Newton Baker’s Life in the Famed 1st Virginia Cavalry 1861-1865 (Pt. 3 of 4) by Jim Surkamp

by Jim Surkamp on February 2, 2016 in Jefferson County

Newton Baker’s Life in the Famed First Virginia Cavalry – 1861-1865 (3 of 4) (The First Virginia Cavalry participated in more than 200 engagements).

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SUMMARY:
Each generation rebels against the former. The Bakers of Maryland, Shepherdstown and finally Martinsburg – muddled thru traditional inter-generational discords like a schooner pitching through high seas. Elias Baker one-upped a father who deserted his children by being a good father. His son, antsy nineteen-year-old Newton D. Baker rebelled against his doting father, a soon-to-be appointed federal postmaster in Shepherdstown, by riding off and enlisting in Company F of the First Virginia Cavalry – Confederate – following the recent example of a figurative avalanche of nine of his blood cousins into that same company. Still more cousins would enlist.

Life in a wartime saddle matured him for four years: battles, imprisonment, routine heroics, his wounding, having a fine bay mare shot from under him, (and later, a suspiciously extravagant compensation package for this lost horse offered by a cousin with clout), and, finally, coming home. Bearing witness to so many in need of medical care begat Newton’s post-war calling as a doctor. He finished training, was mentored by Shepherdstown neighbor and physician, John Quigley, who transferred his practice to the young up-and-comer.

But burgeoning ambition called away the next son of a Baker – Newton D. Baker Jr. Reading voraciously and eschewing the stethoscope and his father’s beckoning practice, off Junior went to Cleveland – joking that he was being a carpetbagger invading the Northern states – ascending a skyward ladder to heights of acclaim unprecedented for the Bakers. He was the progressive mayor of Cleveland; then, after more promotions, President Woodrow Wilson approached his fellow Virginian and appointed Newton D. Baker, Jr. to be our Secretary of War, managing the best he could the American role in the calamitous First World War. Today we have the Newton D. Baker Veterans Hospital in Martinsburg to his fond memory.

In part 3, we see Newton’s days of thigh-high mud, long rides, freezing cold, and deepening comradeship, from the vantage point in the saddle beside him, so to speak.. His first baptism of fire at Manassas was in a horseback charge with his company, in the shadow of the wielded saber of their commander, Captain William Morgan of Shepherdstown. We join here the regiment the sobering next day, Monday, July 22, 1861 with abandoned human forms across a terrain, their agonies frozen at mid-gesture. But there were also incredible amounts of food, drink, spurs, sabers, and smart clothes that quickly found their way upon the persons of Morgan, Newton and every soldier seeking to become presentable again to any ladies whom they hopefully might encounter. Chivalry in clothes of dirty rags fails.

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STRANGE IS A WHISPERING BATTLEFIELD THE NEXT DAY
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Wrote another 1st Virginia cavalryman of July 22nd:
The battlefield immediately after a battle is always an interesting and instructive study for a soldier . . On this occasion I saw the field about nine o’clock and all of our dead had been removed. But the dead of both sides and the wounded enemy were still there, which gave a pretty fair idea of the action.

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I had always felt a horror at taking anything from the dead, not that I thought it was wrong, but I disliked touching them. That morning, however, as I rode through a little grove of pines there lay, with his head covered by an oilcloth, the body of a handsomely dressed Federal officer, and buckled to his neat boots were an elegant pair of spurs. Oh, how I did want those spurs! Then I could get them without touching the body, for there was only one buckle to undo at the instep.

Mine were good, strong cavalry spurs, but how coarse they looked after seeing these. I looked all around – no one in sight – it must be done – I could not leave such spurs as those to fall into the hands of the infantry burial party who would be along to bury him. So down I sprang from my horse and began taking them off. “What are you doing there?” said the officer in a weak voice, pulling the oilcloth from his face. I felt the hot blood rush to my cheeks and turning my face quickly aside, so he could not recognize me again, jumped on my horse and galloped away. I ought to have offered to do something for him but I felt so ashamed at having been caught, I could not. – Blackford, p. 44.

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NEWTON BAKER’S LONG TRAIL THROUGH WAR:

1. WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 11, 1861: SKIRMISH AT LEWINSVILLE, VIRGINIA – Driver, p. 19.

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2. TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 24, 1861 – SIX MILES SOUTH OF THE FAIRFAX COURTHOUSE – PROMOTIONS ALL AROUND:
The promotion of J.E.B. Stuart to brigadier general, involved a formal reorganization and expansion of the 1st Virginia Cavalry. Captain Morgan was reaffirmed as commander of Company F, Shepherdstown Troop, with full regimental strength of 185 men, eight of whom, in time, would be killed in action, ten more from disease, in addition to thirty-one woundings, and twenty-four would become prisoners of war. – Driver, p. 24; pp. 124-133; Blackford, p. 52.

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3.TUESDAY – DECEMBER 10, 1861 – CENTERVILLE, VA.:
November and early December had very “pretty weather.” Baker was sent on December 10th to Gainesville Station to the west on the Manassas Gap Railroad for the last two weeks of the year at Gainesville Station, where huge quantities of wheat flour and other “booty,” nicked from the defeated Federal armies, was being stored. Some was “liberated” to accompany the punch, eggnog, turkey and oysters that the soldiers were devoured for Christmas. J. E. B. Stuart’s trademark was to make festivities and music mandatory.- Confederate Service records (NARA); Driver, p. 24, pp. 26-27, p. 28.

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4. MONDAY, JANUARY 6, 1862 – MANASSAS, COUSIN MCQUILKIN FALLS ILL, DIES.
As weather cooled and became foul, men and horses in the camp weakened and became ill, including William Morgan’s younger bother, “Jack” and Newton Baker’s cousin William H. McQuilkin. His pneumonia worsened over five months and he died January 6th, 1862 at Manassas. – Confederate Service record; Driver, pp. 23.

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5. JANUARY-FEBRUARY, 1862 – BAD WEATHER:

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“During the time we were engaged in meeting this advance demonstration on Manassas, the weather was very bad – snow and sleet and rain – and we had to bivouac in it all. . . . the severest I passed during the war.” They made for themselves brush shelters that were repeatedly deluged by drooping pine trees releasing their accumulations of snow on them and their camp sites. – Blackford, p. 60.

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6. SUNDAY, MARCH 9, 1862 – DRIVEN FROM CENTERVILLE, VIRGINIA, TO WARRENTON, TO BEALTON:

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Newton Baker and his many cousins did their turns on picket facing the 1st New York Cavalry to the north toward Falls Church. Come spring Gen. Johnston ordered the army to move further south with Stuart’s men guarding against the Federals pressing to their rear. To keep it all from being recovered by the Federals, a mountain of bacon and barrels of wheat had to be destroyed.

Wrote one:
Our regiment destroyed eight hundred barrels of flour stacked on the platform . . , by knocking in the tops of the barrels and scattering the flour over the ground. – Driver, p. 30

William Blackford wrote that huge piles of bacon “as high as a house” were burned. “The flames did have a curious look, a sort of yellow and blue mixed.” Clothing that could have dressed many of the cavalrymen for the entire war was torched. – Blackford, p. 60.

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7. WEDNESDAY, MARCH 12- MARCH 19, 1862 – DESTROYING BRIDGES AND TRESTLES EN ROUTE TO CAMP AT WARRENTON JUNCTION: – Driver, p. 30

8. ABOUT MARCH 20 to 26, 1862 – THE FIRST VIRGINIA AT BEALTON, VA. CAMP:

9. THURSDAY, MARCH 27, 1861 – SKIRMISH AT CEDAR RUN, VA, just north of Warrenton.:

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Six federal regiments arrived at Cedar Run then camped at Warrenton Junction. – Driver, p. 31;

. . . six regiments without seeing either end of the column; six regimental colors were counted. They were marching across the fields parallel to the railroad and in view of it. I immediately sent the First Virginia Cavalry (Jones) down to observe the enemy and report. . . – Stuart, p. 402.

They have baggage, say 450 wagons; scarcely any cavalry visible then. They are spreading about on Cedar Run to find fords. . . . – Stuart, p. 406.

He (the Federals) made a great to-do crossing and re-crossing Cedar Run, firing artillery at a few vedettes, and the like, and has actually made 3 miles with his advance guard. . . . – Stuart, pp. 406-407.

Wrote John Singleton Mosby to his wife, Pauline, of confronting these Federals while crossing the Run:

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My dearest Pauline:
. . . Although I do not belong to that Company (Blackford’s), being on the regimental staff, I went with them into the fight. . . The appearance of the enemy when they crossed Cedar Run was the most magnificent sight I ever beheld…. We let them [advance guard of cavalry] cross, when, dismounting, we delivered a volley with our carbines which sent them back across the deep stream in the wildest confusion. One fellow was thrown into the water over his head; and scrambling out, ran off and left his horse; another horse fell, rose, and fell again, burying his rider with him under the water. We ceased firing, threw up our caps, and indulged in the most boisterous laughter. . . – Mosby, pp. 108-109.

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April 21, 1862 1st Va. Cav. 5 miles north of Yorktown
Artist
Alfred Waud (1828–1891) Link back to Creator
Title rebels from Yorktown Sunday morning
Date 1862 April-May
Medium drawing 1 drawing on tan paper : pencil and Chinese white ; 24.2 x 33.7 cm. (sheet).

10. FRIDAY, MAY 9TH, 1862 – SKIRMISH AT SLATERSVILLE, VA.:

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(An account from the perspective of the 6th U.S. Cavalry):
At 3 PM, From 6th U.S. Cavalry – A portion of Capt. Lowell’s Squadron consisting of 55 men and Capt. Sander’s Company of 32 men, were ordered to find and cut off men in the 1st Virginia Cavalry. After a scout of the 1st Virginia, secreted in nearby woods spotted them and called for cavalry, Captain Lowell used a Jeb Stuart tactic of galloping then ordering a charge at the portion of the 1st Virginia – even if outnumbered. The report said: “the column was put to the gallop, and on reaching the open was ordered to charge, led by Capt. Lowell; the impetuosity and gallantry of the men and officers to perform this order, was only equaled by the rapidity of the enemy’s retreat.” Tried twice more on new contingents of First Virginia cavalrymen, Lowell’s bold tactic worked only for so long because the 1st Virginia at the scene numbered 400, close to the official number of 437 men in the 1st Virginia when William Fitzhugh Lee was recently made their commander. – Driver, p. 33; Source: National Archives, RG 391: Records of the US Regular Army Mobile Units, 6th Cavalry, Regimental Letters Sent 1861-1864, Vol. 1 of 12, NM-93, Entry 814.

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10. FRIDAY, MAY 30TH – A FLATTERING OBSERVER ARRIVES FROM GERMANY TO CAMP – BROOK CHURCH, VA.:

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Heros Von Borcke, a fresh-from-Germanic-lands military man eluded the blockade on the high seas and came to Americae. He would become a colorful fixture on Stuart’s staff throughout the war. He gives his compelling fresh take on the men of 1st Virginia. Their horses were worn out too.:

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Von Borcke arrives in Richmond to search for the 1st Virginia and Stuart himself:
We trotted out of the city, and across the wooded plain through which runs the Brook turnpike, passing the extensive fortifications and the long lines of the Confederate army. With the liveliest interest I looked upon these masses of warrior-like men, in their ill-assorted costumes, who had come with alacrity from the Carolinas, from distant Mississippi and yet more distant Texas, from sunny Florida, from fertile Georgia, from Alabama, land of mountain and canebrake, from the regions of Louisiana, to imperil their lives in the defense of their much-loved South . . . Brigade after brigade we saw awaiting the summons to the battle which was so soon to come.

It was no easy matter to find General Stuart, who, as commanding officer of the outposts, was anywhere along the extended lines, and the sun was near its setting when we reached the camp of the 1st Virginia Cavalry. Here I presented myself for information to the officer in command, Colonel Fitzhugh Lee, who assured me that it would be next to impossible to find General Stuart that night, and kindly offered me the hospitality of his tent. As threatening thunder-clouds were driving up the western horizon, and I was much fatigued by my day’s ride, I gladly accepted the invitation. The camp was a novelty to me in the art of castrametation.

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The horses were not picketed in regular lines as in European armies, but were scattered about anywhere in the neighboring wood, some tethered to swinging limbs, some tied to small trees, others again left to browse at will upon the undergrowth. In a very short time I was perfectly at home in the Colonel’s tent, where the officers of his regiment had assembled, and where the lively strains of the banjo alternated with patriotic songs and animated discourse.

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During the evening a supper was served which, under existing circumstances, was really luxurious, and one of the chief dishes of which consisted of the eggs of the terrapin found in a creek near the camp by Colonel Lee’s negro servant, who was at once head-cook, valet, and steward. I am sure that no work of art from the kitchen of the Cafe Riche could have been more gratifying to my hungry appetite than these terrapin’s eggs taken out of a Virginia swamp and cooked upon the instant in a cavalry encampment.

Soon after supper we retired to rest, but little sleep came to my weary eyelids; for a terrible hurricane, accompanied by thunder and lightning, raged throughout the night, the peals of thunder shaking the earth, and the flashes of lightning almost blinding one with their incessant vivid glare. I was awake and fully dressed the next morning when, with the first glimpse of the sun breaking through the battered clouds, the trumpet sounded to saddle, and Colonel Lee informed me he had just received marching orders. He added that he should start in fifteen minutes, and my best chance of meeting General Stuart was to ride with the regiment. It was marvelous to see how readily these unmilitary-looking troopers obeyed the orders of their colonel, and with what discipline and rapidity the breaking up of the camp was managed. I suffered the whole regiment to pass me, that I might observe more narrowly its composition. The scrutiny called forth my admiration. The men were all Virginians, whose easy and graceful seat betrayed the constant habit of horseback exercise, and they were mounted mostly on blooded animals, some of which the most particular “swell” in London would have been glad to show off in Hyde Park. Looking back across three eventful years to that morning’s march, I realize how little it was in my thought that my lot should be knit so closely with that of these brave fellows in fatigue and in fight, and that I should have to mourn the loss of, alas! so many who afterwards fell around me, in battle. – Von Borcke, pp. 18-21.

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11. FRIDAY, JUNE 13-SUNDAY, JUNE 15 – CAMP AT MORDECAI FARM; THE FIRST VIRGINIA CAVALRY JOINS STUART AND 1,200 HORSEMEN FOR A BOLD RIDE AROUND FEDERAL GENERAL MCCLELLAN’S ENTIRE ARMY:

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At 2 am on June 12, Stuart’s men were awakened in their Henrico County camps at Mordecai Farm (Bryan Park) and at Kilby’s Station. Taking largely from 1st & 9th Va. regiments, J.E.B. Stuart launches a 1,200 cavalrymen ride around Federal General McClellan’s Army.

Stuart wrote in his report (excerpted to highlight actions by the 1st Virginia Cavalry): For full report, Click Here.

I undertook an expedition to the vicinity of the enemy’s lines on the Pamunkey with about 1,200 cavalry and a section of the Stuart Horse Artillery. The cavalry was composed of portions of the First, Fourth, and Ninth Virginia Cavalry. The second named, having no field officer present, was, for the time being, divided between the first and last mentioned, commanded, respectively, by Col. Fitz. Lee and Col. W. H. Fitzhugh Lee; also two squadrons of the Jeff. Davis Legion, commanded by Lieut. Col. W. T. Martin, the section of artillery being commanded by First Lieut. James Breathed.

Although the expedition was prosecuted farther than was contemplated in your instructions I feel assured that the considerations which actuated me will convince you that I did not depart from their spirit, and that the boldness developed in the subsequent direction of the march was the quintessence of prudence.
. . . Upon reaching the vicinity of Hanover Court-House I found it in possession of the enemy; but very little could be ascertained about the strength and nature of his force. I therefore sent Col. Fitz. Lee’s regiment (First Virginia Cavalry) to make a detour to the right and reach the enemy’s route behind him, to ascertain his force here and crush it, if possible; but the enemy, proving afterward to be 150 cavalry, did not tarry long, but left . . . We crossed the Totopotomoy, a strong position of defense, which the enemy failed to hold, confessing a weakness. In such places half a squadron was deployed afoot as skirmishers till the point of danger was passed.

On, on dashed Robins, here skirting a field, there leaping a fence or ditch, and clearing the woods beyond, when not far from Old Church the enemy made a stand, having been re-enforced.

The only mode of attack being in column of fours along the road, I still preferred to oppose the enemy with one squadron at a time, remembering that he who brings on the field the last cavalry reserve wins the day. The next squadron therefore moved to the front under the lamented Captain Latane, making a most brilliant and successful charge with drawn sabers upon the picketed ground, and, after a hotly-contested hand-to-hand conflict, put him to flight, but not till the gallant captain had sealed his devotion to his native soil with his blood. The enemy’s rout (two squadrons by one of ours) was complete; they dispersed in terror and confusion, leaving many dead on the field and blood in quantities in their tracks. Their commander, Captain Royall, was reported mortally wounded.

Several officers and a number of privates were taken in this conflict, and a number of horses, arms, and equipment, together with five guidons. The woods and fields were full of the scattered and disorganized foe straggling to and fro, and but for the delay and the great encumbrance which they would have been to our march, many more could and would have been captured.

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Col. Fitz. Lee, burning with impatience to cross sabers with his old regiment, galloped to the front at this point and begged to be allowed to participate with his regiment (the First Virginia Cavalry) in the discomfiture of his old comrades, a request I readily granted, and his leading squadron pushed gallantly down the road to Old Church; but the fragments of Royall’s command could not again be rallied, and Colonel Lee’s leading squadron charged without resistance into the enemy’s camp (five companies), and took possession of a number of horses, a quantity of arms and stores of every kind, several officers and privates. The stores as well as the tents, in which everything had been left, were speedily burned, and the march resumed. . . the prisoners, 165 in number, were transferred to the proper authority; 260 horses and mules captured, with more or less harness, were transferred to the quartermaster’s departments of the different regiments, and the commands were sent to their respective camps. The number of captured arms has not been as yet accurately ascertained.

A pole was broken, which obliged us to abandon a limber this side of the Chickahominy.

The success attending this expedition will no doubt cause 10,000 or 15,000 men to be detached from the enemy’s main body to guard his communication, besides accomplishing the destruction of millions’ worth of property and the interruption for a time of his railroad communication.

The three commanders (the two Lees and Martin) exhibited the characteristics of skillful commanders, keeping their commands well in hand and managing them with skill and good judgment, which proved them worthy of a higher trust. Their brave men behaved with coolness and intrepidity in danger, unswerving resolution before difficulties, and stood un-appalled before the rushing torrent of the Chickahominy, with the probability of an enemy at their heels armed with the fury of a tigress robbed of her whelps. The perfect order and systematic disposition for crossing maintained throughout the passage insured its success and rendered it the crowning feature of a successful expedition. – The Official Record of the War of the Rebellion; Series I, Volume XI (11) in three parts; Part I. Reports. Chapter XXIII (23). Report No. 21 Report of Brig. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, C. S. Army, commanding in Cavalry Brigade, pp. 1036-1040.

12. JUNE 22, 1862 – CAMP AT BROOK CHURCH, VIRGINIA:

13. MONDAY, JULY 6 – SUNDAY, JULY 19, 1862 – VON BORCKE HUNTS SQUIRREL, LOVES NATURE; CHAPLAIN LANDSTREET PREACHES TO THE ATTENTIVE, BUT TIRED.:

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13A. JULY 6TH, 1862 VON BORCKE GOES TO THE WOODS NEAR CAMP ON THE CHICKAHOMINY RIVER, VA.:

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About dusk of the 6th – It was a beautiful night, the air was full of the fragrance of the wild-flowers and forest-blossoms, and myriads of fire-flies glittered in the surrounding darkness. . . We occupied ourselves now chiefly with fishing and shooting, as had the Indians of these woods and streams two hundred years ago.

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The Chickahominy afforded us abundance of perch and cat-fish, which were welcome additions to the supplies of our mess-table; but taking the fish was attended with many discomforts and difficulties. From the peculiar formation of the river-banks, high and densely skirted with trees, we were forced to wade about in the shallow stream, where we were vigorously attacked by the most voracious horse-leeches, which fastened themselves on our exposed legs in such numbers as to make it necessary to go ashore every five minutes to shake them off. The small hare of Virginia darted about in every direction in the fields and thickets; but shooting the grey squirrel, which was quite new to me, afforded me the best sport; and from the great agility of the animal, it was by no means so easy a matter as one might suppose. The foliage of the hickory, in which the grey squirrel has his favorite abode, is very dense, and the active little creature knows so well how to run along the opposite side of the limb from the gentleman with the gun, that one must be as much on the alert as his game to fire exactly at the moment when it is in sight and unprotected. The grey squirrel is smaller than the red or fox squirrel, and as it subsists principally on chestnuts and hickory-nuts, its meat is very delicate. I had some repugnance to eating them at first, as disagreeably suggestive, in their appearance, of rats; but I soon learned to appreciate the game, and it became one of my most highly valued dishes.

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On the 18th, about noon, as I had just returned from one of my little shooting expeditions, General Stuart having gone off to Richmond on duty,

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I found Captain Fitzhugh engaged in entertaining an Englishman, Lord Edward St Maur, who had given us the pleasure of being our guest for the day. As our mess supplies were limited, I was not a little concerned as to the materials for a dinner; but William, our negro cook, hearing that I had two squirrels in my gamebag, undertook to make a pie of them, and did this so successfully that I had the satisfaction to find the pate highly relished by my lord, who said he had never tasted anything better in his life.

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13B. SERVICE WITH CHAPLAIN LANDSTREET:
On Sunday the 19th we had divine service in camp. The officiating clergyman was the Rev. Mr Landstreet, chaplain of the 1st Virginia Cavalry, and the spot was an open place in the midst of the primitive forest. I was deeply impressed by the peculiar solemnity of the scene. It was indeed a striking picture, — hundreds of bearded warriors lying about on the grass, and listening with the utmost attention to the eloquent words of the preacher, beneath the green dome formed by the interlacing branches of the gigantic trees over their heads. – Von Borcke, Heros from Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine, October, 1865. “Part II Memoirs of the Confederate War for Independence, by Heros Von Borcke, Chief of Staff to General J.E.B Stuart.” Vol. XCVIII. Edinburg, London, UK: William Blackwood & Sons. Print p. 402.

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Weather: warm and dry

14. AFTER SEPTEMBER 10, 1862, FREDERICK, MD. – CIVIL WAR ARTIST ALFRED WAUD “CAPTURES” THE FAMED FIRST VIRGINIA CAVALRY.:

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Waud wrote:
Being detained within the enemy’s lines, an opportunity occurred to make a sketch of one of the two crack regiments of the Confederate service.

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They seemed to be of considerable social standing, that is, most of them – F.F.V’s, (First Families of Virginia) so to speak, and not irreverently; for they were not only as a body handsome, athletic men, but generally polite and agreeable in manner. With the exception of the officers, there was little else but homespun among them, light drab-gray or butternut color, the drab predominating, although there were so many varieties of dress, half-citizen, half-military, that they could scarcely be said to have a uniform. Light jackets and trowsers with black facings and slouched hats, appeared to be (in those cases where the wearer could obtain it) the court costume of the regiment. Their horses were good; in many cases, they told me, they provided their own. Their arms were the United States cavalry saber, Sharps’ carbine and pistols. Some few of them had old swords of the Revolution, curved, and in broad, heavy scabbards. Their carbines, they said, were mostly captured from our own cavalry, for whom they expressed utter contempt – a feeling unfortunately, shared by our own army. (NOTE: Jeb Stuart and Alfred Pleasonton were cadets at the same time at West Point and a source of some of the strong enmity between them.-JS) Finally, they bragged of having their own horses, and, in many cases, of having drawn no pay from the Government, not needing the paltry remuneration of a private. The flag represented in the picture is the battle flag. White border, red ground, blue cross and white stars. – Waud from Harpers’ Weekly, September 27, 1862, p. 612, p. 618.

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[The 1st Virginia Cavalry at a halt]
Waud, Alfred R. (Alfred Rudolph), 1828-1891, artist
[1862 September].
loc.gov 20 February 1999 Web. 25 May 2013.

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15. SEPTEMBER 12-16, 1862 – FREDERICK, WASHINGTON COUNTIES, MD; BERKELEY & JEFFERSON COUNTIES, VA. – THE FIRST VIRGINIA CAVALRY GUARDS WAGON TRAINS, WATCHES FLANKS AND PROVIDES A PICKET IN JEFFERSON COUNTY AFTER THE MAIN BATTLES – FOR COMPANIES F FROM SHEPHERDSTOWN & COMPANY B FROM MARTINSBURG, AND . . . A CHANCE TO VISIT HOME.:

Newton D. Baker’s cousin, William Martin Lemen (1831-1903) of Company B and son of his mother’s sister, Margaret Billmyer Lemen (1807-1869), wrote down the itinerary for the First Virginia during the campaign in Maryland and sent it to the battlefield historian, Ezra Carman, on May 7, 1897. – Carman, Clemens, p. 386, footnote.

Lemen wrote that the 1st Virginia separated from Fitzhugh Lee’s brigade at New Market, stayed there on picket until Wednesday, September 10th and headed to Maryland, commanded by Tiernan Brien. The First Cavalry then was assigned to scouting, picketing and watching for any appearance of Federal-supporting militias from across the border with Pennsylvania. – Driver, p. 46.

On the 14th, they concentrated in Hagerstown, while the rest of Fitzhugh Lee’s brigade arrived at Boonsboro and defended the retreat of Confederate infantry from off the Catoctin Mountains. – Ibid, pp. 46-47;

Lemen wrote Carman that the First then “followed the trains” crossing the Potomac at Williamsport until daybreak of the 15th. After camping the next night at Hainesville (Falling Waters) they went to Shepherdstown Ford, probably taking what is called the Bedington/Scrabble/Turner/Billmyer Road route or the Bedington/Greensburg/Swan Pond route that Generals Lee, Stuart, and Jackson were using at that time. – H.L. Snyder, Shepherdstown Register, September 22, 1921, September 22, 1927, July 31, 1924; Clemens, footnote, p. 386.

Some of the 1st Cavalry re-crossed into Sharpsburg to help Pelham’s Battery on Nicodemus Hill in the morning battle on September 17th. – Lemen; Driver, p. 47.

16. THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 18 10-11 PM – DAYLIGHT FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 19th – PACK HORSE (BLACKFORD’s, BOTELER’s) FORD – BECOMING A PICKET NEAR HOME:

The First Virginia leads in replacing the exhausted men on picket for Gen. Jubal Early’s division east of Sharpsburg, allowing Early’s men to join the slow line of men and wagons crossing into Virginia, being the last Confederate division to cross At daybreak, the First recrosses, too. – Volume XIX – in Part I. Operations in Northern Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania. September 3-November 14, 1862 (Vol. 19, Chap. 31), p. 972.

17. FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 19 – WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 29, 1862 SHEPHERDSTOWN VICINITY:
NEWTON BAKER, HIS MANY COUSINS; WILLIAM MORGAN AND HIS TWO BROTHERS – HAVE A REST, WHILE PICKETING – AND VISITING THEIR HOMES AND FAMILIES; EXCEPT NEWTON – WHOSE FATHER WOULD NOT SPEAK WITH HIM – YET. – Driver, p. 47; Kenamond, pp. 21-22.

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18. WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 1st, 1862 – SHEPHERDSTOWN TO MARTINSBURG – MORGAN AND THE FIRST VIRGINIA TANGLE WITH PLEASONTON’S FEDERAL CAVALRY.:

Events.1862.17

October 1st – Weather: Fine. Shepherdstown-Opequon-Martinsburg-Reconnaissance and Skirmish:
While staying at the Bower of the Dandridge family with most of his staff, Jeb Stuart got sudden word, possibly from William Morgan among others, the Federal Gen. and Cavalry Commander, Alfred Pleasonton – an bitter rival of Stuart’s since their West Point days – had crossed at Shepherdstown with 700 men and battery, drove the pickets back, including the First Virginia men at Shepherdstown. His force pressed on towards Martinsburg taking the road through Winebrenner’s Crossroads.

Col. Tiernan Brien commanded the First Virginia in the lead of a response force as it worked its way north on what is today Route 11. But Brien gave orders vastly misunderstood so that all but two squadrons of his force had veered off into a field instead of a majority assisting the First Virginia to lead a charge down Route 11. When Gen. Stuart arrived he was incensed that the First Virginia did not charge and couldn’t find Brien. Realizing that an attack by a tiny fraction of the intended force on the Federal position was untenable, Stuart re-arranged positions, ordered through distant intermediaries a charge from different directions on Pleasonton’s position. Even though Stuart’s men were quite outnumbered, Pleasonton’s men turned about and returned to Shepherdstown and then across the river into Maryland.

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While Stuart’s men succeeded in deterring further fighting while outnumbered, Pleasonton in his final report of the skirmish scorned any claims by Confederate Generals that the retreat of his force was, if anything, casual if not guarded. – Pleasonton, Report, Official Record.

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Taking stock, Stuart accepted Brien’s resignation the next day.

He would in just a few days be a star performer at hijinks in a planned ball at The Bower, posing as a Pennsylvania Farmer and on his arm a huge, simpering gaudily dressed “Wife”, who in fact was Heros Von Borcke but soon thereafter Tiernon Brien was backing working his farm as a civilian. – Von Borcke, p. 205

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Stuart promoted Col. John Drake to command the First Virginia and William Morgan, was promoted to major because Company F was in the leading the charge “the sabers leapt rattling from their scabbards, and dashed forward at a full gallop down the turnpike.” – Drake, p. 48; Von Borcke, p. 192.

Morgan’s son later wrote of a scene that well fits William Morgan picketing as per orders in the vicinity of Shepherdstown and his home of Falling Springs at the time Pleasonton’s force crossed into the town and crashed the picket Morgan was on.

The sudden appearance of Pleasonton’s men “driving back the picket” may have looked like his recorded account:
. . . my Father decided to fill up the time by getting in touch with his home and while wandering around I was greatly surprised to see my Father rapidly approaching; I ran to call Mother, but Father, warning me to watch, had scarcely gone into the house when I heard the clanking of saber and spurs, together with the rapid beating of horses feet upon the hard ground and I saw three Yankees approaching and almost reaching the gate leading into our yard; I called “Father!” who quickly sprang upon his horse, and riding rapidly, easily cleared the gate but the Yankees had seen him and were in hot pursuit, calling to Father to halt and firing their pistols; I ran after them screaming “You shall not shoot my Father!” But to my amazement I saw the Yankees returning at a furious gallop, passing by me they soon went the same way they had come. Bewildered, I ran on and on through the woods, thinking to find my brave Father dead or badly wounded. . . I returned to Mother, who was upon her knees in prayer to the God of battles for my Father’s protection.

We may surmise that Morgan made his way either to Stuart’s headquarters with news of the invading cavalry or towards the scene of fighting at Martinsburg after assembling his Shepherdstown men on picket, such as the Lemens and Newton Baker.

Many years later, this son, Augustine C. Morgan had a chance encounter with a man in Hagerstown who in fact remembered him and the incident. He told Augustine that his Father , using a classic Stuart ruse, dramatically turned and charged the pursuing Yankees, convincing them that Morgan was leading a larger counter-charge. he was alone. – Morgan-Getzendanner, pp. 3-4.

The Impossible Autumn (Pt. 4) – 1862, Jefferson County, Va. by Jim Surkamp
civilwarscholars.com 20 June 2011 Web. 24 January 2016. More.

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19. WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 29, 1862 – DEPARTURE FROM THE BOWER AND THE AREA:

As Gen McClellan’s full army began to cross into Virginia at Shepherdstown, Williamsport and Harpers Ferry, all the re-assembled and rested Confederate Army moved away towards Clarke County and Snickers Gap to fight another day.

Heros Von Borcke wrote:

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Our long and delightful sojourn now drew rapidly to its close. Guest after guest departed, and every day the indications of a speedy departure became plainer. At length, on the 29th of October, a hazy, rainy autumn day, the marching orders came, and the hour arrived for the start. A number of the Staff did not fail to indulge in the obvious reflection that nature wept in sympathy with us at the separation. With heavy hearts indeed, we left the beautiful spot, and bade adieu to its charming, kindly inhabitants. Silently we rode down the hill, and along the margin of the clear Opequan stream, musing on the joyous hours that had passed away — hours which those few of our dashing little band of cavaliers that survived the mournful finale of the great war, will ever hold in grateful remembrance. – Von Borcke, pp. 322-323.

20. MONDAY, NOVEMBER 3 – SALEM, VA. ENCAMPMENT: – Driver, p. 50.

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Weather: quite cool

21. TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 7, 1862 – “SNOWED ALL DAY”: – Driver, p. 50; Thomas W. Colley, Museum of the Confederacy.

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Weather: light snow cleared, total eclipse of the moon, windy and cold

22. WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 24, 1862 – CAMP AT CHANCELLORSVILLE, VA.:

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Weather: pleasant in the morning, afternoon – rain

23. JANUARY, 1863 – 1st VIRGINIA REDUCED TO A HUNDRED MEN AVAILABLE, HORSES NEED FODDER AND HAY.:

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Wrote Thomas W. Colley: There is no sign of winter quarters. Our brigade is here for the purpose of getting forage. It is impossible for us to get any fodder for hay. Corn is all we can get for our horses. – Driver, p. 54; Colley diary.

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Weather: misting snow, then cold and windy

24. TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 17 – WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 18, 1863 – “COMMENCED SNOWING ON THE 17th . . . IT SNOWED ABOUT 10 OR 12 INCHES AND RAINED ALL DAY ON US.” – Colley, Driver, p. 54.

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Weather: sunny day

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25. TUESDAY, MARCH 17, 1863 – KELLY’s FORD, VA. – 3,100 FEDERAL CAVALRYMEN UNDER GENERAL WILLIAM AVERELL AVENGE MANY RAIDS BY FITZHUGH LEE’S BRIGADE OF SOME 600 MEN, INCLUDING MORGAN’S COMPANY F OF THE FIRST VIRGINIA.:

“The remaining sharpshooters of the brigade under the very efficient officer, Major (W.A.) Morgan, First Virginia,” were ordered to a point on the railroad where the road turns toward Kelly’s half a mile from the railroad bridge.” Fitz Lee continues: “The report . . . I received was to the effect that the (enemy) had succeeded in crossing capturing 25 of my sharpshooters, who were unable to reach their horses.” – Official Report, Fitzhugh Lee report p. 61.
– Official Record, Operations in Northern Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. January 26-June 3, 1863. Part I Vol. 25, Chapter 37. Reports – March 17, 1863 – Engagement at Kelly’s Ford. p. 47 Averell Report.
pp. 60-63 Fitz Lee Report.

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Weather: very pretty

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Weather: very nice spring day

26. SUNDAY, MAY 31, 1863 – SMITHFIELD, VA. – NEWTON BAKER, A COUSIN, AND TWO OTHER “LOCAL BOYS” IN THE FIRST VIRGINIA ARE CAPTURED AND HUSTLED OFF TO FORT MCHENRY, THEN QUICKLY EXCHANGED.:

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One source records that Elias Baker, Newton’s father, spoke with his son only once during the war years. It is possible he met his son at the prison and was taken back to Shepherdstown. From there Newton Baker is listed as being present in his unit for July, 1863 meaning he may have participated in the Battle of Gettysburg, by following the northbound Confederate forces as they passed through Shepherdstown – Kenamond, pp. 21-22.

It was a good time to adapt a reconnaissance to include slipping home and getting a fresh horse, visiting family and sweethearts before returning to the main Confederate encampment near Culpeper Courthouse.

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Newton was on horseback in Smithfield where lived Alexander Evans’ sweetheart and future wife – Harriot Lowndes Scollay (1843-1911). With Newton and Evans were George Lucas from Shepherdstown and Newton’s cousin John James Lemen, whose family awaited at Millbrook, their home opposite Billmyer’s Mill west of Shepherdstown. – Longacre, p. 61; 1860 Census; Jefferson County Clerk.

The war’s Official Report includes no account of a military engagement on May 31st near Smithfield. But armies were stirring – the Federals controlling the ground north of the Rappahannock River. Rumors were flying that Lee’s Confederate Army was preparing to take the war across the Rappahannock and the Potomac and even into Pennsylvania, to what would become the Battle of Gettysburg in July. Commanded in early 1863 by Col. John Drake, the First Virginia fought in nearly 200 engagements from 1861-1865. – National Park Service Unit Histories Database.

HDQRS. CAVALRY CORPS, ARMY OF THE POTOMAC, May 28, 1863. General S. WILLIAMS, A. A. G., Army of the Potomac: The following dispatch from General Gregg, at Bealeton: A scouting party, just in from Sulphur Springs, reports Stuart camped 4 miles from Culpeper, on the road to the Springs; Fitzhugh Lee, W. H. F. Lee, Hampton, and Field at Jefferson. **Rebel scouts numerous about Warrenton and the Springs. The force is represented as being very large. I think it advisable to send Bufords command that is available, some 900 men, and battery, to re-enforce Gregg, should Major-General Hooker consent, particularly as Buford reports rather poor grazing at Dumfries, while on the upper route it is good, and supplies easily obtained. The cavalry at Washington should be moved farther down, on the Orange road. The rebels always mean something when their scouts become numerous. A. PLEASONTON, Brigadier-General, Commanding Cavalry Corps. – Official Report; Series 1 – Volume 25 (Part II) Chapter 37. p. 536.

Finding themselves surrounded by Federal cavalrymen, likely of the Third Cavalry Division, and unable to charge through the enemy, the four young men were captured. But a bare five days later, the foursome, who had been transferred – apparently by the Winchester-Potomac line at nearby Summit Point connecting at Harpers Ferry with the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad to Fort McHenry – where they were processed and moved to Fort Monroe, where Baker was exchanged June 3rd and the others June 5th. They made their way back to their army as it headed north to Gettysburg. – Confederate Service Records.

From Confederate Service Records, and Compilation in Robert J. Driver’s 1st Virginia Cavalry:

Residence: Shepherdstown
LUCAS, GEORGE R.: b. 8/4/40. enl. Co. F. Martinsburg 6/19/61 as Pvt. Present until absent on detached service 2/62. POW Smithfield 5/31/63. Sent to Ft. Monroe. Exch. 6/5/63. Present through 8/64. KIA 1/13/65. “The Virginia Free Press”: 9 Nov. 65: “George R. Lucas killed in Berkeley County Jan. 20, 1865, aged 25 years.” bur. Elmwood Cem. Shepherdstown, W.Va. – More:

Residence: Millbrook – Willoughby Lemen
LEMEN, JOHN JAMES ALEXANDER: b. Va. 11/19/39. 5’7″. fair complexion, dark hair, grey eyes. Farmhand, Charles Town PO, Jefferson Co. 1860 census. enl. Shepherdstown Co. F. 4/18/61 as Pvt. 1st Virginia Cav. Present until captured 7/6/61. Exch. Present 9/62. Captured Smithfield 5/31/63. Sent to Ft. Monroe. Exch. 6/5/63. Present until absent sick in Richmond hospital 8/24/64. Released 6/30/64. d. 1/10/71. bur. Elmwood Cem. Shepherdstown, W.Va. – Service Record; Snyder, p. 48. 1860 Census.

Residence: Scollay Hall, Middleway (post-war)
EVANS, ALEXANDER MASON, JR.: b.: 10/30/42. enl Pvt Co. F. Shepherdstown 5/5/61. detached with the baggage guard 3-4/62. Cap. 5/31/63 Smithfield. Exch. after Ft McHenry 6/5/63. Surrendered Appomattox 4/9/65. served as scout for Gen. J.E.B. Stuart and captured and escaped three times. d. 10/16/89. bur. Episcopal and Masonic Cem. Middleway, W.Va.

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Weather: fair, wind from the east

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Newton Baker was on detached service for much of late 1863 and early 1864.

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27. TUESDAY, AUGUST 16, 1864 – CEDAR CREEK, VA. – FEDERAL COMMANDER PHILIP SHERIDAN ORDERS DESTRUCTION ‘SOUTH OF A LINE FROM MILLWOOD TO WINCHESTER’:

In compliance with instructions of the lieutenant-general commanding, you will make the necessary arrangements and give the necessary orders for the destruction of the wheat and hay south of a line from Millwood to Winchester and Petticoat Gap. You will seize all mules, horses, and cattle that may be useful to our army. Loyal citizens can bring in their claims against tbe Government for this necessary destruction. No houses will be burned, and officers in charge of this delicate, but necessary, duty must inform the people that the object is to make this Valley untenable for the raiding parties of the rebel army. – Sheridan to Brig. Gen. A.T. A. Torbert, Chief of Cavalry, Middle Military Division. Official Record, Series 1 – Volume 43 (Part I) Chapter LV. p. 43.

28. MONDAY, AUGUST 15th – FRONT ROYAL, VA. – FITZ LEE’s BRIGADE WITH FIRST VIRGINIA ARE ORDERED TO ASSIST JUBAL EARLY AGAINST GEN. SHERIDAN.:

YOUNG DEWITT CLINTON GALLAHER OF THE FIRST VIRGINIA AND FROM SHEPHERDSTOWN WROTE IN HIS DIARY:

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August 15th – In camp near Front Royal. Had a meal at a Mr. Buck’s. Enjoyed it. Hear the Yankee Cavalry are in the neighborhood. We had expected this. General Jubal T. Early, then in command in the Valley, had but few cavalry and had appealed to General Lee to send him some, as Sheridan’s Cavalry had been running over the few cavalry that Early had. Hence Fitz Lee’s old Brigade (ours) was sent to him.

Tuesday, August 16th – The Yankees came up and we attacked them. We were badly managed and were repulsed at Guard Hill with some loss; went into camp of the previous night.

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Weather: cloudy off & on, but warm

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Wednesday, August 17th – Some of us got a girl at the big mill near Luray to make us some real coffee. Very fine. Brucie Trout was the girl and she was very pretty and kind to us.

Thursday, August 18th – (at Wood’s Mill on the Berryville Pike – Driver, p. 96) – Marched to within 6 miles of Winchester on the Plank Road. We had a scrap with Yankee Cavalry below Winchester on the Berryville Road. It rained in torrents and we got soaked through and through. Horrible night we had! Hungry-wagons not up with us – fearfully tired. – Gallaher, p. 10.

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29. THURSDAY, AUGUST 18, 1864 – SPOUT SPRING, FREDERICK COUNTY, VA. – NEWTON BAKER’S OWN HORSE IS KILLED IN A SKIRMISH ON THE BERRYVILLE PIKE. LATER A COUSIN WITH CLOUT IN THE REGIMENT LATER PROCESSES PAPERWORK TO COMPENSATE HIM WITH $3,300, AN INFLATED AMOUNT FOR A SINGLE HORSE. – Official Record.

Spout Spring, Va. 1864 – Driver, p. 96; Confederate Service Records.

THURSDAY, AUGUST 18-SATURDAY, AUGUST 20, 1864 – Encamped at Berryville, frequently skirmishing with the enemy’s cavalry. – Itinerary First Federal Cavalry Division Commanded by Bvt. Maj. Gen. Alfred T. A. Torbert, U.S. Army.

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The Confederate States To N. D. Baker
1864 For Thoroughbred 1 Bay Mare valued at $3,300.00; killed in an engagement on the 19th day of August 1864 near Berryville, Va.

I hereby certify that N. D. Baker brought into service one Thoroughbred Bay mare on the 28th day of July, 1864 which was appraised by a regularly appointed board at the time of mustering with service at the sum of thirty-three hundred dollars and that it was the private property of said N. D. Baker as by the records in my keeping.
Notarized? my hand, this the 20th day of February, 1865 –
signed J. M. Billmyer (James Martin Billmyer), (illegible) Sgt, 1st Va. Cav. 1st Virginia Cavalry Regiment Company F.

I certify that the above account is correct and just and that the horse was killed in an engagement with the enemy on the 19th day of August 1864 at or near Berryville, Va. – Confederate Service Records, Newton D. Baker. – Service Record, Newton D. Baker, p. 26.

30. MONDAY, AUGUST 22nd – AUGUST 31st, 1864 – JEFFERSON COUNTY, WV GALLAHER CONTINUES:
Monday, August 22nd – On the march I went to a man’s house named Kanode, who was a friend of my mother’s family. Got a “snack” there. In camp at a church in Leetown (Jefferson County). Rains very hard. In the suburbs of Leetown, Dr. Gregg Gibson, a cousin of Amelia, my brother William’s wife, lived in the old Tucker home. A beautiful old colonial house, with a grove of “ancestral” trees around it, and with an immense garden with a vine clad brick high wall all around it, radiant with flowers and beautiful shrubbery. Here, my sister-in-law just married in that house was staying. Her old home was in the vicinity and William had taken advantage of our troops being in possession there temporarily and had gone down and married Amelia. I called to see her. You can imagine the pleasure and surprise that visit was! I got off for a visit to Mr. Abel’s that night and slept in a BED! Met some girls from the Luray Valley named Lionaberger (“Linaberg” ? – JS). An old friend, Joe Crane had married one of the them. – Gallaher, p. 10.

GALLAHER CONTINUES:
THURSDAY, AUGUST 25, 1864 – LEETOWN, WV TO WILLIAMSPORT, MD – Rejoin my command at Leetown, which had been inactive for several days, and in camp. Marched through Martinsburg and encamp at Falling Waters on the Potomac River, and nearly opposite Williamsport, Md. Here we found many old “union” farmers (sympathizers with the North) and we helped ourselves to their orchards and fine hay (for our weary horses).

THEY CAMP AT THE PROPERTY OF NEWTON’s UNCLE WILLOUGHBY LEMEN WEST OF SHEPHERDSTOWN.:

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Friday, August 26, 1864 – We drive the Yankees across the Potomac and shell the town of Williamsport across the river. We watered our horses in the Potomac, the same we had ridden from the “Wilderness” in May, then to Richmond, Petersburg and in the many fights all summer. We made no attempt to cross into Maryland but rode to Shepherdstown about 20 miles away, where I saw some relatives and many old friends. Went into camp at Billmyer’s Mill about two miles from town where we camped for the night.

Wednesday, August 31, 1864 – My horse “Don” which I had ridden from May all through our marches and fights becoming lame from a disease common in the army called the “greasy fool” starting from the scratches caused by going through so much mud and such hard services. We lay out in a big field nearly all day grazing our horses and taking it easy, as the enemy showed no disposition to attack us for which we were ready. Took some flour to a Miss Dawes who lived nearby and she baked it for me. – Gallaher, p. 11.

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Weather: pretty & fair

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31. BATTLE OF FISHER’s HILL, VA. SEPTEMBER 22, 1864 – NEWTON BAKER FALLS WOUNDED IN THE THIGH, ENDING HIS CAVALRYMAN’S DAYS. – Driver, p. 148.

“. . . fell back on Luray Pike (after) fighting all day” – Captain William Trussell, Co. A., 1st Va. Cavalry, in his diary, Museum of the Confederacy; Driver, p. 99.

4 PM – Federal General George Crook’s Corps moved along North Mountain to outflank Early and attacked about 4 pm. The Confederate cavalry offered little resistance, and the startled infantry were unable to face the attacking force. The Confederate defense collapsed from west to east as Sheridan’s other corps join in the assault.

Battle-fields of Fisher’s Hill and Cedar Creek, Virginia. 22 Sept. 1864. 19 Oct. 1864. Prepared by Bvt. Lt. Col. G.L. Gillespie, Major of Engineers, U.S.A., From Surveys made under his direction By Order of Lt. Gen. P.H. Sheridan, and under the Authority of the Hon. Secretary of War and of the Chief of Engineers, U.S.A. 1873. baylor.edu 9 May 1997 Web. 28 October 2012.

32. OCTOBER 6, 1864 – BROCK’s GAP, VA – BAKER’S COUSIN, MILTON J. BILLMYER, BITTERLY ASSESSES THE VALLEY’S DESTRUCTION.:

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Sheridan on October 6th commenced moving down the Valley. (Federal Gen. A.T.A) Torbert with his three divisions of cavalry and one brigade of U.S. Regulars, numbering not less than ten thousand men, was ordered to stretch his command from mountain to mountain, drive off all stock, burn mills, barns, shops, in fact everything except private dwellings. Grant in his order to Sheridan said it was not “desirable” to burn private dwellings, but that “the Valley must be made a barren waste.” Then came the most disgraceful scene that man was ever permitted to see – ten thousand vandals turned loose to plunder and burn whatever they could lay their hands on, from mountain to mountain the torch was applied. A cloud of smoke from a thousand burning buildings hung like a pall over our ill-fated Valley. (Confederate General Thomas) Rosser now took command of the cavalry, and as the Yankees retired down the Valley Rosser pressed hard upon them. The fighting continued for three days with intense fury.

The fire devil rallied his legions and retired, burning and plundering as he went. The lurid flames of burning buildings, the charging columns of Rosser and Munford as they madly dashed through smoke and fire, was a scene that would have appalled the bravest. But the hellish work was done, the Valley lay in ashes. – Billmyer letter, Driver, pp. 101-2

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Weather: fine

1. NEWTON BAKER’S “MOST” DIVIDED CLAN (Pt. 1 of 4) by Jim Surkamp
2. NEWTON BAKER “SEES THE ELEPHANT” MANASSAS, VA (Pt. 2 of 4) by Jim Surkamp
3. NEWTON BAKER’S LIFE IN THE FAMED FIRST VIRGINIA CAVALRY 1861-1865 (Pt. 3 of 4) (above) by Jim Surkamp
4. NEWTON BAKER’S REMARKABLE SON (Pt. 4 of 4) by Jim Surkamp

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References and Image Credits for this post are included at the end of Post 4.

Newton D. Baker “Sees The Elephant” – July, 1861 (Pt. 2 of 4) by Jim Surkamp

by Jim Surkamp on February 2, 2016 in Jefferson County

NEWTON D. BAKER “SEES THE ELEPHANT” – JULY 21, 1862 (Pt. 2 of 4) by Jim Surkamp

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SUMMARY:
Each generation rebels against the former. The Bakers of Maryland, Shepherdstown and finally Martinsburg – muddled thru traditional inter-generational discords like a schooner pitching through high seas. Elias Baker one-upped a father who deserted his children by being a good father. His son, antsy nineteen-year-old Newton D. Baker rebelled against his doting father, a soon-to-be appointed federal postmaster in Shepherdstown, by riding off and enlisting in Company F of the First Virginia Cavalry – Confederate – following the recent example of a figurative avalanche of nine of his blood cousins into that same company. Still more cousins would enlist.

Life in a wartime saddle matured him for four years: battles, imprisonment, routine heroics, his wounding, having a fine bay mare shot from under him, (and later, a suspiciously extravagant compensation package for this lost horse offered by a cousin with clout), and, finally, coming home. Bearing witness to so many in need of medical care begat Newton’s post-war calling as a doctor. He finished training, was mentored by Shepherdstown neighbor and physician, John Quigley, who transferred his practice to the young up-and-comer.

But burgeoning ambition called away the next son of a Baker – Newton D. Baker Jr. Reading voraciously and eschewing the stethoscope and his father’s beckoning practice, off Junior went to Cleveland – joking that he was being a carpetbagger invading the Northern states – ascending a skyward ladder to heights of acclaim unprecedented for the Bakers. He was the progressive mayor of Cleveland; then, after more promotions, President Woodrow Wilson approached his fellow Virginian and appointed Newton D. Baker, Jr. to be our Secretary of War, managing the best he could the American role in the calamitous First World War. Today we have the Newton D. Baker Veterans’ Hospital in Martinsburg to his fond memory.

Newton “Sees The Elephant” – July 21st, Manassas/Bull Run:

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William Morgan, Newton Baker and his eleven cousins in the First Virginia Cavalry’s Companies F & B would soon “see the elephant” on July 21st, 1861 at Manassas/Bull Run, Virginia – but not before Col. J.E.B. Stuart, their new commander, gives them a lecture on the cavalry craft.

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Newton Baker left home and his dismayed parents Friday, June 15th to Charlestown where he joined Captain Morgan’s company and his cousins at their campsite on the Bullskin Run south of town. From there, they rode to either Winchester where the First Virginia Cavalry formally consolidated, or to Bunker Hill, an early encampment for that regiment.

David Hunter Strother observed the encampment where Baker’s Company F was a part, after it marched through Charlestown:

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By sunset the army was gone and the town quiet. They encamped for the night on Bull Skin run, about four miles on the road toward Winchester. During the day I had a full opportunity of criticizing the appearance and material of the army. The infantry despite its rags and dust, had a dangerous look. . . The regiments from the Gulf States were apparently of picked men. The tenth Georgia (I think it was) numbering eleven hundred, was the finest looking regiment I ever saw. Looking along the line, you were struck with the uniformity of size and height, all healthy, athletic men, between the ages of twenty-five and thirty-five. . . . – Strother.

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The cavalry, under Col. J.E.B. Stuart, was admirably mounted, and better equipped according to its needs than any other . . . It was composed almost entirely of volunteers from the rural gentry and independent landholders of the country, who furnished their own horses, arms, and accouterments. They generally appeared on picked animals, and armed with a greater variety of ordinance stores . . .

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not omitting the Havelock oblige. These young fellows were bold and dashing riders, good shots, full of spirit and emulation, and promised with experience and iron discipline to constitute a formidable body of cavalry. The habits and opinions of the times, however, had developed in them that exaggerated individuality which would render the strict enforcement of discipline almost impossible, and they had begun to exhibit decided Cossack tendency. – Strother, July, 1866, p. 142. (According to service records, about sixty-eight men from Jefferson County served in the 1st Virginia Cavalry, enlisting at different times.-ED)

Their first task was to go north and confront, with an infantry of about 4,000 men under Confederate Col. Thomas J. Jackson about 8,000 men under Federal commander Robert Patterson crossing into Virginia at Williamsport. (These were portions of larger forces: Patterson had 18,000; Johnston, Jackson’s commander, had 12,000).

LATE JUNE-VERY EARLY JULY, 1861 – 1st Va. Cavalry Camp – Bunker Hill, Va.:

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The camp was in a little valley – between the rows of company tents picket ropes were stretched, to which were haltered the horses, while over a detached group of tents some forty or fifty horsemen were drawn up for inspection, and the young officer in a U.S. undress uniform was Lt. Col. Stuart. He was giving the men their final instructions for the night, for this was the guard going out for the relief on picket posts. . . . He was a little above medium height, broad shouldered and powerfully built, ruddy complexion and blue-gray eyes which could flash fire on the battlefield . . . – Blackford, p. 16.

Newton Baker and his cousins no doubt listened intently to Stuart’s horseback tutorial to his greenhorns:
“Attention!” he cried. “Now I want to talk to you, men. You are fellows, and patriotic ones too, but you are ignorant of this kind of work, and I am teaching you.

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I want you to observe that a good man on a good horse can never be caught. Another thing: cavalry can trot away from anything, and a gallop is a gait unbecoming a soldier, unless he is going toward the enemy. Remember that. We gallop at the enemy, and trot away, always. Steady now! don’t break ranks!” (NOTE: Near Falling Waters at that time, according to David Hunter Strother, Stuart had to employ a gallop, not a trot, to escape capture, momentarily dropping his usual vigilance when he happened upon a classmate and chum from West Point, and – a Federal commander. – Strother July, 1866, p. 153. (See “References.”)

The tutorial continued:
And as the words left his lips, a shell from a battery half a mile to the rear hissed over our heads. “There,” he resumed, “I’ve been waiting for that, and watching those fellows. I knew they’d shoot too high, and I wanted you to learn how a shell sounds.”

Wrote another greenhorn:

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We spent the next day or two literally within the Federal lines. We were shelled, skirmished with, charged, and surrounded scores of times, until we learned to hold in regard our colonel’s masterly skill in getting into and out of perilous positions. He seemed to blunder into them in sheer recklessness, but in getting out he showed us the quality of his genius; and before we reached Manassas, we had learned, among other things, to entertain a feeling closely akin to worship for our brilliant and daring leader. We had begun to understand, too, how much force he meant to give his favorite dictum that the cavalry is the eye of the army. – Eggleston, pp. 116-117.

Tuesday – July 2nd, 1861 – Hoke’s Run (Falling Waters, Va.):

Battle_Hokes_Run_Montage

In what has been called the Battle of Hoke’s Run or Falling Waters, Jackson and Stuart’s men stopped Patterson’s southward progression into Virginia toward Martinsburg, thus crippling the Federal plan to have Patterson keep Jackson and Stuart’s men under Confederate Gen. Joe Johnston from ever travelling east and combining at Manassas with a Confederate army of 20,000 that was nervously watching the approach of a 35,000-man Federal Army.

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group_12th_NY_Militia_Charlestown_July_1861

Patterson’s total force of 18,000 men would stay put in Charlestown – about fifteen miles to the east – with the mistaken notion that he was successfully confining Stuart, Jackson and Johnston to his area. Inaction was popular because his men had three-month tours of duty scheduled to expire in just six days on the 24th.

Joe Johnston and his army at Winchester needed to leave the Valley immediately, and scurry to Manassas Junction to reinforce the Confederates there and to stop this Union advance. And so Jackson’s men hurriedly began to march east from Winchester – to the Shenandoah River, crossing at Berry’s Ferry in Clarke County. . . – Dennis Frye, Chief Historian, Harpers Ferry National Historic Park. More. . .

NOON, THURSDAY, JULY 18TH, 1861 – BUNKER HILL, VA. ENCAMPMENT OF JACKSON AND STUART:

Jackson wrote his wife:

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On the 18th of July I struck my tents, rolled them up, and left them on the ground, and about noon marched through Winchester, as I had been encamped on the other side of the town (at Bunker Hill). – Jackson to Mrs. Jackson, Memoir, p. 175.

His men had to hard-march over the Blue Ridge to Piedmont, Va. where they would catch a ride on the Manassas Gap Railroad the rest of the way, making several trips.

Next, Gen. Johnston informed Stuart that his 334 cavalry troopers – including Morgan, Baker, his cousins and about sixty other men in the regiment from Jefferson County – had to linger to screen this departure farther away from Federal Gen. Patterson at Charlestown. They also had to ride and walk the whole way – and train-less. – Driver, pp. 11-12.; Official Record, Series 1, Vol. 2, Chapter IX, p. 187.

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Almost at that same time, the overall Federal commander, General Winfield Scott, telegraphs Gen. Patterson at Charlestown:

WS: McDowell’s first day’s work has driven the enemy behind Fairfax Court House. Do not let the enemy (Johnston) amuse and delay you with a small force in front while he reinforces the Junction with his main body.

With Johnston’s main force already a good hour into their departure on July 18th, Patterson sent the second of two reassuring, but wrong replies to his superiors. The first reply was:

Robert_Patterson_D

“The enemy has stolen no march upon me. I have caused him to be reinforced.”

The second reply at 1 PM on the 18th stated: I have succeeded, in accordance with the wishes of the General-in-Chief, in keeping General Johnston’s force at Winchester. – Battles and Leaders Vol. 1, footnote, pp. 182-183.

FRIDAY EARLY MORNING, JULY 19 – NEWTON’s HARD RIDE: EXHAUSTING AND HUNGRY:

Horse_NDB
Montagge_to_Manassas_Berrys_Ford

Baker, his many cousins, Captain Morgan, Stuart and the others began their own stealthy withdrawl from the northern Valley, still screening the movements of the Confederate force – first to Winchester then east to Berry’s Ferry, stopping for water at Millwood then a hard climb up to the top of the Blue Ridge, through Ashby’s Gap to the eastern side and onwards – those thirty-five hours – spread over Friday, overnight and Saturday – in the saddle with little food or rest for neither man nor horse. The bond between a horse and its rider is a mystical thing.

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tired_horse_FINAL

Another new recruit on that march wrote after the war, speaking for all: “to a cavalry officer in active service, his horse is his second self, his companion and friend, upon whom his very life may depend.” Confederate officers generally provided their own horse while the Federal Army’s cavalrymen were provided with horses. – Blackford, pp. 21-22More. . .

William Blackford on the trek with Baker shared every dust-choked step of his famished progress with his horse – a dark mahogany bay, almost brown, with black mane, tail and legs and a small white star on his forehead – great eyes standing out like those of a deer, small delicate muzzle – delicate ears in which you could see the veins, and which were in constant motion with every thought which passed through his mind – small and beautiful feet – and legs as hard as bone itself. . . . When I would be eating on the march his eyes would watch me, and if I did not soon lean forward and hand him a taste, he would stop deliberately and reach his mouth up for his share; nothing seemed to come amiss; bread, crackers, meat, sugar, and fruit all seemed to be relished. I could tie the halter strap to my leg and lie down to sleep while he would graze around, step over me or lie down by me without ever treading on me. Sometimes when he would lie down he would lay his head in an affectionate if uncomfortable manner upon me, and though it was disagreeable I could never have the heart to push it off. – Ibid.

FRIDAY, JULY 19TH-SATURDAY, 20TH – BERRY’S FERRY, VA. & OVER THE BLUE RIDGE EN ROUTE TO MANASSAS:

played_out_tired_soldiers

The road was full of infantry and artillery and we had to pass through the fields. All night long they marched forward, and we were compelled to encounter the fatigue of constantly crossing ditches and fences and the uneven ground on the side. Hundreds of men from the infantry, who had slipped out of the road to sleep, were scattered about everywhere and we had constantly to be on the lookout to keep from riding over them in the dark. – Ibid., p. 19.

Remembered one cavalryman on the trek:
I was famishing when we halted for rest, but just then a man passed by with a huge bullfrog he had just caught in a creek we had crossed and he told me I might have it if I liked as he would not eat one for all the world. It was but the work of a few moments to kindle a fire, dress the frog and broil him, not the hind legs, but the whole body; it was delicious and quite enough to serve as a pretty good meal. . . I had been in saddle all the day before and all the night, and without food during that time, except the bullfrog – Ibid, p. 20.
More. . .

As all this was going on, the telegraphed exchange between Federal Gen. Patterson and his understandably peeved superior, General Scott was:

Patterson: Shall I attack?
General Scott: I have certainly been expecting you to beat the enemy, or that you at least had occupied him by threats and demonstrations. You have been at least his equal and I suppose superior in numbers. – Battles and Leaders Vol. 1, footnote, pp. 182-183.

Newton Baker’s company commander, William Morgan, writes his wife, Anna Jacquelin:

My Dearest Wife:
We left the neighborhood of Winchester very suddenly and marched day and night for the (Manassas) Junction – which we reached on Saturday. We camped that night on what was the battlefield the next day. . .

July_1861_moon

SUNDAY, JULY 21st, 1861 – BLACKBURN’S & MITCHELL’S FORD VICINITY:

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The first major battle of the Civil War began early, while Col. Jackson’s units and Stuart’s cavalry waited for orders calling them into battle.

Men in the nearby Clarke County Cavalry (soon to be merged into the Virginia 6th Cavalry) scorned and derided an order to wear identifying strips of cloth to set their motley collection of uniforms apart from those of the enemy in battle. Wrote one: . . . the regiments having formed into line, great bolts of white cotton were brought out, which the officers tore into strips, and we tied a piece around our hats and another to our left arms. Opie, p. 26.
More. . .

This measure would turn out to be prescient as mistaking the foe-for-friend was a decisive fact several times in the day’s battle, even for Stuart, when he mistook Federals for his men; also when a Federal battery commander in the vicinity of Stuart’s charging cavalry fatefully took the fast approaching 33rd Virginia Infantry under Col. William Lee of Shepherdstown, for arriving support Federals. His moment’s hesitation in reacting to the charge cost many lives and the battery was captured.

THE FACE OFF, THE FLANKING AND THE FEDERAL FIASCO:

Morgan wrote Anna Jacquelin:
Sunday bright and early, by dawn the conflict began with the booming of artillery and the sharp reports of musketry, mingled with the hoarse commands given by the officers, the screams of the dying horses and the groans of the wounded which was kept up without intermission . . . – Morgan – More. . .

Recalled one of Stuart’s men:
About daylight I was awakened by Col. Stuart’s springing up and exclaiming, “Hello! What is that?” It was rapid musketry firing away off several miles on our left . . .The horses were fed and we took breakfast, and wishing to know something of the country, our Colonel then took us on a scout across the Bull Run. . . . It not being a part of Stuart’s plan to make an attack, he re-crossed the Bull Run and here we remained until about two o’clock.

He continued:
A skirt of woods hid the battlefield from our view, but occasionally a shell would burst high in the air, and sometimes the wind wafted the clouds upward above the trees, the roar of conflict becoming louder and louder. Stuart was uneasy for fear that he would not be called into action. – Blackford, p. 26.

First_Bull_Run_July21_1400


Their task was to prevent the Federals from turning Col. Thomas J. Jackson’s threatened left flank.

The state of the battle at two o’clock was this:
The slaughter had ebbed and flowed over rolling terrain. The arrival of Johnstons’s men (Jackson and Stuart) to help the Confederate line and the wearing effects on new Federal troops of much marching prior to battle were gradually combining to begin turning the battle to the Confederates. Two key events involving the unauthorized charge by the 33rd Virginia Infantry and ordered charges by Stuart cavalrymen, including Company F, to protect Col. Jackson’s threatened left flank – had the initial effect of breaking the line of the Federals and, as time passed, gave added pressure to what transformed a fixable break-down of the Federal offensive, into an unforeseen outcome for the day.

2 PM – STUART’S ROLE UNFOLDS:

The day’s fighting had many deadlocked moments and then turning points. The sequence beginning at 2 PM in which the 33rd Virginia charged and briefly took Ricketts’ powerful battery, timed with Stuart’s 1st Cavalry sabotaging the support regiment coming to aid Rickett’s – conspired to begin a spreading confusion, then panicked flight of larger and larger numbers of green Federal troops – a change in morale that escalated and gave the Confederates the field strewn with valuable arms and goods.

Stuart_ManassasMap_2.30PM_July_21_1861

. . . About two o’clock Stuart was striding backwards and forwards in great impatience. Presently we saw a staff officer dash out of the woods and come spurring towards us. The men all sprang to their feet and began tightening their saddle girths, for we had a presentiment he was coming for us. The supreme moment had come at last. Col. Stuart stepped forward to meet the officer. The officer reined up his horse and with a military salute, said: “Col. Stuart, General Beauregard directs that you bring your command into action at once and that you attack that you attack where the firing is hottest.”

The bugle sounded “boots and saddles” and in a moment more we were moving off at a trot in a column of fours. . . Upon reaching the edge of the wood a view of the battle burst upon us, and Stuart halted to take a look. Smoke in dense white clouds lit up by lurid flashes from the cannon wrapped the position of the artillery .

THE FLANK:

. . . about seventy yards distant, and in the head of the column as the grand panorama opened before us, and there right in front, and in strong relief against the smoke beyond, stretched a brilliant line of scarlet – a regiment of New York Zouaves in columns of fours, marching out of the Sudley road to attack the flank of our line of battle.

Dressed in scarlet caps and trousers, blue jackets with a fringe with quantities of gilt buttons, and white gaiters, with a fringe of bayonets swaying above them as they moved, their appearance was indeed magnificent. . . there were about five hundred men in sight – they were all looking toward the battlefield and did not see us.

. . . Just then, however, all doubt was removed by the appearance of their colors, emerging from the road – the Stars and Stripes. I shall never forget the feeling with which I regarded this emblem of our country so long beloved and now seen for the first time in the hands of a mortal foe.

THE FACE OFF:
The instant the flag appeared, Stuart ordered the charge, and at them we went like an arrow from a bow.. . . . Half the distance was passed before they saw the avalanche coming upon them, but then they came to a “front face” – a long line of bright muskets was leveled – a sheet of red flame gleamed, and we could see no more.- Ibid, pp. 28-29.

Five hundred men of the 11th New York Zouaves leaving Sudley Road and cutting into a wooded area towards the fight at Ricketts’ battery with the 33rd Virginia Infantry, stopped – and turned upon seeing Stuart’s cavalrymen coming and fired their leveled guns. Capt. Welby Carter’s horse sprang forward and rolled over dead. . . . and seventeen other charging horses.

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Our cavalry, that is one or two companies suffered a good deal – two whole front ranks went down as they entered the enemies’ lines, myself and company were in the very center of their ranks. The balls flying thick all around, apparently as thick as hail and yet strange to say there was no one killed . . . Morgan.

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It seemed strange that the fire from five hundred muskets, at thirty yards, should not have been more effective, but they had to shoot in a hurry and they were no doubt a little nervous . . . – Blackford, p. 31.

The smoke which wrapped them from our sight also hid us from them, and thinking perhaps that we had been swept away by the volley, they, instead of coming to a “charge bayonet,” lowered their pieces to load, and in this position we struck them. The tremendous impetus of horses at full speed broke through and scattered their line like chaff before the wind. – Ibid., pp. 29-30.

Owing to the dust and smoke which made vision impenetrable, the enemy did not see us until we were among them. With our pistols and sabers we charged them through and returned, cutting and riding them down in every direction. The charge was made just in the nick of time for believe me we were whipped beyond doubt, but our cavalry charge decided the fate of the day. – Morgan.

THE FEDERAL FIASCO:

800px-MNBPRickettsBatteryPainting7

We charged back taking their line in the rear at another place, but they had begun to break and scatter clear down to the Sudley road before we reached them; all order was gone and it became a general melee or rather a chase. – Blackford, p. 30.

The Fire Zouaves were completely paralyzed by this charge, and though their actual loss in killed and wounded was not very great, their demoralization was complete. The arrest of their dangerous move upon the exposed flank of our mainline of battle was a result of the utmost importance. Our loss was nine men and eighteen horses killed. – Ibid., p. 31.
More. . .

. . . two or three of us were slightly wounded, myself among the number – three or four horses were shot and bayoneted by the Zouaves – my wound was caused by the jam of horses and men and has ceased to give me any trouble. It was in the knee of my right leg; in an hour I had forgotten it. In my first letter I did not mention it, for the reason it was not worth notice, so you need not be at all uneasy — for I assume I am in perfect health now. My horse, George, behaved nobly, never flinching at any time. – Morgan

MONDAY, JULY 22nd – A SOBERING SCENE . . . WITH “TREATS”:

The following morning – Monday, July 22nd, Baker and his cousins saw the evidence of the previous day, wandering mute among the carnage while also finding treats to keep, much to the fleeting consternation of their commander.

Wm_A_Morgan_D


Wrote Morgan to wife Anne Jacquelin:
Seeing so much blood and carnage (I) soon became used to it, and my curiosity was only to know what sort of wound the poor wretch had received to kill him. There are dead men everywhere – all around – some crawled into the bushes and died, some went a mile or two and died, everywhere are the dead, – and the whole country smells so very offensively that no one can stay in it or near that region. Our loss in officers has been severe. You have no idea of the plunder that was taken – 500 wagons would not hold it – arms – 40 odd pieces of artillery – numbers of elegant horses – any quantity of provisions and clothing, fancy articles, etc.

Our boys (in Company F) are literally loaded down and I had to scold them for having so much about them – they all turned out in new clothes of the finest kind – most of them had more clothes now than they ever had. When I started from Winchester, I had but one shirt, and that on my back, and after wearing it a week and a half, it was of course ready for a change – and seeing quantities of nice new shirts lying around I just appropriated one to myself. We have quantities of overcoats, in addition to all our other traps.

Wrote another of the “haul of booty” that even included a pile of bacon higher than a house:
By stepping or jumping from one thing to another of what had been thrown away in the stampede, I could have gone long distances without ever letting my foot touch the ground, and over a belt forty or fifty yards wide on each side of the road. – Blackford, p. 32.

Thomas P. Rossiter (American painter, 1818-1871) The Rural Post Office 1857


As the news of the great battle began to filter out to the world at large, families in the eastern Panhandle waited for word of their sons. We don’t know if Newton Baker wrote Father Elias and Mother Susan. But they waited for any news.

While Newton may well have been keen on a new shirt he drew from the plunder on the battlefield, a deeper impression was left in him – as he and the others passed through a hospital area to their first battle charge – from the scene of the wounded under the fierce care of doctors – then followed this aftermath Monday, when strewn everywhere were those who died in the worst ways – all such impressions stayed with Newton, so that he would spend the rest of his postwar life in Martinsburg as a family doctor.

Wrote one:
It was our fate, however, to pass through a sickening ordeal before reaching the field. Along a shady little valley through which our road lay, the surgeons had been plying their vocation all the morning upon the battlefield. Tables about breast high had been erected upon which screaming victims were having legs and arms cut off. The surgeons and their assistants, stripped to the waist and all bespattered with blood, stood around, some holding the poor fellows, while others armed with long bloody knives and saws cut and sawed away with frightful rapidity, throwing the mangled limbs on a pile near by as soon as removed. – Ibid, p. 27.

Newton_D_Baker_D


BAKER, NEWTON DIEHL: b. Washington County, Md. 10/3/41. 5’6″ fair complexion, brown hair, blue eyes. attended Wittenberg College one year; clerk Shepherdstown post office, Jefferson County; enlisted in the 1st Virginia Cavalry Charles Town 6/15/61 as Pvt. in Co. F. Present until detached to Gainesville 12/10/61. Captured Smithfield 5/31/63. Sent to Ft. McHenry. Exch. 6/63. Promoted 2nd Corp. Present until detailed as ordinance Sgt. of regt 11/15/63. Horse killed 8/19/64. Wounded leg Fishers Hill 9/22/64. Paroled Winchester 4/23/65. Medical school 1868; surgeon for the B&O railroad. d. Martinsburg 1909. – Driver, Robert J. (1991). “1st Virginia Cavalry.” Lynchburg, Va.: H. E. Howard, Inc. Print. More . . .

1. NEWTON BAKER’S “MOST” DIVIDED CLAN (Pt. 1 of 4) by Jim Surkamp
2. NEWTON BAKER “SEES THE ELEPHANT” MANASSAS, VA (Pt. 2 of 4) (above) by Jim Surkamp
3. NEWTON BAKER’S LIFE IN THE FAMED FIRST VIRGINIA CAVALRY 1861-1865 (Pt. 3 of 4) by Jim Surkamp
4. NEWTON BAKER’S REMARKABLE SON (Pt. 4 of 4) by Jim Surkamp

References:

Ballard, Ted. (2007). “Battle of First Bull Run.” Washington, D.C.: Center for Military History, United States Army. Print.

“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 1.” Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co. Print.

Battles and Leaders. Vol. 1.” Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010.
pp. footnote, pp. 182-183.
More. . .

Blackford, William W. (1945). “War Years with Jeb Stuart.” New York, NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons. Print.

Blackford, William W. (1945). “War Years with Jeb Stuart.” Google Books. 19 July 2008. Web. 24 Dec. 2010.

Driver, Robert J. (1991). “1st Virginia Cavalry.” Lynchburg, Va.: H. E. Howard, Inc. Print.

Eggleston, George Cary. (1875). “A Rebel’s Recollections.” New York, NY: Hurd & Houghton. Print.

Eggleston, George Cary. (1875). “A Rebel’s Recollections.” unc.edu 27 April 1997 Web 27 December 2015.

Battles and Leaders Vol. 1, footnote, pp. 182-183.

Stuart had 334 men in his command on June 30, 1861 according to the Official Record of the War of the Rebellion. Series 1 – Volume 2 – Chapter IX.
Author: United States. War Dept., John Sheldon Moody, Calvin Duvall Cowles, Frederick Caryton Ainsworth, Robert N. Scott, Henry Martyn Lazelle, George Breckenridge Davis, Leslie J. Perry, Joseph William Kirkley. p. 187. Cornell Digital Library 28 August 2004 Web. 10 July 2011.

Dennis Frye, Chief Historian, Harpers Ferry National Historic Park.

VIDEOS OF DENNIS FRYE, DESCRIBING THE MARCH TO AND BATTLE OF MANASSAS/BULL RUN:

Frye, Dennis. “2 Brothers Die at Manassas.” American Military University Civil War Scholars. 1 July 2011 Web. 1 July 2011.
https://web.archive.org/web/20160412011223if_/https://www.youtube.com/embed/5N-VjhIVAUg?feature=oembed

Frye, Dennis. “The 2nd Virginia Infantry at the First Battle of Manassas.” American Military University Civil War Scholars. 1 July 2011 Web. 1 July 2011.
https://web.archive.org/web/20160412011223if_/https://www.youtube.com/embed/Zqj9_mPkSno?feature=oembed

Frye, Dennis. “The March to Manassas.” American Military University Civil War Scholars. 1 July 2011 Web. 1 July 2011.
https://web.archive.org/web/20160412011223if_/https://www.youtube.com/embed/oKQ16AFcVd4?feature=oembed

Getzendanner, Anna Morgan and Morgan Augustine C. “A Boy’s Recollections of the Civil War – 1861-1865.” Shepherdstown, WV: Self-published.

Jackson, Mary Anna. (1895). “Memoirs of Stonewall Jackson.” Louisville, KY: Prentice Press, Courier-Journal Job Print. Co. Print.

Jackson, Mary Anna. (1895). “Memoirs of Stonewall Jackson.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010. p. 175.

Letter from William A. Morgan to his wife Anna Jacquelin from Camp Fairfax Station, July 24, 1861 – Perry Collection, “Bits and Pieces” compiled by Raymond and Natalie Parks, Charles Town Library.

Opie, John N. (1899). “A rebel cavalryman with Lee, Stuart, and Jackson.” Chicago, W. B. Conkey company. Print.

Opie, John N. (1899). “A rebel cavalryman with Lee, Stuart, and Jackson.” hathitrust.org 19 September 2008 Web. 6 January 2016.

Phelps, William W. (1861). “Almanac for the year 1861 being the thirty-second year of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.” (From April 6, 1830). Third edition revised and corrected. Salt Lake City, UT: Desert News office.
Full moons date/times – 1861: 1/26 9:39 AM; 2/24 9:17 PM; 3/26 6:49 AM; 4/24 2:57 PM; 5/31 4:59 AM; 6/29 7:14 PM; 7/29 12:25 PM; 8/28 5:57 AM; 9/26 10:58 AM; 10/26 2:28 AM; 11/25 3:41 AM; 12/24 2:25 PM.

Phelps, William W. (1861). “Almanac for the year 1861 being the thirty-second year of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.” (From April 6, 1830). Third edition revised and corrected. Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011.

The time J.E.B. Stuart had to gallop, not trot from the enemy, as told by Federal officer David Hunter Strother:
CAPT. PERKINS “MEETS” WEST POINT CHUM, J.E.B. STUART
Lieutenant Smith mounted and rode off, followed by a rebel horsemen. Finding himself in a closed lane . . . he turned on his pursuer and exchanged two pistol shots with him, at about twenty paces distance. At the second fire the trooper turned tail and rejoined his company. Smith broke through the fence and retreated on the main body, followed by a mingled shower of oaths and bullets. Captain Perkins of the regular army, commanding a battery of light artillery, was also riding carelessly about half a mile in advance of this battery. He was suddenly accosted by three officers, one of whom exclaimed in a familiar voice and manner:

“Hallo, Perk, I’m glad to see you; what are you doing here?”
The Captain recognizing in the speaker his old West Point chum, J.E. B. Stuart, returned the salute heartily, recalling his college sobriquet: “Why, Beauty, how are you? I didn’t know you were with us.” – “Nor did I know you were on our side,” replied Stuart. “What command have you?” – “There’s my command coming over the hill,” replied Perkins, pointing complaisantly to the well-equipped battery that was approaching with the Union colors displayed. “Oh, the devil!” exclaimed Stuart, wheeling suddenly and plunging into the forest. “Good-by Perk.” – Strother July, 1866, p. 153. (See full citation for Strother below).

Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 33, Issue: 194, July, 1866. Print.

Strother, David H. (July, 1866). “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harpers Magazine. Cornell Digital Library. 7 May 2008. Web. 20 Oct. 2010. p. 142.
p. 153.

1860 Census, Jefferson County, p. 79 – National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)

Compiled by the Bee Line Chapter National Society Daughters of the American Revolution. (1981). “Tombstone Inscriptions – Jefferson County, West Virginia. Hagerstown, MD: HBP, Inc. – p. 182.

11th Infantry Regiment – Civil War
Ellsworth Zouaves; First Fire Zouaves; First Regiment New York Zouaves; U.S. National Guards. (taken from New York in the War of the Rebellion, 3rd ed. Frederick Phisterer. Albany: J. B. Lyon Company, 1912).

Ellsworth Zouaves; First Fire Zouaves; First Regiment New York Zouaves; U.S. National Guards. dmna.ny.gov 10 March 2005 Web. 10 July 2015.

Chewy Morsel #1 Where “The Rebel Yell” First Got Yelled by Jim Surkamp. civilwarscholars.com 20 June 2011 Web 12 January 2016.
232 words. More. . .

Image Credits:

Thomas P. Rossiter (American painter, 1818-1871) The Rural Post Office 1857.

Thomas Waterman Wood (American painter, 1823-1903) Collecting the Mail at the Village Post Office 1873. b-womeninamericanhistory19.blogspot.com

The Village Post Office
Thomas Waterman Wood – 1873; Owner/Location:Private collection; Dates: 1873. Member rocsdad on 30 April 2005.

12th New York Regiment, Engineers at Camp Anderson, 1861.” New York State Military Museum and Veterans Research Center. NYS Division of Military and Naval Affairs. dmna.ny.gov 10 March 2005 Web. 10 July 2015.

George Cary Eggleston
frontispiece. Eggleston, George Cary. (1875). “A Rebel’s Recollections.” New York, NY: Hurd & Houghton. Print.
Eggleston, George Cary. (1875). “A Rebel’s Recollections.” unc.edu 27 April 1997 Web 27 December 2015.

William A. Morgan – A. M. S. Morgan III, University of Virginia Library

David Hunter Strother – The Library of Congress

Wikipedia.org 17 July 2001 Web. 12 July 2013:
General Winfield Scott
J.E.B.Stuart
Thomas J. Jackson

William Blackford
frontispiece.Blackford, William W. (1945). “War Years with Jeb Stuart.” Google Books. 19 July 2008. Web. 24 Dec. 2010.

John N. Opie
frontispiece. Opie, John N. (1899). “A rebel cavalryman with Lee, Stuart, and Jackson.” Chicago, W. B. Conkey company. Print.

Opie, John N. (1899). “A rebel cavalryman with Lee, Stuart, and Jackson.” hathitrust.org 19 September 2008 Web. 6 January 2016.

11th Regiment – NY Volunteer Infantry – Regimental Color – 65” hoist x 76 1/2” fly – Civil War. dmna.ny.gov 10 March 2005 Web. 10 July 2015.

Ellsworth Zouaves
Digital ID: (color film copy transparency) cph 3g05168 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3g05168
Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ppmsca-22382 (digital file from original item) LC-USZC4-5168 (color film copy transparency)
Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA
loc.gov 27 Oct. 2009 Web. 10 Sept. 2015.

Map by Hal Jespersen, www.CWmaps.com
Partial map of the First Battle of Bull Run of the American Civil War. Drawn by Hal Jespersen in Adobe Illustrator. Graphic source file is available at http://www.CWmaps.com/ Hal Jespersen 23:46, 10 August 2007 (UTC). Date: 10 August 2007 (original upload date).

Map by Hal Jespersen, www.CWmaps.com
Partial map of the First Battle of Bull Run of the American Civil War. Drawn by Hal Jespersen in Adobe Illustrator CS5. Graphic source file is available at http://www.CWmaps.com/

Map by Hal Jespersen, www.CWmaps.com
Map of First Battle of Bull Run (2pm, July 21, 1861) of the American Civil War. Drawn in Adobe Illustrator CS5 by Hal Jespersen. Graphic source file is available at http://www.CWmaps.com/

Map by Hal Jespersen, www.CWmaps.com
Map of First Battle of Bull Run (4pm, July 21, 1861) of the American Civil War. Drawn in Adobe Illustrator CS5 by Hal Jespersen. Graphic source file is available at http://www.CWmaps.com/

The Photographic History of The Civil War: in ten volumes, Thousands of Scenes Photographed 1861-65, with Text by many Special Authorities, Volume 2: Two Years of Grim War.
Francis Trevelyan Miller, Ed.

The Conscientious Trooper
Drawings of David Hunter Strother, A&M 2894. wvu.edu.

Title: Map of the Battlefields of Manassas and the surrounding region
Creator: Atkinson, W.G.
Publication Info: Washington : Government Printing Office
Physical Description: 1 map : col.
Plate No.3
Map No.2
Date: 1861
Publication Date: 1891
Note: map ” show[s] the various actions of the 21st July, 1861. between the armies of the Confederacy and the United States” ; hand written in lower right corner- “presented to the city of New Orleans by General G.J. Beauregard Gen C. Comdys”
Series Statement: Series 1. Vol. 2.
Baylor Library Digital Collections. 2 September 2006 Web. 10 July 2011.

English: First Battle of Bull Run, chromolithograph by Kurz & Allison
Date: 1889
Source: Library of Congress
Author: Kurz & Allison
wikipedia.org 17 July 2001 Web. 12 July 2013.

Capture of Ricketts’ Battery, painting by Sidney E. King, National Park Service.
Description: The painting Capture of Ricketts’ Battery, depicting action during the First Battle of Bull Run, one of the early battles in the American Civil War. The painting is oil on plywood, and is displayed in the Henry Hill Visitor Center at Manassas National Battlefield Park.
Date 1964
Source Manassas National Battlefield Park photo (direct image URL [1])
Author Sidney E. King (1906-2002), National Park Service painter

Artist: Winslow Homer (1836–1910)
Title: Defiance: „Inviting a Shot before Petersburg“
Date: 1864
Medium: oil on panel
Dimensions: 30.5 × 45.7 cm (12 × 18 in)
Current location: Detroit Institute of Arts
Credit line: Founders Society Purchase with funds from Dexter M. Ferry, Jr.

“Played Out,” Edwin Forbes. Credit: Library of Congress (cropped)

Newton D. Baker’s “Most” Divided Clan (Pt. 1 of 4) by Jim Surkamp

by Jim Surkamp on February 2, 2016 in Jefferson County

NEWTON D. BAKER’S “MOST” DIVIDED CLAN (Pt. 1 of 4) by Jim Surkamp

Cousins of Co_F_FINAL

SUMMARY:
Each generation rebels against the former. The Bakers of Maryland, Shepherdstown and finally Martinsburg – muddled thru traditional inter-generational discords like a schooner pitching through high seas. Elias Baker one-upped a father who deserted his children by being a good father. His son, antsy nineteen-year-old Newton D. Baker rebelled against his doting father, a soon-to-be appointed federal postmaster in Shepherdstown, by riding off and enlisting in Company F of the First Virginia Cavalry – Confederate – following the recent example of a figurative avalanche of nine of his blood cousins into that same company. Still more cousins would enlist.

Life in a wartime saddle matured him for four years: battles, imprisonment, routine heroics, his wounding, having a fine bay mare shot from under him, (and later, a suspiciously extravagant compensation package for this lost horse offered by a cousin with clout), and, finally, coming home. Bearing witness to so many in need of medical care begat Newton’s post-war calling as a doctor. He finished training, was mentored by Shepherdstown neighbor and physician, John Quigley, who transferred his practice to the young up-and-comer.

But burgeoning ambition called away the next son of a Baker – Newton D. Baker Jr. Reading voraciously and eschewing the stethoscope and his father’s beckoning practice, off Junior went to Cleveland – joking that he was being a carpetbagger invading the Northern states – ascending a skyward ladder to heights of acclaim unprecedented for the Bakers. He was the progressive mayor of Cleveland; then, after more promotions, President Woodrow Wilson approached his fellow Virginian and appointed Newton D. Baker, Jr. to be our Secretary of War, managing the best he could the American role in the calamitous First World War. Today we have the Newton D. Baker Veterans’ Hospital in Martinsburg to his fond memory.

THE BAKERS’ REGENERATION:

The Bakers once of Shepherdstown were busy each generation rebelling in full measure from the former. Each time, the new generation would reckon a new guiding star deemed a wiser calling than their parents.

The Baker generations progressed from a single outcast, who led one Baker generation, then to another family member, three cycles later, who was even considered in 1932 a potential candidate for the Presidency.

GENERATION 1: THE UNFORGIVEN ELIAS BAKER, SR. (1785-1863) IN BAKERESVILLE, WASHINGTON COUNTY, MD.:

Elias_Baker_Sr_Unforgiven

Called by one family biographer, C. H. Cramer, “a soft spot in the family tree,” he wrote: “(They) could take no pride in this Elias Baker, an Englishman, who settled about 1760 in Maryland near the later site of the battle of Antietam. There Elias married, started a family (ten boys and five girls), and then deserted it.” – Cramer, p. 15.

GENERATION 2: ELIAS BAKER, JR. (1811-1867) – FAMILY MAN, SADDLER AND POSTMASTER:

Van_Clevesville_Saddles_Baker

Starting anew, Elias Baker, Jr. left Bakersville, Maryland, the family’s ancestral lands, and crossed the Potomac to Berkeley County, Va. He found his lifemate, Mary Ann Billmyer (1816-1896) living at the Millbrook farm, one of thirteen children to her prosperous parents, Martin and Susan Billmyer. She and her siblings were struggling with their farms after the death in the mid-1830s of both their parents.

She and Elias married November, 1840 and first lived in Appomatox County, Elias making and fixing saddles. The next decade brought the deaths of three of Mary Ann’s older brothers and a sister, while their own young family grew by two sons and a daughter. The first-born in 1841 had brown hair and blue eyes and he was named Newton Diehl Baker, who this story is about.

The Bakers moved in March, 1850 to Van Clevesville and closer to her large family. Susan Baker’s parents and older brothers had grown wheat and had a booming business at their own mill across the road from their home. This much-in-demand ground wheat would be carried across the toll bridge that Mary Ann’s brother, David, largely owned at Shepherdstown and was shipped by canal boats to Georgetown and overseas buyers.

The_Shepherdstown-Bakers_1850s

In March, 1857, they came to Shepherdstown and Mary Ann Baker used family inheritance to buy out brother David’s boat store at the northeast corner of Church and German Street.

In March, 1858, she also bought – seven, quick-succession doors to the west on German Street – what would become the Baker residence well into the 20th century – room enough for their family of eight children: Newton, Ann Katherine, Cora Louise, Martin Billmyer, Solomon Elmer, William Elias Fink, Alban Howard, and Henry Seaton. – A. D. Kenamond, “Prominent Men of Shepherdstown 1762-1962.” p. 21.

WAR CLOUDS AND GENERATION GAPS:

The John Brown raid and trial in October, 1859 and the subsequent hangings of seven of the raiders up to March, 1860 set the stage for the presidential election that coming fall. According to Andrew Hunter, the prosecutor in the John Brown trial, the fright that came to locals with the John Brown raid was that it was, to them really, the overture to what they plainly called The War Against Slavery. – Andrew Hunter. Sept 5, 1887 New Orleans Times Democrat.

Lincoln’s election in November, 1860 and the Deep South states’ seceding despite Lincoln’s warnings – brought the nation and Jefferson Countians to the edge of the precipice.

In Shepherdstown, the older generation, born around 1800 – such as Dr. John and Mary Quigley, Elias and Susan Baker, and even Robert E. Lee’s first cousin, Edmund Jennings Lee – strongly voiced their opposition to any such plan for Virginia to secede from the Union.

Netta_Edmund_D

The daughter of Edmund J. Lee, teen-aged Henrietta Edmonia or “Netta,” wrote later of a run-in in early 1861 between her father and brother Edmund:
I remember very vividly a gathering when Uncle Charles Lee was present. He was my father’s younger brother and a lawyer by profession. He came from Washington to consult Father regarding his resignation of the position he was holding in one of the departments of the United States government.

Two_Lees_D

My brother, Edmund, Jr. and a boy of about fifteen years, who was standing by during the conversation, said: “Why Uncle Charles, could you not get the same position in the Confederate States government?” Father turned quickly, saying: “You young rascal,” strongly emphasizing the broad “a” as was his habit, “let me hear you talk about any Confederate States and I will skin you!” – Diary of Nettie Lee, pp. 4-5.

mar_1861_moon

When war became unavoidable, David Hunter Strother of Martinsburg, who was a Unionist from another divided family and later an officer in the Federal army, was observing the moods of Jefferson County’s people. The younger were excited but: “I thought I could discern in the eyes of some of the older and wiser (African-Americans) a gleam of anxious speculation – a silent and tremulous questioning of the future. . . There were also some among the white citizens who stood aloof in silence and sadness, protesting against the proceeding by an occasional bitter sigh or significant sneer, but nothing more.

But the thirst for adventure was almost unquenchable among the young, having been prepared for adventure their entire lives.

Wrote one of these young local cavalrymen in later years:
Young men of the present day, who flourish in fine buggies, smoke cigars and cigarettes, part their hair in the middle, and occasionally greet “inspiring bold John Barley Corn,” can ill appreciate the pastimes and pleasures of the youth of a generation ago, when the horse, the gun, and the dog were the ne plus ultra of masculine aspirations. Those good old days of innocent sports and recreations, are still valued as the brightest and happiest in life. Alas! of our little group, that often chased the squirrel from tree-to-tree and made the forests ring with volleys of musketry, or startled the partridge from its repose in the fields, but two are left to tell the tale. That acquaintance with the horse, which began in early childhood, soon ripened into affection, and the horse and rider were one in life and action. – Baylor, p. 15.
NOTE “inspiring, bold John Barley Corn” is taken from Robert Burns’ poem “Tam O-Shanter.” POEM’S FULL TEXT UNDER “REFERENCES.”

Wrote another local man who joined the Federal cause:

David_Hunter_Strother_D

Horses and firearms are their playthings from childhood. Impatient of the restraints of school houses and work shops they seek life and pleasure in the soil, and thus early learn the topography of nature, the ways of the fields and forests, swamps, and mountains. Their social and political life, but little restrained by law or its usage, develops a vigorous individuality. For the most part, ignorant of the luxuries and refinements of cities, they prefer bacon and Scotch whisky to venison and champagne. Tall, athletic, rough, and full of fire and vitality, the half-horse, half-alligator type still predominates . . .
Strother, p. 6.

Young men, who from the moment their feet could reach the stirrups were attuned for adventure and to the dismay of their sober parents, quickly responded to the call to arms when President Lincoln put out a call for 75,000 volunteers to bring all the seceding states back. By mid-April, 1861, young men in Virginia had to choose to be one of those volunteers or rebel. While about 128 African Americans from the County would join the United States Colored Troops, some Unionist County boys who were white left the area to escape the threats of imprisonment and more from the area firebrand, Turner Ashby. But most of the young men rebelled.

Wrote one who witnessed events in Charlestown, Va.:
Alas! poor boy, what sense of duty or prudent counsels could hold him in the whirl of this moral maelstrom? What did he care for the vague terror of an indictment for treason, or the misty doctrine of Federal supremacy? What did he know of nationality beyond the circle of friends and kindred? What was his sneaking, apologetic, unsympathetic life worth after all?

But according to my judgment the greater number of these young volunteers were moved neither by social pressure nor political prejudice. The all-pervading love of adventure and fighting instincts were the most successful recruiting officers of the occasion. For they had heard of battles, and had longed to follow to the field some warlike lord – so at the first roll of the drum they rushed cheerily from school house and office, counter and work shop, field and fireside, earnest, eager, reckless fellows, marching with a free and vigorous step, sitting their horses like wild Pawnees, most admirable material for a rebellion, just as good soldiers for the Government if perchance the rub-a-dub of the Union drums had first aroused their martial ardor. – Strother, Excerpted from “Personal Recollections of the War,” from “Harper’s New Monthly Magazine,” July, 1866, Vol. XXXIV, p. 141.

WHAT THE YOUNG LADIES THOUGHT WAS DECISIVE:

While there were still a few men found who stubbornly struggled against the sweeping current, the women of all ages and conditions threw themselves into it without hesitation or reserve. His schoolmates and companions who had already donned ‘the gray’ scarce concealed their scorn. His sisters, rallied, reproached, and pouted, blushing to acknowledge his ignominy. His Jeannette, lately so tender and loving, now refused his hand in the dance, and, passing him with nose in air, bestowed her smiles and her bouquet upon some gallant rival with belt and buttons. Day-after-day he saw the baskets loaded with choice viands, roasted fowls, pickles, cakes, and potted sweetmeats, but not for him. Wherever he went there was a braiding of caps and coats, a gathering of flowers and weaving of wreaths, but none for him – no scented and embroidered handkerchiefs waved from carriage-windows as he rode by. The genial flood of social sympathy upon which he had hitherto floated so blandly had left him stranded on the icy shore. Then come the cheering regiments with their drums and banners, the snorting squadrons of glossy prancing steeds the jingling of knightly spurs, the stirring blast of the trumpets. There they went – companionship, love, life, glory, all sweeping by to Harper’s Ferry! – Strother, Excerpted from “Personal Recollections of the War,” from “Harper’s New Monthly Magazine,” July, 1866, Vol. XXXIV, p. 141.

civilwar-introww-sewing

Sewing societies were organized, and delicate hands which had never before engaged in ruder labor than the hemming of a ruffle now bled in the strife with gray jeans and tent cloth. Haversacks, knapsacks, caps, jackets, and tents were manufactured by hundreds and dozens.

dhs_july_1866_havelock_p_141

The gift most in vogue from a young lady to her favored knight was a headdress imitated from those worn by the British troops in India and called a Havelock, (that Gen. Jackson later forebade because it made his men easier targets.-ED). Laden with musket, sabre, pistol, and bowie-knife, no youth considered his armament complete unless he had one of these silly clouts stretched over his hat.

Woe to the youth who did not need a Havelock; who, owing to natural indisposition or the prudent counsel of a father or a friend, hesitated to join the army of the South. The curse of Clan Alpin on those who should prove recreant to the sign of the fiery cross was mere dramatic noise compared with the curse that blighted his soul. – Ibid. p. 141.

Moler_Men_recruits

Many of these young men, including several men from the Moler clan were in the line that first, fateful day on April 18, 1861, when the local militia assembled to seize the federal armory, with the inked signatures still damp in Richmond on the voted document by Virginia to secede. The armory burned before they seized it, but hard drilling began just days later at Bolivar Heights, under the unknown, erstwhile professor at Virginia Military Institute, Col. Thomas Jonathan Jackson.

THURSDAY, APRIL 18, 1861 – SHEPHERDSTOWN, VA – PRESSURE MOUNTS ON NEWTON BAKER TO ENLIST IN THE CONFEDERATE CAVALRY:

That day, nine of Newton’s cousins rode away from their farm steads in Berkeley and Jefferson County to join Company F of the newly-formed Shepherdstown Troop of 1st Virginia Cavalry, commanded by 6’2” slender, dark-haired, full-bearded 37-year-old William Augustine Morgan, who lived with his family at their home, Falling Springs, just south of Shepherdstown.

Newton’s cousins joining that day – called Company F – all were the sons of siblings of his mother: brothers Conrad Billmyer (1797–1847); John Joseph Billmyer (1802–1845), sisters Judith Billmyer Koontz (1795-1856); Susan Billmyer McQuilkin (1798-1873); and Esther Mary Billmyer Lemen (1800-1887). Other cousins followed, joining both North and South. (See “References”)

Cousins of Co_F_FINAL

So many from the family were in Company F, it at times seemed their own. The first cousins to enlist were (with service record summaries):
– Snyder, Vivian P. (1999). Twenty First Cousins in the Civil War. Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society. Vol. LXV. pp. 47-51; Driver, Robert J. (1991). “1st Virginia Cavalry.” Lynchburg, Va.: H. E. Howard, Inc. Print. – More. . .

1. BILLMYER, JAMES M.: b. Va. 12/4/1836. 5’11’, fair complexion, brown hair, hazel eyes. Merchant, Shepherdstown PO, Jefferson Co. 1860 census. enl. Shepherdstown 4/18/61 Co. F as 1st Sgt. 1st Virginia Cav. Horse killed Bull Run 7/21/61. Present through 1/6/62. To 2nd Lt. Present through 5/1/62. Not re-elected. Re-enl. Pvt. Fredericksburg 8/1/63. Present through 8/64. Acting Adjutant of Regt. 2/12/65. Paroled Winchester 4/27/65. d. 2/20/1913. bur. Berkeley County. – Service Record; Snyder. 1860 Census.

2. BILLMYER, JOHN T.: b. Va. 1/11/32. 5’8′, fair complexion, dark hair, grey eyes. 1st Lt., Co. F. Deputy Sheriff, Vanclevesville PO, Berkeley Co. 1860 census. enl. Shepherdstown 4/18/61 as Sgt. 1st Virginia Cav. Present until detached with baggage trains 3/4/62. Present through 10/20/62. Elected 2nd Lt. To 1st Lt. Present until WIA Five Forks 4/1/65. Paroled Mt. Jackson 4/18/65. d. 3/26/74. bur. Elmwood Cem. Shepherdstown. – Service Record; Snyder, p. 48.

3. BILLMYER, MILTON J.: b. Va. 10/10/34. Farmer, Jefferson Co. 6′, fair complexion, light hair, blue eyes. Captain, Co. F. 1st Virginia Cav., Vanclevesville PO, Berkeley Co. 1860 census. enl. Shepherdstown 4/18/61 as Pvt. Present through 7/1/61, appointed 1st Lt. Present through 10/12/62. elected Captain. Present until WIA (left thigh) Haw’s Shop 5/28/64. Absent wounded in Richmond hospital until furloughed for 30 days 7/14/64. Present Appomattox. Paroled Winchester 4/27/65. d. near Shepherdstown, W.Va. 8/31/07. bur. Elmwood Cem. – Service Record; Snyder, p. 48.

4. LEMEN, JOHN JAMES ALEXANDER: b. Va. 11/19/39. 5’7″. fair complexion, dark hair, grey eyes. Farmhand, Charles Town PO, Jefferson Co. 1860 census. enl. Shepherdstown Co. F. 4/18/61 as Pvt. 1st Virginia Cav. Present until captured 7/61. Exch. Present 9/62. Captured Smithfield 5/31/63. Sent to Ft. Monroe. Exch. 6/5/63. Present until absent sick in Richmond hospital 8/24/64. Released 6/30/64. d. 1/10/71. bur. Elmwood Cem. Shepherdstown, W.Va. – Service Record; Snyder, p. 48. 1860 Census.

5. LEMEN, THOMAS THORNTON.: b. Va. 8/15/42. Student, Charles Town PO, Jefferson Co. 1860 census. enl. Co. F Shepherdstown 4/18/61 1st Virginia Cav. Pvt. Present until WIA Aldie 6/17/63. POW Middleburg d. 6/20/63. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown. – Service Record; Snyder, p. 48. 1860 Census.

6. LEMEN, WILLIAM THORNBURG: b. Va. 6/15/35. 5’10”. fair complexion, brown hair, grey eyes. Farmer, Charles Town PO, Jefferson Co. 1860 census. enl. Co. F 1st Virginia Cav. Shepherdstown 4/18/61. Present through 8/61, promoted 3rd Sgt. Present through 8/62, promoted 2nd Sgt. Promoted 1st Sgt 10/20/62. Present 10/63. Present through 8/64. Paroled Winchester 4/18/65. d. near Hedgesville, W.Va. 4/17/99. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va. – Service Record; Snyder, p. 48. 1860 Census.

7. LEMEN, WILLOUGHBY: b. Va. 11/20/44. 5’10”. enlisted 4/18/61 Co. F, 1st Virginia Cav. under William A. Morgan. Present thru to 10/20/1862. Promoted to 1st Sgt. 1st Virginia Cav. Present thru 11/1863. Service records show name change from “William T. Lemen” to Willoughby N. Lemen 11-12-63. Captured 4/65. 12/28/64 promoted to Junior 2nd Lieut. Paroled 4/18/65. d. 7/19/1913. buried Elmwood Cem. – Tombstone Inscriptions, p. 170; Kenamond, p. 74; Service Record (pp. 15-28, start @ p. 15); Snyder, p. 48. 1860 Census.

8.MCQUILKIN, WILLIAM H.: b. Va. 1841. Laborer Charles Town enl. Co. F. Shepherdstown 4/18/61 as Pvt. 1st Virginia Cav. Fell ill with pneumonia and was granted sick furlough August 31st, 1861; sent to hospital December 26th, and died January 6th, 1862 at Manassas. – Service Record; Snyder, p. 48.; 1860 Census.

9. KOONTZ, THORNTON: b. Va. 12/16/21. enl. 4/18/61 Co. F, 1st Va. Cav. Sgt. Present through 4/62. Reassigned under Milton J. Billmyer. Pvt. substitute for Robert K. Wilson. POW paroled 4/18/65. d. 5/12/86. bur. Elmwood Cem. – Tombstone Inscriptions, p. 168. Service Record; Snyder, p. 47. 1860 Census.

APRIL 19, 1861 – Martinsburg: Two more cousins of Newton’s enlist in Company B of the 1st Virginia Cavalry:

10.NOLL, WILLIAM T.: Va. b. 10/2/32. enlisted Co. B, 1st Virginia Cav. Martinsburg 4/19/61, promoted to 2nd lieutenant. Present until 5-6/62 sick. Bay mare killed 8/21/64 Berryville, Va. Present 7/62-4/65. Paroled 4/18/65 Winchester. d. 2/27/03. – Service Record; Snyder, p. 47. 1860 Census.

11. LEMEN, WILLIAM MARTIN: b. Va. 12/6/31. enlisted Co. B, 1st Virginia Cav. Martinsburg 4/19/61. On daily duty attending to the sick. Present until 2/11/62 on furlough. On detached service with regimental medical dept. Paroled 4/26/65 Winchester. d. 5/2/03. Service Record; Snyder, p. 48. 1860 Census.

Apr_1861_moon

OTHER COUSINS ENLIST LATER:

BILLMYER, ROBERT LEMEN (1843-1910) – Another son of Newton’s uncle, Conrad Billmyer (1797–1847), enlisted June 28, 1861 at Shepherdstown:

12.BILLMYER, ROBERT LEMEN: b. Va. 9/25/43, Student, 5’6″. fair complexion, brown hair, hazel eyes. Vanclevesville PO, Berkeley Co. 1860 census. enl. Shepherdstown 6/28/63. Pvt., Co. F. 1st Virginia Cav. Present through 12/63. Absent on detached service 1/25-2/28/64. Present through 8/64. WIA (head) Winebrenner’s Cross Roads near Shepherdstown 9/64. Present Appomattox 4/9/65 and carried flag of truce to the enemy. Paroled Winchester 4/18/65. He lived in the county after the war. d. near Shepherdstown, W.Va. 3/19/10. bur. Elmwood Cem. Service Record; 1860 Census.

Newton’s other uncle, John Joseph Billmyer (1802–1845)’s wife, Eliza Williamson Lemen Billmyer (1806-1886), had two brothers and a sister who provided four more (2 Joneses, 2 Williamsons) enlistees into the 1st Virginia Cavalry and a second brother of Eliza’s provided three soldiers for the Union. – Snyder, pp. 48-51.

Eliza Billmyer’s sister – Mary O. Lemen (1811-1909) married Adrian Wynkoop Jones (1805-1877).- Snyder, p. 49. Their sons who enlisted were:

13. JONES, JOHN REYNOLDS: b. 1844. enl. 8/20/64 Shepherdstown Co. F. 1st Va Cav. under M. J. Billmyer. POW. Paroled 4/21/65 Winchester. d. 1887. – Service Record; 1860 Census.

14. JONES, THOMAS J. or F.: b. 1839 record only confirms being in Co. F. of 1st Va Cavalry. d. 1923. fold3.com 6 September 2011 Web. 1 December 2015. – Service Record; 1860 Census.

Eliza Billmyer’s brother, Jacob, married; they had two sons; Jacob died and his widow raised the two sons with an uncle of Eliza Billmyer’s named Williamson, who adopted the boys. – Snyder, pp. 49-50. The young men enlisted as:

15. WILLIAMSON, MATTHEW WHITE: b. 1845. enl. 8/13/1861 at New Market, Va. with Captain Morgan, Co. F 1st Va. Cavalry. Present sent on detached service 1/20/1864. Present 7-8/64. Paroled 5/9/1865. Winchester. d. 1930. Service Record; 1860 Census.

16. WILLIAMSON, THOMAS LEMEN: b. 1847. Only record is being a prisoner of war, being in Co. F of the 1st Va. Cavalry and having been paroled 4/9/1865 at New Market, Va. Description: height 5’9”, hair: light, eyes: blue. d. 1875. Service Record; 1860 Census.

Eliza Billmyer’s second brother, Robert Lemen (1813-1898) and his wife, Sarah Elizabeth Light (1816-1883), had three sons who went with the Federal Army’s First Maryland Cavalry: In Co. I, Peter (1840-1921); In Co. H, Jacob F. (1842-1922), and Thomas J. (1843-1908). – Snyder, pp. 50-51. The boys enlisted as:

17. LEMEN, PETER L.: b. 1840. 5’9.5” dark complexion, blue eyes, light hair. enl. 9/3/61 Camp Lamon, Williamsport, Md. for three years. Pvt. Capt. Russell’s Co. 1st Va. Cav.(later Co. I. First Md Cav.). 12/30/61 on detached service Williamsport, Md. 5-6/62 detailed at the Ferry at Williamsport on Potomac. 3/9/64 on detached service, clerk in the Provost Marshall’s office Baltimore City, Md. by order of Brig. Gen. Lockwood S.O. No. 61, Par 9. 9/3/64 mustered out, term of service expired. d. 1921. Service Record; 1860 Census.

18. LEMEN, JACOB F.: b. 1842 enl. 9/6/61, mustered in 12/31/61 Williamsport, Md. Pvt. Capt. Zeller’s Co. 1st Reg’t Va. Volunteers (later Co. H. First Md Cav.). Present 1/61-4/63. POW 5-8/63. Present 9/63-12/64. Discharged 12/3/64 term of service expired. d. 1922. Service Record; 1860 Census.

19. LEMEN, THOMAS J.: b. 1843. enl. 9/3/61 Camp Lamon Pvt. Capt. Russell’s Co. 1st Va. Cav.(later Co. I. First Md Cav.) for three years. Present 3-4/62-8/63. Promoted to corporal. 3/26/64 Reduced to Pvt. Present 4/64. 9/3/64 mustered out, term of service expired. d. 1908. – Service Record; 1860 Census.

William Morgan’s son, Augustine, with Mrs. Anna Morgan Getzendanner, recounted that fateful “join-up” day of April 18th, as his father left home:

Wm_A_Morgan_D


For some time, the ominous cloud of war hung over us, only to burst at length with all its stern reality. Though but six years of age, I can clearly recall the great anxiety and gloom that predominated. Owing to my extreme youth, I could not comprehend the fact that we were upon the verge of a great conflict. My parents solemnly conversed in low tones and all about the house seemed confusion for what my father informed me was the getting ready for his departure from home, and with his Company, of which he was Captain, to enter the Confederate Army. He said that there would be a great war and that his services were needed and that he must not shirk his duty. He also told me that I would be the only man left to protect my mother and little sisters. I inquired the meaning of war and Father made me understand – that war was fighting, killing, one army against another, cruel and barbarous but often a necessary evil and unavoidable. In good faith I was ready to accede to my father’s demands and my bosom swelled proudly at the confidence he imposed in me.

The eventful day arrived when my Father mounted upon George, a beautiful grey horse, at the head of his company, left for the war. We stood at the gate, my mother, little sisters and I, also Mammy Liza and Uncle Ned, servants of our home. We waved farewell and Mother wept though she little realized that war would endure for months and years. The parting from Father was painful and the responsibilities of protection of the house and family seemed in my childish idea, a heavy one. Father was a splendid equestrian and sat his horse with ease. Tall and slender, blue of eye, his hair dark as the raven’s wing, my father seemed to me a perfect type of what a soldier should be. – Getzendanner, Anna Morgan and Morgan Augustine C. “A Boy’s Recollections of the Civil War – 1861-1865.” Shepherdstown, WV: Self-published. pp. 1-2.

Morgan’s younger brother, Daniel (1835-1865) who was living on Shepherdstown’s German Street with their widowed mother, enlisted in Co. F the same day as William. Their brother, “Jack” Smith Morgan (1838-?) enlisted in Company F on May 11, 1861. Both in 1862 would seek places in other companies in the 1st Virginia as their brother became the commander of Company F. – Driver, p. 210.

May_1861_moon

SATURDAY, JUNE 15, 1861 – CHARLES TOWN: NEWTON BAKER BREAKS WITH HIS PARENTS AND JOINS MORGAN’S AND HIS COUSINS’ CONFEDERATE COMPANY:

Newton_D_Baker_D

Spending his days clerking in his father’s store that would in a year become the official Federal post office at that northeast corner of Church and German Streets in Shepherdstown, and daily with his mother and his prosperous, pro-Union uncle, David Billmyer – the stark choice weighed heavily upon nineteen-year-old Newton. Five more of his cousins would enlist later in Morgan’s Company F; while, still, three other kin of Newton’s would enlist in the Federal 1st Maryland Cavalry Regiment. – Snyder, pp. 49-51;

On the warm, clear Friday of June 15th, when the encamped Confederate soldiers and cavalry at Harpers Ferry rose to reveille at 4 AM and began leaving, most for Charlestown – up the road, Newton rode a fine bay mare from home toward Charlestown, joining, late that day, Morgan and his cousins at a campsite on the Bullskin Run a few miles south of Charlestown. Newton Baker became Private Baker of Co. F with a lot to learn. – Vairin; Service Record N. D. Baker.

Father Elias was a northern sympathizer and was not pleased to have his son Newton Diehl serving the Confederacy. Father Elias spoke to his son only once during the war. Records suggest that when his son was held prisoner at Fort McHenry, Baltimore, that that was the most likely moment Elias Baker went to bring his exchanged son out of prison. – Kenamond, pp. 21-22; Service Records.

In fact, by 1862 with the townspeople’s sympathies also splitting into two camps, Elias Baker, who would be appointed by President Lincoln to be Shepherdstown’s postmaster, a post he would hold until well after the war, diplomatically split mail delivery duties with his Confederate counterpart and fellow townsmen, Daniel Rentch.

Father Elias Baker’s postmaster job, starting in 1862, almost required him to shun his son.

A biographer of Newton’s son, wrote of the relationship between Elias and Newton when peacetime came:
Elias Baker was devoted to the Union, received an appointment from President Lincoln as postmaster at Shepherdstown, and retained the Federal office throughout the War. Son Newton Baker, as a member of the Cavalry commanded by Jeb Stuart, fought at Gettysburg, was captured, and exchanged to fight again at Richmond. . . but had a tolerant attitude that was one of his strongest qualities. He felt that the War ended with Lee’s surrender and he was willing to accept the Northern victory. Cramer pp. 13-15.

BAKER, NEWTON DIEHL: b. Washington County, Md. 10/3/41. 5’6″ fair complexion, brown hair, blue eyes. attended Wittenberg College one year. clerk Shepherdstown post office, Jefferson County. enlisted in the 1st Virginia Cavalry Charles Town 6/15/61 as Pvt. in Co. F. Present until detached to Gainesville 12/10/61. Captured Smithfield 5/31/63. Sent to Ft. McHenry. Exch. 6/63. Promoted 2nd Corp. Present until detailed as ordinance sgt of regt 11/15/63. Horse killed 8/19/64. Wounded in thigh Fishers Hill 9/22/64. Paroled Winchester 4/23/65. medical school 1868. surgeon for the B&O railroad. d. Martinsburg 1909. – Driver, Robert J. (1991). “1st Virginia Cavalry.” Lynchburg, Va.: H. E. Howard, Inc. Print.

May_1861_moon

HOW COMING WAR DIVIDES, THEN DESTROYS FRIENDSHIPS AND MINDS:

By the month of June the circle of more robust characters that still retained their political sanity was small and diminishing daily. They did not drop off now after long and lingering arguments, painful doubts, rallyings, and relapses as formerly; but a normal mind would fall suddenly into incoherence and frenzy. Principles based upon the education and habits of a lifetime, sustained by the clearest views of interest, the pride of consistency, and every sentiment of honor, would perish in a night, like the gourd of Jonah. This change was easily discernible in the countenance and demeanor of its victims. Yesterday your friend looked in your face with a clear and earnest eye, and discussed questions calmly and logically. To-day he shunned you, his eye was restless and unsteady, his manner painfully excited, his talk full of incoherencies; in a short time you would perceive there was a total absorption of all his previous opinions, idiosyncrasies, social sympathies, and antipathies, moral and intellectual characteristics, in the prevailing frenzy. These phenomena, which at first excited indignation, grief, and amazement, in the course of time ceased to surprise, and became subjects of merriment. Among ourselves we speculated jocosely as to who would go under next; and in the privacy of our own souls entertained the question, whether it was the world around us or ourselves that was mad. It is useful, perhaps, but not the less humiliating to human pride, to test the depth and power of individual principle and will, to ascertain precisely for how many days and hours ones best-founded opinions and most positive convictions will maintain themselves unsupported against the current of society and the menaces of power. From the observations of these few months I have become convinced that no amount of clear conviction, rectitude of purpose, or moral heroism can long maintain a passive defense against the assaults of an active and fiery enthusiasm. Organization must meet organization; passion blaze out against passion; the audacious and unscrupulous spirit of revolution must be counteracted by a spirit as bold and remorseless as itself. The idea is expressed with more point and brevity in the popular epigram, “One must fight the Devil with fire.” The National Government had thus far lost every thing by its temporizing and conciliatory policy. –
Strother, David H. (July, 1866). “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harpers Magazine. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014.

June_1861_moon

1. NEWTON BAKER’S “MOST” DIVIDED CLAN (Pt. 1 of 4) (above) by Jim Surkamp
2. NEWTON BAKER “SEES THE ELEPHANT” MANASSAS, VA (Pt. 2 of 4) by Jim Surkamp
3. NEWTON BAKER’S LIFE IN THE FAMED FIRST VIRGINIA CAVALRY 1861-1865 (Pt. 3 of 4) by Jim Surkamp
4. NEWTON BAKER”S REMARKABLE SON (Pt. 4 of 4) by Jim Surkamp

References:

Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.” Richmond, VA: B. F. Johnson Publishing. Print.

Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011. p. 15.

Cramer, C. H. (1961). “Newton D. Baker, a biography.” Cleveland, OH: World Pub. Co. Print.

Cramer, C. H. (1961). “Newton D. Baker, a biography.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011.

Driver, Robert J., Jr. (c 1991). “1st Virginia Cavalry.” Lynchburg, VA: H. E. Howard Inc. Print.

“The Old Franklin Almanac No. 2 for 1861.” Philadelphia, PA: Haslett & Winch.

“The Old Franklin Almanac No. 2 for 1861.” hathitrust.org 13 October 2008 Web. 10 December 2015.

Getzendanner, Anna Morgan and Morgan Augustine C. “A Boy’s Recollections of the Civil War – 1861-1865.” Shepherdstown, WV: Self-published. pp. 1-2.

Elias Baker was the Shepherdstown postmaster from 1862 until his death in May, 1867. Appointed by President Lincoln, he was a northern sympathizer and was not pleased to have his son Newton Diehl serving the Confederacy. Father Elias spoke to his son only once during the war. When the son was wounded in the leg and was held prisoner at Fort McHenry, Baltimore, the father went to see him. – Kenamond, A. D. (1963). “Prominent Men of Shepherdstown During Its First 200 Years.” Charles Town, WV: A Jefferson County Historical Society. pp. 21-22.

Lee, Henrietta Edmonia. (1925). “The Recollections of Netta Lee,” Alexandria, VA: The Society of the Lees of Virginia. Print. pp. 4-5.
More. . .

New Orleans Times Democrat, Sept. 5, 1887.

Phelps, William W. (1861). “Almanac for the year 1861 being the thirty-second year of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.” (From April 6, 1830). Third edition revised and corrected. Salt Lake City, UT: Desert News office.
Full moons date/times – 1861: 1/26 9:39 AM; 2/24 9:17 PM; 3/26 6:49 AM; 4/24 2:57 PM; 5/31 4:59 AM; 6/29 7:14 PM; 7/29 12:25 PM; 8/28 5:57 AM; 9/26 10:58 AM; 10/26 2:28 AM; 11/25 3:41 AM; 12/24 2:25 PM.

Phelps, William W. (1861). “Almanac for the year 1861 being the thirty-second year of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.” (From April 6, 1830). Third edition revised and corrected. Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011.

Snyder, Vivian P. (1999). Twenty First Cousins in the Civil War. Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society. Vol. LXV. pp. 47-51.

The recruits from the Baker-Billmyer-Lemen family were the children of the children of Johann Martin Billmyer 1767–1839, and Susanna Elizabeth NICODEMUS 1770–1835. Besides Newton’s mother, her siblings were brothers Conrad Billmyer (1797–1847) and John Joseph Billmyer (1802–1845); sisters, Elizabeth Billmyer Noll (1792-1873), Judith Billmyer Koontz (1795-1856), Susan Billmyer McQuilkin (1798-1873), and Esther Mary Billmyer Lemen (1800-1887). John Joseph Billmyer would marry Eliza Williamson Lemen Billmyer (1806-1886) and her siblings – sister Mary Jones (1811-1909), brother Jacob (1811-?), and brother Robert Lemen (1813-1898) – provided seven more recruits: two Confederate,two Confederate, and three Federal respectively – Snyder pp. 47-51; Service records.

Johann Martin BILLMYER
BIRTH 22 DEC 1767 • Frederick, Frederick, Maryland, USA
DEATH 19 FEB 1839 • Shepherdstown, Jefferson, West Virginia, USA
ancestry.com 28 October 1996 Web. 4 September 2012.

Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 33, Issue: 194, July, 1866. Print.

Strother, David H. (July, 1866). “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harpers Magazine. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014. Strother, David H. (July, 1866). “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harpers Magazine. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014.
p. 138.
p. 144.

Vairin, Augustus L. P. “Civil War Diary of Augustus L. P. Vairin 2nd Mississippi Infantry, C.S.A.” (Originals available for review or copies purchased from the Mississippi Department of Archives and History).

Vairin, Augustus. “Civil War Diary of Augustus L. P. Vairin 2nd Mississippi Infantry, C.S.A.” 25 June 1998 Web. 26 June 2011.

“Inspiring, bold John Barley Corn” is taken from
Robert Burns’ poem “Tam O-Shanter.” genius.com. 26 June 1997 Web. 5 January 2016.

Tam O’Shanter by Robert Burns

When chapmen billies leave the street,
And drouthy neibors, neibors meet
As market days are wearing late,
An’ folk begin to tak the gate;
While we sit bousing at the nappy,
And getting fou and unco happy,
We think na on the lang Scots miles,
The mosses, waters, slaps, and styles,
That lie between us and our hame,
Where sits our sulky sullen dame.
Gathering her brows like gathering storm,
Nursing her wrath to keep it warm.

This truth fand honest Tam o’ Shanter,
As he frae Ayr ae night did canter,
(Auld Ayr, wham ne’er a town surpasses
For honest men and bonie lasses.)

O Tam! had’st thou but been sae wise,
As ta’en thy ain wife Kate’s advice!
She tauld thee weel thou was a skellum,
A blethering, blustering, drunken blellum;
That frae November till October,
Ae market-day thou was nae sober;
That ilka melder, wi’ the miller,
Thou sat as lang as thou had siller;
That every naig was ca’d a shoe on,
The smith and thee gat roaring fou on;
That at the Lord’s house, even on Sunday,
Thou drank wi’ Kirkton Jean till Monday.
She prophesied that late or soon,
Thou would be found deep drown’d in Doon;
Or catch’d wi’ warlocks in the mirk,
By Alloway’s auld haunted kirk.

Ah, gentle dames! it gars me greet,
To think how mony counsels sweet,
How mony lengthen’d, sage advices,
The husband frae the wife despises!

But to our tale:– Ae market-night,
Tam had got planted unco right;
Fast by an ingle, bleezing finely,
Wi’ reaming swats, that drank divinely
And at his elbow, Souter Johnny,
His ancient, trusty, drouthy crony;
Tam lo’ed him like a vera brither–
They had been fou for weeks thegither!
The night drave on wi’ sangs and clatter
And ay the ale was growing better:
The landlady and Tam grew gracious,
wi’ favours secret,sweet and precious
The Souter tauld his queerest stories;
The landlord’s laugh was ready chorus:
The storm without might rair and rustle,
Tam did na mind the storm a whistle.

Care, mad to see a man sae happy,
E’en drown’d himsel’ amang the nappy!
As bees flee hame wi’ lades o’ treasure,
The minutes wing’d their way wi’ pleasure:
Kings may be blest, but Tam was glorious.
O’er a’ the ills o’ life victorious!

But pleasures are like poppies spread,
You sieze the flower, its bloom is shed;
Or like the snow falls in the river,
A moment white–then melts for ever;
Or like the borealis race,
That flit ere you can point their place;
Or like the rainbow’s lovely form
Evanishing amid the storm.–
Nae man can tether time or tide;
The hour approaches Tam maun ride;
That hour, o’ night’s black arch the key-stane,
That dreary hour he mounts his beast in;
And sic a night he taks the road in
As ne’er poor sinner was abroad in.

The wind blew as ‘twad blawn its last;
The rattling showers rose on the blast;
The speedy gleams the darkness swallow’d
Loud, deep, and lang, the thunder bellow’d:
That night, a child might understand,
The Deil had business on his hand.

Weel mounted on his gray mare, Meg–
A better never lifted leg–
Tam skelpit on thro’ dub and mire;
Despisin’ wind and rain and fire.
Whiles holding fast his gude blue bonnet;
Whiles crooning o’er some auld Scots sonnet;
Whiles glowring round wi’ prudent cares,
Lest bogles catch him unawares:
Kirk-Alloway was drawing nigh,
Whare ghaists and houlets nightly cry.

By this time he was cross the ford,
Whare, in the snaw, the chapman smoor’d;
And past the birks and meikle stane,
Whare drunken Chairlie brak ‘s neck-bane;
And thro’ the whins, and by the cairn,
Whare hunters fand the murder’d bairn;
And near the thorn, aboon the well,
Whare Mungo’s mither hang’d hersel’.–
Before him Doon pours all his floods;
The doubling storm roars thro’ the woods;
The lightnings flash from pole to pole;
Near and more near the thunders roll:
When, glimmering thro’ the groaning trees,
Kirk-Alloway seem’d in a bleeze;
Thro’ ilka bore the beams were glancing;
And loud resounded mirth and dancing.

INSPIRING, BOLD JOHN BARLEYCORN!
What dangers thou canst make us scorn!
Wi’ tippeny, we fear nae evil;
Wi’ usquabae, we’ll face the devil!–
The swats sae ream’d in Tammie’s noddle,
Fair play, he car’d na deils a boddle.
But Maggie stood, right sair astonish’d,
Till, by the heel and hand admonish’d,
She ventured forward on the light;
And, vow! Tam saw an unco sight

Warlocks and witches in a dance;
Nae cotillion brent-new frae France,
But hornpipes, jigs strathspeys, and reels,
Put life and mettle in their heels.
A winnock-bunker in the east,
There sat auld Nick, in shape o’ beast;
A towzie tyke, black, grim, and large,
To gie them music was his charge:
He scre’d the pipes and gart them skirl,
Till roof and rafters a’ did dirl.–
Coffins stood round, like open presses,
That shaw’d the dead in their last dresses;
And by some develish cantraip slight,
Each in its cauld hand held a light.–
By which heroic Tam was able
To note upon the haly table,
A murders’s banes in gibbet-airns;
Twa span-lang, wee, unchristen’d bairns;
A thief, new-cutted frae a rape,
Wi’ his last gasp his gab did gape;
Five tomahawks, wi blude red-rusted;
Five scymitars, wi’ murder crusted;
A garter, which a babe had strangled;
A knife, a father’s throat had mangled,
Whom his ain son o’ life bereft,
The gray hairs yet stack to the heft;
Wi’ mair o’ horrible and awfu’,
Which even to name was be unlawfu’.
Three lawyers’ tongues, turn’d inside out,
Wi’ lies seam’d like a beggar’s clout;
Three priests’ hearts, rotten, black as muck,
Lay stinking, vile in every neuk.

As Tammie glowr’d, amaz’d, and curious,
The mirth and fun grew fast and furious;
The piper loud and louder blew;
The dancers quick and quicker flew;
They reel’d, they set, they cross’d, they cleekit,
Till ilka carlin swat and reekit,
And coost her duddies to the wark,
And linket at it in her sark!

Now Tam, O Tam! had thae been queans,
A’ plump and strapping in their teens,
Their sarks, instead o’ creeshie flannen,
Been snaw-white seventeen hunder linnen!
Thir breeks o’ mine, my only pair,
That ance were plush, o’ gude blue hair,
I wad hae gi’en them off my hurdies,
For ae blink o’ the bonie burdies!

But wither’d beldams, auld and droll,
Rigwoodie hags wad spean a foal,
Louping and flinging on a crummock,
I wonder did na turn thy stomach!

But Tam kend what was what fu’ brawlie:
There was ae winsome wench and waulie,
That night enlisted in the core,
Lang after ken’d on Carrick shore;
(For mony a beast to dead she shot,
And perish’d mony a bonie boat,
And shook baith meikle corn and bear,
And kept the country-side in fear.)
Her cutty-sark, o’ Paisley harn
That while a lassie she had worn,
In longitude tho’ sorely scanty,
It was her best, and she was vauntie,-
Ah! little ken’d thy reverend grannie,
That sark she coft for he wee Nannie,
Wi’ twa pund Scots, (’twas a’ her riches),
Wad ever grac’d a dance of witches!

But here my Muse her wing maun cour;
Sic flights are far beyond her pow’r;
To sing how Nannie lap and flang,
(A souple jade she was, and strang),
And how Tam stood, like ane bewitch’d,
And thought his very een enrich’d;
Even Satan glowr’d, and fidg’d fu’ fain,
And hotch’d and blew wi’ might and main;
Till first ae caper, syne anither,
Tam tint his reason ‘ thegither,
And roars out, “Weel done, Cutty-sark!”
And in an instant all was dark:
And scarcely had he Maggie rallied,
When out the hellish legion sallied.

As bees bizz out wi’ angry fyke,
When plundering herds assail their byke;
As open pussie’s mortal foes,
When, pop! she starts before their nose;
As eager runs the market-crowd,
When “Catch the thief!” resounds aloud;
So Maggie runs, the witches follow,
Wi’ mony an eldritch skriech and hollo.

Ah, Tam! ah, Tam! thou’ll get thy fairin’!
In hell they’ll roast thee like a herrin’!
In vain thy Kate awaits thy commin’!
Kate soon will be a woefu’ woman!
Now, do thy speedy utmost, Meg,
And win the key-stane o’ the brig;
There at them thou thy tail may toss,
A running stream they dare na cross.
But ere the key-stane she could make,
The fient a tail she had to shake!
For Nannie, far before the rest,
Hard upon noble Maggie prest,
And flew at Tam wi’ furious ettle;
But little wist she Maggie’s mettle –
Ae spring brought off her master hale,
But left behind her ain gray tail;
The carlin claught her by the rump,
And left poor Maggie scarce a stump.

No, wha this tale o’ truth shall read,
Ilk man and mother’s son take heed;
Whene’er to drink you are inclin’d,
Or cutty-sarks run in your mind,
Think! ye may buy joys o’er dear –
Remember Tam o’ Shanter’s mare.
– A Rabbie Burns classic, published in 1791.

Compiled by the Bee Line Chapter National Society Daughters of the American Revolution. (1981). “Tombstone Inscriptions – Jefferson County, West Virginia. Hagerstwon, MD: HBP, Inc.

Image Credits:

Daniel G. Moler, Henry Snyder, George W. Moler – Charles & George Moler.

Milton J. Billmyer – Meryl Lemen.

Prisoners from the Front
Winslow Homer – 1866. Metropolitan Museum of Art – New York, NY

Parts of an English Saddle
Date Modified February 22, 2007
Source Image modified from Image:English saddle.jpg
Author Modification by Montanabw, original image by Alex brollo
Other versions
Original image: Image:English saddle.jpg
wikipedia.org 17 July 2001 Web. 12 July 2013

Semblance Mary Ann Baker
Strother, David Hunter; Berkeley Springs, Aug. 5th, 1858. (W1995.030.387pg46)
wvu.edu

Semblance Elias Baker
Strother, David Hunter; November 2nd 1858. Baltimore (W1995.030.387pg48)
wvu.edu.

semblance of Elias Baker Sr.
Pyne, W. H. (William Henry). (1815?). “Etchings of rustic figures, for the embellishment of landscape.” London, UK: J. Rimell and son. Print.

Pyne, W. H. (William Henry). (1815?). “Etchings of rustic figures, for the embellishment of landscape.” Internet Archives. 26 January 1997 Web. 20 January 2014. frontispiece.
p. 8.

William Morgan
findagrave

Charles Lee
Wikipedia.org 17 July 2001 Web. 12 July 2015.

Netta Lee, Edmund Lee, Edmund Jennings Lee – Jim Surkamp/Helen Goldsborough Collection.

David Hunter Strother – Library of Congress.

Nikki Landerkin Uses DNA to Find Her Family

by Jim Surkamp on September 23, 2016 in Jefferson County

dna_finding_your-family
nikki_landerkin_named

Made possible with the generous community-minded support of American Public University System. Any views expressed in posts and videos of civilwarscholars.com are meant to encourage discussion and the dispassionate search for understanding of American history and do not in any way reflect the modern-day policies of the University. More . . .

My name is Nikki Landerkin and I am a lifetime resident of Martinsburg, West Virginia, Berkeley County. However, through research I’ve discovered that almost all of my line come from or came to Jefferson County, West Virginia.

I began researching when I was just new to genealogy. My cousin had started researching our Basey line. He had found a lot of names but had absolutely no records. He was getting sick and in a random conversation on a random Saturday, he asked me if I wanted to take it over. Because he was dying, I said: “Sure.” The next weekend the records came to my home. Like I said I had a million names and absolutely not one shred of records. I dabbled with it off-and-on in the summer. I’m a school teacher so anytime when summer came I would check into my ancestry and “my leaf wouldn’t shake.” I thought: ”Well I’ve done the best I can.” I put it away for another year. This went on for about two years. Until about two years ago – on a random Saturday on a summer day – I went down to the library in Martinsburg and I went to the West Virginia genealogy room, and really expected to find everything there was about my family because we’ve been here for several generations. I was really shocked to learn there weren’t any records – not only of my family, but of any family of color in Martinsburg. So I thought: “You know, I’m going to go to the historical society. Surely they have something. The people there are wonderful and they had one record at that time and that was of a barbecue of an off-branch of my family from 1998; and the year was 2014. So they didn’t have any records at all. My family owned businesses. There were no pictures of those businesses. There were no pictures of my family members – they are like “dust in the wind.” Someone made a comment to me that I would never be able to find anything on them because we were black. And I got angry. I got determined and I made it a goal to compile as much as I could. And I did. I used all my records and hard-copy records. But after a while I went cold. I hit a brick wall. I couldn’t find anything else.

So I turned to DNA. I tested my mother. She’s the last and oldest remaining relative that holds both of my maternal grand-parents’ DNA. And they raised me. So that’s the absolute, best way to honor them is to find out much as I could about my family. And, we were shocked with the results. My mother’s DNA came back: 27 plus per cent European, Middle-eastern, west Angolan, Portuguese, Scandinavian, Italien, Iberian Peninsula – and African. But it wasn’t exactly what we thought. The first set of DNA was all text. People had written in Arabic. It had descendants of the original Arabian tribes. I had to have a student who was at my school who was from Morocco translate for me, and I realized quite quickly I was over my head. I had every answer you could possibly have. DNA provides you with more than enough answers. But if you don’t know the questions, it’s pretty dismal. So I cried, and I cried some more. Then, I got determined. I determined that I had to really learn how to incorporate DNA into research. I stopped looking at the results. I spent about two months just reading up on everything that had to do with research, with DNA, chromosomes – anything and everything that I could use to further my search. At the same time, I had one of my male cousins tested for one of our lines, our Basey line, and it provided me with 954 ancestors – all of them from no where near Martinsburg, West Virginia. I realized quite quickly that I had to break that information down, make it user-friendly, try to compare ancestor names with living matches and really start using every resource out there to get what I needed. Facebook has been a godsend if not just for “likes” and “pokes.” I’ve met people on groups. There are tons of genealogy groups and historical society groups for people like me, who are new to it and want talk to other people – but there isn’t anyone in your area. There’s no one around to help you. So through those groups, I was able to become educated about what I needed to do. No question is too stupid. They never make you feel stupid. You may ask the same questions more than once and that’s fine. And through that I met my cousins – Dr. Shelley Murphy, Joyceann Gray, and Monique Crippen-Hopkins – and they are amazing. I love them to death. They intimidate me because they know so much, and they make me want to be better . Like if you’re gonna hang with those ladies you better have your A-game. It can’t be a B- game. it has to be an A-game. Whether they know it or not, they have inspired me to know more, and do more, and become more pro-active. I was afraid to talk to people, especially when I have white DNA – especially when you have local family white DNA. I was afraid to have one of those courageous conversations and say: “I am your relative and I can prove it.” But listening to their stories and listening to their pep talks, and their guidance – they helped me! And so, with all of that, I am able to now start with my great-grandparents and work my way back. I’m still working on it, because all of this is relatively new and you learn something every day.

Chewy Morsel #7 – “Transgender” Folk Have Always Been With Us . . . Really by Jim Surkamp

by Jim Surkamp on May 17, 2016 in Jefferson County

An.Unusual.Fiddler1

In 1859, a man with a naturalist bent took work on a canal boat on the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal. The author is still unidentified, but their diary, detailed and numbering in thousands of words, was recovered and published by Thomas F.Hahn, a long-time president of the C&O Canal Commission, because of its extraordinary factual content.

Remarkably there is an episode described of an encounter with an atypical person. You may have thought that people who are “transgender” or “”non-binary” or “gender-fluid” are an anomaly. Read on.

I was on the shore grooming the mules when a (strange) person came walking down the canal carrying a fiddle under its arm and went on board the boat. (The visitor) had a dabbled calico dfress with skirts hanging straight down which was more noticeable, as hoops were then in the height of fashion. Tommy was aboard and entertained the visitor but I kept an eye on the object. After talking with Tommy a while (the visitor) played him a tune or two and went on their way. I afterward learned their history. It seems that when (the visitor) was born it was a serious question whether (the visitor) should be called Abby or John, but it was finally decided to call them Abby and by that name (the visitor) was christened and the mistake was not found out until it was too late, but from the time the child could speak it protested by word and action and now grown to full stature (the visitor) was a veritable vagabond traveling around the village with fiddle, a palm-leaf hat, whiskers, heavy bass voice and dressed in petticoats.

Chewy Morsel #6 – “What Am I?!” – Harpers Ferry, Va. April 19, 1861 – David Hunter Strother

by Jim Surkamp on April 26, 2016 in Jefferson County

Chewy_Morsel_6_Title_MontageFINAL

Watching his country – a rising power – fall apart in a glance made David Hunter Strother on the morning of April 19th, 1861 at Harpers Ferry, Virginia give out a Shakespearean howl at the dawn.

Mingling with friends from childhood the night before – rapidly un-friending – Strother watched, appalled, the movement of the Virginia militia to capture the prize of the U.S. Armory and arsenal at Harpers Ferry. Their martial purpose became moot and dramatically ceased when the armory was exploded and fired by another hand, that of its Federal commander.

The United States no more.

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Aging Veterans of the American Revolution
Before the war, households North and South had one aging relative and wise one – a revered, often rough and strong voice, who bore always witness to the First Revolution for Independence and its promise. Some households – and those at the White House – saw the Civil War as a test of the mettle of the world’s first empire-size republic. Others in the South widely embraced the notion of the Civil War as being the Second War of Independence against a tyrant. The immediate invasion by Federal forces into Virginia suggested this, but the decisive underlying issue was always the endorsement of the enslavement a human being.

Witness to the Extinction:

D_H_Strother_Named


David Hunter Strother, then newly married and a successful illustrator and writer for Harpers New Monthly Magazine, recorded the epochal moment in April, 1861 in Jefferson County, Virginia. A vote had concluded at the Virginia Secession Convention in favor of Secession. One of the county’s two delegates voted against and one, who superintended the Federal Armory, was absent at the vote, being en route back to the Harpers Ferry. The vote was conditioned on a statewide referendum, scheduled for May 23rd, but a group of secessionists had met earlier at a hotel in Richmond and put in motion a plan to capture the Armory at Harpers Ferry and also at the port in Norfolk, amounting basically to a premature action, or a coup.

Strother wrote later:

I took the train and proceeded to Charlestown. Here there was as much excitement as at Harpers Ferry, but among a different class of people, and consequently less noisy and vulgar in its demonstrations. . .

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I had scarcely got through greeting the friends I had come to visit when I was waited on by Captain Lawson Botts, an officer of the regiment, a citizen highly esteemed for his general intelligence and probity, . . . Calling me aside, in a manner which evidenced great and painful excitement, he asked: “what I thought of the present state of affairs?”

. . . If any thing I could say would prevent Captain Botts, or any of my young friends and kinsmen whom I had seen under arms, from taking the final step which I was assured would be fatal to them, I certainly would not permit any trifling punctilio to interfere with a full expression of my views. I told him that I considered the whole movement an atrocious swindle, contrived by a set of desperate and unprincipled conspirators at Richmond, who, fearing that their treasonable schemes would be denounced by the people at the polls, had determined to plunge the State irrevocably into a war with the General Government. . . .Without hoping to gain his acquiescence in my views, – p. 9.

I was nevertheless gratified to perceive that what I said made its impression upon Captain Botts. Educated at a Southern college, the narrow political ideas so sedulously inculcated at those schools still combated the more liberal and national teachings of his maturer life.

(Later the same evening as the militia continued its movement towards the Harper Ferry armory): I could perceive that Captain Botts was as much disappointed as myself, and before parting he urged me to accompany them to the rendez-vous, with the expression of a vague hope that I might use some influence, even there, to avert the commission of a deed which he abhorred from his inmost soul. I promised to follow them. The regiment moved off, and after dinner I walked down the turnpike to Halltown, four miles distant from Charlestown. Here I found the troops halted, awaiting reinforcements, which were reported on the march from various quarters to join them.

Chewy_Morsel_6_Halltown

(Turner) Ashby who had greeted me so frankly in the morning, now passed with averted face. As we supped together at a neighboring farmhouse, he studiously avoided exchanging words or looks with me. I was glad that we had understood each other without the scandal of an open quarrel. (A courier arrived with official written orders from Richmond authorizing the militia to seek to capture the armory. This was despite the fact that the vote to secede the day prior had first to be ratified by a referendum. Strother had been arguing successfully for restraint up to that juncture when the written order arrived.- JS). He continued:

Chewy_Morsel_6.3


The men, flattered with the idea of being foremost in the enterprise, sprung to arms and formed their column with alacrity.

It was quite dark, and as I passed out of the house Captain Botts took my arm, and in an agitated manner inquired what I thought now of the posture of affairs. – p. 10.

I asked if he was sure the order which had arrived was not a forgery. He was fully assured of its authenticity. Botts said:

“Yet I hold my commission from the State and am bound to obey the orders of the Governor,” said the Captain (Botts). “What would you have me do?”

Strother: Can any miserable local functionary have the right to order a free citizen to commit a crime against his country?

My friend listened without essaying to reply, but sat with his elbows resting on his knees and covering his face with his clenched hands.

When I concluded he rose and in a voice of anguish exclaimed: “Great God! I would willingly give my life to know at this moment what course I ought to pursue, and where my duty lies!” With this he hurried to join the column, which was already in motion.

Airstream camping in Oregon’s Outback near Silver Lake and Christmas Valley.
The stars twinkled clear and chill overhead, while the measured tread of the men and an occasional half-whispered word of command were the only sounds that broke the stillness.

. . . (Around 9 PM) The troops were now marching up the southern slope of the hill, since called Bolivar Heights, the crest of which was covered with pine woods and dense thickets of undergrowth. . . .To my surprise the march was unmolested, and they moved on to the cemetery at the forks of the road above the village of Bolivar. . . .It appeared that instead of three thousand expected by Ashby, only three hundred and forty had been assembled, including the cavalry and some artillerists with an old six-pounder from Charlestown. – p. 11.

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While the officers were discoursing and looking toward the town there was a sudden flash that illuminated for miles around the romantic gorge where the rivers meet. Then followed a dull report, reverberating from mountain-to-mountain until it died away in a sullen roar. The flashes and detonations were several times repeated; then a steadier flame was seen rising from two distinct points, silently and rapidly increasing in volume until each rock and tree on Loudoun and Maryland Heights were distinctly visible, and the now overclouded sky was ruddy with the sinister glare. This occurred, I think, between 9 and 10 o’clock PM. For the moment all was excitement and conjecture. . . . The more skillful presently guessed the truth, and concluded that the officer in command had set fire to the arsenals and abandoned the town. . . . (See References)

Quietly withdrawing from the circle of acquaintances with whom I was conversing, I walked down to the town alone, by the Bolivar Road. The Old Arsenal buildings of Shenandoah Street and several of the shops in the Armory enclosure on Potomac Street were in full blaze. The road was alive with men, women, and children hurrying to-and-fro, laden with spoils from the work-shops and soldiers’ barracks. There were women with their arms full of muskets, little girls loaded with sheaves of bayonets, boys dragging cartridge boxes and cross-belts enough to equip a platoon, men with barrels of pork or flour, kegs of molasses and boxes of hard bread on their shoulders or trundling in wheel-barrows.

The ground around the burning buildings was glittering with splinters of glass which had been blown by the explosion of gun powder used to ignite the fires. . . I took my seat upon a barrel and commenced sketching the scene by fire-light, . . . The people were for the most part tongue-tied with terror.

Occasionally a woman would use the privilege of her sex and open her mind pretty freely, abusing Yankees and Southerners alternately and consigning both parties to the bottom of the river. – p. 12.

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As the night advanced, the streets became more crowded with people from the town and neighborhood, but up to the hour of midnight no troops except Ashby’s squad of horse had made their appearance. By one o’clock the fires had sunk in ashes, when gloomy, chilled and fatigued, I sought a bed at the house of an acquaintance. . . . I did not sleep soundly, and was frequently disturbed during the night by the sound of drums and the tramp of passing squadrons.


April 19, 1861 – Harpers Ferry, Va.
:

On going down into the town this morning I found that there had been considerable accessions to the State forces seven or eight hundred having arrived during the night and morning, while as many more were reported on the way.

Confusion reigned supreme, ably seconded by whisky. The newly-arrived troops having nothing to eat, consoled themselves as usual by getting something to drink. Parties were detailed to search the houses for the arms and public property which had ben carried off the evening before. This search was stoutly resisted by the women, who skirmished after their fashion with the guard, with tongue and broomstick, holding them at bay while their husbands endeavored to conceal the spoils they had acquired.

A rough estimate of the night’s work showed that about sixteen thousand muskets had perished by the burning of the arsenals, and that one building (the carpenter shop) of the Potomac Armory had also been destroyed.


Realization
:

Chewy_Morsel_6.12


I must confess that I felt this morning like a man wandering in a maze. The future exhibited but a dim and changing vista. Was the experiment of popular government indeed a failure, as our conservatives had been predicting from the commencement? Was Macaulay right when he said that our system would crumble into anarchy upon the first serious trial? If the present Government of the United States, as many maintain, and as its own attitude of late seems to admit, has neither the right to punish privy conspiracy, nor the power to defend itself against factious aggression, then why should we regret its overthrow? Let the impotent imposture perish, and the American people will speedily establish a more respectable and manly system on its ruins.

While indulging in these speculations my attention was directed to the flag-staff which stood in the yard of the Old Arsenal. The national standard had been lowered, and in its place floated the State flag of Virginia. It would be difficult to describe the mingled emotions excited in my mind by this simple incident.

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Once in my early youth I visited the crater of Vesuvius, and, venturing down the interior slope for some distance, I found myself upon a projecting cliff of lava. Here I stood for a time looking curiously down upon the sea of smoke that concealed every thing around and beneath, when a sudden breeze rolled the clouds away and for a moment my eyes beheld the hideous gulf that yawned below. A pit whose sulfurous horrors and immeasurable depth were revealed only by the glare of lurid flames and boiling lava whose appalling aspect paralyzed the senses like the grasp of a nightmare.

Chewy_Morsel_6.10


A sight which memory never recalls without the shudder that accompanied its first revelation. So it seemed that the sudden gust of emotion, excited by the lowering of our starry flag, had swept away the mists of speculation and revealed in its depth and breadth the abyss of degradation opened by secession.

Chewy_Morsel_6.11


Yesterday I was a citizen of the great American republic. My country spanned a continent. Her northern border neared the frigid zone while her southern limit touched the tropics. Her eastern and her western shores were washed by the two great oceans of the globe. Her commerce covering the most remote seas, her flag honored in every land. The strongest nations acknowledged her power, and the most enlightened honored her attainments in art, science, and literature. Her political system, the cherished ideal toward whose realization the noblest aspirations and efforts of mankind have been directed for ages. The great experiment which the pure and wise of all nations are watching with trembling solicitude and imperishable hope. It was something to belong to such a nationality. Something to be able, in following one’s business or pleasure, to travel to-and-fro without question or hindrance, to take red-fish in the Mexican Gulf or trout in the Great Lakes, to chase deer in the Alleghenies or adventure among grizzly bears in the Rocky Mountains, and every where to remember, as you inflated your lungs with the free air. This is my country. It was something, when questioned of ones
p. 14.
nationality in foreign lands, perhaps by the subject of a petty monarchy or obscure principality, the impoverished and degraded fraction of a once powerful empire, ruined by the madness of faction, local ignorance, and secession. It was something, in replying to such inquiry, to feel ones heart swelling with imperial pride such as moved the ancient Roman in the days when he could quell the insolence of barbaric kings with the simple announcement, “Civis Romanus sum.” This was yesterday.

To-day, what am I? A citizen of Virginia. Virginia, a petty commonwealth with scarcely a million of white inhabitants. What could she ever hope to be but a worthless fragment of the broken vase? A fallen and splintered column of the once glorious temple. But I will not dwell longer on the humiliating contrast. Come harness up the buggy and let us get out of this or I shall suffocate.
– p. 16.

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References:

Strother, David H. “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 33, Issue: 193, June, 1866. pp. 1-26. Print.

Strother, David H. (June, 1866). “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harpers Magazine. 7 May 2008. Web. 20 Oct. 2010.

Strother, David H. (1961). “A Virginia Yankee in the Civil War. The Diaries of David Hunter Strother.” edited by Cecil D. Eby, Jr. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press.
Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010.

Imboden, John D. “Jackson at Harper’s Ferry in 1861.”
“Battles and Leaders Vol. 1.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010.

“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 2”. (1887). Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co. Print.
pp. 111-118.

At about one or two o’clock in the afternoon of the 18th, being satisfied that an attack would be made, I destroyed the bridge over the canal which supplies the water-power, so as to make it as difficult as possible for an assaulting party, and Captain Kingsbury removed the powder from the magazine building, which was a quarter or half a mile away, into the armory, and later in the evening, about sundown, I think, made preparations to destroy the workshops of the armory proper. The rifle works were situated half a mile up the Shenandoah from the main works, where the troops were, and were left undestroyed; no attempt to destroy them being made for the reason that it would probably have led to the defeat of the plan which had been formed, as I was surrounded by spies and persons in the interest of the rebel cause, who watched every movement and everything that was done. I feared that by attempting too much I should fail in everything, and therefore confined myself to what I was certain could be accomplished. . . . I was directed to report to Lieutenant General Scott for verbal instructions. I was informed by him that my assignment to duty at the armory was only temporary; that a permanent superintendent would be appointed in a few days, and that it was his intention to order a regiment thither as soon as one could be spared for the purpose. I arrived at Harper’s Ferry in the evening of the day on which I received the order, and soon after had an interview with Lieutenant (now Major) Roger Jones, in command of the detachment stationed there. In that interview I suggested that, in case of an attack by a considerable force, it might become necessary to destroy the arms. He concurred with me in this opinion, and added that Major Hunt and himself had come to the same conclusion. The next morning I assumed control of the establishment. The operations were continued as usual in the shops until the arrival of the morning train from the east. On that train came the late superintendent, a delegate to the Richmond convention, with a few friends, and their advent seemed to be the signal for a disloyal demonstration on the part of a crowd in attendance at the depot. The cry “Virginia will take care of Harper’s Ferry” was loudly and defiantly uttered. The excitement soon extended to the shops and throughout the village. As the demonstration increased in volume it was deemed advisable to test the loyalty of the workmen, who had previously been organized into companies for the defence of the place. Work was suspended, the men were assembled, and all who were faithful to their allegiance and ready to protect the property of the United States were directed to assemble with their companies at one o’clock p. m., at the armory. This order was received with general applause, and the men dispersed, as was supposed, to make preparations for the meeting; but the hour arrived and brought with it no such force as had been expected. Many of the men were there and a few officers; but it was found impossible to collect a force that would have inspired any confidence against the approaching enemy. I was satisfied, from the experiment, that however loyal the men might be at heart, either from disaffected officers, or from an uncertainty as to the preponderating sentiment in the neighborhood, as a body they were not prepared to take a decided stand against the State of Virginia. Though the companies could not be formed, many individuals volunteered for such duty as they might be able to perform, and at a subsequent period in the day others offered their services, all of whom were posted about the buildings, or so as to watch the approaches on that side of the town from which the enemy was expected. About 3 o’clock p. m., a report was brought that three Virginia companies were marching from Charlestown to the Ferry. A mounted man was sent off to ascertain the facts, who reported, on his return that the companies had halted at Halltown, a few miles from the village, apparently waiting to be reinforced. Information had previously been received by telegraph from General Scott that a large force was on its way from Richmond, by the Manassas Gap railroad, with the supposed object of capturing the armory, and it had also been ascertained that the agents of the railroad to Winchester had been specially instructed to keep the track clear that night, which was an unusual order, as no night trains were habitually run upon that road.

Having learned in the morning that the powder belonging to the armory was in the magazine on the heights, I had directed that it be brought down to the armory, where it was deposited in a room adjoining that occupied by Major Jones’s detachment. The government powder was in packages of one hundred pounds each, and could not be conveyed to the storehouses containing the arms without revealing the fact and perhaps the object. Fortunately there were several smaller kegs which had been brought thither by John Brown, and which could be easily rolled up in the men’s bed sacks without exposure, and transferred to the buildings in which the arms were stored. This was accordingly done; the boxes containing the arms were so arranged as to be most favorable to ignition, the faggots were piled, and the powder distributed ready for the application of the fire. It should be remarked that, in the arrangement of the powder, care was taken to prevent, as far as practicable, any injury to private dwellings or their occupants by the explosion.

As the object of the force ordered from Richmond was plainly the seizure of the arms, their destruction was considered of the first importance, and a failure not to be hazarded by a diversion of the means to other parts of the establishment. As before stated, the government powder could not be distributed throughout the buildings without revealing its character and object, and as it was not deemed prudent to communicate the programme for the night to the operatives, it became necessary to rely upon the natural combustibility of the material for the destruction of the workshops and machinery.

Between 9 and 10 o’clock p. m. a gentleman arrived from the country and informed Major Jones that about two thousand men were within a few miles of the ferry for the purpose of capturing the armory. This confirmed the intelligence previously received; and, to baffle their efforts to secure possession of the arms, no time was to be lost. The match was accordingly applied to the train already laid in the arsenals, and to the combustible materials in the carpenters’ shop, and to the room containing the gun-stocks. The former were soon in a blaze; the last named was of difficult ignition, the flames at no time having obtained such a mastery as not to yield readily to the efforts of those who sought to extinguish them.

As I had been at the place but about twenty-four hours, I was not familiar with the arrangement or extent of the fire apparatus, which proved to be more effective and complete than had been supposed. For several minutes after the conflagration commenced, and after the departure of Jones’s detachment, the streets of the village appeared deserted. At length one man, more daring than his neighbors, made his appearance, rushed into one of the burning arsenals, and hauled therefrom into the street a box of arms, which he at once opened. On finding that it did not contain the rifle muskets, he rushed again towards the building for the probable purpose of trying his luck upon another, when the first discharge of John Brown’s powder caused him to recoil, and it is believed that no further attempts were made to enter the arsenal buildings before the contents were destroyed. In the meantime large crowds had gathered near the workshops, and were industriously engaged in subduing the flames, in which they succeeded before any very serious injury had been done to the machinery. . . . It is probable that not less than fifteen thousand stand of arms of various kinds were destroyed. The statement which, I understand, has been furnished from the Ordnance office must greatly underrate the number by assuming, perhaps, that issues had been made on orders which had not been executed. Of those packed and stored in the arsenals very few were recovered; possibly a thousand were scattered about in the shops, and fell into the hands of the rebels. The arms consisted of rifles, muskets, and rifle muskets, but in what relative proportions I am unable to state. . . . The detachment of regulars, under Major Jones, consisted of about fifty men, and constituted the only force on which much reliance could have been placed to resist an attack. Satisfactory evidence had been received that nearly two thousand men were advancing to assail the place; the odds would thus have been forty to one, and the statement of this fact would seem to convey a fitting reply to the question.
Col. Charles Kingsbury, U.S.A., testimony (Kingsbury was the captain of ordinance at Harpers Ferry in April, 1861).
Destruction of the Harpers Ferry Armory. Extracts from Senate Rep. Com. No. 37, 37th Cong., 2d Sess. April 18, 1862.
wvculture.org 2 March 2000 Web. 1 January 2016.

Image Credits:

Waving American Flag
wjcu.org 11 April 2003 Web. 1 January 2016.

Virginia State Flag in the 1860s
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 1 January 2016.

Lawson Botts
S. Edward Grove, Souvenir… and Guide Book of Harper’s Ferry. Antietam and South Mountain… Battlefields (Martinsburg, WV: Thompson Brothers, 1898), 38.
Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010.
p. 38.

housedivided.dickinson.edu 6 October 2008 Web. 1 January 2016.

David Hunter Strother
northforkwatershed.org 3 August 2003, Web. 1 January 2016.

[Harper’s Ferry, W. Va. Ruins of arsenal]
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 1 January 2016.

The Virginian 1775 The Virginian 1861 – Harper’s Weekly May 18, 1861, p. 316

Faces of the men who won America’s independence: Amazing early photos of heroes of the Revolutionary War in their old age
dailymail.co.uk 4 May 1998 Web. 1 January 2016.

“The Rendezvous of the Virginians at Halltown, Virginia, 5 P.M., on April 18, 1861, to March on Harper’s Ferry. Sketched by D. H. Strother

Drawings of David Hunter Strother, A&M 2894
lib.wvu.edu 17 October 2014 Web. 1 January 2016.

Boiling lava in the Marum crater, in September, 2009.
geographic.org 25 January 1999 Web. 1 January 2016.

Map of Harper’s Ferry
“Battles and Leaders Vol. 1.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010.

“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 2”. (1887). Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co. Print.
p. 115.

33-Star-Fort_Sumter_Flag
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 1 January 2016.

The Many Lives of Moses Baylor (1825 – 1910s) Pt. 1 by Jim Surkamp

by Jim Surkamp on June 11, 2016 in Jefferson County

(Thanks to Jane Ailes and Michael Musick for providing key information. – JS)

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The_Many_Lives_of_Moses_Baylor_Montage

Moses Baylor was born an enslaved African-American in June, 1825 in Jefferson County, likely on the farm off Darke Lane, occupied by John O’Bannon and the aging Joshua Burton and his wife, Elizabeth. – (See Note 1)

Before Moses was born in 1825, Joshua Burton was getting along with his 66-year old “relic” (wife) Elizabeth and six persons held in servitude, three of whom were under fourteen years. John and Ruth O’Bannon, who were both in their mid-thirties did the farming. – p. 101, 1820 Census; Tombstone Inscriptions, p. 24. (See Note 2).

Among those who would eventually work the 306 acres of John O’Bannon or served in the house were those enslaved by Burton: Moses, William, (also born in the mid-1820s), the older Tom and Nancy. Betsey, who would be born about 1831. – P. 385. Appraisement 9/16/1839 Will Book Volume:9.

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John H. Smith, who lived nearby at Meadow Green farm just east of Middleway and south of the Pike, kept a diary with musings on the mystical connection between the soil, the land, and the farmer, fortunate enough to call a piece of land his own, especially when passed down through the generations of farmers within one family. Such a divine bond to one’s “own soil” is just what those enslaved longed for.

Smith wrote:

John_H_Smith_The_Farmer_FINAL

The man who stands upon his own soil who feels that by the laws of the land in which he lives . . . he is the rightful and exclusive owner of the land which he tills . . . He feels – other things being equal – more strongly than another the character of man as the Lord of the Inanimate world. Of the great and wonderful sphere which, formed by the hand of God and upheld by his power – is rolling through the heavens. A portion is his, his from the center to the sky. It is the place on which the generation before him moved in its rounds of duties, and he feels himself connected by a visible link with those who proceeded him, as he is also to those who will follow him and to whom he is to transmit a home. Perhaps his farm has come down to him from his father. They have gone to their last home, but he can trace their footsteps over the scene of his daily labors. The roof which shelters him was scored by those to whom he owes his own being.

Some interesting domestic tradition is connected with every (illegible). His favorite first tree was planted by his father’s hand. He sported in his boyhood beside the brook which still winds through the meadow. Through the fields lies the path to the village school of earlier days. He still hears from his window – the voice of the sabbath bell, which called his father and his forefathers to the house of God and here at hand is the spot where his parents laid down to rest, and where, when his time is come, he shall be laid by his children. These are the feelings of the man of the soil. Words cannot paint them. Gold cannot buy them. . . – – pp. 112-113 from “The diary (1847-1856) of John Henry Smith of Smithfield (now Middleway).” Perry, Thornton Tayloe (1892-1981), collector, Jefferson Co., W. Va. miscellaneous volumes, 1793-1929. 39 items. Mss1, P4299b36-39. Near to the end of Reel 27.

A friend of Joshua Burton and increasingly prosperous farmer was James Grantham (1793-1861), who in 1822 was using bricks burned on the property to build what would be Tudor Hall, (still in the family in 2016, but partially rebuilt). The brook and family graveyard written about by John Smith are immediately to the west of Tudor Hall: Turkey Run and a graveyard for the first three generations of the Granthams. With his wife, Phebe Fidelia LaRue Grantham (1799-1867), James Grantham would work amassing farm real estate worth over $60,000 in period dollars by 1860, some five homesteads across the southern sweep of Jefferson County. – p. 28-29, Jefferson County Historical Society Magazine, 1956.

By 1838, the aging, increasingly feeble Joshua Burton recognized he needed a man like his friend and neighbor Grantham to settle his estate. His wife died that August. Both John O’Bannon and his wife Ruth died young in their 47th and 46th years respectively back in late 1830. John O’Bannon left his 306 acres to his sons. – Burton Will, WB 9, page 344.

Burton was at the farm with Nancy, Tom, William, Moses and Betsey, who he now wanted to be as free as the farmer who owned his own land. – WB 9, p. 385, Joshua Burton Appraisement.

An_October_Day_Lamson_Henry_Moses_John_H_Smith

John Smith wrote a reflection about Autumn in his diary:
The departing summer ushers in “the golden pomp of Autumn.” The promises of spring have been fulfilled and man gathers in the rich products of his toil. On all sides there is joy while the just tributes of promise ascend from many a grateful heart. It is the season of maturity and decay. The leaves of the forest are robed in their most gorgeous dyes preparatory to their fall. “The harvest is past” and the color and serenity of the Indian Summer soon gave way to the gloom of winter. – Smith diary, p. 99.

On October 29, 1839 Joshua Burton wrote:

In the name of God amen, I, Joshua Burton of the County of Jefferson Va., being of feeble but of sound mind and memory . . . do make this my last will and testament in the manner and form following (to wit):

In the first place I will and direct that all my just debts and funeral expenses be paid;

I will and direct that all my slaves be set free at my decease. If I should die possessed with personal property enough to pay my just debts without my slaves and, if I have not enough, my said slaves are all to be hired out until the hires produce enough to pay my debts.

Item 1st – I leave to Courtney Kercheval that sum of fifty dollars to be paid to her at my decease.
Item 2nd – I will and direct that all the remainder of my personal property be equally divided amongst my slaves – and in the last place, I leave my trusted friend James Grantham, my executor to carry this my last will and testament into effect. In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal – the 29th day of October in the year of our Lord, 1838.

Small wonder that those who Burton freed took off for Kentucky, disregarding the fine print of the will requiring that they be hired out to pay off any remaining debts of Burton’s.

A judge allowed Grantham seven per cent of the account as commission for “the immense trouble he has given the estate.” Grantham made a $250 trip to Kentucky “after Negroes of the estate, by stages, steam boats and bringing them to the County.”

Betsey_Pages

He also bought nine-year-old Betsey a dress;

Bill_Burton_Pages

new pants & a shirt for eleven-year old Bill “to travel in,” along with two blankets (Bill would be referred to later in James Grantham’s accounts also as “Bill Burton”).

Moses_Baylor_Pages

Grantham also bought a bed for fifteen year old Moses, considered the most valued worker. p. 201; p. 202. Current Account: Burton, Joshua; James Grantham, executor 9/17/1849.

1840-1842 – Smithfield/Middleway, Va.:

So the work began.: As still the executor to Joshua Burton’s estate James Grantham (1793-1861) hires out Betsey, Bill, Moses, Nancy and possibly Tom through 1849 to farms mostly near his own home at Tudor Hall, where he lived with his wife, Phebe (1799-1867) and, for a time, their children, William Samuel (who would die young), John James (1826-1912), Catherine (1838-1909), Caroline (1831-1873), Eliza Cornelia (1835-1905), and Anna Louisa (1828-1910). – Bates, Vol. 2, pp. 44-45.

Montage_Hires_Moses_Baylor

In the following text “JG” is “James Grantham.”

January, 1840: Betsey was hired out to the sons of John O’Bannon at their Darke Lane farm.

Winter_John_H_Smith_1847

John H. Smith wrote of the Winter season in his diary:
In some respects, Winter is a cheerful season. The school-boy shouts wildly with glee, as he speeds over the frozen waters, while the merry music of sleigh bells may be heard on many sides. Its influences, however, are most potent at the social hearth, where the song and jest go round, and where blazing fires bid defiance to the frost King, that the reigns without – But this is only the bright side of the picture. We find nature stripped of all her Summer drapery. The snow is spread as a mantle upon the Meadows, and piled up in the highways. The surly windy howls through the leafless forest and enters the hut of the poor man, through many a crevice, having little pity for the shivering groups who are so poorly guarded against its bitterness. – diary , p. 98.

May, 1842: JG buys new shoes for 17-year-old Moses Baylor for $1.25.

1843 – Smithfield/Middleway, Va.:

January 1, 1843, December 25, 1843, May 25, 1844 – JG duns 29-year-old Smithfield farmer Nathan Barns/Barnes for the $55 owed for a year of hired work by 18-year-old Moses Baylor. – 1850 Census Jefferson County Smithfield, page 356. household 1059.

24 1059 1074 Barns Nathan 36 M WFarmer VA
25 1059 1074 Barns Mary 31 F W VA
26 1059 1074 Barns Lucy 12 F W VA
27 1059 1074 Barns William 11 M W VA
28 1059 1074 Barns Joseph 9 M W VA
29 1059 1074 Barns Eldridge 7 M W VA
30 1059 1074 Barns Sarah 6 F W VA
31 1059 1074 Barns Elizabeth 11 F W VA
32 1059 1074 Barns Mary 3 F W VA
33 1059 1074 Barns Stephen 1 M W VA
– 1850 Federal Census.

All of 1843 – 18-year-old Moses Baylor works at the farm of William Haslett and JG is paid $45 on December 25th.

August, 1843 JG pays $2.25 for pair of shoes for 18-year-old Moses Baylor.

1844-1845 – Betsey at James Coyle’s.

1844 – Smithfield/Middleway, Va.:

Nancy_Pages

January 2, 1844; JG pays $1.50 for shoes for 65-year-old Nancy working for James J. Miller, a 31-year-old merchant in Charlestown. – 1850 Census Jefferson County, Charlestown household No. 17.

August, 1844: JG pays $1.00 for a coat and $1.25 for shoes for 19-year-old Moses Baylor.

1845 – Smithfield/Middleway, Va.:

Bill_Hires_Smaller


January 1, 1845: $22.50 owed to JG for work done by 15-year-old “Bill” for Samuel Ruckles.

January, 1845: JG paid $50 by William Haslett for a year’s work by 20-year-old Moses Baylor.

January, 1845: JG is paid $12 by Joseph Morrow for work by 16-year-old Bill Burton before he ran away and returned to Tudor Hall and put under a doctor’s care. – 1852 Map of Jefferson County, Va. Howell Brown
19 1400 1415 Morrow Joseph 41 M WFarmer 4,280 VA
20 1400 1415 Morrow Rebecca 17 F W VA
21 1400 1415 Morrow John J. 15 M W VA
22 1400 1415 Morrow Joseph R. 13 M W VA
23 1400 1415 Morrow William H. 11 M W VA
– 1850 Federal Census.

February, 1845: JG pays $2 for nailed shoes for 20-year-old Moses Baylor.

March, 1845: JG pays 75 cents for a strong shirt for 20-year-old Moses Baylor.

March, 1845: JG pays $1.75 for cloth for pants for 16-year-old Bill Burton.

July, 1845: JG spent $1.63 to see 65-year-old Nancy at Harper’s Ferry.

1846 – Smithfield/Middleway, Va.:

January, 1846: 66-year-old (approx.) Nancy and JG spend $4.75 to get to Harpers Ferry, and the “bringing of Thomas Johnson.”

March, 1846: JG gives 17-year-old Bill Burton fifty cents to mend some boots.

June, 1846: JG pays 75 cents to 21-year-old Moses Baylor to see 66-year-old Nancy at Harper’s Ferry.

April, 1846: JG pays 75 cents to see 66-year-old Nancy at Harper’s Ferry.

August, 1846: JG pays $2.13 to see 66-year-old Nancy at Harper’s Ferry.

September, 1846: JG paid $1.50 to 21-year-old Moses Baylor to make a new pair of pants from an existing pair of pants.

1847 – Smithfield/Middleway, Va.:

Scythe_William_Sidney_Mount_Moses-1_Matte

April, 1847 – Thirty-year-old farmer John Henry Smith, who hired from James Grantham the help of Bill Burton, still it seems working off debts from Joshua Burton’s estate. Bill worked for Smith at his nearby Meadow Green farm for part of 1847 and for all of 1848 and James Grantham, as the executor of Joshua Burton’s estate, would present Smith with a bill on January 1849 in the amount of $51.90 for Bill’s work for him. – p. 208 – Account, Current: Burton, Joshua; James Grantham, executor 9/17/1849: Jefferson County, WV, Will Book

Spring_Montage_Moses_Baylor

In early 1847, Smith was writing in his farm diary:

SPRING – 1847:

That season in which the sun returns to us from his cold recess, bringeth warmth and renewal in his train, is most expressly denominated by the pure English word “SPRING.” Within the tropics Summer holds a constant sceptre. Vegetable growth has no intermission; it has no spring because it takes no rest. But with us, in the temperate zones, everything to which life or motion belongs and is now roused into activity. This is the jubilee of the year. The fountains are unlocked; the reptiles wake from their long sleep; the earth opens to the plough share; while the buds swell and put forth in all their beauty. A fresh impulse is infused throughout the whole of Nature and Man looks with exuberance to Him, who causeth “the seed time . . .”

APRIL, 1847:

April, 1847 Thomas is buried.

Thursday, April 1st – Rather cool day, at Jacob Gilbert’s for peach trees, in the evening looks like snow.

Friday, April 2nd – Very pretty warm day, planting peach trees.

Saturday, April 3rd – Very warm day, in town, at Mill and Baney’s.

17 851 863 Baney Thaddeus 36 M WMiller 3,500 MD
18 851 863 Banrey Susan 35 F W MD
19 851 863 Baney Thaddeus 8 M W VA
20 851 863 Baney Julia A. 5 F W VA
21 851 863 Baney John J. 9/12 M W VA
22 851 863 Baney Jane 6 F W VA
– 1850 Census

Sunday, April 4th – Cloudy morning at Baney’s and Boyd Roberts. Very pretty day. In the evening at Hardesty’s.

Monday, April 5th – Warm day, making garden. Jim at Charlestown.

Tuesday, April 6th – Cloudy and gusty, raining some little, in cornfield, burning brush. Peach and cherry trees in blossom.

Wednesday, April 7th – Very pretty day. At town until eleven, at home until five. Jake here today.

Thursday, April 8th – Very pretty day. George Strain set in for month at home, in the evening planting potatoes.

Friday, April 9th – At home and helping McIntyre at the Barn. Pretty day, in town in the evening.

Saturday, April 10th – Warm day and in town and at Rosenberger’s Mill for plaisters.

Sunday, April 11th – Cold north wind blowing, at Kearneysville.

Monday, April 12th – Very warm, at home until two, then in town, rode home on Showman’s horse.

Tuesday, April 13th – Cold wind blowing from N.E. and cool, in the evening warm. Putting up spouting.

Wednesday, April 14th – Cool windy in the morning, finished putting up spouting, burning brush . . . until dinner, in the evening at Town at Joseph Smith’s.

Thursday, April 15th – Cold wind from the North, in the evening making board fences.

Friday, April 16th – Cold wind from the West, in the Town with Grantham.

Saturday, April 17th – Cool day, hauling locust posts from the woods, in the evening at the Mill.

Sunday, April 18th – Very cool windy morning and in town, then at Hardesty’s.

Monday, April 19th – Cold and windy, at home until ten o’clock, then at Hardesty’s, in the evening in town, came home with Ada Hardesty.

Tuesday, April 20th – Cloudy, sowing oats in the morning, very hot . . . fox (shot one).

Wednesday, April 21st – Very hot day, at Watson’s.

Summer_Montage_Moses_John_H_Smith

SUMMER – 1847:

Farmer John Smith writes of farm life in 1847, the year he had Bill Burton working with him at Meadow Green:

20 1014 1027 Smith John H. 33 M WFarmer 7,200 VA
21 1014 1027 Smith Margaret G. 35 F W VA
22 1014 1027 Smith William 9 M W VA
23 1014 1027 Smith Eleanor 8 F W VA
24 1014 1027 Smith Ann M. 6 F W VA
25 1014 1027 Smith Mary L. 2 F W VA
26 1014 1027 Smith James V. 11/12 M W VA
27 1014 1027 Young Mary 56 F W VA
– 1850 Federal Census

The commencement of Summer has been termed “the very carnival of Nature.” The bosum of the earth is covered with flowers, and everything around or about us is full of life and vigor. The frosts and damps of spring are gone, the night air is balm and refreshing. The garden and orchard present us with most delicious fruits, tempting to the eye as well as great spice to the palate. But as the heat increases and pregnant showers become necessary to restore the drooping gardens, who can equal the subliminity, the bursting of the thunderclap or who can imitate the gorgeous colors of the rose of promise? “The ringing of scythes is heard in the hay-field, while the grain hops are rapidly whitening for the harvest.”

He continues in his diary:

Thursday, July 29th – Hot this morning, at Robt Shirleys and Cameron’s Depot, got home by 12 o’clock , in the afternoon at Thomson’s Depot (in Summit Point), came home by 6 PM.

Friday, July 30th – Warm, at home, hauling in Oats.

Saturday, July 31st – Hot, surveying with Haslett in morning, (illegible) the ditch with Grantham.

AUGUST, 1847:

Sunday, August 1st, 1847 – Hot and hazy, wind East, at home.

Monday, August 2nd – Warm, in town all day.

Tuesday, August 3rd – Warm, Mr. Yates here today, Jim’s at Machine.

Wednesday, August 4th – Warm, hauling oats in the morning, uncle Jake here in the evening.

Thursday, August 5th – Warm, in the evening in town to execute a Deed with James Grantham.

Friday, August 6th – Raining this morning, thrashing timothy seed in the afternoon at Jas Grantham’s.

Saturday, August 7th – Cloudy, at home until 10 o’clock, then to town and school. 6 PM Election: Dr. Mc (Macoughtry) out to see the Barn at night.

Sunday, August 8th – Cloudy, wind from S.E. This day Roe died at 10 o’clock PM.

Monday, August 9th – Very hot day, a good shower. This day will never be forgotten by Me, while I am alive. Benny was out in his last carting place at about 5 PM.

Tuesday, August 10th – Very hot day at Riely’s sale. This night tremendous rain. George Gilbert and wife here tonight.

Wednesday, August 11th – Warm this morning, Wind from S.E., at Jas Grantham’s, thence to John Dalgarn’s, then town to wait for mail.

Thursday, August 12th – Warm, at home all day.

Friday, August 13th – Warm, a good shower, at Dalgarns, Sale.

16 746 755 Dalgarn John W. 34 M WFarmer – 1850 Census
– 1850 Federal Census

Saturday, August 14th – Very hot at home until 2 o’clock, at Jacob Gilbert’s at Rosenberger’s Mill, came home.

Sunday, August 15th – Foggy.

Monday, August 16th – Hot, at home until 4 o’clock, then in town, heavy rain, at Grantham’s.

Tuesday, August 17th – Hot, hauling stone. Miss Waugh gone home today.

17 1013 1026 Waugh Elizabeth 65 F W
– 1850 Federal Census

Wednesday, August 17th – Pleasant day, at Joseph Smith’s in the morning at Charlestown, got home by seven PM.

Thursday, August 19th – Pretty morning, Sinclair’s billy here. Uncle Jake here, in town in the after.

Friday, August 20th – At home until 2 o’clock, Winds from S.E.

Saturday, August 21st – Cool morning at a small Barn at Ed Riely’s.

Sunday, August 22st – Raining this morning, Joe Packett and wife here this evening, and Mr. Barns here all night.

12 746 755 Packett Joseph G 36 M WMerchant VA
13 746 755 Packett Isabella 22 F W VA
14 746 755 Packett Margaret 4 F W VA
15 746 755 Packett John J. 2 M W VA
16 746 755 Dalgarn John W. 34 M WFarmer
– 1850 Federal Census.

Barns Family in 1852 lived on John Chamberlain Farm – SOURCE: Spirit of Jefferson, September 21, 1852, FARM FOR SALE. P3c7

24 1059 1074 Barns Nathan 36 M WFarmer VA
25 1059 1074 Barns Mary 31 F W VA
26 1059 1074 Barns Lucy 12 F W VA
27 1059 1074 Barns William 11 M W VA
28 1059 1074 Barns Joseph 9 M W VA
29 1059 1074 Barns Eldridge 7 M W VA
30 1059 1074 Barns Sarah 6 F W VA
31 1059 1074 Barns Elizabeth 11 F W VA
32 1059 1074 Barns Mary 3 F W VA
33 1059 1074 Barns Stephen 1 M W VA
– 1850 Federal Census.

Monday, August 23rd – Foggy early this morning, In the Meadow with Walter (Shirley) and his hand mowing. In the evening rode to town with him and Lock, a show tonight in the school of “sleight of hand” and “Negro songs.” Showers tonight. Came out of Town with John Shirley.

Tuesday, August 24th – Warm in Meadows all day. In evening rode to Town with Lock in wagon.

Wednesday, August 25th – Warm in town until one o’clock getting calf muzzle, in afternoon in Meadow with Walter and Lock. They finished mowing today.

Thursday, August 26th – at Bunker Hill, Buckles town and at Baney’s, got to town by 5 o’clock.

34 1378 1393 Buckles William 37 M WFarmer 6,500 VA
35 1378 1393 Buckles Ann 23 F W VA
36 1378 1393 Buckles Mary A. 4 F W VA
37 1378 1393 Buckles John H. 2 M W VA
38 1378 1393 Buckles William N. 2 M W VA
– 1850 Federal Census

Friday, August 27th – Warm, hauling in Hay, in evening a heavy rain.

Saturday, August 28th – Raining this morning, in the afternoon in Town to see show.

Sunday, August 29th – At home, in the morning in town. Windy. Lucy here today.

Monday, August 30th – In town this morning, in afternoon in town again, went down the run with Lock. Windy.

Tuesday, August 31st – Very hot day at Jacob Gilbert’s, Granthams.

SEPTEMBER, 1847:

Wednesday, September 1st – at Jacob Gilbert’s, very hot day.

Thursday, September 2nd – at Jacob’s, came to town by 2 o’clock, got home at seven evening.

Friday, September 3rd – Very hot day with a party fishing with a seine.

Saturday, September 4th – Very hot day, in town had a saddle to ? with Showalter, came home about one o’clock with William.

Sunday, September 5th – Hot with a strong wind from the south. Lock out today. Mowing at Packett’s.

Monday, September 6th – Very hot, at home, not well, in the evening in town.

Tuesday, September 7th – Hot day at home still sick, Mrs. Barns here today

Wednesday, September 8th – In bed all day, sick. Very hot day.

Thursday, September 9th – In bed sick, Uncle Jack here today, a heavy rain by evening.

Friday, September 10th – Cool, windy morning, was this morning walking about, in the evening in bed with chill.

Saturday, September 11th – Raining, a procession at Wise(?)

Sunday, September 12th – Raining, at Barns and Jim Mecht., David Ogden.

Monday, September 13th – Pretty day, James Haslett here.

Tuesday, September 14th – In bed, chill day

Wednesday, September 15th – Warm day, in woods, first daybeen out since I have been sick. In town in afternoon with Jake.

Thursday, September 16th – At home in afternoon rode to town to take Dick to get shod.

Friday, September 17th – Warm with an eastern wind, going Robert Shaull’s for sold wheat. In evening in town.

Saturday, September 18th – East winds, Jim ploughing in lot by House.

Sunday, September 19th – at home all day.

Monday, September 20th – Cloudy, Geo Myers cutting logs, hauled Mr. Brown a load of wood in the evening.

Tuesday, September 21st – Pretty day, hauling wood to town, and brought some seed wheat from Uncle Jake’s

Wednesday, September 22nd – Warm, at Ran Kownslar’s withBaylor and Joe Crane. Jim hauling stone for Beckwith.

Thursday, September 23rd – At Baney’s, T. B. Shawley for seed Wheat. Cloudy day, commenced raining about dark.

Friday, September 24th – Raining hard.

Saturday, September 25th – Cloudy with N.W. Winds. At Kownslar’s for wheat.

Sunday, September 26th – Pretty morning, at home rode by Walter Shirley’s.

Monday, September 27th – At Watson’s Mill and Shawley for seed Wheat. Warm day.

Tuesday, September 28th – Windy.


1848 – Smithfield/Middleway
:

January, 1848: 67-year-old (approx.) Nancy’s foot is burned, while living at Harper’s Ferry. JG spends $6.13 to visit her and to assist.

March 25, 1848: JG has 23-year-old Moses Baylor take $5 to 68-year-old Nancy at Harper’s Ferry.

May 1, 1848: JG outlays 50 cents to 19-year-old Bill for washing.

June 16, 1848: JG outlays $5 to Nancy “to help her along.”

July, 1848: Boarding and tending to Bill during a sickness means a $3 expense applied to the Burton account.

September 1, 1848: JG draws from the account $1.50 for additional support for Nancy.

To be continued Part 2 Moses Baylor gets free, goes to Liberia, sails back 1850-1860

Related videos and posts:

Link to Video:
The Granthams of Tudor Hall – Bill and Amon Share Click Here. TRT: 20:43

Link to Post:
Chewy Morsel #8 – A Riddle You Can Solve. Click Here.
480 words

References and “NOTES”:

NOTE 1:

Marriage records – Jefferson County Clerk – December 11, 1877, page 62, line 14, Baylor reports he was born in Jefferson County.
wvculture.org 2 March 2000 Web. 10 March 2016.

Moses Baylor gives an age of 48 on 1877 Dec 11th, but reports his age as 23 in 1850, or being born in 1827) – 1009 1022 1850 Jefferson County Va. Federal Census – household of John J. Grantham (son of James and Phebe), Moses Baylor (M) 23, James Baylor (M) 17. archive.org Internet Archives. 26 January 1997 Web. 10 March 2016.

1880 Jefferson County Federal Census, Town of Middleway, p. 8 line 20 Baylor gives his age in 1880 as 55 (being born in 1825).
ancestry.com 28 October 1996 Web. 10 March 2016. (Fee subscription).

In the 1900 Federal Census of Jefferson County, Wv, Middleway Town, Sheet No. 3A Line 44 Moses Baylor gives his birth date as June, 1825.
ancestry.com 28 October 1996 Web. 10 March 2016. (Fee subscription).

END NOTE 1

NOTE 2:

Tombstone Inscriptions, pp. 24 & 295. (NOTE: The location of the O’Bannon/Burton Farm was confused because, in Tombstone Inscriptions, two very different locations for the same three extant markers are given at two different pages in the book. The mapper for Jefferson County’s Assessor’s office, Victoria Myers, places the O’Bannon Farm at the location given in the Inscription’s citation on page 295 that places the same markers at “the Trussell Farm on the Leetown Road” – immediately south that road on the east side of Darke Lane.-JS).

END NOTE 2

Bates, Robert (1958). “The Story of Smithfield.” Vol. 2. Endicott, NY: R. L. Bates. pp. 34, 35, 42, 43, 44, 45, 60.

Sesquicentennial Farms – Tudor Hall (1773). ”Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society. Volume XXII. December 1956. Charles Town, WV: JCHS. – pp. 28-29.

Tombstone Inscriptions Jefferson County, W. Va. 1687-1980. Charles Town, WV: Bee Line Chapter, NSDAR.

“The Diary of Willoughby N. Lemen (June 4, 1839-February 13, 1860).” The Shepherdstown Register (series issues: January 30-June 12, 1947). (On microform), Scarborough Library – Shepherd University.

“The diary (1847-1856) of John Henry Smith of Smithfield (now Middleway).” Perry, Thornton Tayloe (1892-1981), collector, Jefferson Co., W. Va. miscellaneous volumes, 1793-1929. 39 items. Mss1, P4299b36-39. Near to the end of Reel 27. Scarborough Library, Shepherd University.

James E. Harding (October 23, 1979). “National Register of Historic Places Nomination: Middleway Historic District” (pdf). National Park Service.
wvculture.org 2 March 2000 Web. 10 March 2016.

From The Jefferson County Clerk (Incl. online sources):

Marriage records, Wills and Deeds. – Jefferson County Clerk, Charles Town, WV

Record of Marriages. No. 1. 1801-1853; An Alphabetical Transcript of the marriage records of Jefferson County from 1801 to 1853.
Barns, Nathan and Mary H. Grantham 1/31/1837
Barnes, Nathan Norval and Annie Isler 12/22/1860

Evidence of Nathan Barns(Barnes) Family whereabouts in 1852
Spirit of Jefferson, September 21, 1852, FARM FOR SALE. P3c7

The undersigned wished to sell, at private sale, his FARM, situated in Jefferson co., Virginia, about five miles west of Charlestown, the county seat, and within two and a half miles of Cameron’s Depot, on the Winchester and Potomac Railroad, and about one and a fourth miles from the Turnpike leading from Middleway to Harpers Ferry, adjoining the lands of Robert V. Shirley, John W. Packett, James Grantham and others, containing about 224 Acres more or less of Limestone Land. The Improvements consist of a Dwelling house, Stable, Corn house, Smoke-house, &c., and a never-failing well of water near the house, with a young orchard of choice fruit lately planted. Those desiring to purchase will do well to call on the subscriber at Hopewell Mills, near Leetown, Jefferson co., Va., or on Mr. Nathan Barns, who is now the present occupant of said farm. The Terms will be made reasonable, and possession given on the first day of April next. – JOHN CHAMBERLAIN. September 7, 1852 – wvgeohistory.org.

Joshua Burton
Will: Burton, Joshua 5/20/1839 Will Book Volume:9 Page(s):288;
wvgeohistory.org 5 October 2010 Web. March 2016.

Account: Burton, Joshua, Executor of 9/17/1849 Will Book Volume:12 Page(s):201-208;
wvgeohistory.org 5 October 2010 Web. March 2016.

Appraisement: Burton, Joshua 9/16/1839 Will Book Volume:9 Page(s):384-385;
wvgeohistory.org 5 October 2010 Web. March 2016.

Account, Current: Burton, Joshua; James Grantham, executor 9/17/1849: Jefferson County, WV, Will Book 12 Page(s):201-208.
wvgeohistory.org 5 October 2010 Web. March 2016.

John O’Bannon left his 306 acres to his sons John, Harrison, and Joseph
Will: O’Bannon, John 11/15/1830 Volume:Jefferson County, WV, Will Book 6 Page(s):345-346;
wvgeohistory.org 5 October 2010 Web. March 2016.

Appraisement: O’Bannon, John 11/21/1832 Volume:Jefferson County, WV, Will Book 7 Page(s):122-126;
wvgeohistory.org 5 October 2010 Web. March 2016.

Account, Current: O’Bannon, John; James Hite, administrator 2/18/1833 Volume:Jefferson County, WV, Will Book 7 Page(s):206-207
wvgeohistory.org 5 October 2010 Web. March 2016.

Account, Current: O’Bannon, John 2/18/1833 Volume:Jefferson County, WV, Will Book 7 Page(s):206-207
wvgeohistory.org 5 October 2010 Web. March 2016.

Sale: O’Bannon, John; James Hite, administrator 3/18/1833 Volume:Jefferson County, WV, Will Book 7 Page(s):222-229
wvgeohistory.org 5 October 2010 Web. March 2016.

James Grantham
Will: Grantham, James 9/16/1861 Volume:Jefferson County, WV, Will Book 16 Page(s):381-383
wvgeohistory.org 5 October 2010 Web. March 2016.

Federal Census Jefferson County Va/WV 1820-1920
1. 1850 Federal Census Jefferson County, Va. 40/1009/1022 (John J. Grantham household)

also
Smith, John H – 45 real estate 8,000 personal property 2105, wife Margaret, 45; eight children
Family Number: 431 – Page 62.
fold3.com 16 September 2001 Web. 10 March 2016. (Fee subscription)

2. 1820 Federal Census Jefferson County, Va. P. 96A (Joshua Burton, John O’Bannon)
Elizabeth Grantham p. 101.

John, William and Joseph Grantham & Smith Slaughter – p. 99.

John, Seth and Moses Smith & John Grantham p. 98.

James Roper p. 95.

p. 99 (Autumn); pp. 112-113 (The Farmer) from “The diary (1847-1856) of John Henry Smith of Smithfield (now Middleway).” Perry, Thornton Tayloe (1892-1981), collector, Jefferson Co., W. Va. miscellaneous volumes, 1793-1929. 39 items. Mss1, P4299b36-39. Near to the end of Reel 27. Scarborough Library, Shepherd University.

Summary of Jefferson County commerce and agriculture p. 109.
Population schedules of the fourth census of the United States, 1820, Virginia [microform] Reel 134
archive.org Internet Archives. 26 January 1997 Web. 10 March 2016.

Image Credits:

Montage of property owners in 1864
Map of the lower Shenandoah Valley, Virginia
Brown, Samuel Howell.
Early, Jubal Anderson, 1816-1894.
Created / Published: 1864.
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 10 March 2016.

The Country Store
Edward Lamson Henry – 1885
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 10 March 2016.

An October Day (also known as Cragsmoor Post Office)
Edward Lamson Henry – 1903
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 10 March 2016.

A Summer Day
Edward Lamson Henry – 1890
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 10 March 2016.

“Tom – semblance”
The Chimney Corner
Eastman Johnson – 1863
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 10 March 2016.

“Nancy – semblance”
Dinah, Portrait of a Negress
Eastman Johnson – circa 1866-1869
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 10 March 2016.

“Betsey – semblance”
Hannah – Eastman Johnson – circa 1859
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 10 March 2016.

“Moses Baylor young – semblance”
Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 13, Issue: 75, (Aug., 1856). pp. 303-323. Print.

Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014.
p. 316 – woodpile.

a smoking, small wood stove (detail in the title of the montage called “Hirelings”)
Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 12, Issue: 68, (Jan., 1856). pp. 158-179. Print.

Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014.
p. 177.

“Moses Baylor – later semblance”
Head of a Black Man
Eastman Johnson – circa 1868
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 10 March 2016.

detail “Moses Baylor – semblance”
Fredericksburg, Virginia. Burial of Federal dead
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 10 March 2016.

Paintings of Phebe Grantham, James Grantham and Col. J. J. Grantham – Courtesy the Grantham family.

Daguerrotype of James and Phebe Grantham – Jefferson County Museum and the Grantham Family.

Title: Winter pastime
Creator(s): N. Currier (Firm),
Date Created/Published: New York : Published by N. Currier, c1855.
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 10 March 2016.

“Spring by John H. Smith”
The Carnival
(also known as Dressing for the Carnival)
Winslow Homer (1877)
Metropolitan Museum of Art – New York, NY
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 10 March 2016.

“Winter by John H. Smith”
Title: American winter scene
Date Created/Published: Phila. : Published by Joseph Hoover, c1867.
Medium: 1 print: lithograph, color.
Summary: Four horse-drawn sleighs in front of house.
Photo Archives Page 1 – Sleighing and skating 19th Century
wintercenter.homestead.com 4 April 2001 Web. 10 March 2016.

Pictorial Americana
Selected Images from the Collections of the Library of Congress
FARMS AND FARMING
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 10 March 2016.

[New York] Farmer whetting his scythe, by William Sidney Mount, 1848
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 10 March 2016.

List of Paintings by William Sidney Mount at Athenaeum
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 10 March 2016

The Long Story (also known as The Tough Story)
William Sidney Mount – 1837
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 10 March 2016.
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 10 March 2016

The Power of Music
William Sidney Mount – 1847
Cleveland Museum of Art (United States – Cleveland, Ohio)
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 10 March 2016.

What Have I Forgot?
William Sidney Mount (1862)
Private collection
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 10 March 2016.

“Southern Planter.” (1841). Richmond, Va.: P.D. Bernard. Print.

“Southern Planter.” (1841). Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 12 Feb. 2012.
p. 37; p. 58; p. 20 the new grain planter.

NOT USED
Title: Winter in the country: a cold morning
Creator(s): Currier & Ives.,
Date Created/Published: New York : Published by Currier & Ives, c1863.
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 10 March 2016.

NOT USED
Title: Gift for the grangers / J. Hale Powers & Co. Fraternity & Fine Art Publishers, Cin’ti. ; Strobridge & Co. Lith. Cincinnati, O.
Creator(s): Strobridge & Co. Lith.,
Date Created/Published: Cincinnati, O. : J. Hale Powers & Co., c1873.
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 10 March 2016.

NOT USED
Title: Early autumn: (Salmon Branch, Granby, Ct.) / A. D. Shattuck.
Creator(s): Currier & Ives.
loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 10 March 2016.

NOT USED
A Stormy Morning (also known as Leaving in the Early Morn in a Northeaster)
Edward Lamson Henry – 1899
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 10 March 2016.

NOT USED
The Message
Edward Lamson Henry – 1893
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 10 March 2016.

The Humble Harvest & Eternal Voices (5) by Jim Surkamp

by Jim Surkamp on August 29, 2016 in Jefferson County

The_Humble_Harvest_Thy_Will_13c



The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Pt. 5
 – Conclusion by Jim Surkamp TRT: 28:00/53:34 (incl. Credits). Click Here.

The Humble Harvest , Eternal Voices – Part 4 – Skirmish TRT: 23:35/33:48 (incl. Credits). Click Here.

The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Part 3 TRT: 14:08/26:14 (incl. Credits). Click Here.

The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Part 2
 TRT: 21:48/27:40 (incl. Credits). Click Here.

The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Part 1. TRT: 17:25/21:14 (incl. Credits). Click Here.
Made possible with the generous, community-minded support of American Public University System. Any views expressed are not a reflection of modern-day policies of the University and are intended to encourage dispassionate discussion and inquiry. More at http://apus.edu

The Humble Harvest and Eternal Voices – Part 5

Humble_Harvest_People
William_McCarter_Matte_D

I asked how the child had been killed. The reply given was, in substance, the same as thee old man’s With both hands, she slowly and solemnly raised the blood stained cover off the little breast, saying in sobs as she did so, “Just look here.”

Mary_Clemmer_Ames_Mattes_D

Deeds of valor are no longer dreams gone by. We live in knightly days; our men are dauntless men. Will there ever be one to write the life of the common soldier?

St_Clair_A_Mulholland_D

The regiment had not lost a man to be sure, but had seen a genuine fight, heard the scream of the shells, and heard a caisson blowing up and men knocked over.

Chas_Aglionby_D

Last night it rained for an hour or so. It put the ground in fine order for seeding. I sent the wagon to Mr. Moore and 27 bushels by measure. No military to be seen on our side of the hill.

Anne_Willis_Ambler_semblance

Anne Willis Ambler sees all from her parents farm Rock Hall: Pa is becoming rather tired of our South Carolina soldier. Thinks he is sufficiently well to leave.

Heros_Von_Borcke_D

And Heros Von Borcke keeps one eye out for an empty seat at a dinner table: It was a sparkling beautiful morning of autumn and I enjoyed the ride home the more for being fortunate enough firing from my horses back with my revolver to kill a grey squirrel, which, as our mess arrangements had been thrown into utter disorder by the events of the last two days, was gladly welcomed the same evening on our dinner table.

Cornfield_Winslow_Homer

October 17th 1862 – The Day after Battle William McCarter sees Lillie in Charlestown and the price of war. Farms continue their ways. And both armies move down the valley to clash again. The day before, Charles Aglionby at his Mt. Pleasant farm had written in his diary:

Charles_Aglionby

The Yankees drove in the Confederate pickets. There was considerable firing near Charlestown with cannon. Some few killed & wounded. A body of cavalry were in our lower field in the evening about thirty Yankee cavalry passed through Mr. Moore’s & Mr. Ranson’s field in sight of our house. The retiring cavalry and artillery of the Confederates passed before our house. October 17th Friday Last night it rained for an hour or so. It put the ground in fine order for seeding. Some cannonading was heard at different times at points from Shepherdstown to Leetown. Miss Belle Compton stayed all night and spent the day.

George_M_Neese_1840_1921

Last night (October 16-17th) was about as dark as they generally get in this country. I was on guard duty during the fore part of the night and it rained very hard all through my whole watch. We had no fire until after midnight, the ground, wood, and everything else being soaking wet; even the darkness felt like a wet blanket. I made my bed on top of a rock pile. It was a little hardish at first, but it was the driest place.

Charles_Trueman_Montage

An intelligent negro arrived here this morning from Berryville. He left there last night. He said there is one regiment of cavalry and four pieces of artillery between here and Berryville; at and near Berryville, the Second, Third, Sixth, Seventh, Ninth, and Twelfth Virginia Cavalries;

Winfield_Hancock_D_Matte

The next day, when we received orders to return, it then marched to Halltown, and occupied that position during the night. The next morning (Oct. 18th), after an examination of the roads, and it being found there was no enemy in front, the command returned to Harper’s Ferry. I appointed Col. J. R. Brooke, of the Fifty-third Pennsylvania Volunteers, military governor, the better to preserve order. About 100 officers and soldiers of the Confederate Army were found in the town, consisting entirely, it is believed, of surgeons, hospital attendants, convalescents, and sick. Twenty-six were sent to the provost-marshal at Harper’s Ferry, and 38 wounded and unable to be removed, were paroled. Time did not permit the paroling of all who were severely wounded, as they were scattered throughout the town, requiring more time than we had for the purpose, to find them.

Split_Elliott_Cornfield

My God, My Father, while I stray/ Far from my home in life’s rough way/ Oh teach me from my heart to say: “Thy Will Be Done.”
Though dark my path and sad my lot/ Let me be still and murmur not;
Or breathe the prayer divinely taught But civil war, be it long or short Thy Will Be Done.”
But tho’ in lonely grief I sigh/ For friends beloved no longer nigh/ Submissive still I would reply/ Thy Will Be Done.

William_McCarter_Matte_D

Oct 16, 1862 in the late afternoon: Pvt. McCarter was sent into town to assist Brooke’s men in arresting and paroling wounded Confederate soldiers in Charlestown. He wrote later of what he saw: War is truly said to be a sad necessity. But civil war, be it long or short and under almost any circumstance, is indeed sadder and more desolating in its effects. History may record the ravages and desolations made and left in the tracks of the bloody feet of war, even in this most unnatural contest of our own.

Battle_of_Nashville_Humble_5_Montage

Painters of the rarest talents may one day paint the destruction in masterly styles and glowing colors. Yet, all these efforts fall far short in showing to the eye or to the mind war’s real effects upon people and country. Our attention was attracted to a three-story house, one of the better class of dwellings there, by crowds of soldiers and a few citizens going into it. These visitors came immediately out again with dull and saddened countenances and, in. Or a few cases, with tearful eyes. the front door had apparently been smashed and laid about in pieces upon the cobblestone pavement opposite. we stopped and, following the example of others, entered the house and then the room on the first floor. Merciful heaven what a sight met our eyes. God save me the pain of another’s such sight as long as I live. The room was long and narrow. From one end to the other, regardless of those present, paced a lady apparently not over thirty years of age. She appeared to be in terrible grief, refusing entirely any comfort or consolation from those of her friends and neighbors there congregated. The woman was clad in black, In some manner her dress had been almost torn from her body.

dhs.5.grief_

She would now and then burst out into heart-rending fits of weeping, exclaiming, “Oh, my child, My Lilly.” Not knowing exactly the cause of the lady’s sorrow, I quietly inquired of an old man leaning against the door what it was. He replied that her child, had been killed about an hour ago by a ball from the federal battery. The round passed through a window at which the child had been standing, looking down at soldiers on the street. At one end of the room, a few women and several members of our Irish Brigade were gathered around what seemed to me to be a melodeon, gazing sadly and silently at something lying on its top. As soon as opportunity presented to approach the spot, we did so. There on the top of the instrument laid a sweet little girl. Cold and stiff and dead. Except for the dead yet still beautiful, innocent pale face, all the rest of the body was covered with a large sheet, or white quilt.

bloods-stains_quilt

On this quilt, particularly that part of it over the child’s breast were large spots of blood. A young colored woman was cutting the long. down curls from the child’s head and perfectly saturating them with her tears. Approaching still nearer, I asked how the child had been killed. The reply given was in substance the same as the old man’s. With both hands, she slowly and solemnly raised the blood stained cover off the little breast, saying in sobs as she did so, “Just look here.” My companion and I gazed for a moment at the object in horror and dismay, unable to utter a word. then turning slowly and sadly away, we left the room. My heart was too full and my eyes positively refused to shelter any longer streams of hot water that. burst from them. The ball had struck the child on the left breast, tearing it and ripping the left arm completely away. Only a small portion of the right breast remained. It presented a most ghastly, sickening appearance. Yet, that dear little face seemed as calm and as peaceful as in a quiet, sweet slumber. Oh, cruel, cruel war! must the innocent suffer with the guilty.

Friday, October 17th: Yesterday evening there came the news that two fights had occurred in town and our men had to retreat, leaving the enemy in possession. They occupied the “Inn” and advanced on every road, driving in our pickets early this morning. Nat left us to search for his company but returned and passed the night. Saturday, October 18th: The news is that the Yankees have fallen back from Charlestown and our troops are advancing. About 2,000 cavalry passed by our gate.

Montaage_Willis_Pa_Anna

The forage masters were here again today. Pa sold them a barrel of whiskey for $10 gallon. October 16th Nat came in just as we got up from breakfast but there were some nice hot rolls brought in for him which he enjoys immensely. Told me about his trip into Maryland and Pennsylvania with General Stuart. A man came here who has been getting Pa’s hay and insisted he had a right to Pa’s hay, but Pa got very angry and got his pistol and said he would shoot him if he did and when Nat went out the man pretended he was satisfied. The man departed but we were all frightened and fear he may turn up again. Pa called him a scoundrel. Had so much to write about today I forgot to say a little on the uninteresting subject of its being my 24th birthday.

Montage_Neese_3X_Moves_Oct_18_1862

George Neese writes from camp: This morning we moved to our old camp again, four miles from Charlestown on the Berryville pike. This afternoon the first piece was ordered to go on picket at our old post one mile below Charlestown, on the Harper’s Ferry pike. This evening we left our post and came one mile south of Charlestown and camped with the Sixth Virginia Cavalry. They had a prayer meeting in their camp in the early evening by candlelight, which I attended. The Sixth seems to be the citadel of religion of the brigade, as they have more religious service in the Sixth than in any of the other regiments, yet I do not know as the plane of practical ethics in general is any higher in this than in any of the other regiments of the brigade. I suppose that their code of imprecations is of about the same standard as that adopted by the rest of the brigade, and perhaps employed with about equal frequency.

HH_5_Oct_18_Montage3

During the recent skirmish at Charlestown, the Federals had also sent a force under Generals Andrew Humphreys and Alfred Pleasonton down Leetown Pike to try and rout out Gen. Jeb Stuart’s men, headquartered at the Dandridge’s home called The Bower; and but for making a turn with their cavalry down the wrong road near Strider’s Mill they could well have captured Stuart. Afterwards men under Confederate Gen. A.P. Hill, who had moved on down towards Berryville as the Federals advanced, told Josiah Ware at his Clarke County home, called Springfield just what had happened to Jeb Stuart:

Springfield_house3

Drawing from some of what Gen. A. P. Hill’s infantrymen men related: While cavalry General Stuart’s headquarters were at Dandridge’s in Jefferson, he was dancing with the girls when the Yankees had planned a raid and would have caught him and his staff (only they missed the road) and in the pursuit & fighting the enemy Stuart was only saved from being caught by losing his hat & jumping with his horse a garden railing. Stuart’s men had, indeed, completed a second full-blown ball at The Bower just on the night of the 15th that extended into the wee hours of the 16th.

Heros_Von_Borcke_D

German-born Heros Von Borcke, one of J.E.B. Stuart’s staff officers, confirms Stuart’s very close call after a good party:The beams of the morrow’s sun were just making their way through the intricacies of the foliage above our heads, as we lay in camp resting from the fatigues of the night’s dancing, when a blast of the bugle brought the whole command to their feet, with its summons to new and serious activity. We found a full division of the Federal infantry moving upon us in admirable order, their cavalry operating on either flank, and their artillery seeking to get into position upon some heights in our front, where several pieces had already arrived and had opened a brisk and annoying fire upon our horsemen. Large clouds of dust rising all along the road towards Shepherdstown indicated the approach of other bodies of the enemy, and it was quite plain that our resistance to odds so overwhelming could only be of short duration. The Bower, where only a few hours before the violin and banjo had sent forth their enlivening strains, riding forward to the scene of action, which already resounded with wilder music. About dusk the Federals came to a halt, and, to our infinite surprise, turned slowly back for a mile and a half, where we soon saw the main body go quietly into bivouac. During the chase offered them by Gen. Humphreys and Gen. Pleasonton, Gen. Stuart and his men found themselves caught in that same rain from that day: The General then proceeded his Staff to headquarters at “The Bower,” which was only a few miles distant. Before we reached there we were overtaken by a drenching shower of rain, and we thankfully accepted Mr. Dandridge’s kind invitation upon our arrival to dry our dripping garments and warm our chilled bodies before a roaring wood fire in the large and comfortable family drawing-room. A renewed assault the next morning (Oct. 17th) put

Middleway_Eastman_Hatch_Family_detail

Von Borcke with some men further south in Middleway/Smithfield to watch for the enemy. Finding none, he found another social windfall: I had not been more than an hour in the village of Smithfield when our outposts from the Shepherdstown road came galloping along in furious haste, reporting a tremendous host of cavalry right behind them in hot pursuit. The squadron had come from Harper’s Ferry along a by-road which struck the turnpike at a point about midway between Kearneysville and Smithfield. I established my men and myself at the house of an interesting young widow who, with her sister, enlivened our evening with songs and spirited discourse. The next morning we received orders to return to the Bower.

sunrise.river

It was a sparkling beautiful morning of autumn and I enjoyed the ride home the more for being fortunate enough firing from my horseback with my revolver to kill a grey squirrel, which, as our mess arrangements had been thrown into utter disorder by the events of the last two days, was gladly welcomed the same evening on our dinner table.

November_19_1862
Chas.Yates.Aglionby_Matte

A month later at Mt. Pleasant the Aglionby’s farm: Wednesday November 19th Pleasant, but a little cloudy. The hands cutting and mauling wood. Ralf doing some odd jobs, setting out cabbage stocks and fixing gate hinges. R. Bowerly and son cleaned out the pool. Captain Buck’s company went by and returned this morning and by again this evening. Mrs. A. and Frank went to Charlestown this evening. No news of any consequence from the war. Mr. Whittington is cutting up some dead trees on the halves. I went to Captain Abell’s in the afternoon, met Col. Marshall and Lieutenant Buck there. The Captain loaned me some small pieces of pork if I should ever have need for them.

Anna_Madison_Willis_Ambler_painting_Matte

Wednesday, November 19th: Mr. Thompson was here and seemed to have some hope of the war ending. He and Pa both agree that the best thing that could happen would be a reconstruction of the Union. Can it be possible? I am sure I know not but it seems not to me. I don’t see how we could ever live in peace and love one another though I am sure we can never be a great nation separate. Oh that God may bring order out of confusion and bring our once peaceful and happy country out of this cruel war.

earth

References:

Charles Aglionby Papers and Civil War Diary, Volume 2 – Jefferson County Museum, Charles Town, WV.

Ambler, Anne W. (1971). “Diary of Anne Madison Willis Ambler (1836-1888): A Civil War Experience.” (submitted by her granddaughter, Anne Madison Ambler Baylor – Mrs. Robert Garnet Baylor). Magazine of the Historical Society of Jefferson County.” Vol. Volume XXXVII. Charles Town, WV: Jefferson County Historical Society, pp. 28-29.

SUPPLEMENTAL

Thursday, October 16th:
Nat came in just as we got up from breakfast but there were some nice hot rolls brought in for him which he enjoys immensely. Told me about his trip into Maryland and Pennsylvania with General Stuart, took 2000 horses and burned government stores at Chambersburg. . . .They met a man with a fine horse and when told to give him up the man burst into tears, exclaiming, “Oh, don’t take poor old Billie.” Nat say they took him, of course. A man came here who has been getting Pa’s hay and insisted he had a right to Pa’s hay, but Pa got very angry and got his pistol and said he would shoot him if he did and when Nat went out the man pretended he was satisfied. The man departed but we were all frightened and fear he may turn up again . . . Pa called him a scoundrel. Had so much to write about today I forgot to say a little on the uninteresting subject of its being my 24th birthday.

(Entries for Oct. 17 and 18 – are in the main transcript)

Monday, October 20th:
I heard today of James B’s death today. He took the oath when the Yankees were in here and was taken up on conscript law and was so much distressed about it that he died the day he was to go into the army.

Wednesday, October 22nd:
Heard last night of poor Mrs. Mary Johnson losing five children with the scarlet fever. She has seven. All gone but the oldest and the youngest.

Saturday, October 25th:
Cousin Edward Willis came by to see us. Seems to be an exceedingly clever person. Says that Cousin Frank’s sentiments are precisely like Pa’s at which Pa was overjoyed as he had predicted they would be. Said he felt five years younger. Cousin Edward seems to have an impartial view and description of the war. Says it is all untrue about the Yankees not fighting that we have been taught to respect them on more battlefields than one.

Sunday, October 26th:
A company of 75 men asked to stay all night and get supper. Pa consented to let them sleep at the barn and made fires for them in the cellar and quarters for them today as it had been raining all day. Gave each man a drink., Fannie and Bertie assisted in the kitchen and were most expeditious. The men arrived about half past five and by half past eight, they had gotten their suppers.

Ames, Mary C. (1872). “Eirene, Or A Woman’s Right.” New York, NY: G. P. Putnam & Sons. googlebooks.com 5 February 2003 Web. 5 March 2016. pp. 155-177.

McCarter, William. (1996). “My Life in the Irish Brigade – The Civil War Memoirs of Private William McCarter, 116th Pennsylvania Infantry.” edited by Kevin E. O’Brien. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books Group. googlebooks.com 5 February 2003 Web. 5 March 2016.

Mulholland, St. Clair Augustin. (1899). “The story of the 116th Regiment, Pennsylvania Infantry. War of secession, 1862-1865.” [Philadelphia, F. McManus, jr., & co.]. archive.org 26 October 2004 Web. 20 June 2016.

George Neese . (1911). “Three years in the Confederate horse artillery.” New York, Washington: The Neale Publishing Co. archive.org 26 October 2004 Web. 20 June 2016.

Charles Henry Trueman – The New York Times, October 22, 1862 nytimes.com 12 November 1996 Web. 20 June 2016; Census Records at ancestry.com 28 October 1996 Web. 20 June 2016.

SUPPLEMENTAL:

1. New York Times Report No. 1 FROM BOLIVAR HEIGHTS.; The Story of a Free Negro–His Estimate of the Rebel Strength–Gen. Stuart’s Raid-Rebel Fears and Feelings.Published: October 22, 1862, The New York Times, October 22, 1862 nytimes.com 12 November 1996 Web. 20 June 2016.

NOTE: Digitized version has been reviewed and based on fact-checking – “TRUFMAN” is corrected to “TRUEMAN,” “GECK” is corrected to “CHEW,” “PINCENEY” corrected to “PINCKNEY,” “MRS. GEN. MARDY” corrected to “MARCY,” and “FROMER” corrected to “FRAME.”

BOLIVAR HEIGHTS, ABOVE HARPER’s FERRY, Va.,

Monday evening, Oct. 20, 1862.

As a general thing, but little importance can be attached to the statements of contrabands. In addition to being naturally endowed with “gift of tongue,” their Munchausen proclivities are largely developed by contact with their white masters. In common with refugees and deserters, they are also anxious to secure the attention and treatment which the bearer of much information is expected to receive. I have, however, been conversing with an escaped free negro, who betrays such unusual intelligence and whose statements correspond so nearly with what I have previously learned, that I set him down as a truthful negro worthy of belief. His name is CHARLES HENRY TRUEMAN; he was brought up in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, learned to read and write, and nearly a year since became employed in Gen. BANKS’ Commissary Department. He was captured, five months ago, at Strasburgh, and immediately pressed into the Confederate service as a driver. Objecting to this, on the plea that he was a free man, they replied to him that “it was their say about that matter now, and he might consider himself lucky if he was not shot for having been caught in the Yankee army.” After “teaming” it three weeks, he was given to Capt. SAMUEL MARSH, of Company H, Seventh Virginia Cavalry, whose servant he continued until the time of his escape into our lines at Charlestown last Friday. Not knowing that he could read and write, he was frequently intrusted with the carrying of written messages, which he never let slip an opportunity of perusing, anxious as he was to procure all the news he could before escaping. He also learned much from conversations which he overheard between Capt. MARSH and other officers. The entire rebel army on the Upper Potomac numbers one hundred and twenty five thousand men. Gen. JACKSON has a large force at Bunker Hill. There is also another large force in the vicinity of Winchester. He does not know who commands them. There are between four and five thousand troops stationed at Smithfield, under command of Brig.-Gen. TALIAFERRO, of North Carolina; also two thousand at Leetown. The safe return of Gen. STUART from this late raid was the occasion of much joy. When our heavy firing along the Potomac was heard, a week ago Sunday, the rebels became prey to the most fearful forebodings, expecting to hear that STUART and his 2,500 followers had been intercepted and cut off. Imagine, then, their joy when they learned the next day from Leesburgh that the river had been crossed in safety, and not many hours after, saw their pet cavalrymen coming through Snicker’s Gap with one thousand Yankee horses. Gen. STUART immediately located his headquarters at Berryvllie. The stolen horses were, however, driven further forward, and quartered on Mr. FLEMING’s farm, 3 1/2 miles from Charlestown, on the Winchester road. He was here when our forces advanced last Thursday morning. The troops which met us and disputed our advance belonged to the Twelfth Virginia Cavalry, Col. MUMFORD, and are doing [???] around Charlestown. Three guns of Capt. CHEW’s Battery constituted all their artillery. Capt. CHEW, who lived below Charlestown, on the Shenandoah, was killed by our artillerists. He saw the corpse as it was being carried to Mr. FLEMING’s, a shell had entered his body below the right armpit, and passed out above the left breast. As soon as the artillery [???] opened the Second Virginia Cavalry moved to the support of the Twelfth, and soon after, his own regiment, the Seventh Virginia,, both of which were encamped in Messrs. FRAME and FLEMING’s woods, three and a half miles out of town. Word was also sent to Gen. STUART at Berryville, and he came up in the course of the day with the Sixth and Ninth Virginia Cavalry. When our forces had silenced the rebel guns, drove the Second and Twelfth Cavalry Regiments before them, and reached the village, a considerable panic occurred. The captured horses were immediately collected preparatory to being driven back to Berryville. Had we marched on immediately, he is confident we could have retaken every one of them. Our meagre knowledge of the whereabouts of the enemy would have made such an undertaking, however, extremely hazardous. On my asking him why they did not open upon us when we appeared so boldly on the high ground about the village, he replied that they were afraid to, lest their position would be revealed. In the evening (Thursday) word came that JACKSON was marching down to their support with a large body of infantry. This may have been the reason of the withdrawal of our forces on the following day. He made his escape on the next morning, taking advantage of the thick mist to creep through the rebel lines. While the battle was progressing at Sharpsburgh, he remained on the other side or the river at Shepherdstown. Every one there understood that “we (rebels) were getting badly whipped.” Such was the purport of all the conversation held by the citizens with the wounded and disabled which were being brought over. So the messengers reported. He heard one state in reply to an inquiry, that the “Yankees are cutting us all to pieces.”

Whatever the rebel Generals may say in their official dispatches, all of the soldiers who participated, know and confess that they were severely defeated.

The old fortifications at Winchester are being repaired. Several miles of the railroad track between Charlestown and Winchester have been torn up, and the iron appropriated for army use. It was currently reported that the “Yanks” had burned the bodies of the rebel dead at Antietam to avoid the trouble consequent upon interring them.

“LINCOLN’s Proclamation” is the theme of much conversation, and has caused many of the slaves to be transferred further southward. There is much apprehension among all the officers lest Richmond may be attacked by a large army while the bulk of their forces remain in Northern Virginia.

You wonder at the knowledge thus betrayed by this negro. He is certainly the most intelligent one I have met since the outbreak of the troubles, exhibiting more knowledge as regards both armies than nine-tenths of the rebel privates possess. And yet he is “too stupid” to bear arms in support of the Stars and Stripes.

Our New-York regiments are waiting anxiously the enforcement of the draft in that State when their decimated ranks are to be filled up. This is especially true of the Fifty-second, Col. FRANK; Fifty-seventh, Major CHAPMAN; Sixty-sixth, Col. PINCKNEY. I am pleased to observe that the damaging practice of filling vacant commissions with favorites, or men who will pay for a position, is rapidly giving way to the wholesome one of promoting from the rank and file those who have distinguished themselves on the battle-field. The Sixty-ninth, as you are aware, has lost nearly all its Line officers. Col. NUGENT is now filling their places with privates who have exhibited bravery while under fire. The following are his appointments thus far: From First Lieutenant to Captain, RICHARD MARONY, JOHN H. DONOVAN; from Second to First Lieutenant, JOHN TOOL, TERRENCE DUFFY; from Sergeant to Lieutenant, RICHARD KELLY, M. BRENNAN, M. MURPHY, B. O’NEILL, P. CARNEY, Sergt.-Major CALLAGHAN and Q.M. Sergt. P. BUCKLEY have been promoted to be Lieutenants. Let this worthy example be emulated in other regiments.

2. New York Times Report No. 2: (NOTE ?? question marks in the text are in the reproduced digitized version at nytimes.org).

FROM THE ARMY OF THE POTOMAC.; Advance of Our Cavalry Pickets Two Miles Into Virginia. The Rebels in Force This Side of Charlestown. JACKSON STILL AT BUNKER’S HILL, A Successful Expedition After Rebel Cavalry. Thirty-two Captured and Several Killed and Wounded. SPECIAL DISPATCH FROM HARPER’S FERRY LATEST REPORTS FROM HEADQUARTERS. SPECIAL DISPATCH FROM FREDERICK. Published: October 22, 1862. The New York Times, October 22, 1862 nytimes.com 12 November 1996 Web. 20 June 2016

WASHINGTON, Tuesday, Oct. 21.

The following dispatch has just been received from our special correspondent at Harper’s Ferry:

Nine o’clock P.M. Our cavalry pickets have been extended two miles, and are now some distance beyond Halltown, now held by our infantry.

A balloon reconnaissance was made last night, and discovered the enemy this side of Charlestown.

Deserters coming in, report JACKSON, with a large force, still in the neighborhood of Bunker’s Hill.

Capt. J.F. PELL, First Minnesota, Provost-Marshal of Harper’s Ferry; who went to Charlestown with last Thursday’s reconnaissance, while returning alone at 7, P.M., was captured by the enemy in a raid on our rear. He is a brave man, universally loved and respected.

There is great dissatisfaction in the army respecting Order No. 154, authorizing regulars to fill up their regiments from those of volunteers.

HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE POTOMAC, Tuesday Evening, Oct. 21.

An expedition started from Gen. SLOCUM’s command this morning, for the purpose of intercepting and capturing a force of rebel cavalry, under Capt. Duo, who were foraging near Lovettsville, Loudon County, Va. It was in every respect successful, but the details are not known.

We took thirty-two prisoners, among whom was the Captain, and killed ten of the enemy. Our loss was one man killed and four wounded. Due’s was an independent company, raised in Loudon County.

Mrs. Gen. MCCLELLAN and Mrs. Gen. MARCY, having finished their visit to the Army of the Potomac, left for Washington to-day.

WASHINGTON. Tuesday. Oct. 21.

We have just received the following dispatch, dated Frederick. Oct. 21 – 10 P.M.
During the recent rebel raid into this State, a wife of a National officer, the latter of whom is connected with the Potomac Home Guard, seized some ninety rifles belonging to the men and threw them into a well in a main street in this city to prevent their falling into the hands of the rebels.

It is but true to state that this lady is the wife of Lieut. [???], of the regiment referred to. Her patriotism has been the subject of warm commendation in social [???] during the week. To-day the rifles were shipped to Washington by L.E. [???], Government [???].

Capt. [???]. Provost-Marshal at Harper’s Ferry, captured by the rebels in a raid near Charlestown a few days since, was heard from to-day. He is at Richmond, in good health.

Lieut. CHURCH [???] is new acting at Marshal at Harper’s Ferry.

The case of Dr. MORAN continued to-day. Three witnesses were examined, the evidence implicating the Doctor. The case will be continued until the Commission consults with the Governor of the State

We may hear from a reconnaissance to-night, though it is doubtful.

A Commission appointed to appraise damages of the United States troops has been appointed in this city. It is composed of Col. LEWIS, H. BUCKLEY, Capt. JAMES A. BETTS, and Capt. [???]. It will sit for three day.

end New York Times report, October 22, 1862.

Von Borcke, Heros. (1867). “Memoirs of the Confederate war for independence.” Vol. 2 Philadelphia. PA: J. B. Lippincott & Co. archive.org 9 August 2002 Web. 20 April 2014. p. 316.

FIRST HAND ACCOUNT OF THE CIVIL WAR FROM A LETTER WRITTEN BY JOSIAH WARE.Transcription by Judy Ware; 2002, Updated March 2008Original letter owned by James & Judith Ware© Judy C. Ware, 2002 and 2008

Diary of Josiah Ware of Spring Farm, Clarke County, Va. copyright Judy Ware:(with permission)

Springfield Farm January 7, 1863

My Dear Son,

Yours of October 9th has reached me and I was surprised at your saying the last letter you received from me was from W. (William) Smith, near Staunton. Kee acknowledged letters later than that. Charles has not been a prisoner and I do not know who Lt. Ware was. Jackson made a dash down the Valley; the Yankees are at Strasburg and Front Royal. Jackson came first to Front Royal – not being expected. General Ewell was in the advance and captured their pickets and the Yankees amusing themselves pitching quoits–when to their utter dismay they found the much dreaded New Orleans Tigers in their midst. Havoc, of course, ensued. Gen. Banks, hearing of their descent at Strasburg, mounted his horse – said to his landlord he had not time to settle his bill – and dashed off at full speed.

In Winchester his horse fell. He remounted and never stopped until in Martinsburg – leaving his army behind. Jackson pursued them out of Virginia capturing many prisoners, many wagons, horses, stores and medicines. Banks had the impudence to report to his government of his orderly, successful and masterly retreat; losing very few wagons, stores or horses. General [Turner] Ashby had requested me to take one of his regiments; he would assist in organizing it. He was a fine horseman, a brave man, but no drill officer and wished me with him, but while Jackson was about cannonading Harper’s Ferry, I was at home. Lee telegraphed to Jackson to fall back as quick as possible; that General McDowell from Fredricksburg and Milroy from western Virginia were on their march to meet at Strasburg and cut off his retreat. Jackson made forced marches and as his rear reached and crossed the Cedar Creek this side of Strasburg, the enemy’s advance united on the banks north of the creek. Jackson left 300 stragglers to the enemy – worn out by the previous days’ hard work. I knew nothing of the move, was cut off, and made prisoner. I was taken prisoner and carried to Strasburg – where the Provost Marshall, Capt Brown of Massachusetts, stole my horse (Cymon), saddle and bridle. All the prisoners were taken to Strasburg to make a show in marching them to Winchester, and started me on foot. We had not gone far before a rough looking young man (a cavalry private), came to me, got off his horse, and insisted on my riding his horse. I thanked him but declined. He insisted and held the bridle and stirrup for me to mount and said he would not ride if I did not – then he left the horse after I mounted and mingled and conversed freely with our men. I had been offered bundles of cigars and matches by privates on the route. When I arrived in Winchester they offered me a parole to report myself next morning at nine o’clock. I declined on the ground that it required me not to take up arms against the US but said I was willing to sign one not to take up arms while I held the parole. This was agreed to. I reported every day – then they extended it two weeks to stay home. While at home they sent their prisoners away to forts, inquired for me but my time was not out, and I escaped. It was afterwards extended to me to report at pleasure and after that, the army under General Pope moved on towards Gordonsville. In this time, Gen. Turner Ashby was killed and my scheme was broken up. The government then, instead of permitting the regiments to organize under the law and elect their officers, appointed Jones (who had been rejected by a regiment after trying him) Colonel of one of them – and Hannan (of Augusta) Colonel of the other – who was no officer at all and never will be – all this in violation of law and the regiment’s rights. Before Jackson came down, in going out of the line, I took Toledo, The Don (not broke), and Cymon, and Dr. Ganahl’s black stallion over in the mountains to Hanson Elliotts and hid them there. When I had to leave, neither The Don or the black would lead or ride and let me lead. The Don would not ride, and I had to leave them. They were well hid but a Negro, who about that time run off for a fee (no doubt counterfeit) showed some members of the Carter’s Indiana Cavalry where they were and they stole them. About this time (while I was out) they were about to cross over the river General Blenker’s (a Dutch lager beer saloon) Brigade of Dutch, into the Valley. The river was high and they were kept a long time in the mountains as there were no boats. They tried an old boat at Berry’s Ferry and 75 of them were drowned. While in the mountains they ate every cat and dog that had any flesh on them – killed cows and sheep and sows to get their young out of them to eat, and were particularly fond of unhatched chickens and ate soap grease and kitchen slop for cows and hogs. Finally they got over; killed all my hogs, took all my oats, nearly all my corn – not leaving half enough corn to bread me. Henry had hid some oats, but Old Jim Bell found them & showed them where they were. Old Jim and young Jim left with the Yankees, and Book stole my two-horse sheep wagon & my wife’s carriage mare & another, and took them and his family off with him. All this happened before Gen. Banks went out and I came home – after I was a prisoner. I went to Banks and told him of his Provost Marshall at Strasburg taking my horse, saddle, and bridle to his own use, and Banks said it was a theft, he had no right to do so, and he would have him given up. While reporting myself in Winchester, the 1st Maryland Cavalry Regiment (stationed at Snicker’s Ferry and composed almost entirely of Pennsylvanians) were ordered from there, & as they passed us, two of their men called in and stole Decca & Maygo. Henry brought me word to Winchester & I followed them on to Banks’ headquarters at Middletown with a letter from General John P. Hatch, chief of cavalry – to Major Perkins, chief of Banks’ staff – who ordered the officer in command (when my mares were stolen) to report himself to him at once. He told me he wanted no evidence from me – they should furnish it. The officer he asked said he knew nothing about it. I never heard any man receive such a cursing. Perkins called him a damned liar, a damned horse thief (all of them were so) and damned cowards. When fighting was to be done, they were all off and if the mares were not brought to him the next morning by 9 o’clock, he would have him branded as a horse thief and drummed out of camp. They were there by 8 o’clock and Perkins gave me a statement that they were stolen from me and restored by General Banks’ orders and were not to be disturbed again – & I brought them home. I found my wagon (that Book stole) in the streets of Winchester in the Yankee army & went to Col. Batchelder of Massachusetts (Banks’ chief Provost Marshall in Winchester) about it, and he had it delivered up to me. I did not find the mares and supposed Jackson got them in his rush. He captured 300 horses. I suppose they were broken down. I never could find them in either army. Batchelder also gave me an order to go through the army and wherever I found my horses, to take them – but about this time the army moved off towards Gordonsville under Pope’s command, and I was advised not to follow it up under Pope’s proclamation which superseded Banks’ orders. Then came the flight and pursuit after the battle of Slaughter Mountain (in which they were awfully slaughtered) across to Washington City. Charles was actively in this, and after being in the saddle night and day for some time, they stopped in the streets of Warrenton and he dismounted to rest and Vista (his mare) laid down and went to sleep. He was in the raid at Catletts Station & while getting the good things there, they were fired on by Yankee infantry and narrowly escaped. They fed for some days on apples, peaches, & green corn – not allowed fire to cook it – the cavalry constantly being on close picket. They were near catching Pope – he had just time to get in the car & steam off. They got his military boots, hat, sword, coat, his baggage, shirt studs (his name in full on them) and his horses. In the secret drawer of his writing desk was found a pair of polished steel handcuffs – it was said he put them there thinking to catch Jackson, but not having confidence in his ability to hold him – wished to use them on him. This is only talk. Some of our cavalry were barefooted with spurs buckled around their naked feet, some painted their feet black to represent boots & shoes, it was said. One was barefoot with spurs, on a mule, & the ladies cheered him so that he stopped to enquire if they cheered him or his mule. Many, very many, of our men were barefoot . They passed over the hotbed of unionism of Maryland – Frederick & Hagerstown – thence to Willamsport, Martinsburg – driving the Yankees and runaway Negroes from there into Harper’s Ferry. Then Jackson and A.P. Hill invested it & soon captured it – an immense number of prisoners (I believe 13,000), any amount of stores, ammunition, arms, & etc. – allowing them to take private property away with them. This, of course, they abused. Soldiers were permitted to go off with boots & shoes – extra strapped to their knapsacks, extra clothing, stolen horses. General Hill told me a French Colonel was riding a good looking horse which a farmer came to him and claimed. The Col. asked him how long since he lost his horse? “Six months since he was stolen from me.” “Gentleman, I have had this horse for 18 months & I can prove it.” He brought forward several Yankee officers who swore he had the horse 18 months. The farmer brought up his neighbors to prove his horse & General Hill told the officer his proof was not sufficient – – – give up the horse. But General Hill did wrong about the negroes in Harpers Ferry. The capture was on Monday & then no farmer was permitted to go in until Tuesday – by which time, no strictness of guard being established, numbers of negro men went out. And General Hill told me he gave papers to one squad of Yankees for 40 negroes – they proving they were their servants brought from the north with them. They lied of course, for citizens had taken some of them out of their lines as they were going off with them (with Hill’s papers on them) & took them to jail. Hill ought not to have regarded their evidence for if they brought them, Virginia law deprives every negro of his freedom who comes into her lines from a free state & the Yankees themselves made negroes contraband & had no business with slaves. Young Jim Bell was there Monday night & when I got there Tuesday morning, he was gone & I lost him. This was the case with many – the reason given was McClellan’s whole army was advancing on Lee and they were hurrying to join Lee. I said if they had let the farmers in Monday, they would have united under the General’s leave, searched every place, and taken every negro to Charlestown or Winchester and at leisure investigated every right and relieved the army of them altogether and thus saved time (and millions of money) to the South. We captured splendid cannon, small arms, wagons & horses – & our army are now operating almost entirely on the enemy’s means captured from them. Our army then met General McClellan at Antietam where we whipped them back, under terrible slaughter, from all their positions to the mountain where their strong position was. General Jackson thought they could dislodge them from there but with their cannon raking the plain, General Lee thought the sacrifice of our troops necessary for it, would not pay for it, & fell back into Virginia. The Yankees then crossed at Shepherdstown, not knowing the force we had concealed there. After crossing the river, Jackson opened on them. After a little firing they hastened back. In their terror in wading (crossing) the river, many fell or pushed for the bluffs – fell over and were pushed over by the multitudes in their rear (not knowing the state of things in front) and broke their necks & lay there in immense heaps. The river and dams of the canals was blocked up with dead Yankees and were never taken out. The slaughter was immense – awful. Comparatively, but a small part of it, was done by our troops. Then they fell back again to Maryland. Lee then, I suppose, heard somehow or other that the enemy intended to march through Loudon to Richmond via Fredericksburg & moved the main body of our army to Fredericksburg – leaving Jackson here to watch the enemy’s movements, & A.P. Hill’s division encamped in the woods. I thought of Neills estate – here I became acquainted with Generals Hill, Gregg, Archer, Thomas, and many other officers – some of whom took meals with me every day – John & William Pollack also, and some of your college-mates – & they almost destroyed all that woods. When they moved off, the 12th regiment of Virginia cavalry was encamped opposite Tom McCormick’s on the Charlestown pike and commanded by one of the Hannans and White’s batallion of cavalry on Mr. Smith’s land opposite my Mill woods. While there, General Stahel (a Dutchman commanding Yankee cavalry) came up from Fairfax County to make a raid on them. They got into White’s camp completely by surprise (so loosely did they picket) and scattered them in every direction & after that got the 12th on the run and scattered them. On returning, they opened my fences & drove off all my cattle consisting of 9 oxen & 13 milch cows – took all of William P. McCormick’s the same way – – 13 fine colts from William Smith. My colts were in my field at the same time, but Henry got them out & they did not interrupt them. I was busy getting Toledo & some mares out of the way. On my return at night (finding my cattle gone) I went off next morning and followed them. William Smith and P. McCormick joined me on the road. But Stahel, much alarmed at an attack or pursuit (which was not thought of) traveled all night and after getting half way, McCormick thought it would be fruitless & might put us under arrest so he determined to come back, & give it up. Smith agreed to join him and I told them I could not go by myself but would return with them & take Jaqueline with me. On our way back, McCormick found 6 of his cattle that strayed out on the way – none of mine – & half way home, William again changed his mind & determined to go with me & we went to Stahel’s headquarters. I put our claim before him in writing – he replied he would refer the matter to General Siegel (another Dutchman in command of the post) and that we would be answered in 3 hours. We waited two days longer. Receiving no answer, we came on home – leaving the matter in a friend’s hands. On reaching home, we found General Geary had made a raid to Charlestown – thence to Berryville, to Winchester, & on to Smithfield & back to Harpers Ferry in much haste & alarm, fearing an attack. But General Jones, with a brigade of cavalry (Maryland line of infantry & artillery not inferior I am told to Geary’s), instead of attacking him, fell back to Newmarket – 50 miles or more and is there yet. Fortunately Geary’s command did not come below Berryville & Milroy’s force now occupies Winchester – smaller force than Jones, I understand. Jones is called in Winchester the “flying General.” When Geary went through here, Jaqueline took Toledo out. He (Geary) is a bad man and was in command at Warrenton when some of his ruffians killed Robert E. Scott. Milroy is a bad man also, & has stuck placards in Winchester informing the negroes they are free & warning them to arm themselves and defend themselves if their masters attempt to exercise ownership. Rumor now says they have taken Mrs. Portia Baldwin and sent her to Alexandria – a prisoner. While cavalry General Stuart’s headquarters were at Dandridge’s in Berkely, he was dancing with the girls when the Yankees had planned a raid and would have caught him and his staff (only they missed the road) and in the pursuit & fighting the enemy from Gordonsville on to Washington – he was only saved from being caught by losing his hat & jumping with his horse a garden railing. On the other hand – below Richmond, General Lee had so laid his plans that if Generals Huger & Magruder had come up to orders, he would have captured General McClellan & his whole army. Upon their failure, he remarked “too late, as usual.” McClellan saw his danger & despaired; had prepared his papers to be burnt & his army to surrender. Then came our grand victory at Fredericksburg – you have seen that in the papers. The Yankee papers acknowledged a loss of from 60 to 80,000 but most of these by desertion. After the battle, the Yankees hollered across the river to our men to know if they had any sorry corporal – they wanted to swap Gen. Burnside for him; he was “such a damned fool”. They inquired, “Where was Jackson?” Answer-“He has resigned.” “What for?” “They took his quartermaster away from him.” Yankee—“He must have been a good officer that caused the resignation, who was he?” Confederate-“Gen’l Banks.” When General Lee returned into Virginia, Stuart (with his cavalry) made a raid into Pennsylvania through Maryland, destroyed much stores(army), and got a great many horses, but they were lubberly, overgrown, and of no use. Many gave out just leading them back. Nearly all the others died from exposure. While there, hearing a machine running, they sent to stop the machine and bring the horses. While taking the horses, the owner came out and said “Men, you is cutting up strong this morning-whose command is you of anyhow?” Answer-“The so called Rebel General Jackson. Dutch – “Shackson, mein Gott!” in great alarm. While Hill’s division was encamped here after being in Maryland, many of them were barefooted-many without hats-but few had blankets (they much worn and thin) and no tents. Yet these men had traveled and fought over those turnpikes and rugged mountains in high spirits and were thirsting for more fights, and would buy anything at any price. They offered $2.50 for a dozen of apples, any price for potatoes and honey, milk, butter, eggs, chickens, poultry. The citizens generally gave them everything they could spare and their meals. They did not like this and was anxious to pay. One man said he was very hungry but was no beggar, and if they would not take pay, he would not eat the meat and bread. He put it down and went away. While here, they gave $100.00 for two canteens of apple brandy (fresh from the still) and one soldier, perfectly barefooted, gave $10.00 for a very small paper of candy. They would climb the tallest trees to catch squirrels, surround fields & run down partridges, rabbits, and in one instance, a fox. And if my children (particularly Robert ) went to camp, the greatest fuss would be made of them and they would give them anything. If I took Rob behind me, they would hollow out “put the boy down-let me have him.” J.W. Ware
To – Capt. JA Ware Texas

waregenealogy.com 10 December 2013 Web. 20 June 2016.

The Official Record of the War of the Rebellion – Report of W. Hancock, Chapter XIX, Official Record, Series I, Part 2, Vol. 19. Hancock, Caldwell, Zook, Munford reports. pp. 91-97.

wvgeohistory.org 5 October 2010 Web. 20 June 2016 (Map Gallery):

1850 Charlestown, Va. plat; Jefferson County broken up into parcels; 1864 S. Howell Brown War Map.

fold3.com 16 September 2011 Web 20 June 2016:

Nathaniel Willis service record with the Confederate Virginia 6th Cavalry;

Charles Henry Trueman – 1860 Census – Pennsylvania, Fayette, Tyrone Township, Page 172;

Image Credits (Includes images in the corresponding video):

Mary Ames – frontispiece – “From a New England Woman’s Diary in Dixie in 1865.”
docsouth.unc.edu 19 January 2001 Web. 20 June 2016.

St. Clair Mulholland – courtesy of the US Army HEC, Carlisle, PA.

William McCarter – from book’s frontispiece: googlebooks.com 5 February 2003 Web. 5 March 2016.

Charles Aglionby – from Vol. 2, Aglionby Papers, Jefferson County Museum – Charles Town, WV.

Semblance of Anne Madison Willis Ambler – see under wikigallery “Lady Writing a Letter.”

Heros Von Borcke – Uploaded by bruceyrock632
fold3.com 16 September 2011 Web 20 June 2016.

George Neese – vagenweb.org/shenandoah 7 August 2008 Web. 20 June 2016.

hathitrust.org 9 September 2008, Web. 20 June 2016:

West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey: [County reports and maps.] Jefferson, Berkeley and Morgan counties. ([Wheeling, W. Va., Wheeling News Litho. Co., 1916.]) hathitrust.org 9 September 2008, Web. 20 June 2016.

Volck, Adalbert J. (1864). “Sketches from the civil war in North America, 1861, ’62, ’63, / by V. Blada [pseud.]. London, Baltimore. reprinted in The Magazine of History with NOTES and QUERIES Extra Number No. 60. 1917. Tarrytown, NY: William Abbott Printers.

home page.

Searching for Arms;

Slaves Concealing their Masters from a Search Party;

Cave Life in Vicksburg.

The Library of Congress loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 20 June 2016:

[Map of Loudoun County and part of Clarke County, Va., Jefferson County and part of Berkeley County, W. Va., 1864 by Howell Brown;

artwork

Title: [The 1st Virginia Cavalry at a halt]. Creator(s): Waud, Alfred R. (Alfred Rudolph), 1828-1891, artist. Date Created/Published: [1862 September].

artwork

Title: Map of Jefferson County, Virginia. Summary: Shows Jefferson County before the formation of West Virginia in 1863. Contributor Names: Brown, S. Howell. Created / Published [S.l., s.n.,] 1852.

artwork

Title: [Unidentified girl in mourning dress holding framed photograph of her father as a cavalryman with sword and Hardee hat]. Date Created/Published: [between 1861 and 1870]. Medium: 1 photograph : sixth-plate tintype, hand-colored ; 9.5 x 8.4 cm (case). Summary: Photo shows a girl holding a framed image of her father. Judging from her necklace, mourning ribbons, and dress, it is likely that her father was killed in the war. (Source: Matthew R. Gross and Elizabeth T. Lewin, 2010). Liljenquist Collection.

artwork

Title: [Savage Station, Va. Field hospital after the battle of June 27]Creator(s): Gibson, James F., b. 1828, photographer. Date Created/Published: 1862 June 30.Medium: 1 negative : glass, stereograph, wet collodion. Summary: Photograph from the main eastern theater of war, the Peninsular Campaign, May-August 1862.

artwork

Title: [Two unidentified portraits of girl and boy in locket]. Date Created/Published: [between 1861 and 1865]. Medium: 2 photographs in 1 case : ninth-plate tintype, trimmed to circle, hand-colored ; 4.8 cm diameter (case).

artwork

wikigallery.org 4 May 2009 Web. 20 June 2016:

Thomas Faed – “Lady Writing a Letter


wikipedia.org 27 November 2002 Web. 20 June 2016
:

Charlotte Elliott;

A.P. Hill;

Jeb Stuart;

Alfred Pleasonton;

Andrew Humphreys;

St. Clair A. Mulholland.

John R. Brooke
suvcw.org/mollus 22 July 1997 Web. 20 June 2016

the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 10 May 2016:

Eastman Johnson –
Old Man, Seated (1880-1885);

Not at Home (1873);

The Hatch Family – (1871);

Self Portrait – circa 1860;

The Lord is My Shepherd – circa 1863;

Winslow Homer –
Cornfield (1873)

Campfire (1877-1878)

Jervis McEntee – Gathering Autumn Leaves, Date unknown.

Edward Moran – The First Ship Entering NY Harbor, Sept. 11, 1609 – Date unknown.

William Sidney Mount – (detail) Farmer Whetting His Scythe – (1848).

William Ludlow Sheppard – In the hospital, 1862, watercolor.
courtesy The Museum of the Confederacy)
encyclopediavirginia.org 8 November 2006 Web. 20 June 2016.

Bolivar Heights and Gap of Harper’s Ferry, W. Va.
1884/08/02 – Biscoe, Thomas, and Walter.
wvhistoryonview.org 9 October 2010 Web. 20 June 2016

Edwin Forbes – ”Bummers” –
dickinson.edu 22 December 1996 Web. 20 June 2016

Unknown Artist 19th-Century American School Fredericksburg, VA Family in a War-Torn House 1860s. bjws.blogspot.com 30 July 2014 Web. 20 June 2016.

Eyre Crowe – Slaves Waiting for Sale: Richmond, Virginia, 1861. Collection of Teresa Heinz. abhmuseum.org 7 March 2012 Web. 20 June 2016.


Volck, Adalbert J.
 (1864). “V. Blada’s War Sketches.” London, Baltimore:
Titles: Searching for Arms; Slaves Concealing their Masters from a Search Party; Cave Life in Vicksburg

Howard Pyle – The Battle of Nashville by Howard Pyle (courtesy Minnesota Historical Society); The attack upon the Chew House, Scribner’s Monthly Magazine, (June, 1898).

(detail) Artist Unknown “Off to the Front” circa 1861 West Point Museum, United States Military Academy, West Point, New York.

John Brown melodeon
kshs.org 28 November 2012 Web 20 June 2016.

ebooks.library.cornell.edu 28 August 2004 Web. 20 June 2016:

Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 35, Issue: 207, August, 1867. –
p. 288 – man on horse in the rain.

Crayon, Porte (Strother, D. H.). “The Mountains – VIII.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. Volume 47 Issue: 282 (November, 1873). – p. 827 – hands and lighting.

Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 35, Issue: 210, November, 1867.
p. 725 – humiliated.

Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 34, Issue: 200, January, 1867
p. 190 – grief two women.

digitalcollections.baylor.edu 18 February 2012 Web. 20 June 2016

Military map showing the topographical features of the country adjacent to Harper’s Ferry, Va. including Maryland, Loudoun and Bolivar Heights, and portions of South and Short Mountains, with the positions of the defensive works, also the Junction of the Potomac and Shenandoah Rivers.

archive.org 26 October 2004 Web. 20 June 2016:

Winfield Hancock, from Mulholland, St. Clair Augustin. (1899). “The story of the 116th Regiment, Pennsylvania Infantry. War of secession, 1862-1865.” [Philadelphia, F. McManus, jr., & co.]. p. 128.

“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 1”. (1887). Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co.

p. 126 – Affair of the outposts;

p. 153 – A mother’s parting gift;

p. 482 – Bivouac of the federal troops, Sunday night;

“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 2”. (1887). Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co.:

p. 28 – (detail) confederate picket;

p. 112 – provost guard;

p. 262 – federal battery team at attention;

p. 271 – Trooper, Virginia Cavalry, 1861;

p. 358 – charge on the sutler;

p. 444 – Richmond Street scene;

p. 512 – Confederate army on the march;

p. 576 – haystacks near South Mountain, Maryland;

p. 751 – wounded man lying down arm up;

“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 3”. (1887). Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co.

p. 70 – Confederate picket with blanket-capote and raw-hide mocassins

p. 393 – Farnsworth’s charge

Miller, Francis Trevelyan. (1912). “The photographic history of the civil war in ten volumes.” Vol. 4. New York, NY: The Review of Reviews Co. archive.org 26 October 2004 Web. 20 June 2016.

p. 47 – First Extensive Cavalry Camp.

p. 74 – One of the regiments that Stuart eluded.

p. 327 – In barracks a comfortable spot for the cavalry trooper.

Miller, Francis Trevelyan. (1912). “The photographic history of the civil war in ten volumes.” Vol. 7. New York, NY: The Review of Reviews Co. archive.org 26 October 2004 Web. 20 June 2016.

p. 251 – Prayer with the wounded after Spotsylvania.

Frank Vizetelly – Genl Stuart’s Head Quarters, Advanced Post. of the Confederate Army in Northern Virginia.” [Northern Virginia, Oct.-Nov. 1862].
Frank Vizetelly Drawings, 1861-1865 (MS Am 1585). Houghton Library, Harvard University. oasis.lib.harvard.edu 12 October 2007 Web. 20 June 2016.

home page.
Genl Stuart’s Head Quarters.

Image of Thomas Hite Willis
“The Hite Families in Jefferson County: Thomas Hite Willis, 1800-1884”. Magazine of the Historical Society of Jefferson County.” Vol. Volume XXXI. Charles Town, WV: Jefferson County Historical Society.

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The Humble Harvest & Eternal Voices – (4) by Jim Surkamp

by Jim Surkamp on September 1, 2016 in Jefferson County

Made possible with the generous, community-minded support of American Public University System. Any views expressed are not a reflection of modern-day policies of the University and the content is meant to encourage dispassionate, informed discussion of American history. More . . .

Researched, written and produced by Jim Surkamp

VIDEO: The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Part 4 – Skirmish TRT: 23:35/33:48 (incl. Credits). Click Here.

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The Humble Harvest and Eternal Voices October, 1872 Jefferson County, West Virginia

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After a great battle Deeds of valor are no longer dreams gone by. We live in knightly days; our men are dauntless men. Will there ever be one to write the life of the common soldier?

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For most of October, 1862, federal and confederate picket lines faced one another on a line many miles long and running between Charles Town and Harpers Ferry. Then the massive Federal Army that had been resting on the Maryland side of the Potomac finally bestirred itself. A sizeable force crossed the Potomac at Shepherdstown under Andrew Humphreys, the other from their Bolivar Heights encampment near Harpers Ferry, under the command of Winfield Hancock. The latter force of some 9000 men drove in Confederate pickets from Halltown back to Charles Town. There they positioned four guns and some defense provided by the locally raised 12th Virginia Cavalry regiment. That small group faced and held off for some four hours on the edge of Charlestown a force three to four times greater than their own.

Hancocks_Eyes_Montage


Once the size of the Confederate force was ascertained, helped by some spy work from African-American Charles Henry Trueman and local Unionist, Horatio Riddle, Gen. Hancock withdrew his force back to their camp at Bolivar Heights. William McCarter and St. Clair Mulholland of the 150th Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment took away two completely different memories of that first day in combat.

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October 14 — Still on picket. This morning I saw a captive balloon anchored over the Yankee camp in the direction of Harper’s Ferry. Balloon reconnoitering seems to be a safe way of making observations of an enemy’s forces, movements, and encampments, and where the country is level and not too much wooded. October 15th The Confederate picket ran from Walpers Crossroad and railroad in Kearneysville to Berry’s Ferry with the main camp on Berryville Pike near Rippon on the farms of Mr. Frame and Mr. Fleming. This brigade, consisting of the Twelfth, Seventh, Sixth, and part of the Second Virginia Cavalries, was held to support the picket in rear of the town. The 12th Va. Cavalry, on the other hand, picketed at Charlestown with four artillery pieces: The Twelfth Virginia Cavalry was under the command of Lieut. Col. R. H. Burks. Capt. B. H. Smith, Jr. commanded the the Richmond Howitzers, using two, 10-pounder Parrotts and one from Watson’s battery. Lieut. J. W. Carter, manned one three-inch rifle gun provided by Roger Preston Chew’s Artillery.

October 16th 6:30 AM:

Four_Guns

Left camp at 6:30 on Bolivar Heights – joined pickets at Halltown continued towards Charlestown. The reconnaissance was made by the First Division, Second Corps, reinforced by Campbell’s company of Horse Artillery and Tompkin’s Rhode Island Battery and a squadron of cavalry. The column soon struck the enemy’s picket which, after a few shots, retired towards the village of Charlestown. The advance of our column encountered the enemy’s pickets beyond Halltown, drove them in, and pursued until, when within short artillery range of the high ground this side of Charlestown, the enemy was found posted. Our cavalry under the command of General T. T. Munford retired before this force until they reached a point about half a mile below Charles Town, known as the Old Fair Grounds.

Here a section of Chew’s Battery under Lieutenant J. W. Carter and two guns of the Richmond Howitzers, and a third company under Captain B. H. Smith were all placed in position. The Federal batteries went into position near some large trees on Butler’s Hill, below Charlestown along the Pike. The Confederates opened fire upon us with artillery. (We) opened on the enemy, who had planted their batteries on the hill about three quarters of a mile below, known as Butler’s Hill. Shells began to fly and were seen bursting among the guns.

William_McCarter_Matte_D


Then the order to advance; and when volunteers were called for to go ahead and tear down the fences, every one was anxious to be first to rush into what would seem to be a dangerous duty. How they made the fences fly and clear the way! Then the advance in the clear, bracing air. Oh, it was glorious war at last! Our lieutenant-colonel (St. Clair Mulholland) at the top of his voice shouted, “Steady, men, steady.” This was sufficient, no more “dodging” afterwards. The Confederates opened fire from four guns, and deployed dismounted cavalry as skirmishers in their front and flanks. The shell hit several hundred feet beyond, injuring no one, not even bursting. It came from a Rebel battery in a clump of woods on the other side of Charlestown hitherto unseen by us. The ball was now opened by the enemy.

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Our horse artillery battery, supported by Capt. M. A. Reno’s First Cavalry, then engaged the enemy. “Boom, boom, boom,” was the reply from three guns of our artillery. The cannons shook the earth and sent howling and screeching missiles through the air into the very center of the town. The artillery men had fired three spherical case shot. This artillery round was a kind of shell, varying in size and powers of destruction. It contained from 50-100 musket balls, all connected or run together, in the center of which was a heavy charge of powder. The fuse, like that of a regular shell, was ignited when the shot left the gun. It caused the missile to burst in a designated area after the range of the place had been obtained. The length or form of the fuse was so regulated that the explosion of the shot took place exactly where and when it was intended to do, hurling the musket balls in every direction, each one of them being as deadly as if discharged from a rifle. After the discharge of the three shots, all was still and quiet for a moment. The gunners keenly followed with their eyes, as best they could through the smoke, their messengers of death until they were lost to view in the streets of the ill-fated town, where they were expected to explode. No reply whatever came from the Rebel battery on the opposite hill beyond Charlestown. Nor was there any advance made by his infantry to capture or attack our artillery. A moment longer, then “Boom, boom, boom,” from three more of our guns. This noise was followed by the same anxious gaze of the gunners looking for the results of their fire. They did not long remain in suspense.

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Roger Preston Chew of the Confederate battery wrote:

A severe engagement between the artillery on either side took place at this point, although the enemy were greatly superior in number and guns. About ten minutes later, during which time our cannonade had ceased, a dense volume of smoke, then flame, burst high up in the air. It was located about at the center of town, threatening destruction all around. This seemed to arouse the enemy. Their battery, hitherto almost silent, opened a rapid and steady fire on ours, making the affair for a while an artillery duel. With four pieces of artillery, admirably handled, these gallant officers and men held at bay for four hours the advance of McClellan’s grand army.

McCarter wrote:
The Rebels, now seeming to have got our exact range of our battery, commenced throwing solid shot, undoubtedly with the object of dismounting our guns. Our gunners worked with double energy. Up to this time, none of our artillerymen had been killed or hurt. But very soon afterwards, it was my own painful experience, as well as that of the great majority of my regiment, to witness the almost instant death of one of our brave artillerymen.

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When in the act of sponging out one of the guns, a solid shot from the Rebel battery hit him fair and square, tearing completely away both legs close up to his body. He was carried to the rear of my own regiment, a little behind the battery on lower ground, where he died in a very few minutes without uttering a word. He was rolled up on his “Winding Sheet,” his blanket, and left on the field to be buried in his soldier’s grave, after the action was over, a martyr to the cause of liberty and humanity. A few seconds afterwards, another missile of the same description and from the same source, took the entire head off of one of his comrades manning another of the guns, as clean as if cut off with a knife or axe. His body was not moved from where it fell during our stay on that part of the field of strife. Ten minutes after this occurrence, two more artillery men had been severely wounded, one losing a hand, and the other run over by the wheel of a gun carriage changing position. There were four casualties in this battery alone, two of them being sadly and fearfully fatal.

McCarter’s commander Mulholland recalled differently:

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Shells were screaming and bursting and the guns roaring and echoing. But while men were killed and wounded in the batteries, so far as the command was concerned the fight amounted to but sound and smoke, for not a man of the regiment was hit (The battery was not in his regiment.-JS). The force of the enemy proved to be but one battery of artillery supported by some cavalry and, after a vigorous exchange of shots, retired before the advancing infantry. Column was formed again and the march to Charlestown resumed. When passing the spot where the batteries stood the men had a chance to see a little of the horrors as well as the glories of a fight. Men were already digging shallow graves to which to bury bleeding masses of human flesh and bones that a few moments before had been men full of life and vigor, standing by their guns and in turn hurling death and defiance. The wounded were being carried to the rear on stretchers from which warm blood was dripping. Mammoth trees had been pierced through by the shells; and the earth was rent and torn in all directions. The Confederates, considering their numbers, had made a most gallant defense, and only yielded ground when the long line of Union infantry advanced. The battery that had fought the Union guns so nobly proved to be the Richmond Howitzer Artillery, commanded by Captain B. H. Smith, Jr. The brave fellow with his leg shot off was lying by the road side rejoicing that his guns got away safely. One gun of our (Confederate) battery and three pieces of the Richmond Howitzers fought them and held them in check until our ammunition was exhausted. We soon ascertained that the enemy had been driven away by the fire of our artillery, together with the threatened attacks by the infantry. His force only consisted of the artillery already referred to, and with two or three regiments of cavalry.

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The town was at once taken possession of and the troops suitably disposed for defense. The command remained in Charlestown until about 2 pm on the 16th. We then retired from action, as it is perfectly indiscreet to try to hold a position without ammunition, especially under fire. The Yankees advanced as far as Charlestown. Toward evening our infantry advanced and occupied the heights surrounding the town, within artillery range.

Gen. Hancock reported that his successful count of the Confederate numbers was helped by his balloon but also by two good spies – Charles Henry Trueman, but who was a freed African-American from Pennsylvania who was captured by men in Munford’s brigade – and a local man named Horatio Riddle, whose place was located near Rippon and almost adjacent to Gen. Munford’s camp for his full brigade. Trueman escaped over to Hancock’s camp.

Charles Aglionby summarized that night in his diary:

Chas.Yates.Aglionby_Matte


There was considerable firing near Charlestown with cannon. Some few killed and wounded. A skirmish took place at Elk Branch church. One Yankee shot in the arm.

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Aglionby_30_Yankees_Montage


Captain Knott lightly wounded on the point of the shoulder. A body of cavalry were in our lower field in the evening – about thirty Yankee cavalry passed thru Mr. Moore’s and Mr. Ranson’s field in sight of our house. The retiring cavalry and artillery of the Confederates passed before our house. That night the Federals bivouacked on their left towards Berryville on the site of the hanging of martyr John Brown.

Recalled Mulholland:

John_Brown_ascending_the_scaffold_preparatory_to_being_hanged_cph.3c32551


The regiment bivouacked in the field where old John Brown had been hanged, and great interest was manifested when the men learned of the fact. After dark, the rain fell in torrents, soaking everyone. Lieutenant Frank T. Quinlan was sent out in command of the picket, and reported next morning that his line had been charged in the darkness by a flock of sheep with, it was thought, a serious loss of life on behalf of the latter. Remaining in the town until evening of the following day, the whole command started on the return to Harper’s Ferry and camped in the fields near Halltown during the night. Quite a jolly evening it was. Everyone was in overflowing spirits. The camp fires crackled on all sides. Plenty of fence rails and even fresh bread seemed to come from somewhere, and fresh pork was plentiful. The regiment had not lost a man, to be sure, but had seen a genuine fight, heard the scream of the shells and seen a caisson blown up and men knocked over. Surely it was a taste of real war and now everyone could almost begin to feel like veterans.

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POSTS:

(1) POST – The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Pt. 1 2753 words. (Repost from 5.17.2016)

(2) POST – The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Pt. 2. 3275 words.

(3) POST – The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Pt. 3. 2933 words.

(4) POST – The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Pt. 4. 5470 words.

(5) POST – The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Pt. 5 – Conclusion. 10,449 words.

VIDEOS:

UPDATED: The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Pt. 5 – Conclusion TRT: 29:00/53:34 (incl. Credits). Click Here.

The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Part 4 – Skirmish TRT: 23:35/33:48 (incl. Credits). Click Here.

The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Part 3 TRT: 14:08/26:14 (incl. Credits). Click Here.

The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Part 2 TRT: 21:48/27:40 (incl. Credits). Click Here.

The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Part 1. TRT: 17:25/21:14 (incl. Credits). Click Here.

References:

Charles Aglionby Papers and Civil War Diary, Volume 2 Jefferson County Museum, Charles Town, WV.

Ambler, Anne W. (1971). “Diary of Anne Madison Willis Ambler (1836-1888): A Civil War Experience.” (submitted by her granddaughter, Anne Madison Ambler Baylor Mrs. Robert Garnet Baylor). Magazine of the Historical Society of Jefferson County.” Vol. Volume XXXVII. Charles Town, WV: Jefferson County Historical Society, p. 29.

Ames, Mary C. (1872). “Eirene, Or A Woman’s Right.” New York, NY: G. P. Putnam & Sons. googlebooks.com 5 February 2003 Web. 5 March 2016. pp. 155-177.

Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.” Richmond, VA: B. F. Johnson Publishing. archive.org 26 October 2004 Web. 20 June 2016.
https://archive.org/details/bullruntobullru00baylgoog

Chew, Roger P. (1911). “Military Operations in Jefferson County, Virginia (and West Va.) 1861-1865.” [s.l.]: Charles Town, WV: published by authority of Jefferson County Camp, U.C.V. [by] Farmers Advocate Printing. pp. 36-37. archive.org 26 October 2004 Web. 20 June 2016.

Marmion, Annie P. (1959).”Under Fire: An Experience in the Civil War.” William V. Marmion, Jr. editor. self-published.

McCarter, William. (1996). “My Life in the Irish Brigade The Civil War Memoirs of Private William McCarter, 116th Pennsylvania Infantry.” edited by Kevin E. O’Brien. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books Group. googlebooks.com 5 February 2003 Web. 5 March 2016.

Mulholland, St. Clair Augustin. (1899). “The story of the 116th Regiment, Pennsylvania Infantry. War of secession, 1862-1865.” [Philadelphia, F. McManus, jr., & co.]. archive.org 26 October 2004 Web. 20 June 2016.

Neese, George. (1911). “Three years in the Confederate horse artillery.” New York, Washington: The Neale Publishing Co. archive.org 26 October 2004 Web. 20 June 2016.

Charles Henry Trueman – The New York Times, October 22, 1862 nytimes.com 12 November 1996 Web. 20 June 2016.
FROM BOLIVAR HEIGHTS.; The Story of a Free Negro–His Estimate of the Rebel Strength–Gen. Stuart’s Raid-Rebel Fears and Feelings.Published: October 22, 1862, The New York Times, October 22, 1862 nytimes.com 12 November 1996 Web. 20 June 2016.

wvgeohistory.org 5 October 2010 Web. 20 June 2016 (Map Gallery):

1850 Charlestown, Va. plat;

1864 Samuel Howell Brown War Map.

fold3.com 16 September 2011 Web 20 June 2016:

1860 Census, Jefferson County, p. 137. Fleming, Solomon (b. ~1809), Fleming, Jane (b. ~1840), Fleming, Sarah A (b. ~1810);

1860 Census, Jefferson County, Charlestown, p. 172 Riddle, Marry (b. ~1852), Riddle, Anna S. (b. ~1857), Riddle, Horatio R. (b. ~1812);

1860 Census, Jefferson County, Rippon, p. 131. Frame, Frances P (b. ~1811);

Colored Troops Service Records:
Henry Trueman 5th U.S. colored Heavy Artillery

The Official Record of the War of the Rebellion Report of W. Hancock, Chapter XIX, Official Record, Series I, Part 2, Vol. 19. Hancock, Caldwell, Zook, Munford reports. pp. 91-97.

SUPPLEMENTAL:

From the Report of Winfield Hancock:
CHARLESTOWN, October [17], 1862. I have it from reliable authority, I think, that the enemy are in force at Winchester and Bunker Hill. My informant, a good Union man, certified to by Colonel Miles, a Northern man, says they are sending their wagons here every day and taking all the flour and wheat they can find in the country. They are destroying the railroad between here and Winchester. They were expected here to-day for the same purpose.

He says there are from (one-two regiment) 800 to 1,000 cavalry about here and five guns. They have an encampment of cavalry of several regiments 3 miles from here,
on the Berryville road. This gentleman says there is a very large force between Bunker Hill and Winchester, although he says he thinks they are packing up, preparatory to a move. This gentleman says he is certain that the enemy were at Winchester yesterday. Your obedient servant, WINFD S. HANCOCK, Brigadier- General, Commanding Division. Major WALKER. P. S.This gentleman is Mr. Riddle, brother-in-law to Colonel Strother (Porte Crayon). – p. 91.

Hancock’s full report:

HEADQUARTERS HANCOCKS DIVISION, Harpers Ferry, Va., October 22, 1862. MAJOR: On the 16th instant, in obedience to instructions, I marched toward Charlestown, Va., with my division and 1,500 men of other divisions, under command of Col. NY. H. Lee, Twentieth Massachusetts Volunteers, and a force of cavalry, with a battery of four guns (horse artillery), Colonel Devin being in command thereof. The advance, under Maj. C. J. Whiting, Second Regiment Cavalry, consisting of portions of the First, Second, Fifth, and Sixth Regular Cavalry, with the horse artillery battery of four guns, under command of Lieut. George Dickenson, Fourth Regiment of Artillery, started at daylight, and was immediately followed by the command. The advance of our column encountered the enemy’s pickets beyond Halltown, drove them in, and pursued until, w hen within short artillery range of the high ground this side of Charlestown, the enemy was found posted. He opened fire upon us with artillery. Our horse artillery battery, supported by Capt. M. A. Reno’s First Cavalry, then engaged the enemy, who opened fire from five guns, and deployed dis- mounted cavalry as skirmishers on their front and flanks. The infantry was brought up as soon as practicable and deployed, and our batteries placed in position. An advance was immediately made, Capt. William W. Tompkins battery, Third Regiment Artillery [John A. Tompkins battery, A, First Rhode Island], opening at the same time. We soon ascertained that the enemy had been driven away by the fire of our artillery, together with the threatened attack by the infantry. his force only consisted of the artillery already referred to, with two or three regiments of cavalry. The town was at once taken possession of and the troops suitably disposed for defense. Toward evening our infantry advanced and occupied the heights surrounding the town, within artillery range. The infantry was afterward withdrawn, and the roads guarded by the cavalry. A reconnaissance was then made a distance of several miles, in the direction of Bunker Hill, by the cavalry, under Capt. M. A. Reno, supported by Maj. C. J. Whiting’s command. Major-General McClellan, commanding the Army of the Potomac, having arrived in Charlestown shortly after we had occupied it, directed the movements last referred to, and, having obtained all the information for which the reconnaissance was made. No further operations were undertaken. The command remained in Charlestown until about 2 p. m. the next day, when we received orders to return. It then marched to Halltown, and occupied that position during the night. The next morning, after an examination of the roads, and it being found there was no enemy in front, the command returned to Harpers Ferry. Early on the morning of the 16th, I sent one squadron up the railroad as far as Kearneysville. It proceeded to that point without meeting General Humphreys command, as was expected, and, having performed the task assigned it, returned to camp, the commander making his report direct to the commander of the Second Corps d’Armee. I regret I have not the name of this officer. While in Charlestown I appointed Col. J. R. Brooke, of the Fifty-third Pennsylvania Volunteers, military governor, the better to preserve order. About 100 officers and soldiers of the Confederate Army were found in the town, consisting entirely, it is believed, of surgeons, hospital attendants, convalescents, and sick. Twenty-six were sent to the provost-marshal at Harpers Ferry, and 38 wounded and unable to be removed, were paroled. Time did not permit the paroling of all who were severely wounded, as they were scattered throughout the town, requiring more time than we had for the purpose, to find them. The casualties on either side were about equal, and were not numerous. I found some parts of artillery carriages belonging to the enemy, which I destroyed. The officers and troops behaved well. Col. J. R. Brooke, commanding the advance guard of infantry; Maj. C. J. Whiting, Second Regiment Cavalry; Capt. M. A. Reno, First Regiment Cavalry, commanding the supports to the horse artillery; First Lieut. George Dickenson, Fourth Artillery, commanding that battery; Second Lieut. Arthur Morris, Fourth Artillery, temporarily attached to said battery, and Capt. C. H. Morgan, Fourth Artillery, chief of artillery of the corps, who made the dispositions of the artillery, are the only officers whom it is thought deserve special mention. First Lieuts. N. Bowen and J. H. Wilson, Topographical Engineers, were present, and afforded me valuable assistance. Herewith please find the paroles of prisoners, and the reports of Brig. Gen. J. C. Caldwell, commanding Second Brigade; Col. S. K. Zook, commanding Third Brigade; Col. W. R. Lee, commanding Third Brigade, Second Division, and Maj. C. J. Whiting, Second Cavalry; also report of Lieutenant Ritzius, provost-marshal of this division. I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, WINFD S. HANCOCK, Brigadier- General, Commanding Division.
pp. 91-93

SUPPLEMENTAL From book by St. Clair Mulholland on the night after the skirmish:

The regiment bivouacked in the field where old John Brown had been hanged, and great interest was manifested when the men learned of the fact. After dark the rain fell in torrents, soaking everyone. Lieutenant Frank T. Quinlan was sent out in command of the picket, and reported next morning that his line had been charged in the darkness by a flock of sheep with, it was thought, a serious loss of life on behalf of the latter. Remaining in the town until evening of the following day, the whole command started on the return to Harper’s Ferry and camped in the fields near Halltown during the night. Quite a jolly evening it was. Everyone was in overflowing spirits. The camp fires crackled on all sides. Plenty of fence rails and even fresh bread seemed to come from somewhere, and fresh pork was plentiful. The regiment had not lost a man, to be sure, but had seen a genuine fight, heard the scream of the shells and seen a caisson blown up and men knocked over. Surely it was a taste of real war and now everyone could almost begin to feel like veterans.

While stationed at Harper’s Ferry a call was made for volunteers to fill up the depleted ranks of some of the field batteries of the regular army. Twelve men of the One Hundred and Sixteenth volunteered, and were transferred to Battery A, Fourth Artillery, where they served until the close of the war. Of the number, Michael Hickey, William Miller, Joseph Meander, and John McCormack were wounded at Gettysburg. – p. 38.

SUPPLEMENTAL From George Baylor’s “From Bull Run to Bull Run” on the skirmish:

On the 18th (September), Company B was ordered back to Harper’s Ferry, with instructions to picket the Potomac at that point and report any movement of the enemy in that direction.
This position was held by our company until the enemy crossed in force and drove us back to Halltown. We remained at Halltown until the i6th of October, when a column of the enemy under General Hancock advanced, and, after a brisk fight just east of Charlestown, our small force of cavalry under Colonel Mumford was driven back, and Charlestown was occupied by the enemy.

On the afternoon of the 17th, General Hancock withdrew his command to Harper’s Ferry, and Charlestown was again occupied by us and pickets posted at Halltown. General McClellan having now crossed the Potomac east of the Blue Ridge, began his march southward, and General Lee, who had been resting his army near Bunker Hill, moved across the mountains to confront him, but our company was left at its post.

On November 1st, while our company reserve was occupying a little woods on the Brown farm, we were surprised in our camp in the early morning by a dash made by the enemy’s cavalry. Our horses were unsaddled and unbridled and tied to trees. Awakening from our slumbers and realizing the situation, we fought the enemy on foot and drove them out of camp and over a hill in our front; then, while keeping up a fire with a few men, the others retired to camp, saddled, bridled, and mounted, and, making a charge on the enemy, drove them back to Halltown. Just in front of Mr. Shaeffer’s house my horse received a fatal wound and I a slight one in the calf of my leg, which was not sufficient to render me hors de combat, pp. 73-74.

SUPPLEMENTAL From Roger Preston Chew’s “Military operations in Jefferson County, Virginia (and West Va.) 1861-1865” on the skirmish:
MARKER NUMBER TWENTY-ONE – Artillery Duel at Old Fair Grounds Near Charles Town.

After the battle of Sharpsburg, McClellan remained north of the Potomac for about thirty days, when he crossed below Harpers Ferry with his artillery on October 16, 1863. To screen that movement he sent Hancock with a large force of infantry, cavalry and artillery to make a reconnaissance in the direction of Charles Town. Our cavalry under the command of General T. T. Munford retired before this force until they reached a point about half a mile below Charles Town, known as the Old Fair Grounds. Here a section of Chew’s Battery under Lieutenant J. W.
Carter and two guns of the Richmond Howitzers, third company under Captain B. H. Smith were placed in position, and opened on the enemy, who had planted their batteries on the hill about three quarters of a mile below, known as Butler’s Hill.

A severe engagement between the artillery on either side took place at this point, although the enemy were greatly superior in number and guns. The Confederate guns soon got the range and inflicted serious damage upon the enemy. The resistance on their part was so bold and determined that the Federals were delayed for several hours, and after the retirement of the guns they occupied Charles Town until the next day when they retired to Harpers Ferry.

Lieutenant J. W. Carter, who was greatly distinguished as an artillery officer and a man of superb courage and daring, was noticed in Official Report by General Munford, and recommended for promotion. Our forces retired towards Berryville undisturbed by the enemy. – pp. 36-37.

Image Credits – Includes images from the corresponding video:

Mary Ames – frontispiece – “From a New England Woman’s Diary in Dixie in 1865.”
docsouth.unc.edu 19 January 2001 Web. 20 June 2016.

Annie Marmion from book’s frontispiece.

St. Clair Mulholland – courtesy of the US Army HEC, Carlisle, PA.

William McCarter – from book’s frontispiece: googlebooks.com 5 February 2003 Web. 5 March 2016.

Charles Aglionby – from Vol. 2, Aglionby Papers, Jefferson County Museum – Charles Town, WV.

Semblance of Anne Madison Willis Ambler – see under wikigallery “Lady Writing a Letter.”

detail, Thomas F. Meagher The Huntington Library, San Marino, California.

Heros Von Borcke – Uploaded by bruceyrock632
fold3.com 16 September 2011 Web 20 June 2016.

George Neese – vagenweb.org/shenandoah 7 August 2008 Web. 20 June 2016.

hathitrust.org 9 September 2008, Web. 20 June 2016:

West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey: [County reports and maps.] Jefferson, Berkeley and Morgan counties. ([Wheeling, W. Va., Wheeling News Litho. Co., 1916.]) hathitrust.org 9 September 2008, Web. 20 June 2016.

The Library of Congress loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 20 June 2016:

(extreme detail). soldier in rear, right background)
Title: A lone grave on battle-field of Antietam
Summary: Photograph shows five soldiers near a single grave for Pvt. John Marshall, Company L, 28th Pennsylvania Volunteers under a tree on the battlefield of Antietam. Contributor Names: Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882, photographer, Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882, copyright claimant Created / Published: [1862 Sept.]

[Map of Loudoun County and part of Clarke County, Va., Jefferson County and part of Berkeley County, W. Va., and parts of Montgomery and Frederick counties, Md.]. Brown, Samuel Howell. Hoffmann, Paul. Created / Published [1864]

Title: [The 1st Virginia Cavalry at a halt]
Creator(s): Waud, Alfred R. (Alfred Rudolph), 1828-1891, artist
Date Created/Published: [1862 September]

Title: Map of Jefferson County, Virginia
Summary: Shows Jefferson County before the formation of West Virginia in 1863.
Contributor Names: Brown, S. Howell.
Created / Published [S.l., s.n.,] 1852. ;

[Fair Oaks, Va., vicinity. Capt. Rufus D. Pettit’s Battery B, 1st New York Light Artillery, in Fort Richardson]

Liljenquist Collection:

(Unidentified soldier in Confederate uniform]
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/lilj/item/2013645712/resource/

Title: [Unidentified soldier in Richmond Howitzers uniform]
Creator(s): Rees, Charles R., photographer

Title: [Unidentified soldier in 1st Virginia cavalry great coat]
Date Created/Published: [between 1861 and 1865]

Title: [Spotsylvania Court House, Va., vicinity. Burial of soldier by Mrs. Alsop’s house, near which Ewell’s Corps attacked the Federal right on May 19, 1864]
Summary: Photograph from the main eastern theater of war, Grant’s Wilderness Campaign, May-June 1864.
Contributor Names: O’Sullivan, Timothy H., 1840-1882, photographer
Created / Published: [1864 May 20]

Title: Military map showing the topographical features of the country adjacent to Harper’s Ferry Va. : including Maryland, Loudoun, and Bolivar Heights, and portions of South and Short Mountains, with the positions of the defensive works : also the junction of the Potomac & Shenandoah Rivers, and their passage through the Blue Ridge
Contributor Names: Weyss, J. E., Michler, N. (Nathaniel); United States. Army of the Potomac. Created / Published [Washington, D.C.?] : Engineer Dept., Army of the Potomac, [1863?]

findagrave.org 2 February 2001 Web. 20 June 2016:

Rufus D. Pettit – Birth: Jul. 4, 1825, Bridgewater, Oneida County, New York, USA
Death: Oct. 24, 1891, New York, USA

wikipedia.org 27 November 2002 Web. 20 June 2016:

Marcus A. Reno
Born November 15, 1834
Carrollton, Illinois
Died March 30, 1889 (aged 54)

Thomas T. Munford
Born March 29, 1831
Richmond, Virginia
Died February 27, 1918 (aged 86)
Uniontown, Alabama

Field artillery in the American Civil War.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Field_artillery_in_the_American_Civil_War

Roger Preston Chew
Born April 9, 1843
Loudoun County, Virginia
Died March 16, 1921 (aged 77)
Charles Town, West Virginia

Winfield Scott Hancock
Born February 14, 1824
Montgomeryville, Pennsylvania
Died February 9, 1886 (aged 61)
Governors Island, New York

Andrew A. Humphreys
Born November 2, 1810
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Died December 27, 1883 (aged 73)
Washington, D.C.
800px-Andrew_A._Humphreys_-_Brady-Handy.jpg

The balloon Washington aboard the George Washington Parke Custis;
USS George Washington Parke Custis (1861)

John Brown ascending the scaffold preparatory to being hanged“, from the December 17, 1859 edition of Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper.

Victoria and Albert Museum, London, UK vam.ac.uk 14 September 2008 Web. 20 June 2016:
John Constable – Sketch at Hampstead, Evening (1820)

the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 10 May 2016:

Eastman Johnson:
Union Soldiers Accepting A Drink (1865) – Carnegie Museum of Art – Pittsburgh, PA;

Jervis McEntee:
A Misty Day, November, date unknown –

Gathering Autumn Leaves, Date unknown

wikimedia.org 24 July 2003 Web. 20 June 2016:

Winslow Homer – Camp Fire (1880) – Metropolitan Museum of Art

ebooks.library.cornell.edu 28 August 2004 Web. 20 June 2016:

By “A Virginian” (David Hunter Strother), “Virginia Canaan,” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine Volume 0008 Issue 43 (December 1853).
p. 24 The alarm (camp fire scene)

Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. Volume 13, Issue: 75, (Aug., 1856).
p. 313 – the battering ram

wvhistoryonview.org 9 October 2010 Web. 20 June 2016 (by Thomas and Walter Biscoe, taken in 1884):

Halltown Ridge, W. Va. With Ruin on Left, Looking Southwest;

Bolivar Heights and Gap of Harper’s Ferry, W. Va.;

Harper’s Ferry from Bolivar Heights;

Halltown a Few Miles Southwest from Harpers Ferry, W. Va.;

Harper’s Ferry Gap;

archive.org 26 October 2004 Web. 20 June 2016:

“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 1.” (1887). Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co.
p. 126 – A Affair of Outposts;

p. 419 – McAllister’s Battery at Fort Donelson;

Miller, Francis Trevelyan. (1912). “The photographic history of the civil war in ten volumes.” Vol. 4. New York, NY: The Review of Reviews Co.
p. 75 – 6th Pennsylvania Cavary – Lancers in the Federal Cavalry

collection1.libraries.psu.edu 21 May 2006 Web. 20 June 2016:

(Edwin Forbes drawings and etchings taken from ‘Life Studies of the Great Army’ series, documenting military life in the Army of the Potomac.” 1876:
1. home page for Edwin Forbes etchings.

2. Going into Action;

3. An Advance of the Cavalry Skirmish.

third phase moon Janet Furlong, earthsky.org 2 September 2000 Web. 20 June 2016

The Humble Harvest & Eternal Voices (3) by Jim Surkamp

by Jim Surkamp on September 3, 2016 in Jefferson County

The_Humble_Harvest_Thy_Will_13c

Made possible with the generous, community-minded support of American Public University System. Any views expressed are not a reflection of modern-day policies of the University and the content is meant to encourage dispassionate, informed discussion of American history. More . . .

Researched, written and produced by Jim Surkamp

VIDEO: The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Part 3 TRT: 14:08/26:14 (incl. Credits). Click Here.

Jervis_McEntee_Oct_1862_Part_3_a

The Humble Harvest and Eternal Voices – October, 1862 – Jefferson County, West Virginia.

After_a_great_battle

After a Great Battle.

Annie_P_Marmion_D

But just as she passed the window best seen by the Sharpshooters, a gust of wind blew her skirts and a curtain aside. Shots immediately announced that the light had been seen.

William_McCarter_Matte_D

I asked how the child had been killed. A reply given was, in substance, the same as the old man’s. With both hands, she slowly and solemnly raised the blood stained cover off the little breast, saying in sobs as she did so, “Just look here.”

Mary_Clemmer_Ames_Mattes_D

Deeds of valor are no longer dreams gone by. We live in knightly days; our men are dauntless men. Will there ever be one to write the life of the common soldier?

St_Clair_A_Mulholland_D

The regiment had not lost a man to be sure, but had seen a genuine fight, heard the scream of the shells and seen a caisson blowing up and men knocked over.

Screen Shot 2016-05-16 at 9.42.39 AM

”Well, you are from the Old Sod, ain’t you?” My reply was simply, ”Yes, sir.”

Montage_13c_Aglionby_Mt_Pleasamt

Last night it rained for an hour or so. I put the ground in fine order for seeding I sent the wagon to Mr. Moore and 27 bushels by measure. The day was fine for seeding. No military to be seen on our side of the hill.

Montage_Rock_Hall_dad_Anne_house

Wednesday, October 15th Pa is becoming rather tired of our South Carolina soldier. Thinks he is sufficiently well to leave.

Heros_Von_Borcke_D

And I enjoyed the ride home the more for being fortunate enough – firing from my horses back with my revolver – to kill a grey squirrel, which, as our mess arrangements had been thrown into utter disorder by the events was gladly welcomed the same evening on our dinner table.

October 14th – Tuesday Weather: cloudy generally all day.
That day in Charlestown, Mrs. Margaret Cameron, a relic of the late Samuel Cameron, in the 66th year of her age, died of consumption.

Wednesday, October 15th:
Pa is becoming rather tired of our South Carolina soldier. Thinks he is sufficiently well to leave. By some means, managed to put him to apple-gathering today. I think he took the hint and will leave tomorrow.

October 15th – Wednesday. Weather: cloudy. A Skirmish at Charlestown, Va. – First Blood, First Impressions, And a once freed man escapes his butternut captors.

Mulholland remembered
:

On the evening of October 15th orders were received to march at daybreak next morning on a reconnaissance down the Shenandoah Valley to Charlestown.

Campfire_Winsow_Homer

What an evening of pleasurable excitement with a dash of anxiety it was! Men sat around the camp fires later than usual and talked of the morrow; or rolled up in their blankets, dozed and dreamed of the anticipated fight, for all knew that there would be a meeting of some kind, as a Confederate force was within a few miles. Candles flickered all over the camp where others were writing letters home, thinking maybe that that would be their last night on earth. Some packed their knapsacks and were all ready to march hours before the dawn. No doubt many never slept at all but sat by the smoldering embers of the camp fire in quiet thought, gazing at the dark mountains or listening to the wash of the Shenandoah’s waters. One can hardly imagine a moment so full of subdued excitement, anticipative hope, fear, sadness, pleasure and all the emotions that human nature is subject to as the eve of a young soldier’s first battle, and as the stars looked down on the calm, still night at Harper’s Ferry they shone on many a beating though brave young heart; and on the morning of that eventful day when the new soldiers were to hear the whistle of the first hostile bullet, no reveille was necessary to call them to arms. Every man was ready long before the time to move.

Private McCarter’s infantry was ordered to march. He wrote: On the night of the 15th, orders were received for the Irish Brigade to march next morning to Charlestown, a small town about six or seven miles distant. We were to move on the Harpers Ferry Pike, our purpose to drive a large force of the enemy, said to number 3,000, out of the town. These men had taken possession of the town only one day previous to our arrival on Bolivar Heights.

October 16th – Thursday Weather: rain late in the day.

McCarter continues:

Biscoe_Halltown_2_BEST_WV_Regional_History_Collection

The road over which my route lay to (Charlestown) was then in a worse condition than it had ever been before. This had been caused by recent rain storms, so common in Virginia, together with being cut up into ruts and gullies by the passage of hundreds of batteries of artillery, Rebel and Union, as well as large bodies of cavalry and infantry of both armies. Nothing but mud, knee-deep, was to be found anywhere in or around Harper’s Ferry for many miles. And it was “Virginia mud,” red, sticky, thick and staining, hard to remove when dry. However, a cavalry horse was set apart for my use. But not being much of a horseman and my route to the town being a constant jam from morning to night of moving bodies of troops arriving from other parts, I preferred Shank’s mare to the animal appointed to carry me.

Charles_Trueman_Montage

That very day Charles Henry Trueman, a freed African American from Fayette County, Pennsylvania – but forced into slavery after being captured in May at Strasburg, Virginia as Federal General Banks’ army was hastily retreating the Valley – he was with the opposing Confederate cavalry at their nearby camp – encamped south west from Charlestown. For weeks Trueman pretended to be illiterate and was therefore given many written, sensitive messages to deliver to the different commands. Of course he studied the messages adding that to what he saw and overheard. So when his moment soon came to escape over to the Federal lines fighting at Charles town he had much to share.

A New York Times reporter met Trueman there and listened to him and concluded in his newspaper’s October 22nd edition:
(Trueman) betrays such unusual intelligence and his statements correspond nearly with what I have previously learned. The following July Trueman enlisted into Company H of the 6th U.S. Colored Troops Infantry.

As the regiments advanced towards Charlestown that autumn day, Mulholland wrote:

Cornfield_Winslow_Homer

Summer lingered late that year. Stacks of hay not yet gathered into the barns were still in the fields. The meadows were yellow with goldenrod, and the regiments’ line was formed in a field still green with rich clover. Ah, how beautiful that bright October morning when for the first time the command formed line to meet the enemy. Every face in the ranks beaming with patriotism, courage, enthusiasm and hope in that long line of young men, the best of the land, men who had risked their precious lives in defense of their country. The calm bravery with which they swept over the flowered fields on that Autumn morning was indicative of what was to be expected on many other and bloodier fields.

The overall Federal Commander Winfield Hancock reported later:

Winfield_Hancock_D_Matte

On the 16th instant, in obedience to instructions, I marched toward Charlestown, Va., with my division and 1,500 men of other divisions,

William_Raymond_Lee_D

under command of Col. W. R. Lee, of the Twentieth Massachusetts Volunteers,

Thomas_Devin_D

and a force of cavalry, with a battery of four guns (horse artillery), Colonel Devin being in command thereof. . . .

cannonading2 copy 3

POSTS:

(1) POST – The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Pt. 1 2753 words. (Repost from 5.17.2016)

(2) POST – The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Pt. 2. 3275 words.

(3) POST – The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Pt. 3. 2933 words.

(4) POST – The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Pt. 4. 5470 words.

(5) POST – The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Pt. 5 – Conclusion. 10,449 words.

VIDEOS:

UPDATED: The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Pt. 5 – Conclusion TRT: 29:00/53:34 (incl. Credits). Click Here.

The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Part 4 – Skirmish TRT: 23:35/33:48 (incl. Credits). Click Here.

The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Part 3 TRT: 14:08/26:14 (incl. Credits). Click Here.

The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Part 2 TRT: 21:48/27:40 (incl. Credits). Click Here.

The Humble Harvest, Eternal Voices – Part 1. TRT: 17:25/21:14 (incl. Credits). Click Here.

References:

Charles Aglionby Papers and Civil War Diary, Volume 2 – Jefferson County Museum, Charles Town, WV.

Ambler, Anne W. (1971). “Diary of Anne Madison Willis Ambler (1836-1888): A Civil War Experience.” (submitted by her granddaughter, Anne Madison Ambler Baylor – Mrs. Robert Garnet Baylor). Magazine of the Historical Society of Jefferson County.” Vol. Volume XXXVII. Charles Town, WV: Jefferson County Historical Society, p. 29.

Ames, Mary Clemmer. (1872). “Eirene or A Woman’s Right.” G. P. Putnam & Sons: New York, NY. pp. 155-178.

Ames, Mary C. (1872). “Eirene, Or A Woman’s Right.” New York, NY: G. P. Putnam & Sons. googlebooks.com 5 February 2003 Web. 5 March 2016. pp. 155-177.

Chew, Roger P. (1911). “Military Operations in Jefferson County, Virginia (and West Va.) 1861-1865.” [s.l.]: Charles Town, WV: published by authority of Jefferson County Camp, U.C.V. [by] Farmers Advocate Printing. pp. 36-37. archive.org 26 October 2004 Web. 20 June 2016.

Marmion, Annie P. (1959).”Under Fire: An Experience in the Civil War.” William V. Marmion, Jr. editor. self-published.

McCarter, William. (1996). “My Life in the Irish Brigade – The Civil War Memoirs of Private William McCarter, 116th Pensylvania Infantry.” edited by Kevin E. O’Brien. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books Group. googlebooks.com 5 February 2003 Web. 5 March 2016.

Mulholland, St. Clair Augustin. (1899). “The story of the 116th Regiment, Pennsylvania Infantry. War of secession, 1862-1865.” [Philadelphia, F. McManus, jr., & co.]. archive.org 26 October 2004 Web. 20 June 2016.

Charles Henry Trueman – The New York Times, October 22, 1862 nytimes.com 12 November 1996 Web. 20 June 2016.
FROM BOLIVAR HEIGHTS.; The Story of a Free Negro–His Estimate of the Rebel Strength–Gen. Stuart’s Raid-Rebel Fears and Feelings.Published: October 22, 1862, The New York Times, October 22, 1862 nytimes.com 12 November 1996 Web. 20 June 2016.

New York Times Report No. 2: (NOTE ?? question marks in the text are in the reproduced digitized version at nytimes.org).

FROM THE ARMY OF THE POTOMAC.; Advance of Our Cavalry Pickets Two Miles Into Virginia. The Rebels in Force This Side of Charlestown. JACKSON STILL AT BUNKER’S HILL, A Successful Expedition After Rebel Cavalry. Thirty-two Captured and Several Killed and Wounded. SPECIAL DISPATCH FROM HARPER’S FERRY LATEST REPORTS FROM HEADQUARTERS. SPECIAL DISPATCH FROM FREDERICK. Published: October 22, 1862. The New York Times, October 22, 1862 nytimes.com 12 November 1996 Web. 20 June 2016

The Official Record of the War of the Rebellion Report of W. Hancock, Chapter XIX, Official Record, Series I, Part 2, Vol. 19. Hancock, Caldwell, Zook, Munford reports. pp. 91-97.

Charles Henry Trueman –
Census Records at ancestry.com 28 October 1996 Web. 20 June 2016:

wvgeohistory.org 5 October 2010 Web. 20 June 2016 (Map Gallery):

1850 Charlestown, Va. plat;

fold3.com 16 September 2011 Web 20 June 2016:

1860 Census, Jefferson County, Charlestown, Va., 162.,
(NOTE: Camerons lived at Lot 15 in Charles Town owned by Levi C. Cordell in 1860 – Jefferson County Courthouse, Charles Town, WV.)

Cameron, Margaret (b. ~1797); Cameron, John W (b. ~1825);

U.S. Colored Troops Service for Charles Henry Trueman;

Service Record of William Raymond Lee 20th Massachusetts Infantry regiment.

findagrave.org 2 February 2001 Web. 20 June 2016:

William Raymond Lee (Aug. 15, 1807-December 26, 1891)

Margaret Curran Cameron (1797-1862) – Edge Hill Cemetery, Charles Town, WV.

Image Credits – Includes images from the corresponding video:

(For Marmion, Mulholland and McCarter, see “References”)

Mary Ames – frontispiece – “From a New England Woman’s Diary in Dixie in 1865.”
docsouth.unc.edu 19 January 2001 Web. 20 June 2016.

Annie Marmion from book’s frontispiece.

St. Clair Mulholland – courtesy of the US Army HEC, Carlisle, PA.

William McCarter – from book’s frontispiece: googlebooks.com 5 February 2003 Web. 5 March 2016.

Charles Aglionby – from Vol. 2, Aglionby Papers, Jefferson County Museum – Charles Town, WV.

Semblance of Anne Madison Willis Ambler – Thomas Faed – “Lady Writing a Letter
detail, Thomas F. Meagher The Huntington Library, San Marino, California.

Heros Von Borcke – Uploaded by bruceyrock632
fold3.com 16 September 2011 Web 20 June 2016.

George Neese – vagenweb.org/shenandoah 7 August 2008 Web. 20 June 2016.

West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey: [County reports and maps.] Jefferson, Berkeley and Morgan counties. ([Wheeling, W. Va., Wheeling News Litho. Co., 1916.]) hathitrust.org 9 September 2008, Web. 20 June 2016.

Gen. Nathaniel Banks wearing a hat.
sparedshared9.wordpress.com 25 September 2015 Web. 20 June 2016.

findagrave.org 2 February 2001 Web. 20 June 2016:

Edge Hill Cemetery, Charles Town, WV – photo added by B. Kemp Bell.

The Library of Congress loc.gov 16 June 1997 Web. 20 June 2016:

[Map of Loudoun County and part of Clarke County, Va., Jefferson County and part of Berkeley County, W. Va., 1864 by Howell Brown;

[Private George Hamilton Guinn of Co. A, 52nd Virginia Infantry Regiment, in uniform with musket, Bowie knife, and canteen];

(extreme detail. soldier in rear, right background) A lone grave on battle-field of Antietam loc.gov 14 September 2015 Web. 10 May 2016.

Map of Jefferson County, Virginia by Howell Brown, 1852;

[African American men tending a horse]
1 photographic print on carte de visite mount : albumen ; 10 x 6.5 cm. | Photograph shows two African American men, probably servants, standing in the foreground; six soldiers standing on the front porch of a building in the background. Contributor: Brady, Mathew, Date: 1862. Gladstone Collection of African American Photographs

Stuck in the Mud, A flank march across country during a thunder shower” Edwin Forbes, copper plate etching, 1876, detail
A pontoon wagon with boat stuck fast in a slough. A regiment of infantry is pulling on a rope attached to the head of the team, trying to drag them to firmer ground.
From Edwin Forbes, Life Studies of the Great Army, A Historical Work of Art in Copper-Plate Etching …(New York: Edwin Forbes, 1876), plate 19.
hd.housedivided.dickinson.edu 19 October 2009 Web. 20 June 2016.

wikipedia.org 27 November 2002 Web. 20 June 2016:

Solidago gigantea;

Stonewall Jackson’s Valley Campaign;

Roger Preston Chew;

ultisol red clay soil (mud).

wikigallery.org 4 May 2009 Web. 20 June 2016:
Thomas Faed – Lady Writing a Letter, date unknown.

wikimedia.org 24 June 2003 Web. 20 June 2016:
New York Times logo

Winslow Homer – Camp Fire, 1880 (metmusum.org).

Illustration for poem “The Picket Guard“, p. 90., by N. C. Wyeth (illus.) and Matthews, Bander (ed.), Date: 1922 from “Poems of American Patriotism.” New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. gutenberg.org 4 April 1997 Web. 20 June 2016.

the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 10 May 2016:

John Ottis Adams – The Closing of an Autumn Day, 1901;

Jervis McEntee – A Misty Day, November, date unknown;

Jervis McEntee – Gathering Autumn Leaves, Date unknown;

Winslow Homer – The Sharpshooter on Picket Duty, 1863;

(detail) Winslow Homer – Home Sweet Home, circa 1863;

Winslow Homer – On Guard, 1864;

Jerome Thompson – Apple Gathering, 1856;

Eastman Johnson – The Lord is My Shepherd, circa 1863;

Eastman Johnson – Self Portrait, circa 1860;

Eastman Johnson – Man with Scythe, 1868;

Thomas Moran – Slave Hunt, Dismal Swamp, Virginia, 1862;

Sisley, Alfred – Field of Clover, 1874.

Winslow Homer – Painting, Autumn Tree Tops, 1873
collection.cooperhewitt.org – 9 December 2014 Web. 20 June 2016.

James River & Kanawha Canal November 1856
Drawings of David Hunter Strother. images.lib.wvu.edu 18 October 2012 Web. 20 June 2016.

ebooks.library.cornell.edu 28 August 2004 Web. 20 June 2016:

p. 290 – Writing home:
Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 36, Issue: 213, (February, 1868).

p. 827 – thunderstorm, hands in sky:
Crayon, Porte (Strother, D. H.). “The Mountains – VIII.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. Volume 47 Issue: 282 (November, 1873).

p. 24 – around a campfire, man with pipe silhouette:
A Virginian (Strother, D. H.). “Virginian Canaan.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 8, Issue: 43, (December, 1853).

p. 300 – the wagoner:
Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 10, Issue: 57, (Feb., 1855). pp. 289-310.

p. 705 – man sleeping:
Carpenter, Horace. “Plain Living at Johnson’s island Described by a Confederate officer.” The Century. Vol. 41 Issue 5. March, 1891.
http://ebooks.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=cent;cc=cent;rgn=full%20text;idno=cent0041-5;didno=cent0041-5;view=image;seq=0715;node=cent0041-5%3A8


wvhistoryonview.org 9 October 2010 Web. 20 June 2016; by Biscoe, Thomas, and Walter
:

Halltown Ridge, W. Va. With Ruin on Left, Looking Southwest 1884/08/02;

Bolivar Heights and Gap of Harper’s Ferry, W. Va. 1884/08/02;

Harper’s Ferry from Bolivar Heights 1884/08/02;

Harper’s Ferry Gap – 1884/08/02;

Halltown a Few Miles Southwest from Harpers Ferry, W. Va., 1884/08/02;

digitalcollections.baylor.edu 18 February 2012 Web. 20 June 2016:

Military map showing the topographical features of the country adjacent to Harper’s Ferry, Va. including Maryland, Loudoun and Bolivar Heights, and portions of South and Short Mountains, with the positions of the defensive works, also the Junction of the Potomac and Shenandoah Rivers.

archive.org 26 October 2004 Web. 20 June 2016:

Winfield Hancock, from Mulholland, St. Clair Augustin. (1899). “The story of the 116th Regiment, Pennsylvania Infantry. War of secession, 1862-1865.” [Philadelphia, F. McManus, jr., & co.].
p. 128.

“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 1.” (1887). Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co.
p. 419 – McAllister’s Battery at Fort Donelson.

“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 2.” (1887). Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co.
p. 504 – supper after a hard march;

p. 561 – eating corn;

p. 576 – haystacks, view from Turner’s Gap.

collection1.libraries.psu.edu 21 May 2006 Web. 20 June 2016. (Edwin Forbes drawings and etchings taken from ‘Life Studies of the Great Army’ series, documenting military life in the Army of the Potomac.” – 1876:

Title The Newspaper Correspondent
Description Etching created by Edwin Forbes as a part of his ‘Life Studies of the Great Army’ series, documenting military life in the Army of the Potomac.
Creator Forbes, Edwin, 1839-1895
Date Original 1876

Title Newspapers in Camp
Description Etching created by Edwin Forbes as a part of his ‘Life Studies of the Great Army’ series, documenting military life in the Army of the Potomac.
Creator Forbes, Edwin, 1839-1895
Date Original 1876

Title Going into Action
Description Etching created by Edwin Forbes as a part of his ‘Life Studies of the Great Army’ series, documenting military life in the Army of the Potomac.
Creator Forbes, Edwin, 1839-1895
Date Original 1876

Stuck in the Mud,” Edwin Forbes, copper plate etching, 1876, detail
A pontoon wagon with boat stuck fast in a slough. A regiment of infantry is pulling on a rope attached to the head of the team, trying to drag them to firmer ground. From Edwin Forbes, Life Studies of the Great Army, A Historical Work of Art in Copper-Plate Etching …(New York: Edwin Forbes, 1876), plate 19. hd.housedivided.dickinson.edu 19 October 2009 Web. 20 June 2016.

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