrytown, NY: William Abbott Printers.
The Library of Congress loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 20 June 2016:
Title: [Unidentified girl in mourning dress holding framed photograph of her father as a cavalryman with sword and Hardee hat]. Date Created/Published: [between 1861 and 1870]. Medium: 1 photograph : sixth-plate tintype, hand-colored ; 9.5 x 8.4 cm (case). Summary: Photo shows a girl holding a framed image of her father. Judging from her necklace, mourning ribbons, and dress, it is likely that her father was killed in the war. (Source: Matthew R. Gross and Elizabeth T. Lewin, 2010). Liljenquist Collection.
Title: [Savage Station, Va. Field hospital after the battle of June 27]Creator(s): Gibson, James F., b. 1828, photographer. Date Created/Published: 1862 June 30.Medium: 1 negative : glass, stereograph, wet collodion. Summary: Photograph from the main eastern theater of war, the Peninsular Campaign, May-August 1862.
Title: [Two unidentified portraits of girl and boy in locket]. Date Created/Published: [between 1861 and 1865]. Medium: 2 photographs in 1 case : ninth-plate tintype, trimmed to circle, hand-colored ; 4.8 cm diameter (case).
wikigallery.org 4 May 2009 Web. 20 June 2016:
Thomas Faed – “Lady Writing a Letter”
wikipedia.org 27 November 2002 Web. 20 June 2016:
John R. Brooke
suvcw.org/mollus 22 July 1997 Web. 20 June 2016
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 10 May 2016:
Eastman Johnson –
Old Man, Seated (1880-1885);
Not at Home (1873);
The Hatch Family – (1871);
Self Portrait – circa 1860;
The Lord is My Shepherd – circa 1863;
Winslow Homer –
Jervis McEntee – Gathering Autumn Leaves, Date unknown.
Edward Moran – The First Ship Entering NY Harbor, Sept. 11, 1609 – Date unknown.
William Sidney Mount – (detail) Farmer Whetting His Scythe – (1848).
William Ludlow Sheppard – In the hospital, 1862, watercolor.
courtesy The Museum of the Confederacy)
encyclopediavirginia.org 8 November 2006 Web. 20 June 2016.
Bolivar Heights and Gap of Harper’s Ferry, W. Va.
1884/08/02 – Biscoe, Thomas, and Walter.
wvhistoryonview.org 9 October 2010 Web. 20 June 2016
Edwin Forbes – ”Bummers” –
dickinson.edu 22 December 1996 Web. 20 June 2016
Unknown Artist 19th-Century American School Fredericksburg, VA Family in a War-Torn House 1860s. bjws.blogspot.com 30 July 2014 Web. 20 June 2016.
Eyre Crowe – Slaves Waiting for Sale: Richmond, Virginia, 1861. Collection of Teresa Heinz. abhmuseum.org 7 March 2012 Web. 20 June 2016.
Volck, Adalbert J. (1864). “V. Blada’s War Sketches.” London, Baltimore:
Titles: Searching for Arms; Slaves Concealing their Masters from a Search Party; Cave Life in Vicksburg
Howard Pyle – The Battle of Nashville by Howard Pyle (courtesy Minnesota Historical Society); The attack upon the Chew House, Scribner’s Monthly Magazine, (June, 1898).
(detail) Artist Unknown “Off to the Front” circa 1861 West Point Museum, United States Military Academy, West Point, New York.
John Brown melodeon
kshs.org 28 November 2012 Web 20 June 2016.
ebooks.library.cornell.edu 28 August 2004 Web. 20 June 2016:
Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 35, Issue: 207, August, 1867. –
p. 288 – man on horse in the rain.
Crayon, Porte (Strother, D. H.). “The Mountains – VIII.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. Volume 47 Issue: 282 (November, 1873). – p. 827 – hands and lighting.
Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 35, Issue: 210, November, 1867.
p. 725 – humiliated.
Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 34, Issue: 200, January, 1867
p. 190 – grief two women.
digitalcollections.baylor.edu 18 February 2012 Web. 20 June 2016
Military map showing the topographical features of the country adjacent to Harper’s Ferry, Va. including Maryland, Loudoun and Bolivar Heights, and portions of South and Short Mountains, with the positions of the defensive works, also the Junction of the Potomac and Shenandoah Rivers.
archive.org 26 October 2004 Web. 20 June 2016:
Winfield Hancock, from Mulholland, St. Clair Augustin. (1899). “The story of the 116th Regiment, Pennsylvania Infantry. War of secession, 1862-1865.” [Philadelphia, F. McManus, jr., & co.]. p. 128.
“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 1”. (1887). Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co.
p. 126 – Affair of the outposts;
p. 153 – A mother’s parting gift;
p. 482 – Bivouac of the federal troops, Sunday night;
“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 2”. (1887). Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co.:
p. 28 – (detail) confederate picket;
p. 112 – provost guard;
p. 262 – federal battery team at attention;
p. 271 – Trooper, Virginia Cavalry, 1861;
p. 358 – charge on the sutler;
p. 444 – Richmond Street scene;
p. 512 – Confederate army on the march;
p. 576 – haystacks near South Mountain, Maryland;
p. 751 – wounded man lying down arm up;
“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 3”. (1887). Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co.
p. 70 – Confederate picket with blanket-capote and raw-hide mocassins
p. 393 – Farnsworth’s charge
Miller, Francis Trevelyan. (1912). “The photographic history of the civil war in ten volumes.” Vol. 4. New York, NY: The Review of Reviews Co. archive.org 26 October 2004 Web. 20 June 2016.
p. 47 – First Extensive Cavalry Camp.
p. 74 – One of the regiments that Stuart eluded.
p. 327 – In barracks a comfortable spot for the cavalry trooper.
Miller, Francis Trevelyan. (1912). “The photographic history of the civil war in ten volumes.” Vol. 7. New York, NY: The Review of Reviews Co. archive.org 26 October 2004 Web. 20 June 2016.
p. 251 – Prayer with the wounded after Spotsylvania.
Frank Vizetelly – Genl Stuart’s Head Quarters, Advanced Post. of the Confederate Army in Northern Virginia.” [Northern Virginia, Oct.-Nov. 1862].
Frank Vizetelly Drawings, 1861-1865 (MS Am 1585). Houghton Library, Harvard University. oasis.lib.harvard.edu 12 October 2007 Web. 20 June 2016.
Image of Thomas Hite Willis
“The Hite Families in Jefferson County: Thomas Hite Willis, 1800-1884”. Magazine of the Historical Society of Jefferson County.” Vol. Volume XXXI. Charles Town, WV: Jefferson County Historical Society.