Jefferson County Men of Color Enlist: 1861-1865 – Their Stories

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POST: 131 African Sons of Jefferson County . . . in Blue Coats by Jim Surkamp
https://web.archive.org/web/20140125234109/https://civilwarscholars.com/2013/12/154-african-sons-of-jefferson-county-in-blue-coats

“Do you know that if it was not for the black man this war never would have been brought to a close with success to the Union, and the liberty to your race? I want you to understand that. Do you know it? Do you know it?…” Charlestown-born Martin Delany, “Slavery is Over,” speech at St. Helena Island, South Carolina, July 23, 1865.
loc.gov

Jefferson’s Fighting Sons of the “USCT” – who were born in Jefferson County, West Virginia

Their forgotten stories are recorded here and, for some survivors, the circumstances and location of their continued lives post-war. Ten even though they fought for the Union and risked a hostile reception, chose to return home to live in their birthplace county.

Made possible with the generous support of American Public University System, providing an affordable, high-quality online education. The interpretations and content of CivilWarScholars.com do not reflect in any way positions and policies of American Public University System, and are meant to stimulate dialogue, discovery and greater understanding.

RESEARCH: The original pages in their Service Records, the U.S. Censuses from 1850 to 1920, and the 1890 Veterans Schedule. (Links to records are given which would require a subscription by the user to those records online at ancestry.com ).

Where there are multiple spellings of a certain enlistee’s name in their service records, the name that predominates in the records is given first and used in further research. In determining the post-war residences of surviving enlistees, a “best match from available public records” means the person and household shown had a person with the same name, the same state of birth (Virginia),year of birth and racial identify (“black” or “mulatto”) as the enlistee described in service record. Where there were more than one person in the post-war Census records with the same name, birth state and age, their post-war circumstances are not given. – Jim Surkamp

UNSUNG, AFRICAN SONS OF JEFFERSON COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA

Table of Contents:

  1. Died from combat, disease or accident while in the service;
  2. Those wounded;
  3. Enlistees by location of enlistment; also the households and their locations post-war for some, but not all of those surviving the war;
  4. Those who survived the war and returned to live in Jefferson County, West Virginia as reflected in Census Records.
  5. Special case (1)

No. 1 – DIED FROM COMBAT WOUNDS, DISEASE OR ACCIDENT:

Detail from – Burying the Dead at Hospital in Fredericksburg, Va. (loc.gov)

1.

Charles Wheeler – age 29 and a 5’9” farmer. In 1863, he enlisted at Cuyahoga, County, Ohio in Co. D of the 5th USCT infantry regiment. He died of disease one month after enlisting at Camp Delaware, Ohio.

2.

William Edwards – age 25 and a 5’3” farmer. In 1863, he joined at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Co. C of the 6th USCT infantry regiment. Died at Yorktown, Virginia in April, 1864.
6th USCT “Freedom For All” – Library of Congress

3.

Peter Washington – age 21 and a 5’4” coachman. In 1863, he enlisted at Readville, Massachusetts in Co. F of the 54th Massachusetts Colored infantry regiment. In 1867, he re-enlisted in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. He was at Wilson’s Creek, Kansas in Co. G of the 10th US Cavalry when he contracted cholera and died July 30, 1867. (NOTE: Wilson’s Creek is in Missouri, according to Google Maps and Apple Maps. This error appears in Washington’s entry in the Register of Enlistments).

4.

Albert Cook – age 20. A 5’5.5” laborer. In 1864, he joined at Jeffersonville, Indiana Co. F of the 28th USCT infantry regiment. He drowned June 20, 1864 at White House Landing, Virginia.

White House Landing, Va. (loc.gov)

5.

David Franklin – age 22 and a 5’8” waiter. In 1864, he joined at Boston, Massachusetts Co, D of the 5th USCT Cavalry. Died in Corps d’Afrique Hospital in New Orleans on July 3, 1865.

6.

John Hogans – age 26 and a 5’3.5” farmhand. In 1863, he joined at Camp Hope, Mississippi Co. H of the 52nd USCT infantry regiment. He died of bilious fever at Vicksburg, Mississippi on March 3, 1864.
Siege of Vicksburg–13, 15, & 17 Corps, Commanded by Gen. U.S. Grant, assisted by the Navy under Admiral Porter–Surrender, July 4, 1863, by Kurz and Allison, Date circa 1888, Source: Library of Congress, Author Kurz and Allison.

7.

Dennis (Demis) Holly – age 21 and a 5’3.5” laborer. In 1864, he joined at Carlisle, Pennsylvania Co. H of the 22nd USCT infantry regiment. Died February 25, 1864 at Camp William Penn, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Sic semper tyrannis – 22th Regt. U.S. Colored Troops – wikipedia.org

8.

Benjamin Johnson – age 45 and a 5’5” farmer. In 1863, he joined at Natchez, Mississippi Co. K of the 49th USCT infantry regiment; he died at the regimental hospital at Goodrich Landing, Louisiana January 16, 1864 of chronic diarrhea.

9.

David Jones – age 48 and a 5’7 3/4” laborer. In 1864, he joined at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Co. A of the 43rd USCT infantry regiment. In August, 1864, he was a baggage guard at White House, Virginia. Sick in hospital after late, 1864, he died of disease March, 1865 at Alexandria, Virginia.

10.

Charles H. Thomson – age 24 and a 5’10” laborer. In 1863, he joined at Washington, D.C. Co. K of the 2nd USCT infantry regiment. In March 6, 1865, fought at Natural Bridge, Florida and died October 23, 1865 in hospital at Tallahassee, Florida.

11.

Richard Warfield – born at Harper’s Ferry, age 25 and a 5’10” “mulatto” laborer. In 1863, he joined at Fort Pickering, Memphis, Tennessee Co. D of the 3rd USCT heavy artillery. He died of disease August 26, 1863 at Memphis, Tennessee.

12.

Joseph Polk Sedgwick – born at Harper’s Ferry, age 19 and a 5’8” laborer. In 1864, he joined at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Co. I of the 43rd USCT infantry regiment. He died in hospital at Brownsville, Texas August 20, 1865.

13.

Henry Robinson (Robison) – born at Harper’s Ferry, age 37 and a 5’1” boatman. In 1864, he joined at Cairo, Illinois Co. A the 3rd USCT heavy artillery. He died of disease May 5, 1865 in hospital, Fort Pickering, Tennessee.

14.

Tom McCarty – born at Harper’s Ferry, age 44 and a 5’5” laborer. In 1864, he joined at Union, Kentucky Co. H of the 8th USCT heavy artillery. He was in hospital at Indianola, Texas and died in a regimental hospital at Victoria, Texas August 8, 1865

15.

Ambrose C. Jackson – born at Harper’s Ferry, age 20 and a 5’6” farmer. In 1864, he joined at Morristown, New Jersey Co. E of the 43rd USCT infantry regiment. He died in field hospital near Petersburg, Virginia August 1, 1864 of wounds.

16.

John Doliver (Deliver) – born at Harper’s Ferry, age 28 and a 5’5” farmer. In 1864, he joined at Oswego, New York Co. K of 31st USCT infantry regiment. Sent to hospital July 12, 1865, died in Corps d’Afrique hospital at New Orleans of dysentery August 18, 1865.
Panoramic View of New Orleans…The Federal Fleet at Anchor in the River, April 25 (1862), From a Sketch by Wm. Waud.
From Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper (New York) May 25, 1862.

17.

Charles Bentley – born at Harper’s Ferry, age 38 and a 5’10” laborer. In 1863, he joined at New Haven, Connecticut Co. A of the 29th Connecticut Colored infantry regiment. On extra duty as a carpenter. Killed in battle of Kell House (Fair Oaks/Darbytown Road), Virginia on October 27, 1864
Detail view of the 29th Regiment Connecticut Volunteers, Beaufort, South Carolina
Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

18.

Mitchell Green – born at Charlestown, age 45 and a 5’6” servant. In 1863, he joined at Elk River, Tennessee Co. D of the 12th USCT infantry regiment. report states: “has not been fit for duty since enlistment.” Died in regimental hospital December 6, 1863 at Nashville, Tennessee.

19.

Edwin (Edward) Brown – age 42 and a 5’10” cook. In 1863, he joined at Smith Plantation, Mississippi Co. K of the 53rd USCT infantry regiment. Died of disease at Young’s Point, Louisiana June 22, 1864

20.

Abram Burris – age 33 and a 5’7” laborer, In 1864, he joined at Union, Kentucky Co. H of the 8th USCT heavy artillery. Died in hospital at Indianola, Texas August 7, 1865.

21.

Jacob Burrows (Burrous) – age 20 and a 5’4” farmer. In 1865, he joined at Indianapolis, Indiana Co. B of the 28th USCT infantry regiment. Died of typhoid fever August 7, 1865 at Indianola, Texas.

22.

Charles Williams – age 28 and a 5’5.25” waiter. “A slave of Susan Bunn.” In 1864, he enlisted at Baltimore in Co. K of the 30th USCT infantry regiment. Killed January 16, 1865 by an explosion of a magazine at Fort Fisher, North Carolina
“Union Attack on Fort Fisher, January 15, 1865,” shows area surrounding forts Fisher, Buchanan and Anderson near Smithville, North Carolina. The map shows the Confederate emplacements and forts, and was made by a Union soldier, Robert Knox Sneden, from a survey conducted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers after the attack.

23.

[Unidentified African American soldier in Union cavalry uniform with cavalry saber in front of painted backdrop showing landscape] Date Created/Published: [between 1863 and 1865] Medium: 1 photograph : ninth-plate ambrotype, hand-colored ; 9.5 x 8.4 cm (frame) Summary: Photograph shows sergeant’s chevrons painted on the sleeves loc.gov

No. 2. – THOSE WOUNDED IN THE U.S. COLORED TROOPS, WHO WERE BORN IN JEFFERSON COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA. (HOUSEHOLDS AND THEIR LOCATIONS OF SURVIVORS ARE ALSO SHOWN FOR SOME, BUT NOT ALL, DUE TO LIMITATIONS OF CENSUS RECORDS):

Burial detail from – Fredericksburg, Virginia. Burial of Federal dead. Date Created/Published: 1864 May [19 or 20]. Medium: 2 negatives (3 plates): glass, stereograph, wet collodion.wounded_on_ground_B&Lfeet_blankets_camp_USCT_LOC

1.

Frank Walker – born at Harper’s Ferry, age 23 and a 5’10” “mulatto” farmer. In 1863, he joined at Masons Island, Virginia Co. I of the 1st USCT infantry regiment. A “slave,” he was wounded October 27, 1864 at Fair Oaks/Darbytown Road, VA. and discharged at David’s Island, N.Y. harbor June, 1865 for disability.
1st U.S. colored infantry
Creator(s): Brady, Mathew B., Date Created/Published: [between 1861 and 1865] loc.gov

Lived in 1880 in Woolfolk & Gibbs, Yazoo County, Mississippi:
Occupation: Works On Farm
Household Members:
Name Age
Frank Walker 38
Lucy Walker 50
Harrison Tyler 10
Allen Tyler 8
Lewellin Tyler 4
Lewellis Tyler 4
Lucy Tyler 6

2.

Thomas Moore – born at Harper’s Ferry, age 20 and a 6’1” “mulatto” carpenter. In 1863, he joined at Athens, Ohio Co. C of the 5th USCT infantry regiment. He was wounded June 18, 1864 at the conflict at Petersburg, Virginia.

Lived in 1880 in Jersey City, Hudson County, New Jersey:
Occupation: Hostler
Household Members:
Name Age
Thomas S. Moore 36

3.

George W. Harris – born at Harper’s Ferry, age 19 and a 6’1.5” waiter. In 1863, he joined at Baltimore, Maryland Co. C of the 4th USCT infantry regiment. He was wounded near Petersburg, Virginia June 15, 1864 and discharged by reason of disability June 26, 1865.

Lived in 1910 in Stephen City, Frederick County, Virginia:
Name Age
George W Harris 65
Ellen Harris 60

4.

Richard Burke – age 28 and a 5’8” farmer. In 1863, he joined at Ridgeway, WV Co. G of the 8th USCT infantry regiment. Wounded at Olustee, Florida February 20, 1864. Discharged from hospital in New York City 1865.

Lived in 1880 in Medina, New York:
Name Age
Richard Burke 45
Alice J. Burke 32
Carrie L. Burke 14
Alice J. Burke 12
Caroline Hawkins 73

5.

Benjamin Fisher – age 39 and a 5’9” farmer. In 1864, he joined at Lake Providence, Louisiana Co. D of the 47th USCT infantry regiment. He was wounded in action at Yazoo City, Mississippi March 5, 1864. Mustered out in 1866 at Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

6.

George Lowrey – age 29 and a 5’6” laborer. In 1864, he joined at Washington, D.C. Co. I of the 23rd USCT infantry regiment. Wounded and captured at Petersburg, Virginia in July 30, 1864. Mustered out in 1865 at Brazos Santiago, Texas.

7.

George W. Pennington – age 28 and a 5’3” laborer. In 1863, he joined at Chambersburg, Pennsylvania Co. A of the 8th USCT infantry regiment. Wounded February 20, 1864 at Battle of Olustee, Florida. Fighting at Chapin’s (Chaffin’s Bluff) Farm, Virginia, Darlington Road, September, 1864. Mustered out in 1865 at Brownsville, Texas.
Battle of Chapin (Chaffin’s Bluff) Farm Harpers Weekly, October 22, 1864

8.

George Robinson – age 22 and a 5’5” laborer. In 1863, he joined at Chambersburg, Pennsylvania Co. A of the 8th USCT infantry regiment. In February 20, 1864, he fought as part of Hawley’s Brigade at the battle of Olustee, Florida and was wounded.

Lived in 1880 at Jefferson, Pleasants, West Virginia:
Occupation: Farmer
Household Members:
Name Age
George Robinson 40
Cleoranda Robinson 32
William Robinson 4
George W. Robinson 2
Mary Belle Robinson 6m
Rosale Marlo 14

9.

Thomas J. Devonshire – born in Jefferson County, Virginia, age 23 and a 5’9” laborer. He joined at Frederick, Maryland Co. G of the 30th USCT infantry regiment. Wounded in action at Sugar Loaf Hill, North Carolina on February 11, 1865. Discharged May, 1865 at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He lived in Shepherdstown in 1890, according to the 1890 Veterans Schedule.
Detail from [Unidentified African American soldier in Union uniform with a rifle and revolver in front of painted backdrop showing weapons and American flag at Benton Barracks, Saint Louis, Missouri] at attention small rimmed hat straight ahead medium build flag. Creator(s): Long, Enoch, 1823-1898, photographer. Date Created/Published: [between 1863 and 1865]. Medium: 1 photograph : quarter plate tintype, hand-colored ; 16.2 x 13.6 cm. (frame) loc.gov
Detail from – Tent life of the 31st Penn. Inf. (later, 82d Penn. Inf.) at Queen’s farm, vicinity of Fort Slocum Date Created/Published: 1861.Medium: 1 negative (2 plates) : glass, stereograph, wet collodion. loc.gov

NOTE: Taken prisoner – George Lowery of the 23rd USCT infantry regiment. (See “2. Those wounded”); and George Williams of the 44th USCT infantry regiment. (See “5. Those who survived the war and returned to live in Jefferson County, West Virginia at times of different Census-takings.”)

Detail from- Bealeton, Virginia. Officer’s mess. Company F, 93d New York Volunteers Headquarters, Army of the Potomac Creator(s): O’Sullivan, Timothy H., 1840-1882, photographer Date Created/Published: 1863 Aug. Medium: 1 negative (2 plates) : glass, stereograph, wet collodion. loc.gov

NO. 3. – ENLISTEES BY LOCATION OF THEIR ENLISTMENT; HOUSEHOLDS AND THEIR LOCATIONS OF SURVIVORS ARE ALSO SHOWN FOR SOME, BUT NOT ALL, DUE TO LIMITATIONS OF CENSUS RECORDS.

Enlisting at Vicksburg, Natchez and other locations in Mississippi:

1.

James Wist – age 36 and a 5’7” mulatto and wheelwright. In 1864, he enlisted at Vicksburg, Mississippi in Battery D of the 2nd USCT light artillery. Mustered out at Vicksburg in 1865.

2.

Alexander (Alex) White – born at Charlestown, age 25 and a 5’7.5” “field hand.” In 1863, he joined at Vicksburg, Mississippi Co. D of the 50th USCT infantry regiment. On May, 1864 to January, 1866 on detached service, as a cook in general hospital, Vicksburg and hospital at Jackson, Miss. Mustered out at Vicksburg in 1866.

3.

Aleck Adley – age 45 and a 5’7” farmer. In 1863, he joined at Vicksburg, Mississippi Co. A of the 3rd U.S. Colored Cavalry. Promoted to sergeant in 1865. Mustered out in 1866 at Memphis, Tennessee.

Lived in 1870 in Yazoo, Warren County, Mississippi:
Name Age
Alexander Adley 52
Betsy Adley 47

Details from [Unidentified African American soldier in Union uniform and Company B, 103rd Regiment forage cap with bayonet and scabbard in front of painted backdrop showing landscape with river] handsome full body thin face with cap. Date Created/Published: [between 1863 and 1865]. Medium: 1 photograph : quarter-plate tintype, hand-colored ; 12 x 9.5 cm (case). Summary: Photograph shows Company B 103 Regiment on forage cap either designating the U.S. Colored Troops or U.S. Volunteers Service. loc.gov

4.

Thomas Frame – Vicksburg – (See No. 4 Retired to Jefferson County)

5.

William Gibson – age 27. A waiter and standing 5’8.5”. In 1864, he joined at Vicksburg, Mississippi Co. I of the 53rd USCT infantry regiment. Deserted December, 1865 in Vicksburg.

Lived in 1880 in Rappahannock, Fauquier County, Virginia:
Name Age
John Gibson 36
Lucy Gibson 24

[Detail from Unidentified African American soldier in Union infantry sergeant’s uniform and black mourning ribbon with bayonet in front of painted backdrop] very strong face receding hairline. Date Created/Published: [between 1863 and 1865]. Medium: 1 photograph : quarter-plate ambrotype, hand-colored ; 12.0 x 9.5 cm (case). loc.gov

6.

George Johnson – (See No. 4 Retired to Jefferson County)

7.

Benjamin F. Shepherd – age 19 and a 5’4” waiter. In 1864, he joined at Vicksburg, Mississippi Co. K of 5th USCT heavy artillery; 1864-1866, he served as an orderly in regimental headquarters in Mississippi.

8.

Edwin (Edward) Brown – Smith Plantation, Mississippi (See No. 1 ”Died”)

9.

John Hogans – Camp Hope, Mississippi, (See No. 1 “Died”)

10.

John McGruder – age 24 and a light-skinned, 5’4” carpenter. In 1863, he joined at Black River Bridge Mississippi Co. C of the 2nd USCT light artillery. Mustered out at Vicksburg in 1865
Natchez, Mississippi
750px-Adams_County_Mississippi_Incorporated_and_Unincorporated_areas_Natchez_Highlighted.svg0811Natchez UnderHill

11.

Harry (Henry) Johnson – age 43 and a farmer with a ”copper” complexion. In 1863, he joined at Natchez, Mississippi Co. D of the 6th USCT heavy artillery. Duty at Natchez, Miss., and Vidalia, La., until May, 1866. In attack on Steamer “Clara Bell,” July, 1864. Skirmish at Black River Bridge, Mississippi in 1864. Mustered out May, 1866 at Natchez, Mississippi.

Lived in 1870 in Brick, Ocean County, New Jersey:
Name Age
Harry Johnson 50
Emaline Johnson 34
Ellen Johnson 8
Silas Hicks 13

12.

Benjamin Johnson – Natchez (See No. 1 “Died”)

13.

Joshua Smith – age 39 and a 5’10” farmer. In 1863, he joined at Natchez, Mississippi Co. G, 50th USCT infantry regiment. Sick and discharged in 1864 in Vicksburg, Mississippi.

Enlistees at Fort Pickering, Memphis, and other locations in Tennessee:

Map of the city of Memphis: including Fort Pickering and Hopefield, Ark.: together with the original grants and their subdivisions / Contributor: Rucker, W. E., 1858. Library of Congress.

1.

Richard Warfield – (See No. 1 “Died”)

2.

Fill Smith – born at Charlestown, age 21 and a 5’5” laborer. In 1863, he joined at Fort Pickering, Memphis, Tennessee Co. B of the 3rd USCT heavy artillery. April, 1865 – on daily duty white-washing barracks. August, 1865-January, 1866 – on daily duty as company cook.
Cook U.S. Army – loc.gov

3.

Jacob Philpot – age 27 and a 5’9” farmer. In 1865, he joined at Memphis, Tennessee Co. M of the 3rd USCT heavy artillery. Mustered out in 1866 at Memphis, Tennessee.

4.

Robert Russ – age 29 and a 5’9” farmer. In 1865, he joined at Memphis, Tennessee Co. M of the 3rd USCT heavy artillery. Mustered out in 1866 at Memphis, Tennessee.

5.

Benjamin Franklin – age 17 and a 5’3.5” waiter. In 1863, he joined at Fort Pickering, Memphis, Tennessee Co. I of the 3rd USCT heavy artillery. In 1864, he deserted from Fort Pickering, Tennessee.

6.

Charles French – born at Charlestown, age 23 and a 5’5 1/2” drayman. In 1863, he joined at Nashville, Tennessee Co. F of the 12th USCT infantry regiment. Mustered out in 1866 at Nashville, Tennessee.

Lived in 1860 in Fauquier County, Virginia:
Name Age
John G Beckham 53
Mary C Beckham 46
Frances Beckham 21
John Beckham 18
William Beckham 16
Mary Beckham 14
Alic Beckham 12
Emma Beckham 9
Charles French 20

7.

Mitchell Green – Elk River, Tennessee (See No. 1 “Died”)

8.

James Foster – age 25 and a 5’8” farmer. In 1864, he joined at Humphries, Tennessee Co. G of the 40th USCT infantry regiment. Mustered out in 1866 at Chattanooga, Tennessee.

9.

Moses Robinson – age 23 and a 5’7” farmer. In 1865, he joined at Knoxville, Tennessee Co. B in the 1st USCT heavy artillery. Mustered out at Chattanooga.

10.

Henry Stephens (Stephen) (Stevens) – age 32 and a 5’6” wagoner. In 1863, he joined at Columbia, Tennessee Co. B of the 15th USCT infantry regiment. On bridge guard in 1865, and as an orderly in 1866. Mustered out in 1866 at Nashville, Tennessee.

11.

Lewis Washington – age 19 and a 5’9” farmer. In 1863 he enlisted at Columbia, Tennessee in Co. D, 15th USCT infantry regiment. Detailed as messenger. Mustered out in 1864 at Shelbyville. Tennessee.

Enlistees at Washington, D.C.:

loc.gov

1.

James Hopewell – age 24 and standing 5’6”. In 1863, he joined at Washington, D.C. Co. H of the 2nd USCT infantry regiment and was promoted to sergeant October 15, 1863. In 1866, he mustered out at Key West, Florida.

2.

George Lowery (See “2. Those wounded”)

3.

Manuel Lucas – age 33 and a 5’8” laborer. In 1863, he joined at Washington, D.C. Co. B of the 1st USCT infantry regiment. Sick in 1864 at Hampton, Virginia. Mustered out in 1865 at Roanoke Island, North Carolina.
Capture of Roanoke Island, Feby. 8th 1862, by Currier and Ives wikipedia.org

4.

Archur (Archer) Ruffin (Ruffins) – age 21 and a 5’7.5” laborer in peacetime. In 1863, he joined at Washington, D.C. Co. A of the 23rd USCT infantry regiment, deserted on the march from Willcox Landing, Va. June 17, 1864.

5.

Charles H. Thomson – (See No. 1 “Died”)

6.

Martin R. Delany – born in Charlestown and age 52 he was mustered in on February 27, 1864 with the rank of major into the 104th USCT at Washington, D.C. by the order of Secretary of War Edwin Stanton. Served in Beaufort, South Carolina and beginning July 15, 1865 he was on detached service with the Freedman’s Bureau in South Carolina. Honorably discharged August 5, 1868. Until 1880, he was active in political matters in South Carolina. He retired to Xenia Ohio.

7.

Jasper Thompson – (See No. 4 Retired to Jefferson County)

8.

George Stewart – born at Harper’s Ferry, age 21 and a 5’4.5” mulatto farmer. In 1863, he joined at Washington, D.C. Co. A of the 1st USCT infantry regiment. Absent, sick in hospital October, 1864 through to mustering-out in September, 1865, at Roanoke, Virginia.

Lived in 1880 in Loudoun County, Virginia:
Occupation: Work On Farm
Name Age
E.J. Stewart 29
Mary J. Stewart 12
Sarah F. Stewart 10
Emma E. Stewart 7
Annie E. Stewart 3
Chas H. Stewart 3m
Geo. H. Stewart 38

9.

Alexander Arnett – age 22 and a 5’7” laborer. In 1863, he joined at Washington, D.C. Co. K of the 2nd USCT infantry regiment. Promoted corporal April 27, 1864, later arrested as deserter. In battle at Natural Bridge, Florida March, 1865. Mustered out in 1866 at Key West, Florida.

Lived in 1870 in Hedgesville, Berkeley County, West Virginia:
Name Age
Alexander Arnet 28
Louisa Arnet 30
Eliza Arnet 9
Nellie Arnet 6
Edmond Arnet 3
Elizabeth Arnet 6/12

10.

John Gibson – age 19 and a 5’3” laborer. In 1863, he joined at Washington, D.C. Co. D of the 2nd USCT infantry regiment in Washington, D.C. Mustered out in 1866 at Key West, Florida.

Lived in 1880 in Rappahannock, Fauquier County, Virginia

11.

Arthur Goings – age 27 and a 5’10” blacksmith. In 1863, he joined at Washington, D.C. Co. A of the 23rd USCT infantry regiment. From March-April, 1865, he was serving as a blacksmith. In late, 1865, he mustered out at Brazos Santiago, Texas.

12.

John L. Whiting – age 20 and a 5’8.5” laborer. In 1864, he enlisted at Washington, D.C. in Co. C of the 5th Massachusetts Cavalry. On daily duty in 1865 on board transport. Mustered out in 1865 at Clarksville, Texas.

Lived in 1880 at 10th Street NW in Washington, DC:
Occupation: Porter In Store
Household Members:
Name Age
John Whiting 37 brother porter in a store
James Whiting 25 brother in a store
George Whiting 22 laborer
Lizzie Whiting 27 sister
Kate Willson 23 half-sister
Gertie Whiting 8 niece

13.

William Washington – age 28 and a 5’6” laborer. In 1863, he enlisted at Washington, D.C. in Co. B of the 1st USCT infantry regiment; was promoted to corporal in July, 1864. Mustered out in 1865 at Roanoke Island, North Carolina.

Lived in 1880 in Georgetown, Washington, D.C.:
Occupation: Laborer
Household Members:
Name Age
Tobias Warren 70
Sarah Mason 30
Sophia Mason 55
Mary Herbert 65
Miranda Herbert 40
Annie Herbert 19
Daisy Herbert 7m
Alexander Mason 7
David Mason 15
Jennie Washington 40
William Washington 45
George Washington 5
Elizebeth Washington 12

14.

George Brown – age 35 and a 5’7.75” waiter. In 1863, he joined at Washington, D.C. in Co. G of the 2nd USCT infantry regiment. In 1864-1865, served as a baker at Cedar Keys, Florida. Mustered out in 1866 at Key West, Florida.

Lived in 1880 in New Orleans, Orleans, Louisiana:
Occupation: Laborer
Household Members:
Name Age
George Brown 52
Clara Brown 43
Calhoun Jones 19

Detail from [Unidentified African American soldier in Union cavalry uniform with sword]. Date Created/Published: [between 1863 and 1865]. Medium: 1 photograph : sixth-plate ambrotype, hand-colored ; 9.4 x 8.4 cm. case. loc.gov

Enlistees in Readville, Boston, and other locations in Massachusetts:

Camp Meigs (Readville) Site and Boston today – Google maps
Boston Common pre-war militia, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Author: Southworth & Hawes.

1.

Charles N. Keer (sailor) – born Charlestown, age 19 and a 5’4” landsman. He enlisted at Boston in 1861.
Detail from Union sailor [Unidentified African American sailor in Union uniform sitting with arm resting on table] Date Created/Published: [between 1863 and 1865] sailor Medium: 1 photograph : ninth-plate tintype, hand-colored ; 9.8 x 8.5 cm (frame) loc.gov

2.

William Smith (sailor) – born at Harper’s Ferry, age 23 and a 5’7” landsman. He enlisted at Boston August, 1864 and served on the vessels Sunflower and Tonawanda in 1865

3.

Peter Washington (2) – age 21 and a 5’4” coachman. In 1863, he enlisted at Readville, Massachusetts in Co. F of the 54th Massachusetts Colored infantry regiment. In 1867, he re-enlisted in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. He was at Wilson’s Creek, Kansas in Co. G of the 10th US Cavalry when he contracted cholera and died July 30, 1867.

4.

William Cephas – age 18 and a 5’3” laborer of light complexion. In 1863, he joined at Readville, Massachusetts Co. D of the 55th Massachusetts Colored infantry regiment. In August, 1864 at Long Island, South Carolina, he was found not guilty of misconduct when he resisted an officer’s attempt to tie his hands.

Lived in 1880 in Christiansburg, Montgomery County, Virginia:
Occupation: Farmer
Household Members:
Name Age
William Cephas 45
Prucilla Cephas 33
Mary V. F. Cephas 18
Laura E. Cephas 13
Maria E. Cephas 11
Willie Jane Cephas 9
James Cephas 7
Joseph L. Cephas 6
Minnie A. Cephas 5
Alfred H. Cephas 3
Cephas 2m

5.

Anthony Freeman – age 23 and a 5’8” farmer. In 1863, he joined at Readville, Massachusetts Co. F in the 55th USCT infantry regiment. Mustered out in 1865 at Charleston, South Carolina.

Lived in 1880 at National Military Home, Montgomery, Ohio:
Occupation: Barber
Name Age
John P. Aldridge 58
James Jackson 34
James M. Haley 37
Samuel Bateman 34
John Wheatley 39
Anthony Freeman 40

6.

Thomas Ross (2) – age 28 and a 5’9” laborer. In 1864, he joined at Readville, Massachusetts of Co. L of the 5th Mass. Cavalry Colored Regiment. Mustered out in 1865 in Yorkville, Texas.

7.

William Jones – born at Harper’s Ferry, age 18 and a 5’4.5” boatman. In 1863, he joined at Boston Co. A for the 5th Massachusetts Colored Cavalry. Sick June-July, 1864 at Fort Monroe, Virginia. July-September, 1865 “absent laborer on R.R. at Brazos Santiago, Texas.” Mustered out at Clarksville, Texas in 1865.

Lived in 1870 in Scott, Fauquier County, Virginia:
Name Age
Lewis Sisk 41
Caroline Sisk 41
Sarah Sisk 13
Henry Sisk 9
Nannie Sisk 6
Foley Sisk 3
Jacie Sisk 1
William Jones 25

8.

James Owen – born at Charlestown, age 21 and a 5’4” farmer. In 1864, he joined at Boston Co. F of the 5th Massachusetts Colored Cavalry. In 1865, detached service as a safe guard. Mustered out in Clarksville, Texas in late 1865.

Lived in 1880 in Black Walnut, Halifax County, Virginia:
Occupation: Farmer
Household Members:
Name Age
James M. Owen 37
Sarah J. Owen 35
Barksdale Owen 14
Jacob Owen 12
Mary Owen 6
Esau Owen 5
Matty Owen 4
Fanny Owen 3

9.

Spencer Lewis – born at Charlestown, age 19 and a 5’ 1/2” farmer. In 1864, he joined at Boston Co. M of the 5th Massachusetts Colored Cavalry. Mustered out in Clarksville, Texas October 31, 1865.

10.

Philip Green – born at Charlestown, age 19 and a 5’3” laborer. In 1864, he joined at Boston Co. M of the 5th Massachusetts Colored Cavalry. Mustered out in Clarksville, Texas in 1865.

Lived in 1900 in Rappahannock, Essex County, Virginia:
Name Age
Philip Green 54
Nettie Green 35
James H Green 25
Doney Green 23
Beverly Green 20
Charles K Green 17
Margaret Green 16
Sue T Green 13
Robert Green 10
Mace Green 9
Lillie Green 8
Hummy Green 6
Lila L Green 5
Kate Pendleton 19
Gustie Pendleton 13
Ben Pendleton 9
Patrick Pendleton 5
Annie M Pendleton 6/12

11.

George W. Galloway – born at Charlestown, age 26 and a 5’6” barber. In 1864, he joined at Boston Co. G of the 5th Massachusetts Colored Cavalry. Detached as a cook in 1865. Mustered out late 1865

Lived in 1870 in Cairo, Henderson County, Kentucky:
Name Age
George Galloway 33
Martha J Galloway 24
George W Galloway 7
Henry C Galloway 4
Rosa B Galloway 3
James H Galloway 1
Laura Cottingham 55

12.

David Franklin (See No. 1 “Died”)

13.

Dallas Cottar (Carter) – age 18 and a 5’5” waiter. In 1864, he joined at Templeton, Massachusetts Co. I of the 5th Massachusetts Colored Cavalry. Mustered out in Clarksville, Texas October, 1865.

14.

Henry Weaver – born at Charlestown, age 18 and a 5’4.5” laborer. In 1864, he joined at Lee, Massachusetts the 5th Massachusetts Colored Cavalry. “Rejected January 29, 1864.”

Lived in 1880 in Precinct 4, Marion, Texas:
Occupation: Farmer
Household Members:
Name Age
Henry Weaver 35
Rosa Weaver 26
Charles Weaver 5
Rebecca Weaver 4
Pat Weaver 6m

Detail from [Unidentified African American soldier in Union artillery shell jacket and shoulder scales in front of painted backdrop showing military camp with flag]. Date Created/Published: [between 1861 and 1865]. Medium: 1 photograph : quarter-plate tintype, hand-colored ; 16.2 x 13.6 cm (frame). loc.gov

Enlisting in New Orleans and other Louisiana locations:

Illustration from Campfires and Battlefields by Rossiter, Johnson, et al. (New York, 1894) – wikipedia.org

1.

James R. Willis (James B. Willis) – age 35 and a 5’9” laborer. In 1864, he enlisted at New Orleans, Louisiana in Co. G of the 10th USCT heavy artillery. Promoted to sergeant. Mustered out at Baton Rouge in 1867.

Lived in 1880 in Martinsburg, Berkeley County, West Virginia:
Occupation: Waiter In Hotel
Name Age
James Willis 50
Levina Willis 55
Charles Smith 25
Mary Smith 19
James Smith 18

2.

Lewis Willis – age 42 and a 5’7.5” carpenter. In 1863, he enlisted at Lake Providence, Louisiana in Co. B of the 47th USCT infantry regiment. Detailed as carpenter. He was discharged on account of lameness fron varicose veins and other conditions at Vicksburg, Miss. September, 1863.

Lived in 1870 in Smith Mills, Kentucky:
Household Members:
Name Age
Lewis Willis 50
Hannah Willis 35
Harry Willis 20
Mary A Willis 16
Lewis Willis 12
Belle Willis 4
John Willis 6/12

Lake Providence; headquarters of the second brigade, Eighth Corps d’Afrique. (This regiment fought at Lake Providence).
fig32

3.

Benjamin Fisher – Lake Providence, Louisiana (See No. 2 “Wounded”)

4.

Philip (Philips) Johnson – age 23 and a 5’7” farmer. In 1864, he joined at Goodrich’s Landing, Louisiana Co. I of the 48th USCT; took part in the engagement at Coleman’s Cross Roads, July 4, 1864; siege at Blakely, Alabama, April, 1865. Mustered out in 1866 Baton Rouge, Louisiana
Map of Blakely, Alabama Battle in April, 1865 – Atlas to Accompany the Official Records of the Civil War of the Rebellion, Plate 71-14, GPO

Lived in 1870 in Pine Top, Middlesex County, Virginia:
Name Age
Phillip Johnson 30
Jane Johnson 20
Lulie Johnson 1
Ariana Banks 10

5.

James Williams – born at Charlestown, age 19 and a 5’4” “yellow”-complexioned laborer. In 1864, he joined at New Orleans Co. K of the 4th USCT Colored Cavalry. Promoted to corporal, then sergeant, August, 1864. Mustered out in 1866 at New Orleans.

Lived in 1870 in Tuscaloosa, Alabama:
Occupation: domestic servant
Name Age
Laura Fitch 50
James Williams 25
Emeline Williams 27

[Unidentified African American soldier in Union uniform with wife and two daughters]
Date Created/Published: [between 1863 and 1865]
Medium: 1 photograph : quarter-plate ambrotype ; 13.9 x 16.4 cm (frame)
Summary: Photograph showing soldier in uniform, wife in dress and hat, and two daughters wearing matching coats and hats. In May 1863, U.S. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton issued General Order No. 143 creating the Bureau of U. S. Colored Troops. This image was found in Cecil County, Maryland, making it likely that this soldier belonged to one of the seven U.S.C.T. regiments raised in Maryland. (Source: Matthew R. Gross and Elizabeth T. Lewin, 2010) loc.gov

Enlistees, enlisting in Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and other locations in Pennsylvania:

”Rally Round the Flag, Boys! Rally Once Again, Shouting the Battle Cry of Freedom” (Philadelphia: Published by the Supervisory Committee for Recruiting Colored Regiments, 1210 Chestnut Street), 1863. Chromolithograph with hand-coloring.
“26th United States Colored Volunteer Infantry at Camp William Penn, ca. 1897. From the collection of the National Archives and Records Administration.” – wikipedia.org
Site Today Camp William Penn 7322 Sycamore LaMott Pa.

1.

Joseph Polk Sedgwick – Philadelphia (See No. 1 “Died”)

2.

William Riley – born at Charlestown, age 20 and a 5’6” waiter. In 1864, he joined at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Co. E of the 41st USCT infantry regiment. On October 12, 1864 and again on November 25, 1864 in Philadelphia, he deserted.

Lived in 1870 in Milam, Texas:
Name Age
William Riley 26
Susan Riley 30
William Riley 2
Soloman Riley 18
Harriett Riley 9m

3.

William Edwards – Philadelphia (See No. 1 “Died”)

4.

Dennis (Demis) Holly – Carlisle (See No. 1 “Died)

5.

Henry Hunter – age 27 and a 5’4” laborer. In 1864, he joined at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania Co. G of the 41st USCT infantry regiment; suffered “a disability” and was discharged in 1865 at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Lived in 1870 in Panola, Mississippi:
Name Age
Henry Hunter 33
Annie Hunter 13
Manning Hunter 10
Thom Hunter 4
Eliza Hunter 9

6.

George Cousins – born at Harper’s Ferry, age 23 and a 5’11.5” farmer. In 1864, he joined at Frankfort, Pennsylvania Co. D of the 43rd USCT infantry regiment. Mustered out at Brownsville, Texas October, 1863.

Lived in 1860 in Henrico County, Virginia:
Name Age
Fanny Cousins 85
George Cousins 19
William Cousins 12
Jane Cousins 10

7.

John Williams – Philadelphia (See No. 4 Retired to Jefferson County)

8.

John W. Welcome – Philadelphia (See No. 4 Retired to Jefferson County

9.

William H. Washington – age 30 and a 5’9” laborer. In 1864, he enlisted at Chambersburg, Pennsylvania in Co. B the 32nd USCT infantry regiment. Mustered out in 1865 at Hilton Head, South Carolina.

Lived in 1890 at Chambersburg, Pennsylvania:
Name Age
William H Washington 58
Ellen Washington 50
Elija Washington 33
Iza Washington 19
Susana Barnes 30
Robert C Barnes 28
Annie Golden 45
Alexander Golden 20
Rosetta Golden 16
Holly Hawkins 18

10.

Zechariah Lawson – age 33 and a 5’6.75” laborer. In 1865, he joined at Pittsburgh Co. C of the 24th USCT infantry regiment. Mustered out in 1865 at Richmond, Virginia.

Lived in 1870 in Pittsburgh:
Household Members:
Name Age
Zach Lawson 38
Lucy Lawson 37
Emily Lawson 8

11.

Thornton Rolling – age 31 and a 5’5” light-skinned laborer. In April 5, 1865, he joined at Lancaster, Pennsylvania Co. R of the 24th USCT infantry regiment. No additional record.

12.

James Green – age 23 and a 5’6” laborer. In 1864, he enlisted at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Co. K of the 41st USCT infantry regiment. Mustered out in 1865 at Brownsville, Texas.

13.

Joseph H. Goins (sailor) – born in Charlestown, age 23, mulatto-complexioned, 5’3” barber. In 1863, he enlisted at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Rated a landsman, served on the Santee

14.

Randolph Thornton – Philadelphia (See No. 4 Retired to Jefferson County)

15.

Daniel Mason – age 28 and a 5’8” barber. In 1864, he joined at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Co. K of the 43rd USCT infantry regiment. Detailed as brigade cattle guard. Mustered out in 1865 at Brownsville, Texas.

Lived in 1910 at Piedmont, West Virginia:
Name Age
James H Stewart 41
Emma Stewart 40
Harry J Stewart 19
Mary M Stewart 16
Leslie M Stewart 10
Fanchion S Stewart 7
Isabel F Stewart 5
James W Stewart 3
Robert J Gardener 22
Ethel C Gardener 21
Daniel Mason 73
Harriott E Mason 68

16.

John W. Washington – age 38 and a 5’10.5” farmer with “yellow” complexion. In late 1863, he enlisted at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. in Co. D of the 22nd USCT infantry regiment. In late 1865, he was discharged. He died 1886, and was buried Hickory Grove Cemetery in Waverly, Pennsylvania.

Sic semper tyrannis – 22th Regt. U.S. Colored Troops –
Bowser, David Bustill, 1820-1900, artist – loc.gov

17.

Nathan Jones – age 24 and a 5’4” laborer. In 1864 he joined at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Co. I of the 22nd USCT infantry regiment. Absent without leave in 1864. In 1865, he was mustered out in Brownsville, Texas.

Lived in 1870 in Dayton, Marengo County, Alabama:
Name Age
Angeline Bird 30
Nathan Jones 30
Andrew Barnes 39
Dillsy Barnes 34
Anna Barnes 15
Emma Barnes 13
Adler Barnes 11

18.

Joseph Jones – born at Charlestown, age 20 and a 5’7.5” farmer. In 1864, he joined at Chambersburg, Pennsylvania Co. A of the 22nd USCT infantry regiment. Mustered out in 1865 at Brownsville, Texas.

Lived in 1880 in Hampton, Elizabeth City, Virginia:
Occupation: Day Laborer
Household Members:
Name Age
Joseph Jones 36
Martha S. Jones 35
David Jones 10
Edward Jones 2

19.

Absalom Arter – born at Charlestown, age 18 and a 5’4.75” “yellow”-complexioned, “hazel”-eye laborer. In 1863, he joined at Chambersburg, Pennsylvania Co. H of the 22nd USCT infantry regiment. Mustered out in 1865 at Brownsville, Texas.

Lived in 1880 in Shippensburg, Cumberland County, Pennsylvania.
Occupation: Laborer
Household Members:
Name Age
Absolom E. Arter 46
Henrietta Arter 23
Harriet B. Arter 10
Laton K. Arter 8
Charles A. Arter 2
Anna M. Arter 1

Fort Brown arsenal at Brownsville, Texas during the Civil War with a pontoon crossing the Rio Grande.
[Unidentified African American soldier in Union uniform in front of painted backdrop showing landscape] hatless sitting lower right Date Created/Published: [between 1863 and 1865] Medium: 1 photograph : sixth-plate tintype, hand-colored ; 9.5 x 8.2 cm (case) – loc.gov

Enlistees, who enlisted in Baltimore, Ellicott Mills and other Maryland locations:

View of Baltimore City, Md., from the North / lith. & print by E. Sachse & Co.

1.

George W. Harris – Baltimore, Maryland (See No. 2 “Wounded”)

2.

John Bosley – born at Harper’s Ferry, age 19 and a 5’10.5” laborer. In 1865, he joined at Ellicott Mills, Maryland Co. K of the 7th USCT infantry regiment. Detached as guard at ammunition train, 1865. Mustered out at Indianola, Texas October, 1866.
City Point, Virginia. Negro soldier guarding 12-pdr. Napoleon. (Model 1857?) Date Created/Published: [1865]
Medium: 1 negative (2 plates) : glass, stereograph, wet collodion. Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-cwpb-01982 (digital file from original neg. of left half) LC-DIG-cwpb-01983 (digital file from original neg. of right half) loc.gov

Lived in 1880 in Jefferson, Marion County, Texas:
Occupation: Laborer
Household Members:
Name Age
John Bosley 34
Elouise Bosley 33
George Bosley 14

3.

Harry (Henry) Dorsey – age 29 and a 5’6.5” laborer. In 1864, he joined at Ellicott Mills, Maryland Co. D of the 28th USCT infantry regiment

Lived in 1880 in Washington, District of Columbia:
Occupation: Laborer
Household Members:
Name Age
Henry Dorsey 44
Anna Dorsey 38
Christina Dorsey 17

4.

William Miner – age 26 and a 5’10” farmer with a “copper” complexion. In 1865, he joined at Baltimore, Maryland Co. I of the 38th USCT infantry regiment. Mustered out at Brazos Santiago, Texas in 1866.

Lived in 1880 at Temperance, Virginia:
Occupation: Laborer
Household Members:
Name Age
William Miner 40
Louisa Miner 38
Anna Miner 15
Willie Miner 14
Emmer Miner 12
Susan Miner 10
William Miner 4
Charles Miner 2
Millia Miner 58

5.

Henry Washington – age 17 and a 5’5” laborer. In 1863, he enlisted at Baltimore, Maryland in Co. A, 4th USCT infantry regiment. On daily duty as company cook and then brigade teamster. Sick in hospital New Berne, North Carolina.

Lived in 1880 in Osburn, Jefferson County, West Virginia:
Name Age
Henry Washington 34
M. L. Washington 33
Walter Washington 17
Ema Washington 10
Maria Washington 7
S. B. Washington 2
Matel. Washington 3m
Harriot Rust 50
John Jackson 50

6.

William Spellman – Frederick, Maryland (See No. 4 Retired in Jefferson County)

7.

Charles Williams – Baltimore (See No. 1 “Died”)

8.

Thomas J. Devonshire – Frederick, Maryland (See No. 2 “Wounded”)

Those who enlisted in New York City or other locations in New York State:

New York City –  New York 7th Infantry Regiment marching down Broadway Harper’s Weekly May 4 , 1861

1.

George W. Shorts – born at Harpers Ferry, age 19 and a 5’6” farmer. In 1864, he joined at Rikers Island, New York Co. F of the 26th USCT infantry regiment. Fought at Bloody Bridge, Johns Island, South Carolina July 4, 1864. From May-June, 1865 on daily duty as teamster at Beaufort, South Carolina. Mustered out in 1865 at Hilton Head.

Lived in 1900 in Middle River, Augusta County, Virginia:
Occupation: stone quarry
Household Members:
Name Age
George W Shorts 51
Eliza E Shorts 45
Henry W Shorts 21
Charles E Shorts 18
Nellie L Shorts 16
Theodore Shorts 14
James W Shorts 10
William Shorts 8
Jessie Shorts 5

2.

Charles Harrison – born at Charlestown, age 20, In 1864, he joined at Rikers Island, New York Co. F in the 26th USCT infantry regiment. July, 1864 – on picket at Parris Island, South Carolina. In July, 1865 – ambulance driver. Mustered out in 1865 at Hilton Head, South Carolina.
Google maps

Lived in 1870 in Norfolk Ward 3, Norfolk County, Virginia:
Name Age
Lawrence Harrison 55
Milly Harrison 50
Charles N Harrison 25
Wm H Harrison 21
Wm Oden 26
Nancy Oden 25
Jimm Harris 40
Hannah Harris 35
Catherine Wamley 35
Lizzie Wamley 30
Martha Wamley 25
William Wamley 13
Charlotte Harris 21
Laura Janes 15
Betsey Bishop 60

3.

John Doliver (Deliver) – Oswego, New York (See No. 1 “Died”)

4.

Arnold Freeman – age 38 and a 5’11 3/4” laborer. In 1864, he joined at Farmville, New York Co. C of the 6th USCT infantry regiment. Mustered out at Wilmington, North Carolina in 1865.

5.

William Smith – age 18 and a 5’2.5” laborer. In 1863, he joined at Brooklyn, New York Co. G of the 20th USCT infantry regiment. Mustered out in 1865 at New Orleans, Louisiana.

6.

Peter Washington – age 18 and a 5’9” steward. In 1864, he enlisted at Porter (Potter) Town, New York in Co. K of the 20th USCT infantry regiment. Discharged from Corps d’Afrique August 21, 1865 at New Orleans due to a disability.

Lived in 1890 at Potomac, Virginia. – 1890 Veterans Schedule

[Unidentified young African American soldier in Union uniform with forage cap] Date Created/Published: [between 1863 and 1865] clean face very young upper torso Medium: 1 photograph : ninth-plate tintype, hand-colored ; 8.0 x 6.7 cm (case) – loc.gov

THOSE WHO ENLISTED IN OHIO:

wikipedia.org

1.

Thomas Moore – Athens, Ohio (See No. 2 “Wounded”)

2.

Jethrow Davison (Danson) – born at Harper’s Ferry, age 25 and a 5’9.5” blacksmith. In 1864, he joined at Columbus, Ohio Co. A of the 27th USCT infantry regiment. March-April, 1865 sick in hospital. Mustered out at Smithville, North Carolina September, 1865.

3.

James Sheldon – born at Charlestown, age 22 and a 5’8.5” farmer. In 1865, he joined at Cincinnati, Ohio Co. E of the 5th USCT Colored Cavalry. Mustered out in 1866 at Helena, Arkansas.
Cincinnati, Ohio during the Civil War – Harper’s Weekly September 27, 1862.

4.

William Paine (Payne) – Ross County, Ohio (See No. 4 Retired to Jefferson County)

5.

Mathew Grant – born at Charlestown, age 20 and a 5’7” laborer, he joined at Delaware, Ohio Co. I of the 5th USCT infantry regiment. Mustered out in North Carolina in 1865.
Lived in 1870 in El Paso, Texas in garrison.

6.

James Gatewood – born at Charlestown, age 24 and a 5’6” “mulatto” tobacconist. In 1864, he joined at Cincinnati, Ohio Co. G of the 44th USCT infantry regiment. No records after September, 1864

Lived in 1870 in Stevensville, King and Queen County, Virginia:
Name Age
James Gatewood 27
Lucy Gatewood 26
Alice Gatewood 6
Charles Gatewood 2
Parthena Gatewood 9/12
Easter Cotman 61

7.

Alberter (Albert) Freeman – age 19 and a 5’5” farmer. In 1864, he joined at Marietta, Ohio Co. G of the 27th USCT infantry regiment. Mustered out at Smithville, North Carolina in September, 1865.

Lived in 1870 in Franklin, Monroe County, Ohio:
Name Age
Harvey Curtis 55
Ellmona Curtis 29
John W Curtis 16
Hammie Curtis 9
Rosetta Curtis 7
Ossie Curtis 6
Columbus Curtis 4
Albert Freeman 25

8.

Nimrod Freeman – age 26 and a 5’9” laborer. In 1864, he joined at Columbus, Ohio Co. C of the 27th USCT infantry regiment. Mustered out in 1865 at Smithville, North Carolina.

9.

George Stanley – age 21 and a 5’8” mulatto laborer. In 1864, he joined at Sandusky, Ohio Co. C of the 27th USCT infantry regiment. Mustered out in 1865 at Smithville, North Carolina.

10.

Charles Wheeler – Cuyahoga, County, Ohio (See No. 1 “Died”)
[African American man, full-length portrait, facing right] / photographic artist. B. Moses, Cor. Camp and Canal Sts., New Orleans. Creator(s): Moses, B. (Bernard), 1832-1899, photographer. Date Created/Published: [between 1864 and 1866]. Medium: 1 photographic print on carte de visite mount : albumen ; 10 x 6 cm. loc.gov

Enlisted in Virginia:

Virginia_detail_Wikipedia

1.

Barnett Quales – born at Harper’s Ferry, age 20 and a 5’9” laborer. In 1864, he joined at Camp Casey, Virginia Co. H of the 29th USCT infantry regiment. On detached service to work on military telegraph in 1865. Mustered out at Brownsville, Texas in 1865.
Google maps

2.

John Henry Thomas – born at Harper’s Ferry, age 34. A 5’5.5” laborer. In 1864, he joined at Camp Casey, Virginia Co. K in the 34th USCT infantry regiment. October, 1865, he was imprisoned for two years under a general court martial for burglary in St. Augustine, Florida.

3.

William Rideout (Reidout) (Ridout) – born at Harper’s Ferry, age 18 and a 5’8” waiter. In 1863, he joined at Camp Casey, Virginia Co. C the 2nd USCT infantry regiment. Promoted to sergeant. Mustered out 1866 at Key West, Florida.

4.

Frank Walker – Masons Island, Virginia (See No. 2 “Wounded”)

5.

James R. Furguson (Ferguson) (Fergerson) – age 21 and a 5’8” mulatto-complexioned blacksmith. In 1863, he joined at Masons Island, Virginia Co. I of the 1st USCT infantry regiment. Mustered out in 1865 at Roanoke Island, North Carolina.
loc.gov

Lived in 1870 in Fredericksville Parish, Albemarle County, Virginia:
Name Age
James Ferguson 29
Katie Ferguson 7
Thomas Ferguson 5
James C Ferguson 1/12

6.

Joseph White – age 23 and a 5’4” laborer. In 1864, he enlisted at Waterford, Virginia in Co. K of the 43rd USCT infantry regiment; appointed corporal In June, 1864. Mustered out in 1865 at Brownsville, Texas.
[Unidentified African American soldier] / Taken only at Alden, 503 Washington St., corner of West, Boston. Circle image head shot not used thin face stare Creator(s): Alden Photograph Company, photographer. Date Created/Published: [between 1877 and 1880]
Medium: 1 photograph : round tintype ; 3.6 cm diameter (frame) loc.gov

Enlisted in Indianapolis and other locations in Indiana:

wikipedia.org

1.

Luke Burrows – age 22 and 5’9.5” “yellow”-complexioned laborer. In 1865, he joined at Indianapolis, Indiana Co. B of the 28th USCT infantry regiment. Mustered out in 1865, from hospital at Indianapolis, Indiana.

2.

Albert Cook – Jeffersonville, Indiana (See No. 1 “Died”)

3.

Jacob Burrows (Burrous) – Indianapolis, Indiana (See No. 1 “Died”)

4.

Thompson Burrs (Burns) – age 35 and 5’6” farmer. In 1865, he joined at Indianapolis, Indiana the 28th USCT infantry regiment. He was mustered out in May of 1865 in Indiana.
[Unidentified African American soldier in Union uniform]
Date Created/Published: [between 1863 and 1865] strong face big round top hat
Medium: 1 photograph : carte de visite-plate tintype, hand-colored ; 10.5 x 7.8 cm (case) loc.gov

Other locations where members of the USCT enlisted:

1.

Henry Robinson (Robison) – Cairo, Illinois ( See No.1 “Died”)

2.

Tom McCarty – at Union, Kentucky (See No.1 “Died”)

3.

Ambrose C. Jackson – Morristown, New Jersey (See No.1 “Died”)

4.

Charles Bentley – New Haven, Connecticut (See No. 1 “Died”)

5.

Frank Hill – born at Charlestown, age 23 and a 5’7” recruit. In 1863, he joined at New Bern, North Carolina Co. A of the 2nd USCT Colored Cavalry. Promoted to sergeant in 1864. Mustered out in Brazos Santiago, Texas in 1866.

Lived in 1880 in Travis, Texas:
Occupation: Farm Hand
Household Members:
Name Age
Jno. W. Hill 57
Barbara Hill 56
Clara Hill 23
Mary L. Hill 21
Ella Hill 21
Emma Hill 18
Frank Hill 40
Moses Hill 30

6.

Richard Burke – Ridgeway, WV. (See No. 2 “Wounded”)

7.

Abram Burris – age 33 and a 5’7” laborer, In 1864, he joined at Union, Kentucky Co. H of the 8th USCT heavy artillery. Died in hospital at Indianola, Texas August, 1865

8.

Tom (Toney) King – age 25 and a 5’4.5” farmer. In 1865, he joined at Montgomery, Alabama Co. H of the 50th USCT infantry regiment. In 1866, he mustered out at Vicksburg, Mississippi.

Lived in 1880 at Vernon, Dallas County, Alabama:
Occupation: Farm Hand
Household Members:
Name Age
Tom King 40
Mary King 30
Luvenia King 10
Joel King 8

9.

Robert Powell – age 27 and a 5’7.5” farmer. In 1864, he joined at Macon, Missouri Co. C of the 18th USCT infantry regiment and was promoted to corporal. Mustered out in 1866 at Huntsville, Alabama.

10.

Alexander Ransom (Ranson) – age 32 and a farmer with hazel eyes and standing 5’6.5”. In 1865, he joined at Huntsville, Alabama Co. E of the 9th USCT heavy artillery. He was detailed as the company cook.

11.

Jessie S. Smith – age 30, very light complexion and 5’8.5” tall. In 1863, he joined at New Berne, North Carolina Co. G of the 35th USCT infantry regiment and was promoted to first sergeant in 1863. Saw action at Henry Hill, South Carolina in 1864.

12.

James Williams – Wilmington, North Carolina (See No. 4 Retired to Jefferson County)

13.

George Williams – Rome, Georgia (See No. 4 Retired to Jefferson County)

14.

Tecumsia (Tecumseh) McDonald – age 24 and a 5’6” teamster. In 1865, he joined at Savannah, Georgia Co. F of the 33rd USCT infantry regiment. Mustered out in 1866 at Charleston, South Carolina.

15.

Jordan Brown – age 24 and a 5’10” farmer. In 1863, he joined at Pine Bluff, Arkansas Co. I of the 54th USCT infantry regiment. Mustered out at Little Rock, Arkansas, September, 1866.

Lived in 1870 in Totaro, Brunswick County, Virginia:
Name Age
Jordan Brown 30
Jesse Brown 8
Ellen Brown 5

NO. 4 – THOSE WHO SURVIVED THE WAR AND RETURNED TO LIVE IN JEFFERSON COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA AS REFLECTED IN THE CENSUS RECORD:

Detail from Unidentified African American soldier in Union uniform with wife and two daughters] Date Created/Published: [between 1863 and 1865] Medium: 1 photograph : quarter-plate ambrotype ; 13.9 x 16.4 cm (frame) Summary: Photograph showing soldier in uniform, wife in dress and hat, and two daughters wearing matching coats and hats. (Source: Matthew R. Gross and Elizabeth T. Lewin, 2010). loc.gov

Detail from “Mustered out” colored volunteers at Little Rock, Arkansas loc.gov

1.

John Williams – age 30 and a 5’3.5” tailor. In 1864, he enlisted at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in Co. E of the 43rd USCT infantry regiment. Mustered out in 1865 at Brownsville, Texas

Lived in 1870 at Chapline, Jefferson County, West Virginia:
Name Age
Thomas Osborne 52
Abby G Osborne 46
Thomas F Osborne 16
Helen J Osborne 14
Harris C Osborne 12
Ida P Osborne 9
Annie Osborne 3
Ann Mason 16 B domestic servant
Thomas Mitchell 18 B farm laborer
John Williams 25 B farm laborer

2.

John W. Welcome – age 18 and a 5’6” barber. In 1863, he enlisted at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in Co. E of the 3rd USCT infantry regiment. In April, 1865 in Jacksonville, Florida, he was released from a month of confinement because no charges were filed and his superior described him as “an excellent” soldier.

Lived in 1900 at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia:
Name Age
John W Welcome 56
Annie Welcome 18

3.

Randolph Thornton – age 23 and a light-skinned, 5’5” farmer, In 1863, he enlisted at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in Co. C of the 3rd USCT, infantry regiment. Mustered out in 1865 at Jacksonville, Florida.

Lived in 1880 in Charlestown, West Virginia:
Occupation: Keeping House
Household Members:
Name Age
Randolph Thornton 50
Marier Thornton 40
Hanniah Thornton 14
Sameul Thornton 12
John H. Thornton 8
Gertrude Thornton 2

4.

Thomas J. Devonshire (See No. 2. – “Wounded”)

Lived until his death in 1917 in Shepherdstown. He and his wife Charity worked for Caroline “Danske” Dandridge at Rosebrake, he doing the heavy work required of her vast garden of flowers, from which she wrote garden articles for magazines in England and the United States. (Danske Dandridge Papers, Manuscript July, 1900 and Garden & Forest Magazine – loc.gov)

Rose Hill – findagrave.com – Aaron Lennox
Tom Devonshires finds Danske’s missing turkey

5.

George Johnson – age 18 and a 5’3” farmer. In 1864, he joined at Vicksburg, Mississippi Co. C of the 49th USCT infantry regiment. Mustered out 1866 at Vicksburg, Mississippi
Where George Johnson worked in 1870

Lived in 1870 in Averill, Jefferson County, West Virginia:
Name Age
Berley S Mcintire 34
Agnes J Mcintire 23
Effie M Mcintire 5
Harry Mcintire 2
Mary Mcintire 1
John C Betner 25
George Johnson 24 farm laborer

George W. Johnson Jr. – Johnsontown Cemetery, findagrave.com courtesy Monte Harding

6.

Thomas Frame – age 44 and a 5’7” “herdsman” with “hazel”-colored eyes, he joined at Vicksburg, Mississippi Co. B of the 50th USCT infantry regiment, was promoted to sergeant. Mustered out in 1866 at Vicksburg, Mississippi.

Lived in 1890 in Harper’s Ferry, West Virginia – 1890 Veterans Schedule

7.

Jasper Thompson – born at Harper’s Ferry, age 20 and a 5’3” laborer. In 1864, he joined at Washington, D.C. Co. F of the 23rd USCT infantry regiment. Promoted to first sergeant February 3, 1865. On detached duty as an orderly July-August, 1864 at the regimental hospital. Promoted to corporal December, 1864. Promoted to first sergeant February, 1865. Mustered out at Brazos Santiago, Texas November, 1865.

Lived in 1880 Charlestown, Jefferson County, West Virginia:
Occupation: Labor
Name Age
Jasper Thompson 33
Dolley Thompson 31
Solimon Thompson 9
Marier Thompson 8
David Thompson 7
Louesia Thompson 1
Joseph Thompson 4
Sariah Thompson 6

Murdered by a self-described white supremacist September, 1906.

Jasper Thompson’s Destiny Day by Jim Surkamp with Monique Crippen-Hopkins TRT: 52:28

His entire life story beginning with his ancestors at Claymont and Blakeley of the Washington family in this acclaimed video:

Jasper Thompson’s Destiny Day by Jim Surkamp with Monique Crippen-Hopkins

8.

George Williams – age 19 and a 5’5” farmer. In 1864, he enlisted at Rome, Georgia in Co. K of the 44th USCT infantry regiment. Captured late, 1864 at Dalton, Georgia. He was a prisoner of war, escaped March, 1865. No record of discharge and $300 bounty still due him until official discharge in 1876 at Washington, D.C.

Lived in 1870 in Chapline Township, West Virginia:
Name Age
John A Marshall 40
Susan E Marshall 32
Robert E Marshall 2
Lela Marshall 1
George Williams 25 (B) laborer
Maria Blackburn 30 (B) domestic servant

9.

James Williams – age 19 and a 5’6” laborer. In 1863, he enlisted at Wilmington, North Carolina in Co. C of the 6th USCT infantry regiment. No additional records.

Lived in 1880 in Charlestown, West Virginia:
Occupation: Laborer
Household Members:
Name Age
James Williams 33
Louisa Williams 40
Mary Ellen Williams 15
Maria Jane Williams 17
Elizabeth Williams 9
Robert Williams 7
Bettie Williams 1

10.

William Paine (Payne) – born at Charlestown, age 26 and a 5’7” laborer. In 1864, he joined at Ross County, Ohio Co. E of the 27th USCT infantry regiment. Mustered out in 1865 at Smithville, North Carolina.

Lived in 1880 in Charlestown, Jefferson County, West Virginia:
Occupation: Works at the Halltown Paper Mill

Jim Taylor, coach and biology teacher at Jefferson High School for many years, explains the early life of William H. Paine (from the video shown):

 It begins with a woman named Rachel who came into the Halltown area around 1790 and she was referred to as the “African woman” which means at that time when they called you “the African,” that means you came directly from Africa into this country. She probably landed in the Tidewater area but she was brought into the  Halltown area. 

And she had a son named William H. Payne. Anyway he was a slave in the Halltown area, and he ran away a lot and the owner kept comin’ and getting him. Evidently they must have formed a fairly good relationship between the two.

Now, he became “a breeder.” Now “a breeder” was a slave that goes  from plantation to plantation, or to a big breeding house and impregnated the slave women so they could make enough slaves to sell them South because the South didn’t have enough slaves. So Virginia became a slave-breeding state. 

When he was set free, the owner told him: “Because of your service to me, I want you to go and find the last woman that you impregnated and the kid andI will give you and her a piece of land, and he gave my great-great-great grandfather – William H. Payne – land down there near Halltown and the area there was called Payne’s Hill and that’s where the history of my family sort of began.  He was a mulatto. What characteristics he had that would qualify him as a breeder I don’t know. I don’t know about how tall he was he was, but there was something about him, I guess, that was the reason they used him – 24, 25 offsprings, I mean kids that he produced.And we do have that on tape because my cousin in Washington, lived with my great-grandmother in Halltown, when she was a little kid. And  my great-grandmother  would tell these stories about it. Then, she started doing research down in Washington.

Jim Taylor & His Family History (Mother’s Side) May, 2013 (captioned) TRT: 6:05
Detail from Headquarters Fifth Army Corps, Harrison’s Landing, James River, Va. Date Created/Published: August [8?], 1862. Medium: 1 photographic print : printing out paper print. Summary: Nine soldiers and an African American cook posed in front of tent. loc.gov
Detail from [Bermuda Hundred, Va. African-American teamsters near the signal tower] Date Created/Published: 1864. Medium: 1 negative : glass, wet collodion. Summary: Photograph from the main eastern theater of the war, the Army of the James, June 1864-April 1865. Shows group of seven “contrabands” dressed in old Union uniforms standing in front of a wagon and shack. loc.gov
Detail from Unidentified African American soldier in Union uniform with wife and two daughters] Date Created/Published: [between 1863 and 1865] Medium: 1 photograph : quarter-plate ambrotype ; 13.9 x 16.4 cm (frame) Summary: Photograph showing soldier in uniform, wife in dress and hat, and two daughters wearing matching coats and hats. (Source: Matthew R. Gross and Elizabeth T. Lewin, 2010). loc.gov

REFERENCES:

National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); Washington, D.C.; Compiled military service records of volunteer Union soldiers who served with the United States Colored Troops, infantry organizations.

Compiled Military Service Records of Volunteer Union Soldiers. Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration.

U.S., Civil War Pension Index: General Index to Pension Files, 1861-1934.

United States Census 1850-1920.

Jefferson County Men Enlist: Face Each Other 1861-1865 – The Men of Color in Blue

https://web.archive.org/web/20140122195247/https://civilwarscholars.com/2013/06/union-soldiers-who-were-jefferson-county-african-americans-source-documents/

VIDEO: Jefferson County Men Enlist: Face Each Other 1861-1865 – TRT: 2:09

Casualties (died fighting or disease)
No casualties found for the ___ white Union enlistees from Jefferson County

AFRICAN AMERICAN MEN FROM JEFFERSON COUNTY IN THE BLUE UNIFORM

Same as Thornton Rolling
U.S. Colored Troop enlistees from Charles Town, Va.
U. S. Colored Troop enlistees from Harper’s Ferry, Va.

Jefferson County-born men of color in the Union Navy (SOURCE: National Park Service; African American Civil War Sailor Index, 1861-1865 at ancestry.com):

Name: John Butler
Race: Black
Height: 5′ 6″
Birth Year: abt 1828
Birth Place: Jefferson Co., Virginia
Age: 35
Enlistment Date: 16 Dec 1863
Enlistment Place: Gen. Price/Donaldsonville LA
Term of Enlistment: 99
Rating: 1st Class Boy
Muster Date: 1 Oct 1864
Vessel: General Price

Name: Richard Blackburn
Race: Mulatto
Occupation: Cook/Farmer
Height: 5′ 5″
Birth Year: abt 1827
Birth Place: Jefferson Co., Virginia
Age: 37
Enlistment Date: 12 May 1864
Enlistment Place: New York
Term of Enlistment: 3
Rating: Landsman
Muster Date: 1 Jan 1867
Vessel: Lancaster & Arthur

Name: Samuel Reede
Race: Yellow (Asian)
Occupation: Mason
Height: 5′ 3″
Birth Year: abt 1847
Birth Place: West Jefferson Co., Virginia
Age: 17
Enlistment Date: 12 Mar 1864
Enlistment Place: Yorktown
Term of Enlistment: 2
Rating: 1st Class Boy
Muster Date: 30 Jun 1864
Vessel: Mystic

Strother Grieves the End of His Country – April 18-19, 1861 Harpers Ferry

574 words

VIDEO: Strother Grieves The End of His Country – TRT: 4:58

David Hunter Strother

But the more skillful presently guessed the truth and concluded that the officer in command had set fire to the arsenals and abandoned the town. With the ashes of the arsenal cooling, Strother perceived in the light of the next day, the enormity of the events: I must confess that I felt this morning like a man wandering in a maze. . . So, .it seemed that the sudden gust of emotion, excited by the lowering of our starry flag, had swept away the mists of speculation and revealed in its depth and breadth the abyss of degradation opened by secession. Yesterday I was a citizen of the great American republic. My country spanned a continent. Her northern border neared the frigid zone while her southern limit touched the tropics. Her eastern and her western shores were washed by the two great oceans of the globe. Her commerce covering the most remote seas, her flag honored in every land. The strongest nation acknowledged her power, and the most enlightened honored her attainments in art, science, and literature. Her political system, the cherished ideal toward whose realization the noblest aspirations and efforts of mankind have been directed for ages. The great experiment which the pure and wise of all nations are watching with trembling solicitude and imperishable hope. It was something to belong to such a nationality. This was yesterday. To-day, what am I? A citizen of Virginia. Virginia, a petty commonwealth with scarcely a million of white inhabitants. What could she ever hope to be but a worthless fragment of the broken vase? A fallen and splintered column of the once glorious temple. But I will not dwell longer on the humiliating contrast. Come – harness up the buggy and let us get out of this or I shall suffocate.

More. . .

April 18, 1861 – On that fateful night after Virginia’s conditioned vote to secede from the United States, many local militiamen were already en route to Harper’s Ferry to take control of the federal arsenal, basing their action on a word-of-mouth understanding that their action was legal and officially sanctioned. The acting militia commander, a 31-year-old, professionally-trained officer from Summit Point named James Allen, was confronted and cautioned by locally born but ardent Unionist, David Hunter Strother. As the local militia moved towards Harper’s Ferry at the urgings of Turner Ashby on the night of April 18th, Strother, a lifelong friend of those present, intervened arguing that no formal, written order had been produced to authorize the militias to move on the Federal arsenal in the lower town and capture its estimated 16,000 weapons and weapons-making equipment. (In fact, the vote by the popularly-elected Virginia Secession Convention had occurred the previous day in Richmond voting 85-55 to secede, BUT only after the results were known of a referendum scheduled for the following month). Just as Col. Allen was taking Strother’s point to heart and ordered his militia only so far east as Halltown pending the substantiation of his orders, when there erupted from the lower town out of their line-of-sight. Strother saw: flashes and detonations several times repeated; then a steadier flame was seen rising from two distinct points silently and rapidly increasing in volume until each rock and tree on the Loudoun and Maryland Heights were distinctly visible and the now over-clouded sky was ruddy with the sinister glare. This occurred I think between nine and ten o’clock. Some thought they heard artillery. But the more skillful presently guessed the truth and concluded that the officer in command had set fire to the arsenals and abandoned the town.

George Koonce – “Mr. Jefferson County, West Virginia” – 1861

3,492 words

Chapter 14 – The War Storm Breaks

Flickr.com https://www.flickr.com/photos/jimsurkamp/albums/72157686959874654 Click on right/left arrows

VIDEO: George Koonce “Mr. Jefferson County, West Virginia” – 1861 TRT: 21:58
https://youtu.be/0lNcgcJP_cw

“Mr. George Koonce. a man of great activity and personal courage, and Mr. Wilson, who is also a man of great nerve, were very prompt in volunteering their aid to Lieutenant Jones, and the latter put great confidence in them.” – Joseph Barry

That night of April 17th, 1861 Constable George Koonce, his family back home, led armed townsmen and some of the forty-five federal men from the armory, up the steep hill from Harper’s Ferry and the arsenal with its 20,000 new weapons – to face an enemy at Smallwood’s hill. who they believed was as many as three thousand.

Earlier around noon, Koonce watched as excited words spilled out of the mouth of Alfred Barbour, who, en route, had given his resignation in Washington D.C., as the armory and arsenal’s superintendent, and came on to Harpers Ferry to announce to everyone the certain seizure of the arsenal – all this barely before the ink had dried on the Ordinance of Secession in Richmond. The vote was taken as former Governor Henry Wise waved his dueling pistol over his head to menace the delegates against rebelling. The vote was taken and western Virginia delegates who opposed seceding rushed away for their lives to catch a train. Men were prowling their hotel with lynching rope.

Secessionist John Imboden described – an informal meeting, organized by Henry Wise, for 7 PM April 16th at Exchange Hotel Richmond. They agreed to a movement to capture Harper’s Ferry, beginning the next day, the 17th.

After midnight early the morning of the 17th, Imboden led some of the group to Virginia Governor John Letcher’s house and woke him up, “arousing him from his bed” and warmly sought his support for their plan to capture the Harper’s Ferry armory, its arms and the machinery. Imboden advised him to make sure the vote would take place as scheduled for later that day and that he would agree to sign off on it with its implications.

Skipping the Secession vote for the morrow, Barbour left by train post-haste to Harper’s Ferry with Virginia government official John Seddon with his proclamation of secession.

The vote was taken in secret session so the world wouldn’t know at once.

https://secession.richmond.edu/

p. 111

https://archive.org/details/battlesleadersof01cent/page/111/mode/1up?view=theater

Delegate John S. Burdett wrote later:

The ordinance was passed on the 17th of April, and we recalcitrants lit out on first trains we could catch — some twelve or fifteen of us — Carlisle, Clemens, Dent and others. A dispatch from Governor Letcher failed to arrest us at Fredericksburg. When we got to Washington, some went North. I came to my home on the Baltimore & Ohio, and John Seddon and Alfred Barbour sat in my front, with bottles of whiskey. When they saw me, they said: “Burdett, you seceded at Richmond, did you?” They were members and on the way to Harper’s Ferry to grab the armory and open up revolutionary devilment. Barbour was a member from Jefferson County, in which Harper’s Ferry is situated.

John Goode stopped off at Washington with Alf. Barbour, so Barbour could resign the office of Superintendent of the Armory at Harper’s Ferry.

Once at Harper’s Ferry, Barbour, stepped off the train and said something and up went a tumultuous shout. I stepped off and said: “Barbour, what did you say?” He did not reply, and to avoid arrest I stepped back on the train and guessed he was there to grab the arsenal and steal all its valuable and costly machinery. It turned out that way. Revolutionary devilment took the locks off our mouths.

Hall, Granville Davisson (1901). “The Rending of Virginia.”  Mayer & Miller: Chicago, IL

pp. 543, 545

https://books.google.com/books?id=nbAS9MDpsrUC&pg=PA543&lpg=PA543&dq=John+Seddon+and+Alf.+Barbour+sat+in+my+front,+with+bottles+of+whiskey.+When+they+saw+me,+they+said:+%22Burdett,+you+seceded+at+Richmond,+did+you?%22+They+were+members+and+on+the+way+to+Harper%27s+Ferry+to+grab+the+armory+and+open+up+revolutionary+devilment.&source=bl&ots=QjNfks-YiW&sig=ACfU3U2Vm68xPpCp97C1tBu6ewFXFp4BdA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjZnY2Nwt7zAhXBmHIEHcNGDy0Q6AF6BAgCEAM#v=onepage&q=John%20Seddon%20and%20Alf.%20Barbour%20sat%20in%20my%20front%2C%20with%20bottles%20of%20whiskey.%20When%20they%20saw%20me%2C%20they%20said%3A%20%22Burdett%2C%20you%20seceded%20at%20Richmond%2C%20did%20you%3F%22%20They%20were%20members%20and%20on%20the%20way%20to%20Harper’s%20Ferry%20to%20grab%20the%20armory%20and%20open%20up%20revolutionary%20devilment.&f=false

p. 115 map of lower Harper’s Ferry post- Civil War

https://archive.org/details/battlesleadersof01cent/page/114/mode/1up?view=theater

Imboden later wrote:

About noon the 17th Alfred Barbour reached Harpe’rs Ferry from Washington after submitting his resignation: collecting mechanics in groups and informing them that the place would be captured within 24 hours by Virginia troops. He urged them to protect the property and join the Southern cause. Federal Lieutenant Roger Jones, commanding 45 men, at once took measures to destroy the place

p. 117

https://archive.org/details/battlesleadersof01cent/page/117/mode/1up?view=theater

That evening of the 17th, coming from Charles Town were local militias under James Allen, heading towards Harper’s Ferry, stopping short at Halltown where argument ensued with to-be Union man, David Hunter Strother. 

Then Seddon who had arrived on the train with Barbour produced written proof of their incursion’s legitimacy.

“I was so stunned by these revelations that I had scarcely breath to utter the usual and appropriate ejaculation of astonishment – ‘The Devil’”

They only had 340 men including the cavalry and some artilleries with an old iron six-pounder not Turner Ashby’s number of 3,000 men “acomin’.” Their commander Col. Allen, a local man too, ordered his men, virtually all local, to not make another step forward. He’d gotten word that townsmen, such as Koonce and arriving U.S. troops would be there to defend the town, the arsenal, the armory and their contents.

While the Virginia militia officers were thus discoursing, and looking toward the town, there was a sudden flash that illuminated for miles around the romantic gorge where the rivers meet. Then followed a dull report, reverberating from mountain to mountain until it died away in a sullen roar.

The flashes and detonations were several times repeated; then a steadier flame was seen rising from two distinct points silently and rapidly increasing in volume until each rock and tree on the Loudoun and Maryland Heights were distinctly visible and the now over-clouded sky was ruddy with the sinister glare. This occurred I think between nine and ten o’clock. Some thought they heard artillery. But the more skillful presently guessed the truth and concluded that the officer in command had set fire to the arsenals and abandoned the town.Jones:

p. 124 image Roger Jones

https://archive.org/details/battlesleadersof01cent/page/111/mode/1up?view=theater

Roger Jones’ written remembrance of April 17th at the Ferry to the editors of Battles & Leaders:

Finally, shortly after nine o’clock when troops from Halltown had advanced to within less than a mile from the armory – in time less than five minutes – the torch was applied, and before I could withdraw men from the village, two arsenal buildings with about a 20,000 stand of rifles were ablaze.

Then, the undisciplined hothead, Ashby – much revered later by Virginia sentimentalists but who as a soldier was stupid and reckless beyond belief – leaving bodies of the enemy mutilated; advising his men that the best protection against artillery shells was to “sit perfectly still in your saddle;” and costing Stonewall Jackson his only defeat at Kernstown by giving him grossly wrong estimates of the enemy — he simply ignored Allen and galloped with his unruly bunch towards town.

Jones:

But very few arms were saved for the constantly recurring explosions of powder kept the crowd aloof. p. 125

https://archive.org/details/battlesleadersof01cent/page/125/mode/1up?view=theater

George Koonce’s men, however, saw Ashby coming  with the object of saving as much weapons and machinery he could and, however, also knew that Jones and the Federals,  after setting the blaze and explosions that they just heard – were skedaddling over the river and by rail into Maryland and points beyond.

So, threatened ahead and abandoned behind, Koonce and all his men scattered every which a way.

James Henry Burton, one of their inventors, made sure the machinery created with the revolutionary ideas of John Hall –  making the parts all made to be interchangeable with one another – these interconnected machines were successfully taken south and Burton would later oversee the armories of the Confederacy.

In the next few days, Koonce’s home was seized by Ashby, just as Ashby, the self-appointed local enforcer seized the home of Union man, MacQuilkin in Berkeley both under the charge of “treason.”

But Koonce sided with all those who hated Virginia’s secession, as something forced on them, first, by the first act of aggression by the South Carolinians at Fort Sumter, causing Lincoln to call for 75,000 Federal volunteers – the two actions that turned the vote around in Richmond in favor of secession. This egregious turn to secession fever forgot that the Virginia’s electors, in a very recent, calmer moment the previous November, wanted the opposite: a majority of Virginia’s voters voted for John Bell – the non-secession candidate.

Those men who fled Richmond, just with their lives and enraged by the injustice from a virtual coup – began meeting in their home areas where secession was reviled and arms were taken up against it.

In time, the life of George Koonce out-shone the example of Turner Ashby. Koonce would live to a ripe old age in his home county. The hapless, relentless, chest-beating Ashby died long ago with a bullet in his heart charging at, and shouting “Follow me men!”  a clutch of Pennsylvania sharpshooters, and he was armed only with a saber and a dead horse.

Koonce took the train to Washington in 1861 – and stayed. While there, he likely met with Lincoln’s Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, a fierce warrior against the secessionists – these childhood playmates in Steubenville Ohio. They both agreed how there had to be – in order to protect the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, that ran clear to Wheeling in a fraction of the time it took before 1852 and very crucially with part of its double track dipping listlessly like loose string into and through the eastern Panhandle, Virginia. If no corrective action was taken, the B&0 would be controlled by a hostile, foreign country. Berkeley and Jefferson HAD, for the sake of the B&O and the Federal war effort, be in a state that was part of the United States.

That pro-Union Virginia jurisdiction was  being worked on hours, days and nights with a group of western Virginians, many escaping from the Richmond debacle.

J.W. Paxton of Ohio County submitted the following

pp. 87-88

https://archive.org/details/ldpd_10797632_000/page/92/mode/2up?q=Wheeling+daily+intelligencer&view=theater

Resolved That a the people of Northwestern Virginia have long and patiently borne the position of political inferiority forced upon them by unequal representation in the State Legislature and by unjust, oppressive and unequal – but that the so-called ordinance of secession, passed by the Convention, which met in Richmond on the 13th of February last, is the crowning act of infamy which has aroused them to a determination to resist all injustice and oppression, and to assert and forever maintain their rights and liberties in the Union and under the Constitution of the United States.

In considering matters that before us for action here, it is very difficult, but very important that we all realize the actual existence of war – civil war. We must not forget, sir, that we are now engaged in a struggle for the nation’s very existence, that our differences are not now being settled as heretofore at the ballot box, peacefully and quietly, but by the bayonet, and at the cannon’s mouth. You, sir, and I and every American citizen this day are parties to this struggle on one side of the other.

And when they took votes towards that end all through that summer of 1861 in Wheeling and Clarksburg, George Koonce (Koontz) was there in the proceedings casting his vote in the name of Jefferson County four times.

On June 20, 1863 WV was declared, with Jefferson County within its domain. A Union-controlled, wartime Jefferson County voted for admission into the new state, disallowing any voice votes of those who could not or would not first take the loyalty oath. The new state’s Governor accepted the published results and signed his concurrence stating that Jefferson County elected “by a substantial majority” to be part of West Virginia.

Koonce was back in Harper’s Ferry with his second wife — once the Union re-occupied the town in late July, 1861. But, he left again for Washington in early September as Lee’s large army crossed the Potomac starting his fateful Maryland Campaign climaxed with the bloodiest day, the battle of Antietam.

Wrote his wife Bettie Brittian Koonce  in her diary:

“Harper’s Ferry, Sept. 5th 1862. Friday – George left. After leaving him on the street, I went up on the Hill at the Powder House to see if I could see him go over the Ravine. After some time I thought I recognized but did not know whether it was or not, watched him with streaming eyes until I could see him no more. Came to the House. Had some trouble with soldiers who were at the Pear tree. Attended to my Household duties and went to my room between 8 and 9 o’clock – and shall I portray the agonies of the night- left alone, alone, alone to endure again those horrid hours of never easing pain, grief, and feelings that are understood but by those only that truly love and enjoy the society of the Husband;”

Koonce was able to be home regularly in the late fall of 1862 and thereafter, running his store in his new state – the one that he help to make – a state that outlawed handling and harming a fellow human being as if they were just property. Ever a challenge and a concern.

Following the war, Koonce became active in politics once again, serving as a member of the West Virginia House of Delegates (1865-1867) and a member of the West Virginia Senate (1870-1871), running on the Radical ticket. He was also a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows.

Koonce died at 90 in Halltown, WVa, in 1908.

*****

The Correspondence of Bettie Brittian Koonce, September 1862:

Bettie Koonce was the second wife of George Koonce, who was a prominent resident of Jefferson county before, during, and after the Civil War.

In June 1861, Koonce represented Jefferson County at the Second Wheeling Convention to vote on the secession of western Virginia. Both George and Bettie were express Unionists, which was the minority in Jefferson County at the time. Following the war, Koonce served as a member of the West Virginia House of Delegates from 1865 to 1867 and a member of the West Virginia Senate from 1870-1871.

In September of 1862, George Koonce was away in Washington, D.C. for 16 days- being the same time that Confederate troops under Stonewall Jackson defeated the Union troops under the command of Colonel Dixon S. Miles in Harper’s Ferry. This battle was fought just before Sharpsburg and Antietam and was key in helping the Confederacy regain control of the B&O Railroad and the C&) Canal.

The letters here (just a few of the collection), attached to pictures, take the form of a diary and were written on letter paper with pro-Union sentiments. When George Koonce died in 1908, Bettie continued to support herself according to the 1910 census. She is remembered by her family as an artist, sculptor and musician, dying in 1920 at the age of 83.

Letter transcription and article courtesy of the Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society,December 2005

Bettie Koonce

Harper’s Ferry, Sept. 5th 1862. Friday – George left. After leaving him on the street, I went up on the Hill at the Powder House to see if I could see him go over the Ravine. After some time I thought I recognized but did not know whether it was or not, watched him with streaming eyes until I could see him no more. Came to the House. Had some trouble with soldiers who were at the Pear tree. Attended to my Household duties and went to my room between 8 and 9 o’clock – and shall I portray the agonies of the night- left alone, alone, alone to endure again those horrid hours of never easing pain, grief, and feelings that are understood but by those only that truely love and enjoy the society of the Husband; how much I need his protection. I cannot describe this feeling I have when he is gone – only as a dull aching void, it seems as if a part of my Body had been taken for a time, and I am yearning for its return, cannot possibly exist without it, and so secure did I feel in his affections that do as I would, he would be the last to censure. But, oh, he cannot but feel that he has avenged me. My God, strengthen me in this trying Hour; though I try to appear calm. Oh how I suffer- imprudent he may deem me, but how dear to my soul is the knowledge of my innocence even in thought, but I must cease writing for my feelings over power me; May he reach a place of safety will be my constant prayer.

12 o’clock —-

2 o’clock – how wretched. Oh I cannot sleep; it is a beautiful moonlight night; how I wish George was here.

The strange story of Harper’s Ferry, with legends of the surrounding country

by Barry, Joseph, 1828?-1905

Publication date 1903

Topics Harper’s Ferry (W. Va.) — History, Harper’s Ferry (W. Va.) — History John Brown’s Raid, 1859

Publisher Martinsburg, W. Va., Thompson brothers

https://archive.org/details/strangestoryofha00barr

Lewis, Virgil Anson. (1909), “How West Virginia was made. ; Proceedings of the first Convention of the people of northwestern Virginia at Wheeling, May 13, 14 and 15, 1861, and the journal of the second Convention of the people of northwestern Virginia at Wheeling, which assembled, June 11th 1861 …” [Charleston, W. Va. : News-Mail Co., Public Printer]

https://archive.org/details/ldpd_10797632_000/page/7/mode/2up?q=Wheeling+daily+intelligencer

Koontz listed as the delegate for Jefferson Cunty

pp. 79-80

https://archive.org/details/ldpd_10797632_000/page/84/mode/2up?q=Wheeling+daily+intelligencer&view=theater

Aug. 8 afternoon Koontz vote

pp. 192-193

https://archive.org/details/ldpd_10797632_000/page/198/mode/2up?q=Wheeling+daily+intelligencer&view=theater

Aug. 17th Koontz vote

pp. 276-277

https://archive.org/details/ldpd_10797632_000/page/198/mode/2up?q=Wheeling+daily+intelligencer&view=theater

Aug 20th Koontz

pp. 292-293

https://archive.org/details/ldpd_10797632_000/page/298/mode/2up?q=Wheeling+daily+intelligencer&view=theater

Aug. 20th again Koontz vote

pp. 294-295

https://archive.org/details/ldpd_10797632_000/page/300/mode/2up?q=Wheeling+daily+intelligencer&view=theater

p. 87

J.W. Paxton

Resolved That a the people of Northwestern Virginia have long and patiently borne the position of political inferiority forced upon them by unequal representation in the State Legislature and by unjust, oppressive and unequal – but that the so-called ordinance of secession, passed by the Convention, which met in Richmond on the 13th of February last, is the crowning act of infamy which has aroused them to a determination to resist all injustice and oppression, and to assert and forever maintain their rights and liberties in the Union and under the Constitution of the United States.

In considering matters that before us for action here, it is very difficult, but very important that we all realize the actual existence of war – civil war. We must not forget, sir, that we are now engaged in a struggle for the nation’s very existence, that our differences are not now being settled as heretofore at the ballot box, peacefully and quietly, but by the bayonet, and at the cannon’s mouth. You, sir, and I and every American citizen this day are parties to this struggle on one side of the other.

And when they took votes towards that end all through that summer of 1861 in Wheeling and Clarksburg, George Koonce (Koontz) was there in the proceedings casting his vote in the name of Jefferson County four times.

B&L Vol 1

John Imboden: 7 PM April 16th at Exchange Hotel organized by Henry Wise

agreed that a movement to capture Harper’s Ferry would begin the next day the 17th.

after midnight early the morning of the 17th went to Lethcher and woke him up. “arousing him from his bed” and warmly sought his support for their plan

p. 111

https://archive.org/details/battlesleadersof01cent/page/111/mode/1up?view=theater

About noon the 17th Alfred Barbour reached Harpers Ferry from Washington after submitting his resignation: collecting mechanics in groups and informing them that the place would be captured within 24 hours by Virginia troops. He urged them to ptoect the property and join the Southern cause. But Lieutenant Roger Jones commanding 45 men at once took measures to destroy the place

p. 117

https://archive.org/details/battlesleadersof01cent/page/117/mode/1up?view=theater

p. 124 image Roger Jones

https://archive.org/details/battlesleadersof01cent/page/111/mode/1up?view=theater

Roger Jones written remembrance of April 17th at the Ferry to the editors:

Finally, shortly after nine o’clock when troops from Halltown had advanced to within less than a mile from the armory – in time less than five minutes – the torch was applied, and before I could withdraw me men from the village two arsenal buildings with about 20,000  stand of rifles were ablaze. But very few arms were saved for the constantly recurring explosions of powder kept the crowd aloof. 

p. 125

https://archive.org/details/battlesleadersof01cent/page/125/mode/1up?view=theater

A committee, of which I was chairman, waited on Governor Letcher after midnight, and, arousing him from his bed, laid the scheme before him. He stated that he would take no step till officially informed that the ordinance of secession was passed by the convention. He was then asked if contingent upon the event he would next day order the movement by telegraph. He consented. On returning to the hotel and reporting Governor Letcher’s promise, it was decided to telegraph the captains of companies along the railroads mentioned to be ready next day for orders from the governor.

So we secured only the machinery and the gun and pistol barrels and locks, which, however, were sent to Richmond and Columbia, South Carolina, and were worked over into excellent arms.

Henry A. Wise

B&L Vol. 1

p. 138

https://archive.org/details/battlesleadersof01cent/page/138/mode/1up?view=theater

Dennis Frye – Rebels Set to Leave Harper’s Ferry – late May-early June 1861

889 words

VIDEO: Dennis Frye – Rebels Set to Leave Harper’s Ferry late May-early June 1861 TRT: 6:06.

Dennis Frye

Well, by the end of May, Harper’s Ferry had become one of the largest garrison, confederate positions in all the South. There were almost 10,000 men there under Colonel Jackson. Now, keep in mind that a transition is occurring in Virginia. Virginia is transitioning from the state of Virginia to the state of Virginia in the Confederate States of America. So, when Jefferson Davis and the confederate government arrive in Richmond and they look at the map and they see the Virginia forces and other confederate southern forces scattered along the Virginia frontier and they look at Harper’s Ferry. Jefferson Davis says: “We can’t have a colonel in charge there. We need a general there. We need someone there who has general’s credentials; even better, someone who was previously a general. So, he looks around in his cadre of men who had seceded from the United States Army and come south and he selects Joseph E. Johnston. Joseph E. Johnston, a former general in the United States Army outranked Robert E. Lee. Johnston is given his very first field assignment of the Civil War and it is Harper’s Ferry. So, on May the 23rd 1861, Johnston arrives in the town. Jackson himself hasn’t received the orders that placed Johnston in charge. So, a day or so goes by before the formal orders are communicated that Joe Johnston is here, now, to take command at Harper’s Ferry and represent the confederate leadership at Harper’s Ferry. Now, you’ll remember that Jackson determined to defend Harper’s Ferry with everything he had. He had sent troops to Maryland. He had occupied and fortified the heights. He was defending the railroad approaches. He was ready to make a stand there. Johnston arrives, spends a few days doing reconnaissance, reconnoitering around the Harper’s Ferry area. Of course, talking with Jackson, learning what Jackson had done and Johnston sends a message to Robert E. Lee in Virginia at Richmond and basically says: “I can’t hold this place. This place is indefensible. I can’t stay here,” – completely the opposite point of view of Thomas Jackson.

Now, Lee became alarmed because, remember, Lee had set up this defensive parameter around Richmond and Lee knew about the strategic importance of Harper’s Ferry. Remember, Lee had been in Harper’s Ferry during the John Brown raid. Lee had captured Brown with United States marines. Lee had helped escort Brown to Charlestown. He was familiar with the Shenandoah Valley. He knew about the importance of the valley. He knew about the proximity of the valley to Maryland and Pennsylvania and he knew that the Shenandoah Valley was a natural corridor of invasion for the United States forces. He also knew that Patterson was collecting an army in Hagerstown and was only about 10-12 miles from coming into the valley and invading Virginia. So, Lee felt that the defense of Harper’s Ferry was tantamount to the defense of Virginia. He must stand and hold and that’s what he said to Johnston. Well, Johnston just was relentless in his communications back to Richmond saying: “I’ve got to get out of here and then even went to the point where Lee said: “Look: if you leave Harper’s Ferry, it will be depressing to the cause of the South.” That’s exactly how Lee phrased it – “depressing to the cause of the South.” Basically, it would be the very first retreat of the confederate army and there’s no battle that’s even occurred. You see, Johnston’s thinking strategically, about moving somewhere else. Johnston wants to move from Harper’s Ferry to Winchester, deeper in the interior. He wants to lull the federal army into the valley and he believes that, because Winchester is a crossroads that also is a place where he can easily maneuver from one place to another. So, Johnston sees that army at Harper’s Ferry as an army that’s both defensive and offensive: one that can hold, but one that can move whereas; Jackson definitely saw his army only in a position of defense, holding the Harper’s Ferry area. Well, Lee still was very demanding that Harper’s Ferry be held. Johnston just refused to give up and he would say: “Is it not better to leave Harper’s Ferry and preserve the army, protect the army, than to make a stand here and possibly lose the army?” Well, eventually Lee was so exacerbated he couldn’t answer the question. So, he sent it all the way up to the highest authority of the confederate government: Jefferson Davis and Jefferson Davis wanted to hold Harper’s Ferry for the same reasons Lee did: to protect the Shenandoah Valley and to not have a psychological blow. But, even Jefferson Davis gave Johnston discretionary authority to retire, if he felt it necessary and it wasn’t because of Patterson – but (Patterson’s army) it was way out in the Ohio river area. As federal troops began to move into far northwestern Virginia where Johnston would use that as the excuse to abandon Harper’s Ferry and move his troops from Harper’s Ferry to Winchester. That would occur June 14-15, 1861. The rebel army would abandon Harper’s Ferry. So, the very first fight that was expected in the Harper’s Ferry region would not occur because Joe Johnston unilaterally moved his army to Winchester; and that then beckoned a new strategy by the federals. 889 words

1. Dr. Dawne Burke – May 27, 1861 Fortress Monroe – the “Contraband” Loophole

1,478 words

VIDEO: Dr. Dawne Burke – May 27, 1861 Fortress Monroe – the “Contraband” Loophole
TRT: 15:38

Dr. Dawn Burke

On May 23 1861, General Charles K. Mallory, confederate general, loaned three of his slaves for a construction project for a confederate battery near Hampton, Virginia. Those three slaves, their names were Shepherd Mallory; they were Frank Baker and James Townsend. When the three slaves boarded the john boat on the river, they left with the intention of going to the construction site. Interestingly enough, the three slaves bypassed the construction site and crossed the Chesapeake Bay near Sewell’s Point in order to reach a peninsula stronghold which was known as Fortress Monroe. When the three slaves arrived at the stronghold at Fortress Monroe, they struck up a conversation with the picket guards who were guarding the fort. The guards reported the incident immediately to their newly assigned commander of the Department of Virginia, who was General Benjamin Franklin Butler.

General Butler, newly assigned to Fortress Monroe, was originally from Deerfield, New Hampshire. When he was five months old, his father died of yellow fever. Due to the economic circumstances at that time, he and his siblings were dispersed to other family members until such time as they could rejoin their mother in Lowell, Massachusetts where the mother at that time was operating a boarding house.

Butler had attended Colby College which was, at that time, referred to as Waterville College and he also wanted to attend West Point, but never did. Later on, in the civil war, the fact that he did not receive formal militaristic training may come back to haunt General Butler. However, Butler goes on to study law and become an attorney in Massachusetts and was accepted at the bar in Massachusetts in 1840.

Butler goes on to become a very successful criminal attorney. Butler was 5’4, he was

barrel-chested, had red hair and was also cross-eyed. So, I can only imagine how even by today’s standards General Butler, as a child, may have been what we refer to today as bullyated (sic). But it is his art of argument and critical thought process that would later come in handy at Fortress Monroe.

While back at Fortress Monroe, the three slaves – Butler consented to give them provisional and temporary aid for that night of May 23rd, told them that they could stay in the fort, and the following morning on May 24th, the three, at this point in time, they’re now fugitive slaves. They’re in direct violation of the 1850 Fugitive Slave Act, but Butler does give them audience. So, they are arraigned in front of Butler the following morning. The three slaves go on and proceed to tell General Butler that the reason why they bypassed the work site that they were to attend to was because they were going to be sold down south.

Now during that time period, the Civil War scholar in California, Kenneth Stamp wrote “That Peculiar Institution” and, in his book, he states that the state of Virginia and the state of South Carolina had a nice little domestic slave trade operation ongoing. So, the slaves were being bred in the state of Virginia and then they were being shipped down south to work in the fields in South Carolina. That is of particular note for us here in this region of the Shenandoah valley, given the fact that those slaves were brought to this county. Jefferson county, Virginia, at that time, and they were held here in this county until such time as they were loaded into boxcars and shipped south for those labor fields. So, Butler hears their story. He is probably a little bit sympathetic. Just as he’s having this conversation with the three slaves, Butler is interrupted by one of his staff officers who claims that there is someone standing outside the fort who claims to be Major John B. Cary, who is a confederate major and he is coming to Fortress Monroe in order to talk to General Butler about these three slaves because General Mallory would like to have his property back. Acting as Mallory’s proxy this major begins to have this, probably, a heated discussion with General Butler about these three slaves and Butler rightly tells him – now here’s the point at which Butler’s legalistic mind and argumentative acumen comes into play: Butler turns to Cary and he says: “I am under no obligation to honor this request promptly because,” and Butler goes on to name four reasons why it is he refuses to turn the slaves back over to the confederate.

He says:  “Just last week on May 17th (ratified May 23, 1861-ED), the state of Virginia decided to secede from the union. That, then, clearly makes the statement that Virginia sees itself as an autonomous state sovereignty. As such, the third point is: you’re in direct violation of the United States Constitution and then Virginia” (proceeds to the fourth point he makes is) “you have formed an illegal coalition with other confederate states.”

The argument that Butler creates says very clearly to the major that Butler views both Mallory and Cary and this whole incident, there is enemy collusion in General Butler’s mind. So, Butler then goes on to proclaim that the Old Dominion, then, is a foreign body on federal soil. So, he intends to then treat this incident, as such, that they are now – Virginia is a foreign body in due process of federal occupation. So, then Butler very sagaciously – his word choice here is so very, very, very important – he refers to the slaves, not as property to be returned – and Butler assuredly was not going to remand those slaves to the welfare or aid of any foreign entity, but he refers to those slaves as “contraband of war.” Now, this is very important – his word choice is extremely important here. Because of his word choice at that moment in time, the positive social fallout from that, the positive social trends that would follow – that the essence of the use of that term here, particularly in the lower Shenandoah valley, is very important, the culmination of those events up to that point.

The three fugitive slaves, in combination with General Butler’s response to Major Cary, really is a pivotal point and I argue that in my book entitled in “American Phoenix” that Butler’s critical legalistic abilities at that time came together so that he could create an effective argument with the confederates.

So, the combination of those events: the following morning when Butler awakes, he wakes up to such numbers – exponential numbers of slaves, runaways, freedmen, vagabonds who were seeking sustenance and protection at Fortress Monroe.

I can’t imagine what it might be like for us to go to sleep tonight and wake up tomorrow morning and when we look out the window of our homes, we would see people just standing all around in mass numbers – 10, 12 as much as probably 75 feet deep – you know? – they were coming and gathering around the fort (and) had been coming all night long through the night.

Because of this situation and these circumstances and Butler is also still confronted with this issue of property. He dispatches several messengers to Washington D.C to get the opinion and directives from his supervisors. Butler had been deferred. He was not getting a response.

So, because of this, he did receive some immediate aid from an organization that was organized in Albany, New York in 1846 (that) called itself the American Missionary Association. Now, there were several organizations that were helping during this war effort. The American Missionary Association was one. There was the United States Christian Commission, the United States Sanitation Commission, but it’s the AMA that responds to General Butler’s request.

The AMA having been organized in ’46 was automatically for the elimination of slavery. This organization was also for education educating the dispossessed and the disenfranchised the organization also worked for the promotion of civility and most assuredly for the dissemination of Christian values.

The AMA is responsible for either directly founding or assisting with the founding of over 500 colleges and universities throughout the United States, some of which are Hampton Institute, Atlanta, Dillard, Talladega, just to mention a few. They also, with the help of the Freedmen’s Bureau – and they often worked in concert also with the Freedmen’s Bureau – they also founded Howard University in our nation’s capital. Howard University was named for General Oliver Otis Howard because it was General Howard that directly managed the operations for all of the activities of the Freedmen’s Bureau.

So, consequently, when the AMA arrives back at Fortress Monroe, they hear Butler’s call and they answer that call. Counted among their numbers was a New England denomination commonly and collectively referred to as New Lights and or, Separatist and or, Free Wills.

1,478 words

2. Dr. Dawne Burke Discusses the 2 Awakenings and George Whitefield

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VIDEO: Dr. Burke on the 2 Great Awakening and George Whitfield TRT: 9:35

Dr. Dawne Burke author “American Phoenix”

In this four-part series, we learned that General Benjamin Franklin Butler refused to remand the fugitive slaves to General Mallory in Virginia in 1861. Virginia was, at that time, in General Butler’s mind considered to be a foreign entity, having chosen to secede from the Union. To understand the contributions of the New Light Separatist Free Wills that came to the help and aid of General Butler through and with the American Missionary Association during the time when Butler would have had this property dispute with the fugitive slaves and General Mallory, the American Missionary Association came to the valley to help General Butler with the mass exodus of slaves. The slaves were coming overnight and so General Butler really needed some help with clean water, with helping house slaves, and provide food and sustenance for them. But in order to understand how it was the Free Will Baptist viewed the circumstances at that time, we need to understand the larger theological discourse that was associated with that period in time.

The Great Awakening, as it was called or the First Great Awakening, with the implication that there would be a Second Awakening as there was, but the First Great Awakening was really a movement to arouse people from their states of complacency. You see, on the Baptist continent, the Age of Enlightenment and Age of . .Reason were the back wave of that was flowing across the Atlantic ocean to colonial America. Among Baptist and American colonial protestants then there was an awakening movement ongoing. This awakening was really steeped in revivalism. Revivalism was understood in the context of what had happened in prior centuries, meaning that early monks who would have had duties and church responsibilities, they were on a mission to encourage and build physical structures, such as churches whereby congregations could be organized. Some of the characteristics of the Great Awakening would have been a detachment from church polity, a detachment from church – I guess, more or less, what I want to say is a detachment from the formalities that, up until that time, had been associated with church. Also, there was an interest in self-introspection (that) was incorporated at this time. So, we have the old Revivalist and the new Revivalist, much like the old Lights and new Lights and just as Newton’s third law predicts one is an equal and opposite reaction or response to the other. So this theological evolutionary process is ongoing as a result of the Age of Enlightenment on the Baptist continent where it started; but then was brought across the Atlantic ocean.

An Anglican minister had arrived on the scene in colonial America. This Anglican minister was most recognized for his speaking abilities. He was very persuasive. This preacher’s name was George Whitefield.

George Whitefield was quite persuasive. Even his own biographer, Arnold Dallimore, says that in his hometown Whitefield is a British citizen and he comes to colonial America to bring this these notions of enlightenment through this Great Awakening to arouse people from their complacency.

But Arnold Dallimore says that when London’s population was nearing 700,000, that Whitefield himself had the capacity to keep spellbound 20,000 people in a single audience. Well, George Whitefield was one of the first itinerant ministers. Now, what I mean by itinerant is Whitefield believed that all the world was his parish house. Now during this – Whitefield’s kind of a bridge character between the First Awakening and the Second Awakening and during the First Awakening, the concentration was with forming a church membership inside the church. They were building within. But when the Second Awakening comes along, they’re moving outside of the church, to work toward non-members to convert people who may not have had the ability to make it to a formal church structure, to belong to a certain religious sect. So, Whitefield as an itinerant minister preacher he is able to move from town-to-town, from village-to-village and he does not have to acquire the approval of the church officials. He doesn’t have to ask their permission. So, Whitefield is quite popular. He was perhaps the most recognized by name and understood to be the most elite of these itinerant ministers. He was in today’s terms he was truly a celebrity.

Whitefield was known for his theological elocution and discourse. He over-enunciated and was quite charismatic. It’s interesting – a sidebar here if I may – Whitefield, too, as we heard in the first segment: General Butler was cross-eyed. So is George Whitefield and Whitefield has such a capacity to imbue an audience with such spirituality that what he would do, prior to speaking in any town or village, Whitefield would send men in advance to disseminate broadsides.

Even his own sermons were published in local newspapers. He was quite popular, even our own Benjamin Franklin for whom I might say that Benjamin Franklin Butler was named.

Franklin being on the Baptist continent, having been ambassador to France, was aware of this enlightenment and this idea of critical reasoning and logical applications and critical questioning.

Benjamin Franklin was quite the skeptic when he heard that George Whitefield was arriving in Philadelphia. Nonetheless, Franklin gathered himself together and went downtown to the where Whitefield was speaking in order to make his own observations, to scrutinize this media event.

As Franklin was standing there, it is interesting historians report that Franklin came up with a mathematical theory, whereby he could calculate the number of people standing in a square foot and then project the audience population where Whitefield was speaking.

Franklin was most impressed by George Whitefield. I would imagine it would have been quite hard to impress Dr. Franklin.

So, Whitefield is moving around through the American colonies. He crossed the Atlantic 13 times with seven of those trips, specifically designated for colonial America. During one of those Atlantic crossings, he headed toward New Hampshire. While Whitefield is speaking in New Hampshire, there is a young gentleman standing in the audience who, too, was a skeptic of Whitefield, but was quite captivated by Whitefield’s even state of presence, as Whitefield stood atop a tree stump to speak to this audience. That young gentleman’s name was Benjamin Randall. Benjamin Randall is a part of this New Light Separatist development that is ongoing. However, Randall has issue with the idea of infant baptism and then additionally with predestination. So Randall confronts and challenges the idea of predestination. 1139 words

Dallimore, Arnold A. (1980). George Whitefield: The Life and Times of the Great Evangelist of the Eighteenth-Century Revival. Vol. II. Edinburgh or Carlisle: Banner of Truth Trust.

Dallimore, Arnold A. (2010) [1990]. George Whitefield: God’s Anointed Servant in the Great Revival of the Enlightened Century. Westchester, Illinois: Crossway Books.

3. Dr. Dawne Burke: Benjamin Randal(l) and The Free Will Baptists’ Impact on Civil War in Virginia

417 words

VIDEO: Dr. Dawne Burke – Benjamin Randall and The Free Will Baptists’ Impact on Civil War in Virginia TRT: TRT: 4:44

Dr. Dawne Burke author of “American Phoenix”

After Benjamin Randall hears Whitefield – Randall has been a part of this New Light Separatist development, he has a difference with the concepts of infant baptism and predestination. Benjamin Randall, because of this new enlightenment, this idea of asking empirical intellectual and rational questions – Benjamin Randall goes on to make the following statement. I’d like to read it in its entirety.

Randall says: “Yet good men of different persuasions, have different views of the meaning of the scriptures, and are naturally apt to put such construction on them as will best serve their favorite systems, and promote their favorite objects. The partisans of all denominations proclaim that the scriptures are in unison with their doctrines and go so far as to convince the general public by any mode of allegation without any regard to their connections, put them in such order as to make them appear to prove some daring doctrine which they may affect to hold under any pretext whatever, they will even dare to affirm that all the bible goes to prove their system.”

So, we see where Benjamin Randall, the founder of what now I’m going to refer to in this segment – the remainder of this segment and the next segment – the Free Will Baptists, he has issues with infant baptism and predestination.  Randall’s critical questioning prompts him to think of salvation as an artificial cycle. At that time, there was penitence; there was confession, atonement, redemption, and salvation. In Randall’s mind, “if we are predestined to heaven or hell, why affect the effort to move through the five stations of salvation?”

So, Randall – it’s at this point in time that Randall and the Free Will Baptists understand that choice and free will are concepts to be understood from a deeper dimension, meaning that a God consciousness would have provided the idea of choice and free will. So, that we as Christians can actually affect our potentiality while also realizing its utility.

So, the Free Will Baptists arrived with the American Missionary Association at Fortress Monroe, and they helped General Butler. It’s this humanitarian denomination that is predisposed in toward these universal values of choice and free will. In the next segment, I discuss how it is that the Free Will Baptists’ influence these concepts of choice and free will. They influence the social trends here in the lower Shenandoah valley. As one Free Will Baptist wrote, particularly after General Butler’s quote happy “application” of the word “contraband” unquote. 417 words

Benjamin Randall portrait- Internet Archive- from Life and Influence of the Rev. Benjamin Randall by Frederick L. Wiley
frontispiece
https://archive.org/details/lifeinfluenceofr00wile

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Randall#Break_with_Calvinism

Buzzell, John, (1827).”The Life of Elder Benjamin Randal: principally taken from documents written by himself
Limerick [Me.] : Hobbs, Woodman & Cco.
pp. 90-91
https://archive.org/details/lifeofelderbenja00buzz