Thy Will Be Done – Chapter 30 References

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“Thy Will Be Done” – References

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References:

Collections:

The Dandridge Papers #104, Jefferson County Museum, Charles Town, Wv.

The Dandridge and Boteler collections – Duke University.

Henry Kyd Douglas Papers, Duke University.

The Boteler Collection – courtesy Ms. Leslie Keller, family historian.

The Goldsborough Collection – The Lee Society, Alexandria, Virginia. With permission.

The Goldsborough Papers – Shepherd University Library.

Robert Summers – Curator/Webmaster for http://19usct.com

William Fitzhugh Lee: “The Overlooked Lee” – Ann C. Reeves. 7811 words. From the Ann C. Reeves Collection

Edwin Gray Lee letter to the mother of dying William “Willie” F. Lee, July, 1861. – courtesy Western Historical Manuscript Collection, Columbia, Mo.

Ann C. Reeves Collection – by permission Ms. Reeves, Parran family historian.

Periodicals:

The Baltimore Herald, August, 1848, (Thornton Perry collection, Virginia State Library).

The Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society:

Rutherford, Richard D. (1993). “Recollections of Richard D. Rutherford.” Cecil D. Eby (Ed.). Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society Vol. LIX. pp. 17-44.

Ailes, Jane and Marie Tyler-McGraw. (December, 2011).“Jefferson County to Liberia: Emigrants, Emancipators, and Facilitators.” Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society. Volume LXXV, pp. 43-76.

Volume LXII. December, 1996.Fragments of a Diary of Shepherdstown – Events During the War 1861-5.

Volume LIX December, 1993.Recollections of Richard D. Rutherford, edited by Cecil D. Eby.

Volume LXI, December, 1995.Slave Census of 1850, Jefferson County, (West) Virginia, with , compiled by Hugh E. Voress and Robert E. Allen.

Volume IX. December, 1943.The Bedinger Family.

Volume X. December, 1944.“Bedford.” pp. 11-13.

Lee, Henrietta Edmonia. (1925). “The Recollections of Netta Lee,” Alexandria, VA: The Society of the Lees of Virginia. Print.

Levin, Alexandra. (Fall, 1978). ”Why Have You Burned My House: Henrietta Le and the Burning of Bedford“. Virginia Cavalcade. Vol. 28 No. 2, P. 84.

Mitchell, Mary B. (1888). “A Woman’s Recollections of Antietam.”(Under pseudonym “Mary Blunt”) Battles and Leaders. Vol. 2. Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co. Print.

Mitchell, Mary B. (1888). “A Woman’s Recollections of Antietam.”(Under pseudonym “Mary Blunt”). Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 27 Sept. 2010.p. 689.

A. R. H. Ranson. “Reminiscences of a Civil War Staff Officer By A Confederate Staff Officer, First Paper: Plantation Life in Virginia Before the War.” The Sewanee Review. Vol. 21, No. (4 Oct. 1913), PP. 428-447.– See more:

Peggy Vogtsberger. “This Fine Music.” (NOTE: This program first appeared in an article in Volume 10, No. 4 of The Cannoneer. Sources: Burke Davis, “The Swinging Sweeneys,” The Iron Worker, Autumn, 1969, contributed by Wes Rine. Bob Trout confirmed the dates and information). The linked music is believed to be, but not with certainty, the music played by Sweeney’s orchestra.-JS. civilwarscholars.com 9 June 2011 Web. 5 September 2014.

Harper’s New Monthly Magazine:

Crayon, Porte (Strother, D. H.). “The Mountains – X.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. Volume 51. Issue: 304 (September, 1875). pp. 475-486. Print.

Crayon, Porte (Strother, D. H.). “The Mountains – X.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014.– See more:

Crayon, Porte (Strother, D. H.). “The Mountains – IX.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. Volume 51. Issue: 304 (July, 1874). pp. 156-168. Print.

Crayon, Porte (Strother, D. H.). “The Mountains – IX.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014.

Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 33, Issue: 193, June, 1866. pp. 7-16. Print.

Strother, David H. (June, 1866). “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harpers Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 20 Oct. 2010.p. 12.

pp. 14-16.– See more:

Books:

Adams, Charles S. (1998). “Alexander Robinson Boteler: Wheel Horse of Whiggery, Stonewall’s Courier.” Shepherdstown, WV: Self-published. Print.

Aglionby, Charles. “The Day Book Kept By Charles Aglionby at Mount Pleasant, Charles Town, Jefferson County, Virginia.” 6 March, 1861 to 1 January, 1866.” – Transcribed by Francis John Aglionby (1932-2002). With permission from Julia Aglionby. Available at the Jefferson County Museum, Charles Town, WV.

Alexander, Edwin P. (1989). “Fighting for the Confederacy: The Personal Recollections of General Edward Porter Alexander.“ edited by Gary W. Gallagher. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. Print.

Alexander, Edwin P. (1989). “Fighting for the Confederacy: The Personal Recollections of General Edward Porter Alexander.“ Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011.

Tippie Boteler wrote to Lottie August, 1861: “Pa had half-dressed & gone down to the backdoors, at which he found massed bayonets & finding there was no escape went himself to the (front) door, threw it wide open & asked what they meant by coming at that time of night to a gentleman’s house . . .One (enemy soldier) said: ‘You are a very dangerous man.’ Pa said, ‘yes, last night unarmed, barefoot & half-dressed.’” –Anderson, Paul C. (2002). “Blood Image: Turner Ashby in the Civil War and the Southern Mind.” Baton Rouge. LA: Louisiana State University Press.

Anderson, Paul C. (2002). “Blood Image: Turner Ashby in the Civil War and the Southern Mind.” Google Books. 19 July 2008. Web. 24 Dec. 2010.

p. 180.

Bates, Samuel P.; Richard, J. Fraise. (1887). “History of Franklin county, Pennsylvania; containing a history of the county, its townships, towns, villages, schools, churches, industries, etc.; portraits of early settlers and prominent men; biographies; history of Pennsylvania, statistical and miscellaneous matter, etc.” Chicago, IL.: Warner, Beers & Co. Print.

Bates, Samuel P.; Richard, J. Fraise. (1887). “History of Franklin county, Pennsylvania; containing a history of the county, its townships, towns, villages, schools, churches, industries, etc.; portraits of early settlers and prominent men; biographies; history of Pennsylvania, statistical and miscellaneous matter, etc.”Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011.

Beach, William H. (1902). “The First New York (Lincoln) Cavalry From April 19, 1861 to July 7, 1865.” New York, NY: The New York Cavalry Association. Print.

Beach, William H. (1902). “The First New York (Lincoln) Cavalry From April 19, 1861 to July 7, 1865.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011.pp. 393-395.

Blackford, William W. (1945). “War Years with Jeb Stuart.” New York, NY: Charles Sons. p. 155. Print.

Blackford, William W. (1945). “War Years with Jeb Stuart.” Google Books. 19 July 2008. Web. 24 Dec. 2010.

Bushong, Millard K.(2007). “A History of Jefferson County, West Virginia [1719-1940].” Westminster, MD: Heritage Books. Print.

Bushong, Millard K. “A History of Jefferson County, West Virginia [1719-1940].” Google Books. 19 July 2008. Web. 24 Dec. 2010.p. 188.

Caldwell, J. F. J. (1866). “The history of a brigade of South Carolinians, known first as ‘Gregg’s’ and subsequently as ‘McGowan’s brigade.” Philadelphia, King & Baird, printers.

Caldwell, J. F. J. (1866). “The history of a brigade of South Carolinians, known first as ‘Gregg’s’ and subsequently as ‘McGowan’s brigade.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 18 July 2012.p. 53.

Carman, Ezra A. ( ) “The Maryland Campaign of September, 1862 Vol. II: Antietam.” edited and annotated by Thomas G. Clemens. El Dorado Hill, CA: Savas Beatie. Print.

Casler, John O. (1906). “Four years in the Stonewall Brigade, containing the daily experiences of four year’s service in the ranks from a diary kept at the time.” Marietta, GA: Continental Book Company. Print.

Casler, John O. (1906). “Four years in the Stonewall Brigade, containing the daily experiences of four year’s service in the ranks from a diary kept at the time.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011.

Cooke, John E. (1868). “Mohun; or, The last days of Lee and his paladins.” New York, NY:F. J. Huntington and Co. Print.

Cooke, John E. (1868). “Mohun; or, The last days of Lee and his paladins.” Google Books. 19 July 2008. Web. 24 Dec. 2010.The Bower pp. 99-103.

Cummings, Col. Arthur. (1906) “Colonel Cumming’s Account.” Southern Historical Society papers. R. A. Brock (ed). Volume 34. Richmond, VA.: Southern Historical Society. pp. 367-371

Cummings, Col. Arthur. (1906) “Colonel Cumming’s Account.” Southern Historical Society papers. Google Books 15 Aug. 2006 Web. 15 Oct. 2011.

Dandridge, Danske. (1909). “George Michael Bedinger: a Kentucky pioneer.” Charlottesville, Va. Michie Co., printers. pp. 27-29

Dandridge, Danske. (1909). “George Michael Bedinger: a Kentucky pioneer.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 8 July 2013.

(2007). Virginia at War, 1861.” edited by William C. Davis and James I. Robertson, Jr. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky. Print.

(2007). Virginia at War, 1861.” edited by William C. Davis and James I. Robertson, Jr. Google Books 15 Aug. 2006 Web. 15 Oct. 2011.p. 147.

Dawes, Rufus R. (1890). “Service with the Sixth Wisconsin Volunteers.” Marietta, Ohio:E.R. Alderman & Sons. Print.

Dawes, Rufus R. (1890). “Service with the Sixth Wisconsin Volunteers.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 8 July 2013.

Douglas, Henry Kyd. (1940, 1968). “I Rode With Stonewall.” Charlotte, NC: University of North Carolina Press. Print.

Douglas, Henry Kyd. (1940, 1968). “I Rode With Stonewall.” Google Books. 19 July 2008. Web. 24 Dec. 2010.p. 3, 5, pp. 6-7; pp. 249-250.

Driver, Robert J. “The 1st and 2nd Light Artillery (Rockbridge Artillery).” Lynchburg, Va.: H. E. Howard Publishers. Print.

Jubal Early Recalls His Role in the Burning of Chambersburg – TranscriptLynchburg VA June 1st 1882Dear SirIn reply to your enquiries I have to inform you that the Town of Chambersburg was burned on the same day in which the demand on it was made by McCausland and refused – It was ascertained That a force of the enemy’s cavalry was approaching, and there was no time for delay – Moreover the refusal was peremptory, and there was no reason for delay, unless the demand was a mere idle threat –As to the other enquiry – I had no knowledge of what amount of money there might be in Chambersburg – I knew that it was a town of some Twelve Thousand inhabitants – The Town of Fredrick in Maryland, which was a much smaller town than Chambersburg, had in June very promptly responded to my demand on it for $200.000 – Some of the inhabitants, who were friendly to us, expressed a regret that I had not put my demand at $500,000. There was one or more National Banks at Chambersburg, and the Town ought to have been able to raise the sum I demanded − I soon heard that the refusal was based on inability to pay such a sum, and there was no offer to pay any sum. The value of the houses destroyed & h…[?], with their contents, was fully $100,000 in gold, and at the time I made the demand the price of gold in greenbacks had very nearly reached $3.00, and was going up rapidly. Hence it was that I required the $500,000 in greenbacks, if the gold was not paid. To provide against any further depreciation of the paper money.I would have been fully justified by the laws of retaliation in war, in burning the town, without giving the inhabitants the opportunity of redeeming in.Very Respectfully YoursJ A EarlyEdward W. Bok Esqr.sethkaller.com1 February 2011 Web. 10 December 2014.p. 478.

Lieutenant General Jubal Anderson Early, C.S.A. (1912). “Autobiographical sketch and narrative of the war between the states.” Philadelphia & London: J. B. Lippincott Company. Print.p. 371.

Eby, Cecil D., Jr. (Ed. and Intro.). (1961). “A Virginia Yankee in the Civil War. The Diaries of David Hunter Strother.” Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. Print.

Eby, Cecil D., Jr. (Ed. and Intro.). (1961). “A Virginia Yankee in the Civil War. The Diaries of David Hunter Strother.”Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 8 July 2013.p. 280.

Evans, Willis, F. (1928). “History of Berkeley County, West Virginia.” Print.

Frye, Dennis E. (1984). “2nd Virginia Infantry.” Lynchburg, Va.: H. E. Howard, Inc. Print.

Frye, Dennis E. (1988). “12th Virginia Cavalry.” Lynchburg, VA: H. E. Howard, Inc. Print.– See more:

Frye, Dennis. (2012). “Harpers Ferry Under Fire – A Border Town in the American Civil War.” Virginia Beach, VA: The Donning Company Publishers. Print.

Getzendanner, Anna M. (undated). “A Boy’s Recollections of The Civil War (1861-1865) – The experiences of Augustine C. Morgan, son of Col. William Augustine Morgan.

Gordon, John B. (1903). “Reminiscences of the Civil War.” New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. Print.

Gordon, John B. (1903). “Reminiscences of the Civil War.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 18 July 2012.p. 82.

Hamstead, Elsie. (2000). “One Small Village: Kearneysville 1842-1942.” Hagerstown, MD: Hagerstown Printing. Print.

Hard, Abner, M.D. (1868). “History of the Eighth Cavalry Regiment Illinois Volunteers.” Aurora, Ill.: self-published. p. 190. Print.

Hard, Abner, M.D.(1868). “History of the Eighth Cavalry Regiment Illinois Volunteers.” Google Books. 15 August 2006 Web. 18 July 2012.p. 190.

Harsh, Joseph L. (1999) “Taken At The Flood: Robert E. Lee’s Confederate Strategy in the Maryland Campaign of 1862.” Kent, OH: Kent State University Press. Print.

Hotchkiss, Jedediah. (1973). “Make Me a Map of the Valley The Civil War Journal of Stonewall Jackson’s Topographer.” Edited by Archie P. McDonald. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist University Press. Print.

Hughes, Ted. (Poem). “Crow’s Account of the Battle.” angelfire.com 28 October 1996 Web 24 December, 2012.

James, Anne Hooff Farm Journals, Wednesday, March 12, 1862. – Perry Collection, Charles Town Library.

Johnson, John L. (1971). ”The University Memorial: Biographical Sketches of Alumni of the University of Virginia who Fell in the Confederate War.” Baltimore, MD: Turnbull Brothers. Print.

Kenamond, A. D. (1963) “Prominent Men of Shepherdstown.” Charles Town, WV: Jefferson County Historical Society. Print. pp. 32-33, pp. 35-36, p. 122.

Levin, Alexandra Lee. (1987). “This Awful Drama: General Edwin Gray Lee, C.S.A., And His Family.” New York, NY: Vantage Press. Print.

Lincoln, Abraham To Franklin G. Martindale[c. July 17, 1864?]The property of Charles J. Faulkner is exempt from the order of General David S. Hunter for the burning of the residences of prominent citizens of the Shenandoah Valley in retaliation for the burning of the Governor Bradford’s house in Maryland by the Confederate forces. ABRAHAM LINCOLNCollected Works of Abraham Lincoln. Volume 7. p. 446.quod.lib.umich.edu 12 November 2010 Web. 10 December 2014.

Longstreet, James. (1896). “From Manassas to Appomattox – memoirs of the Civil War in America.” Philadelphia, PA: J. B. Lippincott Co. Print.

Mitchell, Mary B. undated. “Memories.” compiled and edited by Nina Mitchell. – Shepherd University Library.

Moore, Edward Alexander. (1907). “The story of a cannoneer under Stonewall Jackson, in which is told the part taken by the Rockbridge artillery in the Army of northern Virginia.” New York, NY; Washington, Neale Publishing Co. Print.

Moore, Edward Alexander. (1907). “The story of a cannoneer under Stonewall Jackson, in which is told the part taken by the Rockbridge artillery in the Army of northern Virginia.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010.

pp. 36-38 – George Rust, Alec Boteler singing.

p. 62. – Steve Dandridge

p. 136. – George Bedinger

pp. 156-157. – Sharpsburg, Bedinger Home

Neese, George M. (1911). “Three years in the Confederate horse artillery.” New York, Washington: Neale Publishing Company. Print.

Neese, George M. (1911). “Three years in the Confederate horse artillery.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movie, Music and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 16 Feb. 2011.p. 125.

New York in the War of the Rebellion, 3rd ed. Frederick Phisterer. Albany: J. B. Lyon Company, 1912.

Sears, Stephen W. (1983). “Landscape Turned Red – The Battle of Antietam.” Boston, New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Inc. Print.

Sheridan, Philip H. (1888). “Personal Memoirs of P. H. Sheridan, General, United States Army.” Volume 1. New York, NY: Jenkins & McCowan. Print.

Sheridan, Philip H. (1888). “Personal Memoirs of P. H. Sheridan, General, United States Army.” Volume 1. Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movie, Music and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 16 Feb. 2011.pp. 487-488.

Survivors’ Association, 118th (Corn Exchange) Reg’t. P. V. (1888). “History of the Corn Exchange Regiment, 118th Pennsylvania Volunteers, from their first engagement at Antietam to Appomattox. To which is added a record of its organization and a complete roster. Fully illustrated with maps, portraits, and over one hundred illustrations.” J. L. Smith in Philadelphia, PA: J. L. Smith Publishers. Print.

Survivors’ Association, 118th (Corn Exchange) Reg’t. P. V. (1888). “History of the Corn Exchange Regiment, 118th Pennsylvania Volunteers, from their first engagement at Antietam to Appomattox. To which is added a record of its organization and a complete roster. Fully illustrated with maps, portraits, and over one hundred illustrations.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movie, Music and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 16 Feb. 2011.p. 642.

Borcke, Heros Von. (1867). “Memoirs of the Confederate war for independence.” Philadelphia, PA.: Lippincott. Print.

Borcke, Heros Von. (1867). “Memoirs of the Confederate war for independence.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 October 2012.

Williams, Alpheus S. (1959). “From the Cannon’s Mouth: The Civil War Letters of General Alpheus S. Williams.” Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press. Print.

Williams, Alpheus S. (1959). “From the Cannon’s Mouth: The Civil War Letters of General Alpheus S. Williams.” books.google.com. 15 August 2006 Web. 18 July 2012.p. 127.

Newspapers:

The Baltimore Sun, September 1, 1849.

The Baltimore Herald, August 2, 1848,

The Lynchburg Virginian, July 21, 1863.

The Baltimore Sun, February 16, 1899. William A. Morgan; Obituary.

Winchester Republican, August 16, 1861.

Virginia Free Press, October 10, 1867.

The Shepherdstown Register, August 8, 1857.

The Shepherdstown Register,, July 27, 1899.

The Shepherdstown Register, October 22, 1914 (Obituary).

The Shepherdstown Register, Oct. 13, 1898 (Obituary).

The Shepherdstown Register, August 26, 1886 (Obituary).

The Shepherdstown Register, May 8, 1903 (Obituary).

Helen Boteler Pendleton, “A Nineteenth Century Romantic,” The Shepherdstown Register, December 21, 1933.

Helen Boteler Pendleton, “A 19th Century Romantic – Home Life at Fountain Rock,” The Shepherdstown Register, January 4, 1934.

Helen Boteler Pendleton, “A Nineteenth Century Romantic – The Story of Alexander R. Boteler’s Capture and Remarkable Escape,” The Shepherdstown Register, January 25, 1934.

Helen Boteler Pendleton, “A Nineteenth Century Romantic – The Fight Near Fountain Rock,” The Shepherdstown Register, February 1, 1934.

Helen Boteler Pendleton, “The Burning of Fountain Rock,” The Shepherdstown Register, February 8, 1934.

Helen Boteler Pendleton, “A Nineteenth Century Romantic – The Fall of Richmond; Surrender at Appomattox,” The Shepherdstown Register, February 15, 1934.

Helen Boteler Pendleton, “A Nineteenth Century Romantic – The Last Quarter Century.”The Shepherdstown Register, February 22, 1934.

Elizabeth Stockton Pendleton. “A Wartime Incident – Fifty years Ago,” Shepherdstown Register, July 16, 1914; also “A Wartime Tragedy,” Shepherdstown Register, March 8, 1934.

Burning of Chambersburg

A letter to the Philadelphia Inquirer dated at Chambersburg on Monday, August 1 says:

The Rebels approach to this place was first heard of about 4 o’clock Saturday morning, when a small force, numbering about sixty five men, under command of Lieutenant H.S. McLain, United States Army, with one piece of artillery, took a position on New England Hill, a short distance above the town, and commenced firing grape and canister into their ranks. This battery kept the enemy in check for two hours while the merchants and business men at once commenced packing up their goods, so that before the arrival of the invaders the most valuable portion of the merchandise had been removed. The little band under Lieutenant McLain harassed the invaders and fought them until they were nearly surrounded.

The battery was withdrawn, and at 6 o’clock the raiders came into town in scattering squads, under that ferocious and unrelenting freebooter, McCausland. Formal possession of the town was taken, and Gen. McCausland made his headquarters in the Franklin house. After this he made a proclamation to the citizens, demanding one hundred thousand dollars in gold, or five hundred thousand dollars in greenbacks.— He threatened to burn the town if the money was not obtained This demand, of course, was not complied with. The Rebel General was evidently aware that the money could not be raised; and he was sure of it affording a pretext to execute the premeditated plan for destroying Chambersburg.

McCausland then allowed his men to scatter in squads over the town, to plunder and ravage the people, and put the torch to whatever buildings they thought proper to burn. Their first move was for the taverns in the town, and here they drank to excess and then visited private residences, and demanded of the occupants certain sums of money, threatening to lay their dwellings in ashes. Some of the citizens saved their residences by complying with their terms: others gave them to understand that they would suffer death rather than give them money. A guard of a half a dozen men had been detailed by the Rebel General to visit the resident of Col. Alexander K McClure, situated about a mile and a half out of town. They did not know the direct locality of Mr. McClure’s residence, and while proceeding on their errand they stopped at the house of Mr. Wm. Eyster, and that gentleman being at home, they inquired of him where the property was located.

Having received a reply, they visited the splendid residence, ordered Mrs. McClure, who was very sick at the time, out of the house, stole everything that was of value, and burned the house. They next proceeded to the barn, which was well filled with wheat, and this structure shared the same fate. They were not aware that Mr. McClure had several other building and barns in the immediate neighborhood, or they would surely have been destroyed. Mrs. McClure, although sick, was obliged to walk nearly eleven miles. The Colonel had left the place before the Rebels entered, and had gone to Harrisburg. His loss will not fall short of £50,000.

The Government Commissary store house, the Court House, three printing offices, one belonging to the German Reformed Church, where the German Reformed Messenger and a German paper were printed; the office of the Franklin Repository, and the office of the Valley Spirit; all hotels, grocery stores, and the principal portion of the town was, a few hours after they commenced their hellish work, one mass of ruins. In all, there have been about two hundred and fifty buildings destroyed. At the time of the fire, a strong breeze was prevailing and the flames spread in every direction.

It was really heart rending to see the women, almost frantic, running to and fro, begging the miserable wretches to cease the work of destruction. Children were running in every direction seeking for their parents, while the women were crying and hunting for their children who could not be found. Families were rushing from their homes, without anything that they could call their own; except the clothing they had upon their backs, to seek security in the desolated fields around the town. The appeals of the old and helpless were heard above the noise of the conflagration, and this only served to elicit the scorn and derision of the freebooters, who came for the infamous purpose of laying this once beautiful town in ruins. – Philadelphia Inquirer, August 1, 1864.whilbr.org 4 October 2003 Web. 10 December 2014.

Genealogybank.com (Subscription service):

The Tournament at ShannondaleDate: Saturday, September 1, 1849 Paper: Sun (Baltimore, MD) Volume: XXV Issue: 91 Page: 1. This entire product and/or portions thereof are copyrighted by News Bank and/or the American Antiquarian Society. 2004.genealogybank.com 11 October 2008 Web. 10 December 2014.

Date: Wednesday, August 3, 1864 Paper: Rocky Mountain News (Denver, CO) Page: 2This entire product and/or portions thereof are copyrighted by News Bank and/or the American Antiquarian Society. 2004.genealogybank.com 11 October 2008 Web. 10 December 2014.

The Pennsylvania Raid. Scenes at Chambersburg–Atrocities of the Rebels–Excitement in the Cumberland ValleyDate: Tuesday, August 2, 1864 Paper: Evening Post (New York, NY) Volume: 65 Page: 3This entire product and/or portions thereof are copyrighted by News Bank and/or the American Antiquarian Society. 2004.genealogybank.com 11 October 2008 Web. 10 December 2014.

Gen Hunter’s Order-Mosby RetaliatesDate: Thursday, July 7, 1864 Paper: Daily True Delta (New Orleans, LA) Volume: XXIX Issue: 194 Page: 1This entire product and/or portions thereof are copyrighted by News Bank and/or the American Antiquarian Society. 2004.genealogybank.com 11 October 2008 Web. 10 December 2014.

Date: Thursday, August 25, 1864 Paper: Charleston Mercury (Charleston, SC) Page: 1This entire product and/or portions thereof are copyrighted by News Bank and/or the American Antiquarian Society. 2004.genealogybank.com 11 October 2008 Web. 10 December 2014.

Barbarism in WarDate: Saturday, August 6, 1864 Paper: Columbian Register (New Haven, CT) Volume: LII Issue: 2698 Page: 2genealogybank.com 11 October 2008 Web. 10 December 2014.

Horror’s of WarDate: Saturday, August 6, 1864 Paper: Cincinnati Daily Enquirer (Cincinnati, OH) Volume: XXIX Issue: 202 Page: 1genealogybank.com 11 October 2008 Web. 10 December 2014.

Jed Morrison, “Sheridan’s Ride” The New York Times Opinionator, October 21, 2014.opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com 11 November Web. 10 December 2014.

Official Records of the War of the Rebellion:

1. Volume XXVII – in Three Parts. 1889. (Vol. 27, Chap. 39)Chapter XXXIX – Operations in North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Department of the East. June 3-August 3, 1863.Part I – ReportsPart II – ReportsPart III – Correspondence, etc.ebooks.library.cornell.edu 11 May 2000 Web. 10 December 2014.Part II, p. 530.

2. Jonathan Letterman. Report. – U.S. Army Surgeon General’s Office. (1870). “The Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion. (1861-1865) Part I. Volume I. Medical History. (1st Medical volume).” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011.

p. 855(p. 98 in Appendix). Reference to cared for Confederates just prior to “Table X.”

3. Title: The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. ; Series 1 – Volume 37 (Part II). pp. 374-375.

4. The actual order came from Gen. Grant:General Grant to Gen. Halleck – order stating “a crow would have to carry its own provender” on July 14, 1864: OFFICIAL RECORDS: Series 1, vol. 40, Part 3 (Richmond, Petersburg); Chapter LII. CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. – UNION. If the enemy has left Maryland, as I suppose he has, he should have upon his heels veterans, militiamen, men on horseback, and everything that can be got to follow to eat out Virginia clear and clean as far as they go, so that crows flying over it for the balance of this season will have to carry their provender with them. –ebooks.library.cornell.edu 11 May 2000 Web. 10 December 2014.p. 223.

5. On July 14, 1864, Grant wired Army Chief of Staff Henry Halleck in Washington that a force should be assembled in the valley “to eat out Virginia clear and clean … so that crows flying over it for the balance of the season will have to carry their provender with them.” To accomplish that purpose, Grant recommended to the War Department the consolidation of four military departments into a single army, staffing it with 32,000 seasoned troops: the formidable Army of the Shenandoah. Now it needed a capable commander.

6. Volume XXXVII – in Two Parts. 1891. (Vol. 37, Chap. 49)Chapter XLIX – Operations in Northern West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. May 1-August 3, 1864.Part II – Union and Confederate Correspondence, etc.D. HUNTER, Major- General. SPECIAL ORDERS, HDQRS. DEPT. OF WEST VIRGINIA, No. 128. Harpers Ferry, W. Va., July 17, 1864. I. Capt. F. G. Martindale, First New York (Lincoln) Cavalry, will proceed with the cavalry under his command to Charlestown, W. Va., and burn the dwelling-house and outbuildings of Andrew Hunter, not permitting anything to be taken therefrom except the family. II. Capt. F. G. Martindale, First New York (Lincoln) Cavalry, will proceed with the cavalry under his command via Charlestown to Martinsburg, W. Va., and burn the dwelling-house and outbuildings of Charles J. Faulkner, not permitting anything to be taken therefrom except the family. III. Brig. Gen. W. W. Averell. U. S. Volunteers, will immediately proceed to Martinsburg, W. Va., and assume command of that place keeping with him one brigade of General Crooks infantry and his own cavalry force. General Crook having been ordered out of the department, General Averell will hereafter report direct to the commanding general of the department, and will keep him advised daily of the situation of affairs about Martinsburg. As soon as General Averell’s command arrives at Martinsburg, he will proceed to Winchester and attack the enemy at that place if his force is considered sufficient..By order of Major-General Hunter: [CHAS. G. HALPINE,] Assistant Adjutant- General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF WEST VIRGINIA, –ebooks.library.cornell.edu 11 May 2000 Web. 10 December 2014.pp. 367-368.

7. FREDERICK, July 15, 1864. (Via Monocacy. Received 8 a. in.) Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War: Captain Martindale, First New York Cavalry, of General Hunters army, here on reconnaissance with sixty men, left Martinsburg Wednesday 11 a. m. General Crook had arrived at Cherry Run with his division. General Hunter was then at Cumberland, marching this way. He was without doubt at Martinsburg Thursday evening. Captain Martindale says the men are wearied and foot sore; the cavalry much exhausted. I think your dispatches will get to General Hunter as soon as 6 o’clock this a.m., if Lieutenant Wyckoff gets along safely. If I can telegraph from Harpers Ferry I will send forward the cipher dispatch, following it myself. No enemy in this part of the State. When Captain Martindale left Martinsburg a force of 1,000 rebel cavalry were guarding a train of wagons, cattle, and plunder of all kinds, then at Winchester. He was too weak to feel or attack them. N. P. CHIPMAN, Colonel and Aide-de-Camp.ebooks.library.cornell.edu 11 May 2000 Web. 10 December 2014.p. 343.

8. CAMDEN STATION, Baltimore, July 18, 1864. (Received 8.30 pm.)

Hon. E. M. STANTON: I have just received the following report from our engineer at Harpers Ferry:

“I called to see General Hunter this morning and asked him to send a force upon the line of our road between Harpers Ferry and Opequon, to enable us to relay the track and get road open. He replied: ‘Will send a force in a day or two.’ He also stated that he had burned Andrew Hunters residence at Charlestown, and had given orders to burn Faulkner’s house at Martinsburg, and that it is his intention if he finds guerrillas at Charlestown to burn that town; and as Clarke County only polled two votes against the ordinance of secession, he will burn every house in the county.”

If this course is pursued I apprehend such retaliation will follow as will largely add to the losses and sufferings of our border. . . – John W. Garrett, president of the Baltimore & Ohio RailroadTitle: The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. ; Series 1 – Volume 37 (Part II).ebooks.library.cornell.edu 11 May 2000 Web. 10 December 2014.pp. 374-375.

9. 8,000 men by Mary 23, 1861Report of Inspection made at Harper’s Ferry, Va. by Lieut. Col. George Deas, Inspector General C. S. Army. May 23, 1861.Title: The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. ; Series 1 – Volume 2Author: United States. War Dept., John Sheldon Moody, Calvin Duvall Cowles, Frederick Caryton Ainsworth, Robert N. Scott, Henry Martyn Lazelle, George Breckenridge Davis, Leslie J. Perry, Joseph William Kirkleyebooks.library.cornell.edu 11 May 2000 Web. 10 December 2014.pp. 867-870.

10. The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. ; Series 1 – Volume 43 (Part II),ebooks.library.cornell.edu 11 May 2000 Web. 10 December 2014.p. 308.

Unauthored:

1. The Cohongaroota, Shepherd College. 1915. pp. 97-98.

2. Between 300 and 400 dwellings were burned, leaving at least 2, 500 persons without a home or a hearth. In value, three-fourths of the town were destroyed. The scene of desolation must be seen to be appreciated. Crumbling walls, stacks of chimneys and smoking embers, are all that remain of once elegant and happy homes. As to the scene itself, it beggars description. My own residence being on the outskirts, and feeling it the call of duty to be with my family, I could only look on from without. The day was sultry and calm, not a breath stirring:, and each column of smoke rose black, straight and single, first one, and then another, and another, and another, until the columns blended and commingled; and then one vast and lurid column of smoke and flame rose perpendicular to the sky, and spread out into a vast crown, like a cloud of sackcloth hanging over the doomed city; whilst the roar and the surging, the crackling and the crash of falling timbers and walls broke upon the still air with a fearful dissonance, and the screams and sounds of agony of burning animals, hogs and cows and horses, made the welkin horrid with the sounds of woe. It was a scene to be witnessed and heard once in a life-time.”

Slowly the men of Averill rode up the ruined street.And warm were the cobble stones beneath their tir’d horses’ feet;High o’er their heads and banners, upward iu eddying whirls,Above the blacken’d buildings the smothering smoke-cloud curls.‘To their right and left lay ruins, the marks of rebel rage,‘Twas a scene of desolation, a blot on history’s page.Homeless were maid and mother, and houseless were son and sire.No sheltering roof to shield them, surrounded all by fire;And most harmonious music to those so helpless madeWere the sounds of Union trappings, the clatter of the blade.Loudly they greeted the troopers with joyful shout and cheer,But silently sat the soldiers, amid the scene so drear;Warm were the stones beneath their steeds, and warm their welcome, too,And warm with a thirst for vengeance each soldier’s heart then grew.– pp. 386-389

Unauthored. (1887). “History of Franklin county, Pennsylvania, containing a history of the county, its townships, towns, villages, schools, churches, industries, etc.; portraits of early settlers and prominent men; biographies; history of Pennsylvania, statistical and miscellaneous matter, etc.” Chicago, IL>:Warner, Beers & Co. Print.

Unauthored. (1887). “History of Franklin county, Pennsylvania, containing a history of the county, its townships, towns, villages, schools, churches, industries, etc.; portraits of early settlers and prominent men; biographies; history of Pennsylvania, statistical and miscellaneous matter, etc.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 31 July 2008. Web. 3 March 2011.pp. 382-389.

4. Census Records & Jefferson County Death Records:

United States. Bureau of the Census; United States. National Archives and Records Service. “Population schedules of the seventh census of the United States, 1850 and 1860, Virginia.” Slave Schedules – Jefferson County, Virginia.

United States. Bureau of the Census; United States. National Archives and Records Service. (1964). “Population schedules of the seventh census of the United States, 1850, Virginia.” [microform] (Volume Reel 0953 – 1850 Virginia Federal Population Census Free Schedules – Jackson, James City, and Jefferson Counties).” Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. Print.

United States. Bureau of the Census; United States. National Archives and Records Service. (1964). “Population schedules of the seventh census of the United States, 1850, Virginia.” [microform] (Volume Reel 0953 – 1850 Virginia Federal Population Census Free Schedules – Jackson, James City, and Jefferson Counties).” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 31 July 2008. Web. 3 March 2011. – p. 359B.

Ancestry.com (Subscription service):

1870 United States Federal Census about Hugh N PendletonName: Hugh N PendletonAge in 1870: 70Birth Year: abt 1800Birthplace: VirginiaHome in 1870: Grant, Jefferson, West VirginiaRace: WhiteGender: MalePost Office: Charles TownName AgeHugh N Pendleton 70Elizabeth Pendleton 56Robert N Pendleton 23Kenneth Pendleton 17Faney Pendleton 22Alexander Pendleton 0Lucy Diggs 69Hugh T Slow 37Millie Slow 30Mary Slow 7Ellen Slow 3Lizzie Slow 3/12James Evans 69search.ancestry.com 10 July 1998 Web. 10 December 2014.

1870 United States Federal Census about Edmund I LeeName: Edmund I Lee[Edmund J Lee]Age in 1870: 73Birth Year: abt 1797Birthplace: VirginiaHome in 1870: Chapline, Jefferson, West VirginiaRace: WhiteGender: MalePost Office: ShepherdstownValue of real estate: View imageHousehold Members:Name AgeEdmund I Lee 73Henrietta Lee 60Edwin G Lee 34Susan P Lee 30Edmond T R Lee 25Hary B Lee 21Alice Smith 18

NO MATCH IN 1850 Census1870 United States Federal Census about Philip Thornton (in the Poor House)Name: Philip ThorntonAge in 1870: 79Birth Year: abt 1791Birthplace: VirginiaHome in 1870: Southern District, Loudoun, VirginiaRace: BlackGender: MalePost Office: UnisonValue of real estate: View imageHousehold Members:Name AgeAdaline Poland 31Sarah Poland 1Ruth Shores 72Edith West 72Catharine Novel 70Eliza Whiton 37Susan Whiton 7Edward Whiton 5Alexander Whiton 1Mary J Dustins 28Laura Dustins 3James Leonis 70Isaac Fears 75Simon Peters 44Benjamin Sinclair 75Joshua Hartman 45John Hunt 50George Novel 65Henson Novel 60Nancy Williams 70Rachael Walker 77Matilda Hill 77Mary Popkins 32Charles Popkins 3Sarah Popkins 28Robert Popkins 5Richard Malberry 50Philip Thornton 79search.ancestry.com 10 July 1998 Web. 10 December 2014.

1860 United States Federal Census about Helen ThorntonName: Helen ThorntonAge in 1860: 47Birth Year: abt 1813Birthplace: VirginiaHome in 1860: Charlestown, Jefferson, VirginiaRace: MulattoGender: FemalePost Office: CharlestownValue of real estate: View imageHousehold Members:Name AgeThomas Thornton 40Helen Thornton 47search.ancestry.com 10 July 1998 Web. 10 December 2014.

1850 United States Federal Census about Helen ThorntonName: Helen ThorntonAge: 35Birth Year: abt 1815Birthplace: VirginiaHome in 1850: Charlestown, Jefferson, VirginiaRace: MulattoGender: FemaleFamily Number: 183Household Members:Name AgeThomas Thornton 30Helen Thornton 35James Brady 17Caroline Brady 14John H Thornton 10search.ancestry.com 10 July 1998 Web. 10 December 2014.

1870 United States Federal Census about Peggy Washington*Name: Peggy WashingtonAge in 1870: 60Birth Year: abt 1810Birthplace: West VirginiaHome in 1870: Shepherdstown, Jefferson, West VirginiaRace: MulattoGender: FemalePost Office: ShepherdstownHousehold Members:Name AgeGeorge Hunter 21Susan Hunter 25Peggy Washington 60Gennie Washington 12Mary Powell 16search.ancestry.com 10 July 1998 Web. 10 December 2014.

Grandson (one of three grandsons along with Thompson and George to Peggy Washington) Washer woman at Bedford)1920 United States Federal Census about William WashingtonName: William WashingtonAge: 85Birth Year: abt 1835Birthplace: VirginiaHome in 1920: Las Vegas, Clark, NevadaStreet: Third StreetHouse Number: XRace: BlackGender: MaleRelation to Head of House: HeadMarital Status: MarriedSpouse’s Name: Ella WashingtonFather’s Birthplace: United States of AmericaMother’s Birthplace: United States of AmericaHousehold Members:Name AgeWilliam Washington 85Ella Washington 68George Washington 31Howard Washington 23search.ancestry.com 10 July 1998 Web. 10 December 2014.

Grandson (one of three grandsons along with William and George to Peggy Washington) Washer woman at Bedford)1870 United States Federal Census about Thompson WashingtonName: Thompson WashingtonAge in 1870: 35Birth Year: abt 1835Birthplace: VirginiaHome in 1870: Southern District, Loudoun, VirginiaRace: BlackGender: MalePost Office: MiddleburgThompson Washington 35Virginia Washington 25Franklin Washington 2search.ancestry.com 10 July 1998 Web. 10 December 2014.

OR

1880 United States Federal Census about Thompson WashingtonName: Thompson WashingtonAge: 50Birth Year: abt 1830Birthplace: VirginiaHome in 1880: Mercer, Loudoun, VirginiaRace: BlackGender: MaleRelation to Head of House: Self (Head)Marital Status: MarriedSpouse’s Name: Ann E. WashingtonFather’s Birthplace: VirginiaMother’s Birthplace: VirginiaNeighbors: View others on pageOccupation: Works On FarmHousehold Members:Name AgeThompson Washington 50*Ann E. Washington 25William F. Washington 12Burr H. Washington 10Sarabetta Washington 6Oreanna Washington 5Richard L. Washington 3Ella L. Washington 4msearch.ancestry.com 10 July 1998 Web. 10 December 2014.

1880 United States Federal Census about Hannah ThorntonName: Hannah Thornton (not matched by age to those listed in either the 1850 or 1860 Enslaved Census for Boteler)Age: 55Birth Year: abt 1825Birthplace: West VirginiaHome in 1880: Stockton, Camden, New JerseyRace: BlackGender: FemaleMarital Status: WidowedFather’s Birthplace: West VirginiaMother’s Birthplace: West Virginiasearch.ancestry.com 10 July 1998 Web. 10 December 2014.

1900 United States Federal Census about Lewis W ThorntonName: Lewis W Thornton (matches to five-year-old male enslaved with Boteler in 1860 Enslaved Census).[James W Thornton]Age: 45Birth Date: Dec 1854Birthplace: West VirginiaHome in 1900: Falling Waters, Berkeley, West VirginiaRace: BlackGender: MaleRelation to Head of House: HeadMarital Status: MarriedSpouse’s Name: Susan V ThorntonMarriage Year: 1876Years Married: 24Father’s Birthplace: VirginiaMother’s Birthplace: West VirginiaOccupation: View on ImageNeighbors: View others on pageHousehold Members:Name AgeLewis W Thornton 45Susan V Thornton 42George A Thornton 23Charles W Thornton 19Susen E Thornton 15Mary L Thornton 12Margie S Thornton 10James W Thornton 6Laura V Thornton 8Joseph B Thornton 2Eliza E Thornton 0/12George W Thornton 39search.ancestry.com 10 July 1998 Web. 10 December 2014.

1880 United States Federal Census about John Thornton (Matches to ten-year old male at Boteler’s 1850 Slave Schedule)Name: John ThorntonAge: 40Birth Year: abt 1840Birthplace: West VirginiaHome in 1880: Charlestown, Jefferson, West VirginiaRace: BlackGender: MaleRelation to Head of House: Self (Head)Marital Status: MarriedSpouse’s Name: Nancy ThorntonFather’s Birthplace: West VirginiaMother’s Birthplace: West VirginiaNeighbors: View others on pageOccupation: PlastererName AgeJohn Thornton 40Nancy Thornton 39Rebecca Thornton 12Lucien Thornton 15Hannah Thornton 10Polly Thornton 8Juda Thornton 5Mary F. Thornton 1search.ancestry.com 10 July 1998 Web. 10 December 2014.

West Virginia, Deaths Index, 1853-1973 about Margt. Bunkins (Sister L. McKenna)Name: Margt. Bunkins (Matches 18- or 20- year old female enslaved peson with Boteler in 1860 Census)Birth Date: abt 1841Birth Place: VirginiaDeath Date: 8 Jun 1871Death Place: Chas. Tp., Jefferson Co., West VirginiaDeath Age: 30Occupation: ServantRace: BlackMarital Status: MarriedGender: FemaleSpouse Name: Nelson or Wilson Bunkinssearch.ancestry.com 10 July 1998 Web. 10 December 2014.

1880 United States Federal Census about Kittie BunkinsName: Kittie Bunkins (not born yet for listing of enslaved with Boteler in 1860 Enslaved Census).Age: 20Birth Year: abt 1860Birthplace: West VirginiaHome in 1880: Potomac, Jefferson, West VirginiaRace: BlackGender: FemaleMarital Status: SingleFather’s Birthplace: West VirginiaMother’s Birthplace: West Virginiasearch.ancestry.com 10 July 1998 Web. 10 December 2014.

West Virginia, Deaths Index, 1853-1973 about Fanni BunkinsName: Fannie BunkinsBirth Date: abt 1854Birth Place: VirginiaDeath Date: 16 Jun 1869Death Place: Shepherd, Jefferson Co., West VirginiaDeath Age: 15Occupation: NoneRace: BlackMarital Status: SingleGender: FemaleFather Name: WilsonMother Name: Margt. Bunkinssearch.ancestry.com 10 July 1998 Web. 10 December 2014.

1880 United States Federal Census about Wm. Bunkins (also in 24 USCT)Name: Wm. Bunkins (matches with 19-year-old male with Boteler in 1860 Enslaved Census).Age: 40Birth Year: abt 1840Birthplace: West VirginiaHome in 1880: Potomac, Jefferson, West VirginiaRace: BlackGender: MaleMarital Status: WidowerFather’s Birthplace: West VirginiaMother’s Birthplace: West VirginiaNeighbors: View others on pageOccupation: Laborersearch.ancestry.com 10 July 1998 Web. 10 December 2014.

U.S., Federal Census Mortality Schedules Index, 1850-1880 about Abram Negro DixonSurname: Abram Negro DixonBirth: Jan. 1, 1814Death: Feb. 24, 1880Year: 1880County: Jefferson CO.State: WVAge: 65Gender: M (Male)Month of Death: JanState of Birth: WVID#: 197_85543Occupation: LABORERCause of Death: TREE FELLsearch.ancestry.com 10 July 1998 Web. 10 December 2014.

Dixon left a large family and his widow:1880 United States Federal Census about Abram DixonName: Abram Dixon Jr.Age: 15Birth Year: abt 1865Birthplace: West VirginiaHome in 1880: Shepherdstown, Jefferson, West VirginiaRace: BlackGender: MaleRelation to Head of House: SonMarital Status: SingleFather’s Birthplace: West VirginiaMother’s name: (L)Sucy DixonMother’s Birthplace: West VirginiaNeighbors: View others on pageOccupation: Farm LaborerName AgeLucy Dixon 58Robert Dixon 33Albert Dixon 31Harris Dixon 26Samuel Dixon 23David Dixon 21Jessie Dixon 17Abram Dixon 15Carrie Dixon 10search.ancestry.com 10 July 1998 Web. 10 December 2014.

Fold3.com (Subscription service):

Census – US Federal 1860National Archives Catalog Title: Population Schedules for the 1860 Census, compiled 1860 – 1860Record Group: 29. Short Description: NARA M653. Eighth Census of the United States, 1860 population schedules.Roll: 1355. Virginia › Jefferson › [Blank] › Pages 26-27NamesBoteler, Alexander R (b. ~1815)Boteler, Helen McComb Stockton (b. 1815)Angelica Peale (b. 1839)Boteler, Helen Mc C (b. ~1841)Boteler, Charlotte R (b. ~1845)fold3.com 16 September 2011 Web. 10 December 2014.

Census – US Federal 1860Census – US Federal 1860National Archives Catalog Title: Population Schedules for the 1860 Census, compiled 1860 – 1860Record Group: 29. Short Description: NARA M653. Eighth Census of the United States, 1860 population schedules.Roll: 1355. … Virginia › Jefferson › Shepherdstown › Page 94NamesBoteler, Margie (b. ~1840)Boteler, Mary M (b. ~1845)Boteler, Ann H (b. ~1817)fold3.com 16 September 2011 Web. 10 December 2014.

Census – US Federal 1860National Archives Catalog Title: Population Schedules for the 1860 Census, compiled 1860 – 1860Record Group: 29. Short Description: NARA M653. Eighth Census of the United States, 1860 population schedules.Roll: 1355. Virginia › Jefferson › [Blank] › Page 27

Caroline B. Bedinger (b. 1828)George Rust Bedinger (b. 1841)Virginia Rust Bedinger (b. 1842)Mary (b. 1851)Henry (b. 1854)Caroline (b. 1856)Fannie Griffith (b. 1841) teacherfold3.com 16 September 2011 Web. 10 December 2014.

Civil War Service Records – National Archive & Records Administration – (NARA):

Franklin G. Martindale Captain, 1st New York Cavalry Service NotePublication Title: Index to Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Union Soldiers Who Served in Organizations from the State of New YorkContent Source: NARAContent Partner: NARASource Publication Year: 1965Fold3 Publication Year: 2011Record Group: 94fold3.com 16 September 2011 Web. 10 December 2014.

Link to service records of Henry, Charles and Alexander Boteler, Jr. at fold3.com. (two may be sons of ARB’s brother Henry.fold3.com 16 September 2011 Web. 10 December 2014.

New York 1st Cavalry Rosterdmna.ny.gov 30 January 2012 Web. 10 December 2014.

Findagrave.com:

Helen Stockton BotelerBirth: Mar. 11, 1815Death: Feb. 15, 1891findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. 10 December 2014.

Alexander Robinson Boteler (of Bright’s disease)Birth: May 16, 1815Death: May 8, 1892findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. 10 December 2014.

Mary “Pink” Boteler MasonBirth: Oct., 1848Death: Feb. 9, 1894findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. 10 December 2014.

Dudley Digges Pendleton (husband Helen Macomb Boteler)Birth: Mar. 2, 1840Louisa CountyVirginia, USADeath: Aug. 24, 1886findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. 10 December 2014.

Helen Stockton BotelerBirth: Mar. 11, 1815Death: Feb. 15, 1891findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. 10 December 2014.

Alexander Robinson Boteler (of Bright’s disease)Birth: May 16, 1815Death: May 8, 1892findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. 10 December 2014.

Mary “Pink” Boteler MasonBirth: Oct., 1848Death: Feb. 9, 1894findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. 10 December 2014.

Virginia (Diddy) Bedinger MichieBirth: 1842Death: 1919findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. 10 December 2014.

Helen Boteler PendletonBirth: Apr. 2, 1867Death: Sep. 27, 1955findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. 10 December 2014.

Helen Macomb Boteler PendletonBirth: May 4, 1840Death: Oct. 20, 1914findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. 10 December 2014.

Elizabeth Stockton PendletonBirth: Feb. 24, 1871Death: Feb. 28, 1916findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. 10 December 2014.

Other Web Sources:

Web site of the Civil War Preservation Trust. Battle Maps.civilwar.org/battlefields/ 27 June 2009 Web. 10 December 2014.

Dudley Digges PendletonBirthdate: March 2, 1840Death: Died August 24, 1886Immediate Family:Son of Hugh Nelson Pendleton and Elizabeth Frances Mann DiggesHusband of Helen M. BotelerBrother of Robert Nelson Pendleton; Kenneth Murray Pendleton and Kenneth Murray PendletonHalf brother of Julia Nelson Allengeni.com 3 March 2000 Web. 10 December 2014.

Julia Pendleton Allen Civil War Letter.A Confederate Officer’s Wife in Winchester, VirginiaCollection note:The original letter is privately owned. The owner provided the VMI Archives with a copy of the original and granted us permission to publish the letter on our website, so that its content could be made available to researchers.vmi.edu 25 December 2001 Web. 10 December 2014.

National Park Service. U.S. Civil War Soldiers, 1861-1865 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2007.Original data: National Park Service, Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System, onlinenps.gov April 2012 Web. 10 December 2014.

James Walkenshaw Allen – VMI Historic Rosters Databasevmi.edu 25 December 2001 Web. 10 December 2014.

Great Seal of the Confederate States of Americawikipedia.org 2 December 2003 Web. 10 December 2014.

Berkeley County, West Virginia Biography of Mary Boyd FAULKNERMary Boyd FAULKNER was the daughter of General Elisha Boyd, who purchased the location of “Boydville” from General Adam Stephen, the founder of Martinsburg, and moved his family into it in August 1812. At the death of General Boyd in 1844, that property, with a large farm adjoining it, was willed to his daughter, Mary Boyd, who married Charles James Faulkner.There is an interesting story about how, in July 1864, during the Civil War when Charles Faulkner was being held prisoner of State of the United States Government, and both her sons, Charles and Boyd Faulkner, were serving in the Confederate Army, Mary was the sole protector of her home when Union troops came to “Boydville” with orders to “burn Boydville to the ground.” General Hunter, who then commanded the Federal forces in the Valley of Virginia, ordered Captain Martindale of a New York Cavalry Company to proceed to burn the home of his uncle, Andrew Hunter of Charles Town, the home of A.R. Boteler of Shepherdstown, and “Boydville,” the home of Charles James Faulkner. After the burning of the two former places, refusing to allow anything except the personal clothing of the inhabitants to be removed, early in the morning, General Averill, who was then in command of the forces at Martinsburg, notified Mrs. Faulkner that Captain Martindale, with a squad of cavalrymen, was on his way to carry out the orders of General Hunter and that all articles that were absolutely essential to their comfort should be removed from the house. Nothing was done, however, by Mrs. Faulkner in accumulating their articles and about 9 o’clock, after two hours of suspense, Mrs. Pierce, who was on the front porch, noticed a body of cavalrymen riding up the lawn drive from the street. When this body reached the point of 50 yards from the house it was halted and two of the men dismounted, one of them Captain Martindale. When he reached the porch he asked whether she was Mrs. Faulkner and was informed that it was not, but her daughter. He replied, “I want to see Mrs. Faulkner.” The Captain was then shown into the drawing room and when Mrs. Faulkner appeared, Captain Martindale remarked, “This is a fine old place.”

Mrs. Faulkner replied, “Do you want to see me, Sir?” He said, “I have called to inform you, Madam, that I have orders from General Hunter to burn ‘Boydville’ to the ground.” Mrs. Faulkner replied, “Will you let me see your orders?” “No, Madam, my order is a sealed one.” “Perhaps you will, however, let me see it,” Mrs. Faulkner said. The Captain then took the order from his pocket and read: “You are ordered to burn the property of Charles J. Faulkner to the ground and everything in it.” “Give me one hour’s notice,” Mrs. Faulkner replied. “This is not the property of Mr. Faulkner and neither you nor General Hunter will dare to put a torch to this house. It was given to me by my father, General Boyd, who was an officer in the War of 1812.” At this moment, two of Mrs. Faulkner’s nephews, Judge Edmond Pendleton and Dr. E. Boyd Pendleton, walked into the room and had an interview with Captain Martindale. Both of these gentlemen were Union men. When the contents of the order of Captain Martindale became known in the town, great sympathy was expressed by the people of Martinsburg and an indignation meeting was held to protest against the execution of the order. Through the influence of General Averill, the matter was suspended for a short time and with the assistance of Mrs. Faulkner’s nephews and others, a telegram was sent by the kindness of General Averill to Hagerstown, by courier, addressed to General Cullum, Chief of General Halleck’s staff, and an old friend of the family, requesting him to lay the subject before President Lincoln, with the request that the order of General Hunter be countermanded.

Suspense of the family during the intervening between the sending of the message and the reply to it was exceedingly painful. About the hour when, under the orders of Captain Martindale, the torch was to be applied, all were anxiously watching the entrance to the lawn for the return or the courier with a reply which would save the home or lay it in ashes. When the soldiers had commenced their preparations to burn the building, the anxious eyes that were watching the entrance to the lawn saw a man riding rapidly towards the house holding in his hand an envelope. On reaching the pavement that led down to the driveway, he dismounted and came rapidly to the porch and presented Mrs. Faulkner with an envelope addressed to Captain Martindale, which she turned over to him and, when opened, contained the following message from the President: “The property of Charles J. Faulkner is exempt from the order of General David S. Hunter for the burning of the residences of prominent citizens of the Shenandoah Valley in retaliation for the burning of the Governor Bradford’s house in Maryland by the Confederate forces. Signed Abraham Lincoln.”

Captain Martindale raised his cap in salutation and walking down to where he had left his men, gave orders which put them in their saddles and in a moment he and his men were clattering down the avenue to the street.

The carved mantels and doorways of Boydville were brought from England. When the house was first built, the grass plots on each side of the brick pavement in front were surrounded by a high fence of old English brick — later these were taken down and replaced by hedges of boxwood which were killed by the zero weather of the severe winter of 1914. A high brick wall also enclosed the grounds in front of the entrance on the street. The garden walls, 6 feet in height, were standing in 1928, in a perfect condition as originally built in 1812.

Many distinguished guests were entertained at Boydville, among them: Henry Clay, who held in his arms and blessed the owner, former Senator Charles J. Faulkner, when he was just 5 months old; Mr. Bancroft, the historian; two vice presidents of the U.S., Adlai E. Stevenson of Illinois and Charles W. Fairbanks of Indiana; Sir Louis Davies, Sir Wilfred Laurier, and Sir Richard Cartwright, representatives of Great Britain when the Anglo-American Commission, of which Senator Faulkner was a member, met; Hon. John W. Foster, former Secretary of State; Hon Nelson Dingley, Chairman of the Ways and Means Committee of the House of Representatives; and T. DeWitt Talmage.

Mary Boyd Faulkner died in 1894 and was buried beside her husband, Charles James Faulkner, in the private burial grounds adjoining Norborn Cemetery.

Submitted by Marilyn Gouge and extracted from History of Berkeley County, West Virginia, 1928.rootsweb.ancestry.com 20 March 2008 Web. 10 December 2014.

Jasper Thompson’s Destiny Day September 6, 1906 by Jim Surkamp with Monique Crippen-Hopkins

VIDEO: Jasper Thompson’s Destiny Day September 6, 1906 by Jim Surkamp with Monique Crippen-Hopkins 2:53:13

A River of Story in 25 Chapters by Jim Surkamp (See links to each chapter). NO VOICE OVER 4:05:39

CHAPTER 1 OF 25 CHAPTERS: Jasper Thompson’s Destiny Day September 6, 1906

TRT: 3:19 Video link: https://youtu.be/KSXoj0c5My4#t=0m0s

FLICKR 26 images
https://www.flickr.com/photos/jimsurkamp/albums/72157688726719796

541 words.

https://web.archive.org/web/20190612202411/https://civilwarscholars.com/2017/09/chapter-1-the-thompsons-the-washingtons-by-jim-surkamp/

With support from American Public University System (apus.edu). (The sentiments expressed do not in any way reflect modern-day policies of APUS, and are intended to encourage fact-based exchange for a better understanding of our nation’s foundational values.

AN EXPLANATION

CHAPTER 1 – THE THOMPSONS & THE WASHINGTONS

A River of Story by Jim Surkamp

This very American story begins over two hundred years ago on family farms in today’s Jefferson County, owned by Washington family and worked for generations by the Thompson family.

The images and text tell the story – we give where the numbered images came from, accompanied by music mostly by Shana Aisenberg and Cam Millar and with assorted soundscapes.

Family historian Monique Crippen-Hopkins
“That is a family mystery. We only know from oral history that his horse brought him
home. “We never found out anything else. . .”

References:

Monique Crippen-Hopkins

Image Credits:

1. A River of Story by Jim Surkamp

2. This is a radical re-imagining of Jasper Thompson’s Destiny Day to better show you how it was created and to enhance music and image. FINAL

3. Chapter 1: FINAL
4. The Thompsons & the Washingtons FINAL
5. Music by Shana Aisenberg FINAL

5.1 TITLE This very American story begins over two hundred years ago on family farms in today’s Jefferson County, owned by Washington family and worked for generations by the Thompson family.FINAL

6.The Thompsons & the Washingtons Montage FINAL

6.1 The Thompsons & the Washingtons (Monique) FINAL

6.2 The Thompsons & the Washingtons (Blakeley) FINAL

6.3 The Thompsons & the Washingtons (Claymont Court) FINAL

6.4 The Thompsons & the Washingtons (Prospect Hill) FINAL

CREDIT:

Monique Crippen-Hopkins; Google Maps aerial SW of Charles Town, WV;

Blakeley – Wayland, John W. (1944). “The Washingtons and their homes.” hathitrust.org 26 August 2015 Web. 20 September 2016. p. 226.

Prospect Hill – Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society/Pre-Revolutionary Structures and Sites In Jefferson County. Part I
[Schley, Linnie] 1975 Volume:41 Page(s):12-53

Claymont Court, Charles town, W. Va. postcard –
pinterest.com 2 February 2010 Web. 10 January 2017.

7. Tombstone marker in Gibsontown/Fairview Cemetery, Charles Town, WV of Jasper Thompson – courtesy Monique Crippen-Hopkins FINAL

8. Video of 156 Gibsontown Road and environs – Jim Surkamp FINAL

9. Dolly Thompson working in her backyard early 1900s; Jasper Thompson, about 1890s – courtesy Monique Crippen Hopkins. FINAL

10. Dolly Thompson (on table) – Monique Crippen-Hopkins FINAL

11. Jasper Thompson in a suit Montage FINAL

11.1 Jasper Thompson in a suit (Monique Crippen-Hopkins) FINAL

11.2 Jasper Thompson in a suit (line art of flag) FINAL

11.3 Jasper Thompson in a suit (entire source page – line art of flag) FINAL

CREDIT:

Line art of American flag – Miller, Francis Trevelyan. (1912). “The photographic history of the civil war in ten volumes.” Vol. 2. Internet Archives archive.org p. 26.

12. TITLE September 6, 1906 FINAL

13. We only know from oral history (Monique) FINAL

14. That his horse brought him home Montage FINAL

14.1 That his horse brought him home (Biscoe entire image) FINAL

14.2 That his horse brought him home (Monique Crippen Hopkins Family historian) FINAL

CREDIT:

Title: Charles Town, Near View Looking Northeast ID No.: 028078
West Virginia & Regional History Center. Date: 1884/08/01. Description: Gen. no. 120, neg. by Biscoe, Thomas, and Walter. No. 49. Date 1884, August 1. 5:45 P.M. wvhistoryonview.org 9 October 2010 Web. 20 June 2016.

15. Augustine Avenue, Charles Town, WV 2016 – by Jim Surkamp FINAL


CHAPTER 2: Prospect Hill & 3 Brothers Washington: Click Here https://civilwarscholars.com/uncategorized/chapter-2-prospect-hill-and-three-brothers-washington-by-jim-surkamp/

CHAPTER 2 – Prospect Hill and Three Brothers Washington by Jim Surkamp.

932 words.

TRT: 3:42 Video link: https://youtu.be/KSXoj0c5My4#t=3m19s

https://web.archive.org/web/20190612203644/https://civilwarscholars.com/2017/09/chapter-2-prospect-hill-three-brothers-washington-by-jim-surkamp/

FLICKR 19 images
https://www.flickr.com/photos/jimsurkamp/albums/72157686233129471

With support from American Public University System (apus.edu). The sentiments expressed do not in any way reflect modern-day policies of APUS, and are intended to encourage fact-based exchange for a better understanding of our nation’s foundational values.

VIDEO VERSION 2 WITH VOICE TRACK, CLOSED CAPTIONING & MODIFIED CONTENT – START: 3:56

BEGIN CHAPTER 2 – PROSPECT HILL & THREE BROTHERS WASHINGTON

Many of The Thompsons worked for the last three Washingtons who owned Mt. Vernon, who also had “a personal home” in Jefferson County.

The handed-down family’s records of Monique Crippen-Hopkins state: “The Thompsons were all slaves of the Washingtons down to Jasper Thompson.”

Most of the time they worked at enhancing the lands and homes of the Washington family members at their homes in Jefferson County.

Many of the Thompsons worked in the beginning on the Jefferson County lands of just one of three brothers of Corbin and Hannah Lee Washington – Richard Henry Lee Washington

The will of John Augustine, their grandfather, set out that his 2720 acre property in today’s Jefferson County would be divided among his three grandsons incrementally as each one turned twenty-one. They were born a year apart.

Richard Henry Lee Washington, whose then deceased mother was the daughter of Richard Henry Lee, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, turned twenty-one in 1809, triggering the division of his estate the following year by John Washington’s surviving widow Hannah Bushrod Washington.

References:

Monique Crippen–Hopkins

Galtcho Geertsema

John Augustine Washington

Jefferson County Clerk:
Plat of the partition and division of lands of Hannah Washington, deceased, showing the redivision of Parcel #2 containting respectively 892 acres and 942 acres. Jefferson County Clerk, Deed Room, Charles Town, WV.
documents.jeffersoncountywv.org 10 October 2014 Web. 20 October 2016.

Plat number 28 Deed Book 11, Page 30 August 13, 1818
Plat of the partition and division of the lands of Richard H. L. Washington, Lot #1, 324 acres, conveyed to Bushrod Washington; Lot #2, 286 acres, conveyed to Herbert, and, Lot #3, 274 acres, conveyed to John A. Washington.
Jefferson County Clerk, Deed Room, Charles Town, WV.
documents.jeffersoncountywv.org 10 October 2014 Web. 20 October 2016.

Solomon Thompson, Jr. Thompson Collection
University of Kansas Libraries
Thompson Family Collection, Kansas Collection, RH MS 510, Kenneth Spencer Research Library, University of Kansas Libraries
etext.ku.edu 12 January 2010 Web. 20 December 2016.

Blakeley
Wayland, John W. (1944). “The Washingtons and their Homes.” McClure Printing Company: Staunton, VA. hathitrust.org 26 August 2015 Web. 20 September 2016. p. 226.

Image Credits: (includes images in sequence from the video)

1. Image Credits 2: FINAL
2. Prospect Hill & Three Brothers Washington FINAL
3. Music by Cam Millar FINAL

4. The Thompsons were all slaves of the Washingtons down to Jasper Thompson, who died in 1906. FINAL

5. Mostly they worked at the farms of three brothers from 1810 to 1844, when Jasper was born. FINAL

6. The three brothers were the children of Corbin, George Washington’s nephew, and Hannah Bushrod Washington. FINAL

7. They were John Augustine, Bushrod Corbin and Richard Henry Lee Washington. FINAL

8. The three brothers each began building an adjacent home in today’s Jefferson county, called Blakeley, Claymont, and Prospect Hill, respectively. FINAL

9. Jasper’s father – Solomon Thompson (Monique) FINAL

10. I actually have a picture of Solomon. (Solomon) FINAL

CREDIT
Solomon Thompson Sr. – Monique Crippen-Hopkins

11. The handed-down family’s records of Monique Crippen-Hopkins state: “The Thompsons were all slaves of the Washingtons down to Jasper Thompson.” (records) FINAL

CREDIT
Solomon Thompson, Jr. Thompson Collection
University of Kansas Libraries
Thompson Family Collection, Kansas Collection, RH MS 510, Kenneth Spencer Research Library, University of Kansas Libraries
etext.ku.edu 12 January 2010 Web. 20 December 2016.

12. Most of the time they worked at enhancing the lands and homes of the Washington family members at their homes in Jefferson County. FINAL

CREDIT

Life of George Washington by Junius Stearns loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 20 September 2016.

13. TITLE Many of The Thompsons worked for the last three Washingtons who owned Mt. Vernon, who also had “a personal home” in Jefferson County. (Steptoe) FINAL

CREDIT
Tom Steptoe

14. John Augustine Washington 1736-1787 FINAL
findagrave.com 2 December 1998 Web. 13 December 2011.

15. TITLE When John Augustine, the father, died in 1787, he left his 2720 acre land called Prospect Hill to his wife, Hannah Bushrod Washington. FINAL

16. TITLE In 1810 Hannah Bushrod divided up the land three ways and the eldest brother, Richard, settled his portion, still called Prospect Hill. FINAL

17. Parcels combining to be the 2720-acre estate called Prospect Hill FINAL

CREDIT:
Galtcho Geertsema, Google Maps

18. Richard Henry Lee, father to Richard Henry Lee Washington’s mother FINAL

CREDIT

The official portrait of Supreme Court Justice Bushrod Washington(1762-1829)
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 1 October 2016. Photo taken by Billy Hathon 7-29-2011

19. Hannah Bushrod Washington’s Division of Estates of 2720-acre Prospect Hill Deed Book 6, pp. 292-293 Feb.12 1810 Jefferson County Clerk FINAL

CREDIT:

Plat number 12 Deed Book 6, Page 292 February 13, 1810
Plat of the partition and division of lands of Hannah Washington, deceased, showing the redivision of Parcel #2 containting respectively 892 acres and 942 acres. Jefferson County Clerk, Deed Room, Charles Town, WV.
documents.jeffersoncountywv.org 10 October 2014 Web. 20 October 2016.

20. Hannah Bushrod Washington 1738-1801 FINAL

CREDIT

Wayland, John, The Washingtons and Their Homes.
babel.hathitrust.org 26 August 2015 Web. 20 September 2016. p. 112.

Hannah Bushrod Washington
geni.com 30 November 2013 Web. 1 October 2016. Managed by: Holly Dianne Faulkner

21. Richard Henry Lee Washington’s original 885 acres taken from the 2720 acre Prospect Hill when he reached maturity. FINAL

CREDIT:

silhouette of young man “Richard Henry Lee Washington” (semblance only)
1335 Studio of John Miers – early 1800s
Unknown man
Silhouette painted on plaster
Early 1800s
Trade Label No. 11
Painted by John Field. The plaster slab has been cut to fit the frame, which is not original.
profilesofthepast.org.uk 22 August 2013 Web. 20 December 2016.

Plat number 28 Deed Book 11, Page 30 August 13, 1818
Plat of the partition and division of the lands of Richard H. L. Washington, Lot #1, 324 acres, conveyed to Bushrod Washington; Lot #2, 286 acres, conveyed to Herbert, and, Lot #3, 274 acres, conveyed to John A. Washington.
Jefferson County Clerk, Deed Room, Charles Town, WV.
documents.jeffersoncountywv.org 10 October 2014 Web. 20 October 2016.

Chapter 3: Click Here https://civilwarscholars.com/uncategorized/chapter-3-jasper-thompsons-earliest-ancestors-by-jim-surkamp/

CHAPTER 3 – Jasper Thompson’s Earliest Ancestors by Jim Surkamp.

1535 words.

STORY 3 – JASPER THOMPSON’S EARLIEST ANCESTORS

Video link within the longer video
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LJpJeIwFMw#t=6m22s

FLICKR 41 images
https://www.flickr.com/photos/jimsurkamp/albums/72157686989491454

https://web.archive.org/web/20190612203644/https://civilwarscholars.com/2017/09/chapter-3-jasper-thompsons-earliest-ancestors-by-jim-surkamp/

With support from American Public University System (apus.edu). The sentiments expressed do not in any way reflect modern-day policies of APUS, and are intended to encourage fact-based exchange for a better understanding of our nation’s foundational values.

Jasper Thompson’s Destiny Day September 6, 1906 by Monique Crippen-Hopkins and Jim Surkamp TRT: 2:53:14 (in 25 chapters)
Video link: https://youtu.be/4LJpJeIwFMw

BEGIN CHAPTER 3 of 25 CHAPTERS – JASPER THOMPSON’S EARLIEST ANCESTORS

Jasper’s father, Solomon was but an infant in 1810. But there was also Fortune, Jasper’s grandfather, who was the gardener on the farm. There was Haney Richardson who with Fortune had and raised eight children along with Solomon.

Prospect Hill also benefitted from the contributions of Haney Richardson-Thompson’s parents at that same time – Boson (or “Boatswain”) and Hannah Richardson.((great-grandmother of Jasper Thompson)

And Haney Richardson’s grandparents – Furrow Sr. and Penny Richardson – were there at Prospect Hill too in 1810. These Thompsons likely worked at Prospect Hill first.

Jasper Thompson’s paternal, great grandfather and Solomon Thompsons grandfather worked at nearby Bullskin Farm, first developed by George Washington. His name also was Jasper Thompson. His wife’s identity is unknown.

Jasper Thompson the elder was working for John and Elizabeth Ariss, he a famed architect, who rented since 1786 from George Washington his Bullskin plantation, where they built a fine home, and also with the help of Jasper farmed another 700 acre parcel also rented from George.

Descendants of Jasper Thompson the elder were still enslaved by law because even though he was emancipated in 1813 by Elizabeth Ariss, the mother of his children, had not been. Her increase by the law then, remained enslaved.

Jasper Thompson – emancipated by name May 24, 1813 – “and all his increase,” but descendants Fortune and Solomon and the family were enslaved again.
Tradition followed in Virginia at that time that the increase would assume the status of the mother, not the father.

The wife of this earlier Jasper Thompsons is not known to Monique Crippen-Hopkins or the family, and this woman could have remained enslaved.

References:

1. Monique Crippen Hopkins genealogybreakingdownthewalls.blogspot.com 13 December 2013 Web. 20 January 2017.

2. Solomon Thompson, Jr. Thompson Collection
University of Kansas Libraries
Thompson Family Collection, Kansas Collection, RH MS 510, Kenneth Spencer Research Library, University of Kansas Libraries
etext.ku.edu 12 January 2010 Web. 20 December 2016.

3. email November 1, 2016 – to Jim Surkamp from John C. Allen, architectural historian, author of “Uncommon Vernacular” :

Ariss moves to Fauquier County in around 1765. Around 1768 he moves to Frederick (soon to be Berkeley).

Here’s where Ariss was living before moving to Rock Hall:
1772 Court order for Warner Washington and others to
inspect “road from flat rock by Mr. Thurston’s by
the head of Kate’s spring, into the road leading to the
bloomery below Mr. Ariss’s…” ((Is this Prospect
Hill?))

This is the Rock Hall lease. The portion of the farm that is where the stone building and house ruins are.

1786 March 13 – GW executes lease for 700 acres “on the
waters of the Bullskin” to “last for the lives of John
Airess and his present wife Elisabeth Ariss for L 60
per year.”

Standard lease printed format except that GW adds in
hand “withon 5 years of this indenture will Build if it’s
not already done a good Dwelling House at least
thirty by forty feet with brick or stone chimneys…”
GW’s other Bullskin leases were required to build
houses of 16 x 16 feet

Battaile Muse account book Jan 17 1786

Ariss must have built a fine house on GW’s land as the tax assessment in the Special House tax of 1798 states:
1798 1798 House Tax – John Ariss listed as a tenant of Gen.
George Washington in a house valued at $1,050, a
high value for the area. Harewood valued at $1,250

1798 1798 Slave Tax – John Ariss listed as overseer for
Thornton Washington Heirs

End of email from John C. Allen

4. Jefferson County, Wv Clerk:

Plat of the partition and division of lands of Hannah Washington, deceased, showing the redivision of Parcel #2 containting respectively 892 acres and 942 acres. Jefferson County Clerk, Deed Room, Charles Town, WV.
documents.jeffersoncountywv.org 10 October 2014 Web. 20 October 2016.

Plat number 28 Deed Book 11, Page 30 August 13, 1818
Plat of the partition and division of the lands of Richard H. L. Washington, Lot #1, 324 acres, conveyed to Bushrod Washington; Lot #2, 286 acres, conveyed to Herbert, and, Lot #3, 274 acres, conveyed to John A. Washington.
Jefferson County Clerk, Deed Room, Charles Town, WV.
documents.jeffersoncountywv.org 10 October 2014 Web. 20 October 2016.

Freedom Deed May 24, 1813 Deed Book 7, Page 484 Elizabeth Ariss
Jefferson County Clerk, Deed Room, Charles Town, WV.
documents.jeffersoncountywv.org 10 October 2014 Web. 20 October 2016.

Image Credits:

BEGIN CHAPTER 3 – JASPER’S THOMPSON’s EARLIEST ANCESTORS

1. Image Credits 3: FINAL
2. Jasper Thompson’s Earliest Ancestors FINAL
3. Banjo by Shana Aisenberg FINAL

4. From-genealogybreakingdownthewalls.blogspot.com Montage FINAL

CREDIT:

Monique Crippen Hopkins genealogybreakingdownthewalls.blogspot.com 13 December 2013 Web. 20 January 2017

5. Jasper’s father, Solomon was but an infant in 1810. But FINAL

CREDIT:

“Babywearing”…The African Trend That Made The Runways
anethnicnurse.com 15 September 2015 Web. 20 December 2016.

6. there was also Fortune, Jasper’s grandfather, FINAL

6.1 TITLE Hannah B. Washington division of estates FINAL

CREDIT:

Hannah B. Washington – division of estates – Deed Book 5 Page 353 – February 13, 1810 – Jefferson County Clerk.

7. who was the gardener on the farm – Fortune – Jasper’s gfather semblance only. FINAL

7.1 who was the gardener on the farm – Fortune – Jasper’s gfather semblance only. (Credit) FINAL

CREDIT:

Washington at Mount Vernon, 1797, Nathaniel Currier, 1852
Courtesy of the Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association
nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/fireandfreedom/exhibition2 5 January 2017 Web 20 January 2017

8. There was Haney Richardson (Credit) FINAL

CREDIT:

Solomon Thompson, Jr. Thompson Collection
University of Kansas Libraries
Thompson Family Collection, Kansas Collection, RH MS 510, Kenneth Spencer Research Library, University of Kansas Libraries
etext.ku.edu 12 January 2010 Web. 20 December 2016.

9. who with Fortune had and raised eight children along with Solomon. (Haney Richardson semblance) FINAL

CREDIT:

David Hunter Strother
“Betsey Sweet” April 11, 1856
images.lib.wvu.edu 22 September 2004 Web. 10 February 2017.

10. Prospect Hill also benefitted from the contributions of Haney Richardson-Thompson’s (farm scene most image) FINAL

10.1 Prospect Hill also benefitted from the contributions of Haney Richardson-Thompson’s (farm scene-Credit) FINAL

CREDIT:

Junius Stearns Washington as a Farmer at Mount Vernon
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 20 December 2016.

11. parents at that same time – (Thompson Family Tree underlined) FINAL

CREDIT:

Solomon Thompson, Jr. Thompson Collection
University of Kansas Libraries
Thompson Family Collection, Kansas Collection, RH MS 510, Kenneth Spencer Research Library, University of Kansas Libraries
etext.ku.edu 12 January 2010 Web. 20 December 2016.

12. Boson (or “Boatswain”) (detail Tanner painting) FINAL

12.1 Boson (or “Boatswain”) (full Tanner painting) FINAL

CREDIT:

Henry Ossawa Tanner
The Banjo Lesson
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 20 December 2016.

13. and Hannah Richardson.(great-grandmother of Jasper Thompson) FINAL

13.1 and Hannah Richardson.(entire John Rose painting) FINAL

CREDIT:

Miss Breme Jones
Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Museum,
Colonial Williamsburg 22 February 1997 Web. 20 January 2017

14. Music by Shana Aisenberg FINAL

15. And Haney Richardson’s grandparents (Montage family records) FINAL

16. Furrow Sr. and Penny Richardson – were there at Prospect Hill too in 1810.(Credits) FINAL

CREDIT:

Jefferson County Clerk;
Solomon Thompson, Jr. – Thompson Collection – University of Kansas Libraries

17. Furrow Sr. and Penny Richardson were there at Prospect Hill too in 1810.(Mount detail) FINAL

17.1 Furrow Sr. and Penny Richardson were there at Prospect Hill too in 1810.(Mount entire painting) FINAL

CREDIT:

William Sidney Mount
The Power of Music
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 20 December 2016.

18. Furrow Sr. and Penny Richardson were there at Prospect Hill too in 1810. (Crowe painting Credit) FINAL

18.1 Furrow Sr. and Penny Richardson were there at Prospect Hill too in 1810. (Penny Furrow Jasper’s great great grandmother) (detail from above Crowe painting) FINAL

CREDIT:

Enslaved Waiting for Sale by Eyre Crowe
blog.encyclopediavirginia.org 30 March 2008 Web. 20 January 2017.

19. These Thompsons likely worked at Prospect Hill first. (plat) FINAL

CREDIT:

Deed Book 11, Page 30, Aug. 13, 1818, Jefferson County Clerk

20. but for Jasper Thompson’s great grandfather, father of Fortune and (Darley surveying) FINAL

20.1 but for Jasper Thompson’s great grandfather, father of Fortune and (African-American man in painting) FINAL

CREDIT:

Barbara Lombardi
A drawing of Washington as a young surveyor. history.org 22 February 1997 Web. 20 January 2017

GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799). First President of the United States. Young George Washington as a surveyor on the American frontier. Steel engraving, 19th century, after Felix O.C. Darley. by Granger

21. grandfather of Solomon Sr. – who lived at another nearby Washington home, FINAL

CREDIT

Image of Solomon Thompson Sr – Monique Crippen-Hopkins

22. TITLE: Jasper Thompson’s paternal, great grandfather and Solomon Thompson’s grandfather worked at nearby Bullskin Farm, first developed by George Washington. His name also was Jasper Thompson. His wife’s identity is unknown.

23. bought and developed by George Washington since the early 1750s. (Bullskin Farm) FINAL

CREDIT:
Jim Surkamp

24. Jasper’s great grandfather was also “Jasper Thompson” (Rubens) FINAL

24.1 Jasper’s great grandfather was also “Jasper Thompson” (entire painting Rubens) FINAL

CREDIT:

Four Studies of the Head of a Negro
Peter Paul Rubens – Date unknown
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 20 December 2016.

25. TITLE: Jasper Thompson the elder was working for John and Elizabeth Ariss, he a famed architect, who rented since 1786 from George Washington his Bullskin plantation, where they built a fine home, and also with the help of Jasper farmed another 700 acre parcel also rented from George. FINAL

26. (Correct “Ariss”) FINAL

26.1 Solomon Thompson Jr. Paper regarding Jasper Thompson the elder FINAL

CREDIT:
Solomon Thompson, Jr. – Thompson Collection – University of Kansas Libraries

27. TITLE Descendants of Jasper Thompson the elder were still enslaved by law because even though he was emancipated in 1813 by Elizabeth Ariss, the mother of his children, had not been. Her increase by the law then, remained enslaved. FINAL

28. Jasper Thompson – emancipated by name May 24, 1813 – “and all his increase,” FINAL

CREDIT:
Freedom Deed May 24, 1813 Deed Book 7, Page 484 Elizabeth Ariss- Jefferson County Clerk

29. babe again FINAL
The wife of this earlier Jasper Thompsons is not known to Monique Crippen-Hopkins or the family, and this woman could have remained enslaved.

CREDIT:

“Babywearing”…The African Trend That Made The Runways
anethnicnurse.com 15 September 2015 Web. 20 December 2016.

Chapter 4 Click Here https://civilwarscholars.com/uncategorized/chapter-4-3-washington-households-in-jefferson-county-1820-forward-by-jim-surkamp/

CHAPTER 4: 3 Washington Households in Jefferson County 1820 Forward by Jim Surkamp.

637 words.

STORY 4 – 3 WASHINGTON FAMILIES HERE – 1820 (begins at 8:53 within the longer video shown below) Video link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LJpJeIwFMw#t=8m53s

FLICKR 14 images
https://www.flickr.com/photos/jimsurkamp/albums/72157686989250464

https://web.archive.org/web/20190612214310/https://civilwarscholars.com/2017/09/chapter-4-3-washington-households-in-jefferson-county-1820-forward-by-jim-surkamp/

With support from American Public University System (apus.edu). The sentiments expressed do not in any way reflect modern-day policies of APUS, and are intended to encourage fact-based exchange for a better understanding of our nation’s foundational values.

Jasper Thompson’s Destiny Day September 6, 1906 by Monique Crippen-Hopkins and Jim Surkamp TRT: 2:53:14 (in 25 chapters) Video link: https://youtu.be/4LJpJeIwFMw

BEGIN CHAPTER 4 OF THE 25 CHAPTERS OR STORIES WITHIN THE ABOVE, LONGER VIDEO – THREE WASHINGTON HOUSEHOLDS

Many of the Thompsons worked first at Prospect Hill. But when young Richard Henry Lee Washington, the owner of the 885 acre parcel, with its little main house, died a young bachelor, the 885 acres was divided three ways.

His property was divided among his sister and two brothers. But we do have a little, printed invitation to one of the Fairfaxes to come to a party at Prospect Hill. It was a dancing party and it was called for twelve noon and since the house was diminutive, they must have danced outdoors on the lawn. – John A. Washington

It appears that, with the division of the remaining Prospect Hill, Solomon Thompson, who was about eight years old then, became a part of John A. & Jane Charlotte Washington’s household and farm at Blakeley.

References:

Monique Crippen-Hopkins My Journey: Breaking down the walls
genealogybreakingdownthewalls.blogspot.com 13 December 2013 Web. 20 January 2017.

Galtcho Geertsema – surveyor and compiler of near complete records of land transactions in the eastern Panhandle prior to 1800.

The Washingtons of Jefferson County
By John Augustine Washington, Family Historian, Interview August 3, 2001.
justjefferson.com 21 March 2004 Web. 20 January 2017

Wayland, John W. (1944). “The Washingtons and their Homes.” McClure Printing Company: Staunton, VA. hathitrust.org 26 August 2015 Web. 20 September 2016. p. 226.
https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=wu.89062493457;view=1up;seq=250226

Image Credits:

1. Image Credits 4 FINAL
2. 3 Washington Households in Jefferson County 1820 Forward FINAL
3. Forked Deer on Mandolin by Shana Aisenberg FINAL

4. TITLE: Many of the Thompsons worked first at Prospect Hill. But when young Richard Henry Lee Washington, the owner of the 885 acre parcel, with its little main house, died a young bachelor, the 885 acres was divided three ways. FINAL

5. Family Historian John A. Washington FINAL

CREDIT:
Jim Surkamp

6. TITLE: His property was divided among his sister and two brothers. But we do have a little, printed invitation to one of the Fairfaxes to come to a party at Prospect Hill. It was a dancing party and it was called for twelve noon and since the house was diminutive, they must have danced outdoors on the lawn. – John A. Washington FINAL

7. Richard Henry Lee Washington (semblance only) FINAL

CREDIT:

Full Dress of a Gentleman, 1810. @Costume Institute of Fashion Plates, Met Museum
janeaustensworld.wordpress.com 7 September 2007 Web. 20 December 2016.
home page.

8. John A. Washington and plat of Richard Henry Lee Washington’s lands FINAL

CREDIT:
Jim Surkamp

Plat number 28 Deed Book 11, Page 30 August 13, 1818
Plat of the partition and division of the lands of Richard H. L. Washington, Lot #1, 324 acres, conveyed to Bushrod Washington; Lot #2, 286 acres, conveyed to Herbert, and, Lot #3, 274 acres, conveyed to John A. Washington.
Jefferson County Clerk, Deed Room, Charles Town, WV.
documents.jeffersoncountywv.org 10 October 2014 Web. 20 October 2016.

9. TITLE: It was a dancing party and it was called for twelve noon and since the house was diminutive, they must have danced outdoors on the lawn. – John A. Washington FINAL

CREDIT:

quadrille_Prospect Hill
Members of the “Ton” dancing the Quadrille at Almack’s including, second from left, Sarah Villiers, Lady Jersey (1813)
Jane Austen Society of North America
jasna.org 11 November 1998 Web. 20 December 2016.

10. TITLE: It appears that, with the division of the remaining Prospect Hill, Solomon Thompson, who was about eight years old then, became a part of John A. & Jane Charlotte Washington’s household and farm at Blakeley. FINAL

11. Solomon Thompson FINAL

CREDIT

Monique Crippen-Hopkins

12. The Thompsons & The Washingtons Montage FINAL

CREDIT:

Wayland, John W. (1944). “The Washingtons and their Homes.” McClure Printing Company: Staunton, VA. hathitrust.org 26 August 2015 Web. 20 September 2016. p. 226.

13. Blakeley Farm parcels FINAL

CREDIT:

Galtcho Geertsema

14. Farming at Blakeley FINAL

CREDIT:

Life of George Washington by Junius Stearns loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 20 September 2016.

Chapter 5 Click Here https://civilwarscholars.com/uncategorized/chapter-5-who-all-owned-mount-vernon-the-adults-by-jim-surkamp/

CHAPTER 5 – Who “All” Owned Mount Vernon (the adults) by Jim Surkamp.

610 words.

STORY OR CHAPTER 5 – “WHO ALL” OWNED MOUNT VERNON? (VIDEO BEGINS AT 10:22 IN THE MUCH LONGER VIDEO SHOWN BELOW)
Video link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LJpJeIwFMw#t=10m22s

FLICKR 18 images
https://www.flickr.com/photos/jimsurkamp/albums/72157689467002275

https://web.archive.org/web/20190612210935/https://civilwarscholars.com/2017/09/chapter-5-who-all-owned-mt-vernon-the-adults-by-jim-surkamp/

With support from American Public University System (apus.edu). The sentiments expressed do not in any way reflect modern-day policies of APUS, and are intended to encourage fact-based exchange for a better understanding of our nation’s foundational values.

BEGIN CHAPTER 5 (OF 25 CHAPTERS OR STORIES) – WHO ALL OWNED MT. VERNON

Six adult family members owned Mount Vernon after Lawrence Washington.

One or all of these last three also lived from about 1820 through the mid 1850s at Blakeley in Jefferson County.

After the death in 1752 of its owner, Lawrence Washington 7:43 The Mount Vernon mansion had six adult owners up to its sale in 1858:
Anne Washington (1728-1761)
George Washington owned it from 1761 to 1799
Mount Vernon’s last 3 owners . . .
Made Blakeley their “personal” home
John Augustine Washington II owned 1829-1832
Jane Charlotte Washington 9:22 Owned until 1855
Jane Charlotte’s son John owned till 1858.

References:

The Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association
mountvernon.org 11 November 1996 Web. 20 October 2016.

Image Credits: (includes images in sequence from the video)

1. Image Credits 5: FINAL
2. Who All Owned Mt. Vernon (the adults) FINAL
3. Shana Aisenberg on Mandolin Playing “Lorena” FINAL

4. Mount Vernon Edward Savage FINAL

CREDIT:

The East Front of Mount Vernon attributed to Edward Savage (American, 1761 – 1817), c. 1787-1792, oil on canvas, H-2445/A, Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association, Bequest of Helen W. Thompson.
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 20 October 2016.

5. After the death in 1752 of its owner, Lawrence Washington FINAL

CREDIT:

Lawrence Washington – (Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association)
It is possible the portrait was painted by Gustavus Hesselius, an itinerant painter working out of Annapolis, Maryland.
mountvernon.org 11 November 1996 Web. 1 October 2016.

6. Lawrence’s Daughter Anne Washington inherited Mt. Vernon FINAL

CREDIT:

Anne Fairfax Washington Lee (widow of Lawrence) (1728-1761)
Anne Fairfax as a Shepherdess by Philippe Mercier. Date painted- c.1750 Oil on canvas, 124 x 100 cm Collection: Fairfax House No. 27, Castlegate, York, England
geni.com 30 November 2013 Web. 1 October 2016. Managed by: Holly Dianne Faulkner.

7. George Washington owned it from 1761 to 1799 FINAL

7.1 George Washington owned it from 1761 to 1799 (Mignot) FINAL

CREDIT:

Washington and Lafayette at Mount Vernon, 1784 (also known as The Home of Washington after the War)- Louis Remy Mignot – 1859. Owner/Location: Metropolitan Museum of Art – New York, NY (United States – New York) Dates: 1859. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Washington_and_Lafayette_at_Mount_Vernon,_1784_by_Rossiter_and_Mignot,_1859.jpg

8. George Washington’s nephew Bushrod Washington FINAL

8.1 Owned until his 1829 death FINAL https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BushrodWashington.jpg

CREDIT:

The official portrait of Supreme Court Justice Bushrod Washington(1762-1829)
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 1 October 2016.

9. Mt. Vernon’s last three owners FINAL

9.1 Made Blakeley their “personal” home FINAL

CREDIT:

Google Maps

Wayland, John W. (1944). “The Washingtons and their Homes.” McClure Printing Company: Staunton, VA.
babel.hathitrust.org 26 August 2015 Web. 20 September 2016.
https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=wu.89062493457;view=1up;seq=136;size=75

10. John Augustine Washington owned 1829-1832 FINAL

CREDIT:

1335 Studio of John Miers – Unknown man – Silhouette painted on plaster – Early 1800s
Trade Label No. 11 – Painted by John Field. The plaster slab has been cut to fit the frame, which is not original.
profilesofthepast.org.uk 22 August 2013 Web. 20 December 2016.

11. Kitchen at Mount Vernon by Eastman Johnson – FINAL https://emuseum.mountvernon.org/objects/6118/kitchen-at-mount-vernon;jsessionid=3193DDA4257AB4F043CEF6B8341FF049

CREDIT:

Kitchen at Mount Vernon – Eastman Johnson – 1857 mountvernon.org Gift of Annie Burr Jennings, Vice Regent for Connecticut, 1937 Conservation courtesy of Mike and Patti Sipple

12. (Owner no. 6) Widow Jane Charlotte Blackburn Washington owned Mt. Vernon Montage FINAL

12.1 Owned until 1855 FINAL

CREDIT:

Jane Charlotte Washington – Jefferson County Historical Society Magazine – 2007

Image of page 1 of Jane Charlotte’s Washington’s Will
JCBW Will Book 14 Page 341 9/17/1855
wvgeohistory.org 5 October 2010 Web. 1 October 2016.

13. Old Mount Vernon by Eastman Johnson FINAL

CREDIT:

Eastman Johnson, The Old Mount Vernon, 1857, oil on board, M-4863, Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association, Purchased with funds courtesy of an anonymous donor and the Mount Vernon Licensing Fund, 2009

https://americanart.si.edu/exhibitions/humboldt/online/eastman-johnson-mount-vernon

14. Jane Charlotte’s son John Augustine, owned until 1858 (Owner No. 7) FINAL

CREDIT:

John Augustine Washington III (1821-1861)- Mount Vernon Ladies Association
mountvernon.org 11 November 1996 Web. 20 October 2016.

15. Jane Charlotte introduced her son and the nation to the idea of historic preservation FINAL

CREDIT:

Early view of Mansion ca. 1858 – N. S. Bennett
mountvernon.org 11 November 1996 Web. 20 October 2016.

Chapter or Story 6 Click Here https://civilwarscholars.com/uncategorized/chapter-6-blakeley-claymont-by-jim-surkamp/

CHAPTER 6 – Blakeley & Claymont by Jim Surkamp.

1345 words.

CHAPTER OR STORY 6 (OF 25 CHAPTERS IN THE LONGER VIDEO SHOWN BELOW) – BLAKELEY & CLAYMONT, BEGINNING AT ABOUT 13:18
Video link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LJpJeIwFMw#t=13m18s

FLICKR 42 images
https://www.flickr.com/photos/jimsurkamp/albums/72157686988987354

https://web.archive.org/web/20190612204456/https://civilwarscholars.com/2017/09/chapter-6-blakeley-claymont-by-jim-surkamp/

With support from American Public University System (apus.edu). The sentiments expressed do not in any way reflect modern-day policies of APUS, and are intended to encourage fact-based exchange for a better understanding of our nation’s foundational values.

BEGIN CHAPTER 6 of 25 CHAPTERS OR STORIES IN THE ABOVE, LONGER VIDEO – BLAKELEY & CLAYMONT

When Richard died unmarried in 1817, his acres went one-third to Blakeley (the second John A. Washington),

one third to Claymont (Bushrod Corbin Washington),

and one-third to his sister, Mary Lee Washington, who was the wife of a lawyer named Noblet Herbert.

Perhaps with this transfer of 274 acres of Richard Washington’s going to Blakeley some of the Thompsons of Prospect Hill also went over to help at this newly-minted 892-acre farm site of the future inheritors of Mt Vernon, John Augustine Washington II and his remarkable wife, Jane Charlotte Blackburn Washington. Buildings needed building and the womb of Mrs Washington was a busy place.

Jasper’s dad, Solomon, went to Blakeley where for the next fifty years he helped the homesteads prosper at Blakeley. Prospect Hill and Claymont.

Claymont, the massive home, built by the brother of John Augustine, Bushrod Corbin Washington faced Blakeley a short distance from across the Bullskin Run.

Bushrod conveniently had married his beloved Anna Maria Tomasina Blackburn Washington, Jane Charlotte’s sister.

The heart of an affectionate husband pays to her this tribute, that in all relations of her life her conduct was exemplary, and her character lovely and attractive. Her spirit by nature was amiable, ardent yet gentle. By the grace of her Redeemer.

SOLOMON WORKED CLAYMONT & BLAKELEY FARMS, BUT STILL HAD “PEOPLE” AT PROSPECT HILL

Two of Solomon’s siblings, Matilda and Richard, kept up residence at Prospect Hill until they died many years later, sharing the residence and work load from before, during and after the Civil War with the final Washington family owner Bushrod Washington Herbert, a peaceable insurance man who left the smallish main house, barn, a small graveyard and outbuildings of Prospect Hill to Matilda Thompson, provided she didn’t marry.

References:

Monique Crippen-Hopkins – “My Journey Breaking down the Walls.” genealogybreakingdownthewalls.blogspot.com 12 December 2013 Web. 20 January 2017.

Galtcho Geertsema – surveyor who ammassed all plats of Washington family property transactions through time in the eastern Panhandle and a complete re-transcription of all early deed transactions up to 1800.

Jane Charlotte Blackburn Washington
Birth: Aug. 23, 1786
Prince William County
Virginia, USA
Death: Sep. 6, 1855
Mount Vernon
Fairfax County
Virginia, USA
wife of John Augustine Washington

Family links:
Spouse:
John Augustine Washington (1789 – 1832)*

Children:
Anna Maria Thomasina Blackburn Washington Alexander (1817 – 1850)*
George Washington (1818 – 1827)*
Christian Scott Washington (1820 – 1820)*
John Augustine Washington (1820 – 1861)*
John Augustine Washington (1821 – 1861)*
Richard Scott Blackburn Washington (1822 – 1910)*
findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. 20 January 2017.

Beeline chapter NSDAR. (1981). “Tombstone Inscriptions Jefferson County 1687-1980.” p. 379
Charles Town, Wv: HBP, Inc. p. 379.

Wayland, John W. (1944). “The Washingtons and their Homes.” McClure Printing Company: Staunton, VA. hathitrust.org 26 August 2015 Web. 20 September 2016. p. 226.

Image Credits:

1. Image Credits 6: FINAL
2. Blakeley & Claymont FINAL
3. Music by Cam Millar FINAL

4. When Richard died unmarried in 1817, his acres went one-third to Blakeley FINAL
CREDIT: Google Maps

5. (the home of the second John A. Washington), FINAL

5.1 (the home of the second John A. Washington) (close-up), FINAL

5.2 (the home of the second John A. Washington), (overall & Wayland image) FINAL

CREDIT: Galtcho Geertsema

6. one third to Claymont (Bushrod Corbin Washington’s) FINAL

CREDIT: ‘Claymont Court’, Jefferson County, W. Va.
Date: 1936. wvhistoryonview.org 9 October 2010 Web. 20 June 2016.

7. one third to Claymont (Bushrod Corbin Washington’s)(plat) FINAL

7.1 one third to Claymont (Bushrod Corbin Washington’s)(plat Claymont only) FINAL

CREDIT: Galtcho Geertsema

8. TITLE: The Thompsons were certainly among the ninety-some enslaved persons assisting in building and farming at Claymont from 1815-1820. FINAL

9. TITLE: But building Blakeley and making its lands and household productive for John and Jane Washington – who would own Mt. Vernon in about ten years – was primary. FINAL

9.1 But building Blakeley and making its lands and household productive for John and Jane Washington – who would own Mt. Vernon in about ten years – was primary. (Solomon, wheat field) FINAL

9.2 But building Blakeley and making its lands and household productive for John and Jane Washington – who would own Mt. Vernon in about ten years – was primary. (The Blakeley Washingtons) FINAL

CREDIT: Solomon Thompson, courtesy Monique Crippen Hopkins; Cutting hay with a scythe THE IOWA AGRICULTURIST
For the Farm, Garden & Household iowahist.uni.edu start date unavailable Web. 20 January 2017.

10. Buildings needed building (cutting timber) FINAL

CREDIT: Crayon, Porte (Strother, D. H.). “The Mountains – Pt. VII.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, Volume 46, Issue: 275, April, 1873, Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014. p. 680 – Delusive Industry

11. and the womb of Mrs. Washington was a busy place (Jane Charlotte) FINAL

11.1 and the womb of Mrs. Washington was a busy place (Jane Charlotte & children 1) FINAL

11.2 and the womb of Mrs. Washington was a busy place (Jane Charlotte & children 2) FINAL

CREDIT: (Anna Maria born 1817 – George 1818 – Christian 1820 – Augustine 1821 – Richard 1822) – Jane Charlotte Washington and her Family – from “Mrs. J.A.W.” courtesy Augustine and Patty Washington by John Gadsby Chapman The George Washington Masonic National Memorial Assoc.)

Jane Charlotte Blackburn Washington
Birth: Aug. 23, 1786
Prince William County
Virginia, USA
Death: Sep. 6, 1855
Mount Vernon
Fairfax County
Virginia, USA
wife of John Augustine Washington

Family links:
Spouse:
John Augustine Washington (1789 – 1832)*

Children:
Anna Maria Thomasina Blackburn Washington Alexander (1817 – 1850)*
George Washington (1818 – 1827)*
Christian Scott Washington (1820 – 1820)*
John Augustine Washington (1820 – 1861)*
John Augustine Washington (1821 – 1861)*
Richard Scott Blackburn Washington (1822 – 1910)*
findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. 20 January 2017.

Beeline chapter NSDAR. (1981). “Tombstone Inscriptions Jefferson County 1687-1980.” p. 279
Charles Town, Wv: HBP, Inc. p. 379.

12. Young Solomon, Jasper’s dad, helped the homesteads prosper.(Waterman painting) FINAL

12.1 Young Solomon, Jasper’s dad, helped the homesteads prosper.(Solomon Thompson’s written name) FINAL

CREDIT: Fresh Eggs by Thomas Waterman Wood the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 20 December 2016.

Appraisement, Inventory Thos B. Washington personal estate, Will Book 14, Page
140. wvgeohistory.org 5 October 2010 Web. 1 October 2016.
– Jefferson County Clerk

13. Banjo by Shana Aisenberg FINAL

14. Young Solomon, Jasper’s dad, helped the homesteads prosper.(Frank Leslie’s) FINAL

CREDIT: Title: Plowing in South Carolina / Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper Oct. 20, 1866 from a sketch by Jas. E. Taylor.
loc.gov 2 March 2000 Web.20 September 2016.

15. Claymont, the massive home, built by the brother of John Augustine FINAL

CREDIT: Claymont Court; 4 February 2007 (original upload date)
Author User:Sevenofnine7o9 – commons.wikimedia.org 24 June 2004 Web. 20 January 2017.

16. faced Blakeley across the Bullskin Run FINAL

CREDIT: potomacaudubon.org/Cool-Spring-Preserve 11 February 2017 Web. 17 February 2017.

17. TITLE: John Augustine’s brother, Bushrod Corbin, lived across the Bullskin with his bigger home facing John’s. Their wives were sisters. FINAL

CREDIT: Tombstone marker of Bushrod Corbin Washington at Zion Episcopal Church, Charles town, WV;

18. TITLE: Jane Charlotte Blackburn and Anna Maria Tomasina Blackburn married the two Washington brothers. FINAL

19. Rodney Jantzi Plays “When Swallows Homeward Fly” on a harmonium FINAL

20. Zion Episcopal Church FINAL

20.1 Zion Episcopal Churchyard FINAL

CREDIT: zionepiscopal.net 19 July 2008 Web. 20 January 2017.

21. Bushrod had conveniently married FINAL

CREDIT: Silhouette of a Southern Gentleman
by Samuel Metford, ca. 1840 williamsamericanart.com 23 February 2001 Web. 10 April 2017.

22. Anna Maria Tomasina Blackburn Washington (1790-1833) (semblance only) FINAL

CREDIT: Kennedy, John P. (1856). “Swallow barn; or, A sojourn in the Old Dominion.” revised edition. New York, NY: G. P. Putnam & Sons. Internet Archive. archive.org 26 January 1997 Web. 20 January 2014.
p. 39 – Semblance Anna Maria Tomasina Washington.

23. Her great great great grandmother (Betsy Wells) FINAL

23.1 Her great great great grandmother (Betsy Wells) FINAL

CREDIT: Jim Surkamp

23.2 The face of Anna Maria Tomasina Washington’s tombstone FINAL

24. Transcription from part of Anna Maria Tomasina Washington’s tombstone FINAL

25. TITLE: Solomon worked Claymont & Blakeley Farms, but still had “People” at Prospect Hill FINAL

26. Dinah – Portrait of a Negress by Eastman Johnson FINAL

CREDIT: Dinah, Portrait of a Negress Eastman Johnson – circa 1866-1869 Gibbes Museum of Art, Charleston, South Carolina, Gift of Kathleen Hammer and Arthur Seelbinder https://courses.bowdoin.edu/there-is-a-woman-in-every-color-2021/patterns-of-visibility/dinah-portrait-of-a-negress/

27. Matilda Thompson (1837-1909) Semblance only FINAL

28. J. P. Kennedy’s “Swallow Barn” p. 448 archive.org FINAL

29. Richard Thompson (1819-1922) Semblance only FINAL

CREDIT: Kennedy, John P. (1856). “Swallow barn; or, A sojourn in the Old Dominion.” revised edition. New York, NY: G. P. Putnam & Sons. Internet Archive. archive.org 26 January 1997 Web. 20 January 2014.
p. 448 – Semblance Richard Thompson.

30. TITLE: THE THOMPSONS LIVED FOR MANY YEARS AT PROSPECT HILL WITH BUSHROD WASHINGTON HERBERT, A DESCENDANT OF THE SISTER OF RICHARD HENRY LEE WASHINGTON. FINAL

31. TITLE: BUSHROD LEFT THE PROPERTY TO MATILDA WHEN HE DIED. WHEN THE INFIRM RICHARD DIED IN 1922 THE HOUSE, IN DISREPAIR, WAS TORN DOWN. FINAL

CREDIT: signature of Bushrod Washington Herbert, Deed Book 23, P. 419. Aug. 23, 1839 – Jefferson County Clerk.

Chapter or Story 7 Click Here https://civilwarscholars.com/uncategorized/chapter-7-grandmother-jane-by-jim-surkamp/

CHAPTER 8 – The Enslaved Person’s Byword by Jim Surkamp.

2688 words.

STORY 8 – THE ENSLAVED PERSON’s BYWORD WAS . . (FREEDOM – “GETTING CLEAR”)
TRT: 23:23 (BEGINS WITHIN THE MUCH LONGER VIDEO SHOWN BELOW)
Video link: https://www.youtube.comwatch?v=4LJpJeIwFMw#t=23m23s

https://web.archive.org/web/20190612210504/https://civilwarscholars.com/2017/09/chapter-8-the-enslaved-persons-byword-by-jim-surkamp/

FLICKR 61 images
https://www.flickr.com/photos/jimsurkamp/albums/72157686988512854

With support from American Public University System (apus.edu). The sentiments expressed do not in any way reflect modern-day policies of APUS, and are intended to encourage fact-based exchange for a better understanding of our nation’s foundational values.

BEGIN CHAPTER 8 OR STORY (OUT OF 25) – The Enslaved Person’s Byword by Jim Surkamp.

Owning other human beings for Grandma Jane was distressing.

The Enslaved person’s byword
You COULD escape north and NEVER wanted to be sold south.

Escaping from the enslavers was quite doable in Jefferson County before the Civil War.

You just had to get across at night the Shenandoah River with the help of Goins, a free African American ferry boat man taking people over to the famed Shannondale Springs resort, known as a hotbed of abolitionist leanings.

You started near to the resort at the freed African-American community called Bushy Ridge, then on to Chambersburg Pa. or on to Chatham Ontario – hiding by day and traveling especially on the moonless nights

In fact, in the months after the John Brown Raid in October, 1859, over six hundred enslaved persons DID escape from mostly the southeastern part of the County, according to the U.S Census Slave Schedules reported the following August in 1860. No other County in the area reported any such escapes in that year’s Census form. Even two of John Brown’s raiders, one Osborn Anderson wrote about taking successfully a similar route to Chambersburg.

The raid, one could surmise, panicked the enslavers here and many began hiring off their human property south or selling them South. Breaking up a family at auction, was an intense fear, something Jane Charlotte Washington would not do.

While these Mount Vernon Washingtons never repudiated slavery outright, much to the imagined dismay of their great and far-sighted ancestor, Jane Charlotte Washington and her two sisters regularly freed some people, tried to educate as many as possible and used all their influence and considerable resources to protect and keep families in tact.

References:

Anderson, Osborne. (1861). “A Voice from Harper’s Ferry: A Narrative of Events at Harper’s Ferry; with Incidents Prior and Subsequent to its Capture by Captain Brown and His Men.” Boston MA: self-published. https://archive.org/details/voicefromharpers01ande

Ellen Brooks – Annie Marmion (1959). Under Fire An Experience in the Civil War. edited and compiled by William Vincent Marmion Jr.

“The Underground Railroad from Slavery to Freedom” by Wilbur H. Siebert, The Macmillan Company, 1898. https://archive.org/details/cihm_13617/page/n7/mode/2up

Surkamp, Jim (2011). “POST: Free, Black Families in Jefferson County, Va. Towns” civilwarscholars.com 21 June 2011 Web 10 June 2017.

Surkamp, Jim (2011) “POST: 602 Enslaved Counted in 1860 as “Escaped.” (698 words). civilwarscholars.com 21 June 2011 Web 10 June 2017.

Thompson, Michael D. (1984). ”Calendar and Index to Recorded Survey Plats in Jefferson County, West Virginia (Virginia) Courthouse, 1801-1901.” Charles town, WV: Jefferson County Historical Society. p. 166.

United States. Bureau of the Census; United States. National Archives and Records Service. (1967). Population schedules of the eighth census of the United States, 1860, Virginia [microform] – Volume Reel 1392 – 1860 Virginia Federal Population Census Schedules Slave – Henrico, James City, Jefferson, Kanawha, King George, King and Queen, and King William Counties. Publisher Washington D.C.: Gov’t Printing Office. Jefferson county, Virginia. archive.org 26 January 1997 Web. 20 January 2014. p. 299 http://www.archive.org/stream/populationschedu1392unix#page/n298/mode/1up

Image Credits: (includes images from the video in sequence as they appear in the video)

1. Chapter 8: FINAL
2. The Enslaved Person’s Byword FINAL
3. Harmonica by Dave Hellyer FINAL

CREDIT: Drafting the Letter by Edward Lamson Henry – circa 1871 https://19thcenturyusapaint.blogspot.com/2012/06/edward-lamson-henry-ctd.html

5. Owning other human beings

CREDIT:
Edward Lamson Henry – circa 1871 https://19thcenturyusapaint.blogspot.com/2012/06/edward-lamson-henry-ctd.html

6. for Grandma Jane

CREDIT:
Edward Lamson Henry – circa 1871 https://19thcenturyusapaint.blogspot.com/2012/06/edward-lamson-henry-ctd.html

detail John Gadsby Chapman’s “Mrs. J.A.W.”
National Masonic Memorial

7. was

CREDIT:
Edward Lamson Henry – circa 1871 https://19thcenturyusapaint.blogspot.com/2012/06/edward-lamson-henry-ctd.htm

8. distressing

CREDIT: Edward Lamson Henry – circa 1871 https://19thcenturyusapaint.blogspot.com/2012/06/edward-lamson-henry-ctd.htm

9. TITLE ENSLAVEMENT

10. TITLE JEFFERSON COUNTY

11. In a field working

CREDIT: detail Washington as a Farmer at Mount Vernon Junius Brutus Stearns – 1851 https://archive.org/details/junius-brutus-stearns-george-washington-as-farmer-at-mount-vernon

12. Nicholas Roper

CREDIT: Nicholas O. Roper – courtesy Shelley Murphy

13. William Dotson

CREDIT: William Dotson – James Taylor and the Taylor Family

14. TITLE Ellen Brooks – Annie Marmion (1959). Under Fire An Experience in the Civil War. edited and compiled by William Vincent Marmion Jr.

14.1 Ellen Brooks

CREDIT: Ellen Brooks – Marmion, Annie P. (1959). “Under Fire: An Experience in the Civil War.” edited and compiled by William Vincent Marmion, Jr.

15. Dolly Thompson (Crippen-Hopkins)

CREDIT: Monique Crippen-Hopkins

16. Mary Goins

CREDIT: Mary Goins – courtesy DrShelley Murphy

17. Sukey Richardson

CREDIT: Sukey Richardson – Middleway Conservancy Association wvgeohistory.org

18. TITLE The enslaved person’s byword was

19. FREEDOM

CREDIT: A Ride for Freedom – The Fugitive Slaves Eastman Johnson – circa 1862 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Ride_for_Liberty_%E2%80%93_The_Fugitive_Slaves

20. You COULD escape north

CREDIT: A Ride for Freedom – The Fugitive Slaves Eastman Johnson – circa 1862 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Ride_for_Liberty_%E2%80%93_The_Fugitive_Slaves

21. and NEVER wanted to be sold south.

CREDIT: A Ride for Freedom – The Fugitive Slaves Eastman Johnson – circa 1862 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Ride_for_Liberty_%E2%80%93_The_Fugitive_Slaves

22. TITLE You escaped North by night with a freed ferry boatman – “Goins” or “Freeman” – across the Shenandoah River to Shannondale Springs, to nearby Bushy Ridge, then North.

22.1 You escaped North by night with a freed ferry boatman – “Goins” or “Freeman” – across the Shenandoah River to Shannondale Springs, to nearby Bushy Ridge, then North.

CREDIT: Apple Maps

22.2 You escaped North by night with a freed ferry boatman – “Goins” or “Freeman” – across the Shenandoah River to Shannondale Springs, to nearby Bushy Ridge, then North.

CREDIT: Map of Jefferson County, Virginia; Summary: Shows Jefferson County before the formation of West Virginia in 1863. Contributor Name: Brown, S. Howell.
Created / Published: [S.l., s.n.,] 1852. https://www.loc.gov/item/2005625308/

Shannondale Springs by Dr. William F. Theriault jeffersonhlc.org
http://jeffersoncountyhlc.org/index.php/history-of-shannondale-springs-by-william-d-theriault-ph-d/

22.3 You escaped North by night with a freed ferry boatman – “Goins” or “Freeman” – across the Shenandoah River to Shannondale Springs, to nearby Bushy Ridge, then North.

CREDIT: C. Burton, Charles. “Shannondale Springs, Virginia.”Engraved and printed by Fenner, Sears & Co. in London, September 1, 1831; drawing C. Burton, New York. National Register of Historic Places Nomination form wvculture.org p. 14 https://web.archive.org/web/20181024140108/http://www.wvculture.org/shpo/nr/pdf/jefferson/98000289.pdf

22.4 You escaped North by night with a freed ferry boatman – “Goins” or “Freeman” – across the Shenandoah River to Shannondale Springs, to nearby Bushy Ridge, then North.

CREDIT: Shannondale Springs by Dr. William F. Theriault jeffersonhlc.org
http://jeffersoncountyhlc.org/index.php/history-of-shannondale-springs-by-william-d-theriault-ph-d/

Jefferson County Museum, Charles Town, WV.

photo of Shannondale Springs ferry boatman circa 1894
civilwarscholars.com 9 June 2011 Web. 20 December 2016.

22.5 You escaped North by night with a freed ferry boatman – “Goins” or “Freeman” – across the Shenandoah River to Shannondale Springs, to nearby Bushy Ridge, then North.

Map 1860
Compiled from “The Underground Railroad from Slavery to Freedom” by Wilbur H. Siebert, The Macmillan Company, 1898.[1]
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 December 2016.

23. TITLE: Bushy Ridge was a stop on the Underground Railroad that led North to Chambersburg, Pennsylvania and was similar to the route taken by one of John Brown’s raiders, Osborn Anderson, who lived to write about his escape.

23.1 Bushy Ridge was a stop on the Underground Railroad that led North to Chambersburg, Pennsylvania and was similar to the route taken by one of John Brown’s raiders, Osborn Anderson, who lived to write about his escape.

Reference: Bushy Ridge Plats No.25, 380, 395
Thompson, Michael D. (1984). ”Calendar and Index to Recorded Survey Plats in Jefferson County, West Virginia (Virginia) Courthouse, 1801-1901.” Charles town, WV: Jefferson County Historical Society. p. 166.

CREDIT: Apple Maps

23.2 Bushy Ridge was a stop on the Underground Railroad that led North to Chambersburg, Pennsylvania and was similar to the route taken by one of John Brown’s raiders, Osborn Anderson, who lived to write about his escape.

CREDIT: Dismal Swamp by Thomas Moran wikipedia.org https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Slave_Hunt,_Dismal_Swamp,_Virginia_by_Thomas_Moran.JPG

24. TITLE After the John Brown raid, Shannondale Springs and Bushy Ridge helped some of 600 enslaved persons who escaped by the following August, 1860 Census. No adjacent Virginia counties reported any such escapes to the U.S. Census-taker at that same time.

24.1 In fact, in the months after the John Brown Raid in October, 1859, (NPS painting) FINAL

24.2 Bushy Ridge was a stop on the Underground Railroad that led North to Chambersburg, Pennsylvania and was similar to the route taken by one of John Brown’s raiders, Osborn Anderson, who lived to write about his escape.

CREDIT: Osborn Perry Anderson
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 1 October 2016.

24.3 After the John Brown Raid in Oct., 1859, Shannondale Springs and Bushy Ridge helped some of 600 enslaved persons who escaped by the following August, 1860 Census. No adjacent Virginia counties reported such great numbers in escapees as the number reported to the to the U.S. Census-taker in Jefferson County as of the summer of 1860.

CREDIT:

1860 Census – “Population schedules of the eighth census of the United States, 1860, Virginia [microform] (Volume Reel 1355 – 1860 Virginia Federal Population Census Schedules – James City and Jefferson Counties).” Beginning page Jefferson County.

United States. Bureau of the Census; United States. National Archives and Records Service. (1967). Population schedules of the eighth census of the United States, 1860, Virginia [microform] – Volume Reel 1392 – 1860 Virginia Federal Population Census Schedules Slave – Henrico, James City, Jefferson, Kanawha, King George, King and Queen, and King William Counties. Publisher Washington D.C.: Gov’t Printing Office. Jefferson county, Virginia. archive.org 26 January 1997 Web. 20 January 2014. p. 14.
http://www.archive.org/stream/populationschedu1392unix#page/n310/mode/1up

p. 15. http://www.archive.org/stream/populationschedu1392unix#page/n312/mode/1up

Cookus Page 16 Slave Schedule title column 6 fugitive
p. 16. http://www.archive.org/stream/populationschedu1392unix#page/n313/mode/1up
p. 19. http://www.archive.org/stream/populationschedu1392unix#page/n316/mode/1up

Free, Black Families in Jefferson County, Va. Towns
civilwarscholars.com 21 June 2011 Web 10 June 2017

25. No other County in the area reported escapes in such very high numbers in that year’s Census form.

CREDIT: Shenandoah Valley William Louis Sonntag, Sr. – 1859-1860 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Shenandoah_Valley_William_Louis_Sonntag.jpeg

26. TITLE: The raid, one could surmise, panicked the enslavers here and throughout the upper South persuading, them to treat those enslaved even more harshly. Many protected their “investment” by hiring or selling those enslaved to points in the Deep South.

26.1 The raid, one could surmise, panicked the enslavers here and throughout the upper South persuading, them to treat those enslaved even more harshly. Many protected their “investment” by hiring or selling those enslaved to points in the Deep South. (

CREDIT: detail Leisure and Labor
Frank Blackwell Mayer – 1858 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Frank_Blackwell_Mayer_-Leisure_and_Labor2014.136.111-_Corcoran_Gallery_of_Art.jpg

27. Voices – Alice Bort, Laura First, Ardyth Gilbertson FINAL

28. TITLE: Breaking up a family at auction, was an intense fear – something Jane Charlotte Washington would not do.

28.1 Breaking up a family at auction, was an intense fear .

CREDIT: “Slave Auction at Richmond, Virginia”
Eyre Crowe (1824-1910) Source: Illustrated London News. Date:
September 27, 1856 http://www.virginiamemory.com/online-exhibitions/exhibits/show/to-be-sold/item/406 

28.2 Breaking up a family at auction, was an intense fear.

CREDIT: Slaves Waiting for Sale by Eyre Crowe, an English painter who arrived in Richmond, March 1853,
blog.encyclopediavirginia.org 30 March 2008 Web. 20 January 2017.

28.3 something Jane Charlotte Washington would not do. (Homer – Visit from the Mistress) FINAL

CREDIT: A Visit from the Old Mistress
Winslow Homer – 1876
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 20 December 2016.

29. While these Mount Vernon-owning Washingtons never repudiated slavery outright, much to the imagined dismay of their great and far-sighted ancestor, Montage. (Blakeley Washingtons) FINAL

CREDIT: Montage: The Washington Family, Apple Maps, mountvernon.org

29.1 While these Mount Vernon owning Washingtons never repudiated slavery outright, much to the imagined dismay of their great and far sighted ancestor, (bust of Washington) FINAL

CREDIT: Jean-Antoine Houdon · Bust of George Washington
mountvernon.org 11 November 1996 Web. 1 October 2016.

30. Jane Charlotte Washington and her two sisters, Christian Blackburn and Anna Maria Blackburn Washington, regularly bought the freedom for some people, tried to educate as many as possible and used their influence to keep families in tact. FINAL

CREDIT: A Visit from the Old Mistress Winslow Homer – 1876
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 20 December 2016.

30.1 TITLE: Jane Charlotte Washington and her two sisters, Christian Blackburn and Anna Maria Blackburn Washington, regularly bought the freedom for some people, tried to educate as many as possible and used their influence to keep families in tact.

CREDIT: A Visit from the Old Mistress Winslow Homer – 1876
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 20 December 2016.

30.2 Jane Charlotte Washington and her two sisters, Christian Blackburn and Anna Maria Blackburn Washington, regularly bought the freedom for some people, tried to educate as many as possible and used their influence to keep families in tact. Montage (D.H. Strother Charley) FINAL

CREDIT: Crayon, Porte. (Strother, David H.) “Our Negro Schools” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 49 Issue 292 (September, 1874). pp. 457-468.
hathitrust.org p. 458 – Charley https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.31210014814410&view=1up&seq=472&q1=Charley

30.3 Jane Charlotte Washington and her two sisters, Christian Blackburn and Anna Maria Blackburn Washington, regularly bought the freedom for some people, tried to educate as many as possible and used their influence to keep families in tact.

CREDITS: John Gadsby Chapman – “Mrs. J.A.W.” – National Masonic Memorial; 1860 Census; Blakeley home – wikipedia.org

31. Jane Charlotte Washington and her two sisters, Christian Blackburn and Anna Maria Blackburn Washington, regularly bought the freedom for some people, tried to educate as many as possible and used their influence to keep families in tact.

CREDIT: Woman with a Cane William Aiken Walker – Date unknown https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:William_Aiken_Walker_-_A_woman_with_cane.jpg

33. Jane Charlotte Washington and her two sisters, Christian Blackburn and Anna Maria Blackburn Washington, regularly bought the freedom for some people, tried to educate as many as possible and used their influence to keep families in tact.

CREDIT: Title: Life of George Washington–The farmer / painted by Stearns ; lith. by Régnier, imp. Lemercier, Paris.
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 20 September 2016.

IMPORTANT: CLICK HERE (followed by CHAPTER OR STORY 9) https://civilwarscholars.com/uncategorized/important/

CHAPTER OR STORY 9 CLICK HERE https://civilwarscholars.com/uncategorized/chapter-9-george-johnson-gets-clear-by-jim-surkamp/

IMPORTANT:

Click Here to see and explore the original civilwarscholars.com website as it appeared under the auspices of American Public University System and created by Jim Surkamp

Posts were made regularly between June, 2011 thru May 29, 2021, totaling over one million words of sourced content with over 20,000 illustrations. The illustrations can also be found at Jim Surkamp’s location at Flickr as stories and also on the Jim Surkamp channel on youtube with over 500 videos.
Additions to the current site will be only occasional and not pursued as much because of a shift in interests of Jim Surkamp to a broader range of historical subjects. Enjoy – Jim

Intermission to VIDEO OF JASPER THOMPSON’s DESTINY DAY SEPTEMBER 6, 1906 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LJpJeIwFMw#t=27m28s

CHAPTER OR STORY 9 – CLICK HERE https://civilwarscholars.com/uncategorized/chapter-9-george-johnson-gets-clear-by-jim-surkamp/

CHAPTER 9 – GEORGE JOHNSON “GETS CLEAR” by Jim Surkamp.

5163 words

CHAPTER or STORY 9 – THE SOBER FACTS, BUT GEORGE JOHNSON “GETS CLEAR” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LJpJeIwFMw#t=25m06s

https://web.archive.org/web/20190612203021/https://civilwarscholars.com/2017/09/chapter-9-the-sober-facts-but-george-johnson-gets-clear-by-jim-surkamp/

FLICKR 58 images
https://www.flickr.com/photos/jimsurkamp/albums/72157688724464186

With support from American Public University System (apus.edu). The sentiments expressed do not in any way reflect modern-day policies of APUS, and are intended to encourage fact-based exchange for a better understanding of our nation’s foundational values.

Click Here and it will take you to the start of this story within the much longer story and video. START: 25:06 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LJpJeIwFMw#t=25m06s

THE DARKER SIDE SOME SAW:

But others in Jefferson County, like the enslaved George Johnson saw the darker side of slavery and and struck out for his freedom and Life.

The Negro Scipio by Paul Cézanne – 1867 Museu de Arte Moderna de São Paulo (Brazil – Sao Paulo)
the-athenaeum.org
D.H. Strother Harper’s New Monthly Magazine (August 1855) Title: Virginia Illustrated [pp. 289-311] hathitrust.org p. 289 – Tim Longbow

Records show that in the darker recesses of Jefferson County, cruelties were quietly administered by some.

Norman McDonald https://justjefferson.com/16Day.htm ; US Census 1860 Virginia Jefferson Shepherdstown Page 28 fold3.com https://www.fold3.com/image/75222890/?terms=robert%20Lucas
Tape recorded interview with Norman McDonald who descended from a grandmother who witnessed the acts. (justjefferson.com)

Col Robert Lucas having a horse stampeded, thereby dragging a returned runaway to his death whose foot was tied to the horse.

Report as a Nomination to have the Poor Farm (Snow Hill) put on the National Register of Historic Places.”
https://justjefferson.com/27daisy.htm
Reading the Scriptures by Thomas Waterman Wood – 1874 metmuseum.org

Or the old man at the poor farm on Leetown Road in the 1930s with but one hand, the other cut off by a half-mad overseer who thought it worthy punishment for – “lying.”

Tape recorded interview with Jim Surkamp describing her family history. (justjefferson.com)

Or Bertha Fox Jones’ recorded account of her ancestor, Mary Fox at the Bower who was last seen being whipped in an open wagon that drove away for refusing to be a brood woman.

The Dancing Lesson by Thomas Eakins – 1878 the-athenaeum.org
1862 Confederate Paper Money $100 Bill from Richmond, Virginia worldbanknotescoins.com
Drew Benjamin. (1856). “A North-side View of Slavery: The Refugee: Or, The Narratives of Fugitive Slaves in Canada” archive.org pp. 52-54 – George Johnson’s accounting

George Johnson who was raised in Harper’s Ferry and later escaped and established a home in Chatham, Ontario, wrote:

“I was raised near Harper’s Ferry. I was used as well as the people about there are used.

Strother, David Hunter; Baltimore 1845. (W1995.030.388pg18)
Home page of David Hunter Strother drawings at West Virginia University Library
web.archive.org

“My master used to pray in his family with the house servants, morning and evening. I attended these services until I was eighteen, when I was put out on the farm, and lived in a cabin.

The Pumpkin Patch by Winslow Homer – 1878 Arkell Museum in Canajoharie, New York
commons.wikimedia.org

“We were well supplied with food. We went to work at sunrise, and quit work between sundown and dark. Some were sold from my master’s farm, and many from the neighborhood. If a man did any thing out of the way, he was in more danger of being sold than of being whipped. The slaves were always afraid of being sold South. The Southern masters were believed to be much worse than those about us. I had a great wish for liberty when I was a boy. I always had it in my head to clear.”

African Tending a Horse by the Sea by Alfred de Dreux – Date unknown the-athenaeum.org

He went on:
“Whipping and slashing are bad enough, but selling children from their mothers and husbands from their wives is worse. At one time I wanted to marry a young woman, not on the same farm. I was then sent to Alabama, to one of my masters’ sons for two years. When the girl died, I was sent for to come back. I liked the work, the tending of cotton, better than the work on the farm in Virginia,–but there was so much whipping in Alabama, that I was glad to get back.”

References:

GEORGE JOHNSON – pp. 52-54.

I arrived in St. Catharine’s about two hours ago.
[April 17, 1855]

I was raised near Harper’s Ferry. I was used as well as the people about there are used. My master used to pray in his family with the house servants, morning and evening. I attended these services until I was eighteen, when I was put out on the farm, and lived in a cabin. We were well supplied with food. We went to work at sunrise, and quit work between sundown and dark. Some were sold from my master’s farm, and many from the neighborhood. If a man did any thing out of the way, he was in more danger of being sold than of being whipped. The slaves were always afraid of being sold South. The Southern masters were believed to be much worse than those about us. I had a great wish for liberty when I was a boy. I always had it in my head to clear. But I had a wife and children. However, my wife died last year of cholera, and then I determined not to remain in that country.
When my old master died, I fell to his son. I had no difficulty with him, but was influenced merely by a love of liberty. I felt disagreeably about leaving my friends, — but I knew I might have to leave them by going South. There was a fellow-servant of mine named Thomas. My master gave him a letter one day, to carry to a soul-driver. Thomas got a man to read it, who told him he was sold. Thomas then got a free man to carry the letter. They handcuffed , the free man, and put him in jail. Thomas, when he saw them take the free man, dodged into the bush. He came to us. We made up a purse, and sent him on his way. Next day, the man who had carried the letter, sent for his friends and got out. The master denied to us that he intended to sell Thomas. He did not get the money for him. Thomas afterward wrote a letter from Toronto to his friend.


I prepared myself by getting cakes, etc., and on a Saturday night in March, I and two comrades started off together. They were younger than I. We traveled by night and slept by day until we reached Pittsburgh. When we had got through the town, I left the two boys, and told them not to leave while I went back to a grocery for food. When I returned, they were gone, — I do not know their fate. I stopped in that neighborhood two nights, trying to find them — I did not dare to inquire for them. The second night, I made up my mind to ask after them, but my heart failed me. I am of opinion that they got to Canada, as they knew the route. At length I was obliged to come off without them.
I think that slavery is not the best condition for the the refugee; or a black. Whipping and slashing are bad enough, but selling children from their mothers and husbands from their wives is worse. At one time I wanted to marry a young woman, not on the same farm. I was then sent to Alabama, to one of my master’s sons for two years. “When the girl died, I was sent for to come back. I liked the work, the tending of cotton, better than the work on the farm in Virginia, — but there was
so much whipping in Alabama, that I was glad to get back. One man there, on another farm, was tied up and received five hundred and fifty lashes for striking the overseer. His back was awfully cut up. His wife took care of him. Two months after, I saw him lying on his face, unable to turn over or help himself. The master seemed ashamed of this, and told the man that if he got well, he might go where he liked. My master told me he said so, and the man told me so himself. Whether he ever got well, I do not know: the time when I saw him, was just before I went back to Virginia.

Drew Benjamin. (1856). “A North-side View of Slavery: The Refugee: Or, The Narratives of Fugitive Slaves in Canada …” archive.org
pp. 52-54 – George Johnson’s account
https://archive.org/details/northsideviewofs00drew/page/52/mode/2up

Other escape accounts from Benjamin Drew’s book of interviews with persons from Jefferson County

WILLIAM GROSE: pp. 82-87

I was held as a slave at Harper’s Ferry, Va. When I was twenty-five years old, my two brothers who were twelve miles out, were sent for to the ferry, so as to catch us all three together, which they did. We were then taken to Baltimore to be sold down south. The reason was, that I had a free wife in Virginia, and they were afraid we would get away through her means. My wife and two children were then keeping boarders; I was well used, and we were doing well. All at once,
on Sunday morning, a man came to my house before I was up, and called me to go to his store to help put up some goods. My wife suspected it was a trap: but I started to go. When I came in sight of him, my heart failed me; I sent him word I could not come.

On inquiry in a certain quarter, I was told that I was sold,
and was advised to make my escape into Pennsylvania. (83) I then went to my owner’s, twelve miles, and remained there three days, they telling me I was not sold. The two brothers were all this time in jail, but I did not then know it. I was sent to the mill to get some offal— then two men came in, grabbed me and handcuffed me, and took me off. How I felt that day I cannot tell. I had never been more than twenty miles from home, and now I was taken away from my mother and wife and children. About four miles from the mill, I met my wife in the road coming to bring me some clean clothes. She met me as I was on horseback, handcuffed. She thought I was on the farm, and was surprised to see me. They let me get down to walk and talk with her until we came to the jail: then they put me in, and kept her outside. She had then eight miles to go on foot, to get clothes ready for me to take along. I was so crazy, I don’t know what my wife said. I was beside myself to think of going south. I was as afraid of traders as I would be of a bear. This was Tuesday.


The man who had bought us came early Wednesday morning, but the jailer would not let us out, he hoping to make a bargain with somebody else, and induce our owners to withdraw the bond from the man that had us. Upon this, the trader and jailer got into a quarrel, and the trader produced a pistol, which the jailer and his brother took away from him. After some time, the jailer let us out. We were handcuffed together: I was in the middle, a hand of each brother fastened to mine.
We walked thus to Harper’s Ferry: there my wife met me with some clothes. She said but little; she was in grief and crying. The two men with us told her they would get us a good home. We went by the cars to (84) the Baltimore — remained fifteen days in jail. Then we were separated, myself and one brother going to New Orleans, and the other remained in B. Him I have not seen since, but have heard that he was taken to Georgia. There were about seventy of us, men, women,
and children shipped to New Orleans. Nothing especial occurred except on one occasion, when, after some thick weather, the ship came near an English island, the captain then hurried us all below and closed the hatches. After passing the island, we had liberty to come up again.


We waited on our owners awhile in New Orleans, and after four months, my brother and I were sold together as house servants in the city, to an old widower, who would not have a white face about him. He had a colored woman for a wife — she being a slave. He had had several wives whom he had set free when he got tired of them. This woman came for us to the yard, — then we went before him. He sent for a woman, who came in, and said he to me, ” That is your wife. I was scared half to death, for I had one wife whom I liked, and didn’t want another, — but I said nothing. He assigned one to my brother in the same way. There was no ceremony about it — he said ” Cynthia is your wife, and Ellen is John’s.” As we were not acclimated, he sent us into Alabama to a watering-place, where we remained three months till late in the fall — then we went back to him. I was hired out one month in a gambling saloon, where I had two meals a day and slept on a table ; then for nine months to an American family, where I got along very well; then to a man who had been mate of a steamboat, and whom I could not please.

After I (85) had been in New Orleans a year, my wife came on and was employed in the same place, (in the American family).
One oppression there was, my wife did not dare let it be known she was from Virginia, through fear of being sold. When my master found out that I had a free-woman for a wife there, he was angry about it, and began to grumble. Then she went to a lawyer to get a certificate by which she could remain there. He would get one for a hundred dollars, which was more than she was able to pay: so she did not get the certificate, but promised to take one by and by. His hoping to get the money kept him from troubling her, — and before the time came for her taking it, she left for a distant place. He was mad about it, and told me
that if she ever came there again, he’d put her to so much trouble that she would wish she had paid the hundred dollars and got the certificate. This did not disturb me, as I knew she would not come back any more.


After my wife was gone, I felt very uneasy. At length, I picked up spunk, and said I would start. All this time, I dreamed on nights that I was getting clear. This put the notion into my head to start — a dream that I had reached a free soil and was perfectly safe. Sometimes I felt as if I would get clear, and again as if I would not. I had many doubts. I said to myself — I recollect it well, — I can’t die but once ; if they catch me, they can but kill me: I’ll defend myself as far as I can. I armed myself with an old razor, and made a start alone, telling no one, not even my brother. All the way along, I felt a dread — a heavy load on me all the way. I would look up at the telegraph wire, and dread that the news was going on ahead of me. At one time I was on a canal-boat — it did not seem to go (86) fast enough for me, and I felt very much cast down
about it ; at last I came to a place where the telegraph wire was broken, and I felt as if the heavy load was rolled off me, I intended to stay in my native country,— but I saw so many mean-looking men, that I did not dare to stay. I found a friend who helped me on the way to Canada, which I reached in 1851.


I served twenty-five years in slavery, and about five I have been free. I feel now like a man, while before I felt more as though I were but a brute. When in the United States, if a white man spoke to me, I would feel frightened, whether I were in the right or wrong; but now it is quite a different thing, — if a white man speaks to me, I can look him right in the eyes — if he were to insult me, I could give him an answer. I have the rights and privileges of any other man. I am now living with my wife and children, and doing very well. When I lie down at night, I do not feel afraid of over-sleeping, so that my employer might jump on me if he pleased. I am a true British subject, and I have a vote every year as much as any other man. I often used to wonder in the United States, when I saw carriages going round for voters, why they never asked me to vote. But I have since found out the reason, — I know they were using my vote instead of my using it — now I use it myself. Now I feel like a man, and I wish to God that all my fellow-creatures could feel the same freedom that I feel. I am not prejudiced against all the white race in the United States, — it is only the portion that sustain the cursed laws of slavery.


Here ‘s something I want to say to the colored people in the United States: You think you are free there, but you are very much mistaken: if you wish to be free men, I hope you will all come to Canada as soon (87) as possible. There is plenty of land here, and schools to educate your children. I have no education myself, but I don’t intend to let my children come up as I did. I have but two, and instead of making servants out of them, I’ll give them a good education, which I could not do in the southern portion of the United States. True, they were not slaves there, but I could not have given them any education.

I have been through both Upper and Lower Canada, and I have found the colored people keeping stores, farming, etc., and doing well. I have made more money since I came here, than I made in the United States. I know several colored people who have become wealthy by industry — owning horses and carriages, — one who was a fellow-servant of mine, now owns two span of horses, and two as fine carriages as there are on the bank. As a general thing, the colored people are more sober and industrious than in the States: there they feel when they have money, that they cannot make what use they would like of it, they are so kept down, so looked down upon. Here they have something to do with their money, and put it to a good purpose.


I am employed in the Clifton House, at the Falls.
Drew, pp. 82-87.
https://archive.org/details/northsideviewofs00drew/page/82/mode/2up

Adams, Julia D. (1990). “Between the Shenandoah and the Potomac: Historic Homes of Jefferson County, West Virginia.” Charles Town, West Virginia: The Jefferson County Historical Society, p. 121.

Recorded interviews with Bertha Fox Jones and Norman McDonald https://justjefferson.com/16Day.htm

Robert Lucas entry
US Census 1860 Virginia Jefferson Shepherdstown Page 28 – fold3.com
https://www.fold3.com/image/75222890/?terms=robert%20Lucas

Julia S. Blickenstaff; Carmen Creamer; Don Wood; Beverley Grove; Galtjo Geertsema (December 13, 1994) “National Register of Historic Places Nomination: Jefferson County Alms House” (pdf). National Park Service.

CHAPTER OR STORY 10 CLICK HERE https://civilwarscholars.com/uncategorized/chapter-10-jasper-begins-his-life-1844-by-jim-surkamp/