Steve French, author of the acclaimed “Rebel Chronicles,” tells the factual story of the winding road in Andrew Thomas Leopold’s life.

2880 words

https://web.archive.org/web/20190710015245/https://civilwarscholars.com/2014/06/author-steve-french-on-andrew-leopold-video-transcript-link/

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French, Steve. (2012). “Rebel Chronicles: Raiders, Scouts and Train Robbers of the Upper Potomac.” New Horizons Publishing Company. Print. info-sfrench52@yahoo.com

VIDEO: Author Steve French on Andrew Leopold (Standing at the Entler ferryboat house on the Virginia side in Shepherdstown) Click Here. TRT: 25:23

In May of 1864, when Andrew Leopold was taken to Baltimore under guard to be taken to be transferred to Fort McHenry a Baltimore Sun reporter noted “he is a guerilla chief and spy and murderer of the blackest die.” Now whether all that was true or not remains to be seen. But Andrew Leopold was born in Sharpsburg, Maryland in 1841. His father was Mathew Leopold and his mother, Polly Leopold. His father soon died and later his mother would marry John Zittle of Sharpsburg. The boy grew up in the town; later on, he worked on farms – local farms along the C&O Canal. He was a friendly boy who knew people on both sides of the river, especially in Shepherdstown where he knew quite a few people and traveled over here quite a bit. Probably at this time during his teenaged years he met Thomas Hipsley, who lived over near Moler’s Crossroads, who was an especially close friend of his and served in the Confederate Army later on with him. In 1861, he would join the first Virginia Cavalry.

Some of his first actions in the Civil War would be right here when militia men from Virginia would fire across at union guards, guarding the C&O Canal. The Entlers who lived across the river at that time running the ferry, commented later on, especially Luther about gunshots ringing out and bullets flying in the ferry house on the far side. But he served in the 1st Virginia Cavalry until April of 1862. Then he joined the 12th Virginia Cavalry along with his friend, Thomas Hipsley. During that time he participated in the Valley Campaign with Stonewall Jackson. He wrote a letter home to his mother about his experiences during that time, attacking the Union camp. Later on, he’ll fight in the Battle of Second Manassas, and he’ll be wounded three times towards the end of that battle. And his brigade commander, Gen. Beverly Robertson, will mention in the official reports of the battle how brave a man Leopold was. But once again, he was wounded three times at the Battle of Second Manassas. He has a long recovery but about October, 1862, he is headquartered with Stuart, at Stuart’s headquarters at The Bower, not far from here in Jefferson County. Towards the end of October, he is dispatched with Capt. Redmond Burke with a small band of men and they come to Shepherdstown, and are in this area scouting and rounding up conscripts for a two or three-week period.

On November 19th, there is a skirmish along the river at Guard Lock 4. And at this time a civilian named Mortimer Cookus is shot and killed by Leopold, as he is trying to escape across the river. On the night of the 24th and 25th of November, Leopold, Burke, Burke’s sons are surrounded in a house in Shepherdstown by soldiers from the 2nd Massachusetts Infantry. Burke is killed. Leopold and two of Burke’s sons are captured, Hipsley and a soldier named John O’Brien also. The next day they are taken to Sharpsburg. The Union soldiers come back to Shepherdstown to arrest Daniel Rentch, a noted Shepherdstown resident. They are taken to Fort McHenry. The soldiers who are captured – they’re released very soon afterwards, paroled.

And by January the first, 1864, they’re all back with Stuart at his camp near Fredericksburg, Virginia. That winter, as soon as he is exchanged and the others are exchanged, they’re back in the service – dispatched service – operating once again in the Shepherdstown/Berryville area, carrying mail back and forth between the citizens and armies, scouting and so on. On the night of March the 6th, he comes into Shepherdstown with John O’Brien, and he’s hunting for a man named Jacob Hudson. He finds Hudson caring for his uncle at his house at Shepherdstown. And he knocks on the door with O’Brien. Evidently he doesn’t know Hudson, but Hudson has been talking about him around town. When Hudson opens the door, Leopold asks for Hudson -“Is Hudson in the house?” – Hudson immediately becomes scared and he runs toward the back door and he is shot down. George Brantner, who was a former Confederate soldier, he’s seated right in that room, cannot tell whether it was Leopold or O’Brien who shot the young man, but he sure identifies him later on, because Leopold met Brantner at the door and (Leopold) told him he had mail for him. Leopold will come down the street that night. He will tell one resident here in the town that he did shoot a man up the street and then they will leave the mail here and head back for camp.

Ten days later, on the night of March 15th & 16th, Leopold and a group of men go to Sharpsburg, Maryland, and, in Sharpsburg that night they steal six horses from an oyster wagon, parked outside of a local tavern. After midnight on the 16th, they return to try to get across the river. They go to Bridgeport where the ferry is, directly behind me, and they knock on the door. They say they have a dispatch to take to Harper’s Ferry to (Federal) General Stevenson. The young man, Charles Entler and his friend Samuel Jones, that are in the office that night, sleeping in the office, refuse to answer the door. Finally, Leopold starts tearing the shutters off the windows and Charles decides to come out. Samuel Jones would later say he knew it was Leopold at the door, but he was too scared, too frightened to say a word. As Charles comes out the door, his brother, Luther, who is in the ferry house himself, walks outside; and, as soon as he gets outside, he hears a man shout at his brother: “By God, I’m Captain Leopold and I’ve been looking for you a long time.” Immediately the gunshot goes off, Luther turns, makes haste into his house to get his revolver. His brother, Charles, nineteen-years-old, runs off and dies in the road, going up towards Ferry Hill. Leopold and his men escape. Now, they’re wanted men. The Middletown Valley Register over in Maryland, a few days later, comes out with a long article about Leopold and his band and at the end of it says: “Leopold deserves a hempen collar.” So he’s a wanted man, not only by the authorities in Maryland, but by Union soldiers, especially Major General Robert Milroy, the famous “Grey Eagle,” who was headquartered at that time in Winchester.

Towards the end of April around April 21st, Union forces are sent out of Berryville and they go to Castleman’s Ferry. That night, they will capture Leopold, and, once again, some of the Burkes – Hipsley and some other men when they surround the house, and they threaten to burn it down, if the Confederates don’t come out. They’re taken to Winchester and put in the Clarke County jail. While in that jail, one of Milroy’s citizen spies named Michael Graham from Woodstock, Virginia, talks to Leopold and finds out what he wants. Leopold wants to either join the Union Army or be allowed to get out of jail and go to Ohio. In return he will tell Milroy who the scouts and spies are in the lower Shenandoah Valley. He will meet with Milroy, and Milroy will listen to all this, but Leopold plays his hand too fast, and tells Milroy what he needs to know beforehand. So Milroy won’t agree to give him his freedom or allow him to switch sides and join the Union Army, but he will pack him to the prison at Fort McHenry. The inner fort was where only the most notorious Confederate guerrillas and partisans are held.

Now over in Sharpsburg at this time, Polly Zittle will hear of her son’s dire circumstances, and she will ask daughter, Sally Zittle, who is Andrew’s half-sister to come to Shepherdstown and meet with Mary Louise Entler and convince her to take her south – for Entler to take Zittle south – and meet with J.E.B. Stuart and try to arrange some sort of deal where(by) Andrew can get out of prison. So, at this time, Andrew is already at Fort McHenry. The girls meet here and they head south. Now, Entler was a – maybe we’d call spy today – but she was mostly concerned with delivering the mail between – once again this mail system between the army and the citizens. The girls get as far as Berryville. They’re taken into custody one morning at the Berryville hotel and sent to Winchester. Here they are going to meet – once again – General Milroy, who is in a big argument with a lot of women there. It’s over a cow. All of the sudden, the girls come in. He turns around and sees them and says: ”What do you want?” They tell him and he shouts out: “By God, I wouldn’t have any trouble here if it wasn’t for the women!” The women in Winchester. So, he listens to them, talks to them a while, then he will pack them off to Harper’s Ferry. At Harper’s Ferry, they are put under guard there, kind of loose guard – the Stipes Boarding House. They’ll stay probably close to six weeks there under sort of a house arrest. Mary Lou Entler will even meet her future husband Walter Herrington, who is a telegrapher for the Union Army at Harper’s Ferry. The girls are eventually sent to Baltimore and, while there, they will take the Oath of Loyalty to the Union, although the girls would say: “We really didn’t mean it. We dropped the Bible on the floor. So we didn’t swear to it on the Bible.” When, especially Miss Entler, gets back to Shepherdstown, she’s met right at this location as she comes across the ferry by hundreds of people and she’s a very gracious local hero for a long time afterward. (Back to Leopold).

He’s in the prison at the inner fort. He’s with a number of noted desperadoes, including William Boyd Compton (Belle Boyd’s cousin), who had been captured behind the Union lines in Fairmont, West Virginia. Captain Joel Baker, the guard, comments that most of the prisoners of the group – there’s about eight or nine in the guard room – most of the prisoners are cultured gentlemen, but not Leopold. Baker would write that Leopold is not trusted by the other prisoners. They think he would sell them out for just a few cents. Leopold is held in prison until mid-December, 1863, when he is put on trial by a military tribunal. He’s charged with a number of crimes, of being a guerrilla, murderer, violating an act of war, and being a spy. The tribunal is led by Col. W. W. Bates of the 8th New York heavy artillery. The Judge Advocate is Lieutenant Roderick Baldwin. Leopold will represent himself, but he will have the help of a local, Baltimore attorney, Milton Whitney Esq. who was well-known in Baltimore for many years. The trial opens up. A lot of local residents come from here to Fort McHenry to testify, including Daniel Rentch, Luther Entler, Samuel Jones, other men from Shepherdstown and also General Milroy will appear. The trial will go – on and off – for probably three, almost four, weeks. They break for Christmas a while; they break for different witnesses to arrive.

Finally, two charges are dropped, but he is still charged with being a guerilla and murderer, both capital offences. His defense rests on that he wasn’t a guerilla, that he was a Confederate soldier, especially dispatched into this area by J.E.B. Stuart. Also, he refused to admit that he had murdered Charles Entler. He said he didn’t have anything more to do with the murder of that young boy than any of the judges on the tribunal; and, he said the shooting of Cookus was just part of a local skirmish. So he denied being a guerilla; he denied being a murderer. In his summation, Lt. Baldwin, the Judge Advocate, would say: we owe something to the people of the border who have been hounded from their home, who have been murdered at their doorstep. We need to protect them. The verdict comes back. He is convicted of murder: the murder of Entler, the murder of Cookus – and he is convicted of being a guerrilla. Afterwards, the verdict and the results of the trial – goes up through the chain of command.

Finally, they reach that April, Judge Advocate Joseph Holt. Holt reviews all capital cases for Abraham Lincoln. In a four-page review, Holt will say this man has been convicted of these crimes and he deserves the death penalty. In late April, 1864, Abraham Lincoln will sign off on that. At that time, Leopold is taken from the guard room, shackled. He’s put in a cell, still in the inner fort, but not with the rest of the men on death row. During that month, there is a big escape from the guard room at Fort McHenry. William Boyd Compton leads the rest of the men in the escape and they all eventually get back to the Confederate lines. On the evening of April the 22nd, Leopold will be informed by his chaplain, Doctor Reese, that his execution will be the next morning. He will meet with Reese that evening for prayer and communion. During the winter, Leopold would become a committed Christian. He studied the Bible frequently. He had another small book that he would study. They had prayer. Reese left for a while.

About, five-thirty, he would return. Once again, they would talk of the afterlife. Then he (Leopold) would go out under guard, get on the wagon atop his coffin, and he would ride to the execution site right outside the walls. Captain Robert Baylor of Charlestown was also a prisoner at Fort McHenry at the time. He was out on the grounds of the fort and as he passed Baylor, Leopold would wave to Baylor and said: “Tell the boys I remain true to the cause.” As they neared the execution site, he could see the soldiers of the fort lined up on three sides of the gallows. The gallows there could have four executions at the time. (Federal) Major General Lew Wallace was there, later on the author of “Ben Hur.” He was the commander-in-chief of the Eighth Corps Middle Department, and Brig. General W. W. Morris, the sixty-six year old commander of Fort McHenry was also there. He was helped off the wagon. The reporter for “The Baltimore American” said that “Leopold went up the steps firm and undaunted.” Once atop the scaffold, he was asked for any last words and Leopold pointed to Gen. Morris and said: “Old man, you’re the reason I’m here. But I’ll forgive and I’ll meet you in Heaven.” After that, he stepped back. The hood was put on his neck by Private Elijah Brown, and then the rope put around his neck. Just afterwards, Morris gave the signal, and then – Leopold dropped into eternity. He would hang there for about twenty minutes before the soldiers took him down. There were friends there in Baltimore, some of Leopold’s friends.

They brought him back to Sharpsburg, where he was prepared for burial. A few days later, he was going to be brought to Shepherdstown to bury in the Soldier’s Cemetery. His plot will be right beside Redmond Burke, his old Captain. But he’s going to be brought across here by the undertaker, (with) of course his mother and sisters are with that group. They’re going to ride up this hill. At the Entler Hotel, there is a group of Unionists shouting at the undertaker to go back. Beforehand these same people had (gone) to the cemetery and warned the over four hundred mourners there to leave, but they ignored them. They go to the cemetery – once again – there’s a big crowd there. Lots of girls crying and so on. He is buried. Although maybe a year before, Leopold had been a hated person by most Confederates in this area because they heard that he was going to switch sides. By this time, he totally redeemed himself.

His conversion to Christianity, his bravery on the scaffold had turned him into a local hero. Later on, that same day, the Unionists would strike. They would come back and would steal the undertaker’s hearse and his horses and ride away with them. Whether he was really guilty of every crime that he was accused is questionable. He wasn’t a guerilla. He was a member of the regular Confederate Cavalry and there’s some question, on the murder of Entler that it might have O’Brien did the shooting.

Andrew Leopold’s Forlorn Hope (2) – by Jim Surkamp With Author Steve French

5977 words

https://web.archive.org/web/20190710015230/https://civilwarscholars.com/2014/06/andrew-leopolds-forlorn-hope-2-by-jim-surkamp-with-author-steve-french/

About a young man from Sharpsburg and Shepherdstown who war changed into an avenging angel of death but who, at the foot of the gallows, found God.

Andrew Leopold Warmaker To Peacemaker With Steve French, Author “Rebel Chronicles,” contact: info-sfrench52@yahoo.com (Image of Andrew Leopold courtesy Horace Mewborn, Jr. co-author of the “43rd Battalion Virginia Cavalry: Mosby’s Command” for the H.E. Howard Virginia Regimental Series for Blue and Gray Magazine).

Flickr Set – 33 images Click Here.

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Flickr Set: Click Here. 28 Images

Related Links:

VIDEO: Andrew Leopold: From Bull To Run To God Pt. 2 by Jim Surkamp. Click Here. TRT: 13:49.

VIDEO: Andrew Leopold: From Bull To Run To God Pt. 3 by Jim Surkamp. Click Here. TRT: 11:41.

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Redmond Burke by El Merlo at findagrave.com
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Redmond Burke, Andrew Leopold, and Their Gang Descend on The River Towns:

Leopold is ordered by General Stuart to join Redmond Burke on “detached service” and, with a small team, stays behind in the Potomac River area from Berryville to Shepherdstown while the main Confederate Army moves further south. His job is to find conscripts, carry mail between homes and soldiers, steal horses and watch the movements of the Federal army. Leopold in carrying mail, is also enabled to determine the names of, and whereabouts of able-bodied men not enlisted in his Confederate army, such as Jacob Hudson and Charles Entler.

The Wayward Letter: (NOTE: correction in the montage, “D. S. Rentch” should be “D.L. Rentch”-JS)

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(One letter to be delivered that would cause much controversy was a “thank you” note to widow Lily Parran Lee in Shepherdstown. Gen. Stuart had been trying to order a new uniform while at The Bower. He had visited Mrs. Lee, a dear and trusted friend in Shepherdstown. Her husband, William Fitzhugh Lee, died at First Manassas/Bull Run wearing silver spurs Stuart had given him. It seems, according to the letter, that Daniel Rentch, a merchant in Shepherdstown, was commissioned and – did indeed have made – the famed cape that J.E.B. Stuart would wear in the war. It was delivered. In the letter Stuart tells Mrs. Lee to thank Mr. Rentch for the cape. Burke was carrying a letter between Stuart and Mrs. Lee, maybe this one).

Wednesday – November 19, 1862, Dam No. 4 on the Potomac River – Leopold’s First Victim:

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Fearing conscription, Unionist residents hastily relocated across the Potomac into the safety of Maryland. The large family of one Jim Dunn was making such a move across the river near the guard lock of Dam No. 4, wth some pickets from the 12th Pennsylvania Cavalry watching from the Maryland side. Burke’s and Leopold’s gang suddenly appeared and with gunfire broke up the moving, leaving most of Dunn’s family stuck still on the Virginia side. Dunn was stuck on the Maryland side. Dunn asked three local men – Theodore “Mort” Cookus, a farmer with land on the Virginia side, Charles Ridenour and William Colbert – ambling along on the towpath – to help get his family and cargo across the river. After over an hour, the four men re-crossed the Potomac to the Virginia side. Burke and Leopold and others attacked again:

Author French Recounts Leopold’s Firing On “Mort” Cookus:

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Suddenly Burke, Leopold, Hipsley and O’Brien appeared. Leopold shouted to Ridenour, “Halt you Yankee Son-of-a bitch!”. . . He (Ridenour) remembered Cookus crying out, “For God’s sake men, don’t shoot me!” Burke replied, “Surrender or we will surely kill you.” Then almost simultaneously, the captain and Leopold each fired once into the skiff. Cookus, now hit on the left side, jumped into the river. “After Cookus jumped out,” Ridenour later testified, “he swam twelve or fifteen feet and received three more shots. Every time the guns crack, he dodged his head under water. Capt. Burke says don’t kill him. Laypole says I will kill the son of a bitch.” And he did. Union Gen. George Gordon wrote: . . . a brave and plucky fellow named Cookus . . . plunged into the river and struck out vigorously for the Maryland shore. Two-thirds of the way across he was hit by a bullet and sank dead to the bottom of the river. – Gordon, p. 14.
– See more . . .

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Author Steve French:

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They are taken to Fort McHenry. The soldiers who are captured – they’re released very soon afterwards, paroled. And by January the first, 1863, they’re all back with Stuart at his camp near Fredericksburg, Virginia. That winter, as soon as he is exchanged and the others are exchanged, they’re back in the service – dispatched service – operating once again in the Shepherdstown/Berryville area, carrying mail back and forth between the citizens and armies, scouting and so on.

March 6, 1863 – Leopold – the Deserter’s Avenger in Shepherdstown:

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Author Steve French:
On the night of March the 6th, he comes into Shepherdstown with John O’Brien, and he’s hunting for a man named Jacob Hudson. He finds Hudson caring for his uncle at his house at Shepherdstown. And he knocks on the door with O’Brien. Evidently he doesn’t know Hudson, but Hudson has been talking about him around town. When Hudson opens the door, Leopold asks for Hudson – “Is Hudson in the house?” – Hudson immediately becomes scared and he runs toward the back door and he is shot down. George Brantner, who was a former Confederate soldier, he’s seated right in that room, cannot tell whether it was Leopold or O’Brien who shot the young man, but he sure identifies him later on, because Leopold met Brantner at the door and (Leopold) told him he had mail for him. Leopold will come down the street that night. He will tell one resident (Federal postmaster Elias Baker on German Street-JS) here in the town that he did shoot a man up the street and then they will leave the mail here and head back for camp.

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March 15-16, 1863 – Leopold Avenges Again at the Bridgeport, MD Ferry:
Author French:

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Ten days later, on the night of March 15th & 16th, Leopold and a group of men go to Sharpsburg, Maryland, and, in Sharpsburg that night they steal six horses from an oyster wagon, parked outside of a local tavern. After midnight on the 16th, they return to try to get across the river. They go to Bridgeport where the ferry is, directly behind me, and they knock on the door. They say they have a dispatch to take to Harper’s Ferry to (Federal) General Stevenson. The young man, Charles Entler and his friend Samuel Jones, that are in the office that night, sleeping in the office, refuse to answer the door. Finally, Leopold starts tearing the shutters off the windows and Charles decides to come out. Samuel Jones would later say he knew it was Leopold at the door, but he was too scared, too frightened to say a word. As Charles comes out the door, his brother, Luther, who is in the ferry house himself, walks outside; and, as soon as he gets outside, he hears a man shout at his brother:

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“By God, I’m Captain Leopold and I’ve been looking for you a long time.” Immediately the gunshot goes off, Luther turns, makes haste into his house to get his revolver. His brother, Charles, nineteen-years-old, runs off and dies in the road,

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going up towards Ferry Hill. Leopold and his men escape. Now, they’re wanted men. The Middletown Valley Register over in Maryland, a few days later, comes out with a long article about Leopold and his band and at the end of it says: “Leopold deserves a hempen collar.” So he’s a wanted man, not only by the authorities in Maryland, but by Union soldiers, especially Major General Robert Milroy, the famous “Grey Eagle,” who was headquartered at that time in Winchester.

April 21-22, 1863 south of Millwood, Va.- Leopold and his team are recaptured:

French continues:
Towards the end of April around April 21st, Union forces are sent out of Berryville and they go to Castleman’s Ferry. That night, they will capture Leopold, and, once again, some of the Burkes – Hipsley and some other men when they surround the house, and they threaten to burn it down, if the Confederates don’t come out.

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Author French continues:
They’re taken to Winchester and put in the Clarke County jail. While in that jail, one of Milroy’s citizen spies named Michael Graham from Woodstock, Virginia, talks to Leopold and find out what he wants. Leopold wants to either join the Union Army or be allowed to get out of jail and go to Ohio. In return he will tell Milroy who the scouts and spies are in the lower Shenandoah Valley. He will meet with Milroy, and Milroy will listen to all this, but Leopold plays his hand too fast, and tells Milroy what he needs to know beforehand.

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Leopold (Laypole, Leopole) is brought before Federal Major General Robert Milroy at Winchester, VA and begins bargaining:

Major-General SCHENCK, WINCHESTER, VA., April 25, 1863. Baltimore, Md.: Rebel [Andrew T.] Leopole, the last two days in irons, hoping for leniency, makes this statement:

Residence, Sharpsburg, Md. Enlisted in Confederate service two years ago, as ensign First Regiment Virginia (rebel) Cavalry, and remained in that regiment until Stuart’s appointment as brigadier, about a month after the first battle of Manassas, when I became ensign of his brigade, which I continued to be until last May, when I was transferred to the Virginia Cavalry as third lieutenant. I continued in that regiment until after the battle of Sharpsburg, in September last, when I was promoted to first lieutenant of Company D, same regiment, in which regiment I served until November 24 last, when I was captured at Shepherdstown. I remained a prisoner until January 6 last, when I was exchanged, and reported, as ordered, to General Stuart, at his headquarters, where I remained until January 13, acting as his couriers. On January 14, as ordered by him, I left for Castlemans Ferry, in command of 70 men, where I remained until last Tuesday, when, with 6 of my men, I was captured. My business there was to observe the movements of Federal forces, . . .

NOTE – At this point Leopold appears to be divulging intelligence on Confederate positions to Milroy in hope of leniency – JS:
and report to General Fitzhugh Lee, who is now between Markham Station and Manassas Gap Railroad and the Shenandoah River, about 2 miles east of the Blue Ridge, with the First, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, and Tenth Virginia Cavalry and two batteries. Regiments average about 350 men each. The locality of these troops is about 16 miles from Castlemans Ferry and 10 miles from Berrys Ferry. General Trimble, with three infantry brigades, is near Orleans, in Fauquier County. Lee’s and Trimble’s forces moved at the same time from Culpeper Court-House to their present position, where they arrived about two days before my capture. There are two other brigades one from Louisiana and the other from Virginia encamped between Sperryville and Little Washington. They belong to Trimble’s division. With each brigade is a battery, and a battalion of artillery besides, attached to the division. The brigades, I think, will average 1,900 men each. The two brigades near Sperryville came that far with the other brigades, and halted there. I saw Geueral Stuart on the 17th of this month between Salem and Jefferson, and learned from him that A. P. Hill, with a portion of his command, had left for the Valley by way of Hanover Junction, Charlottesville, and Staunton. I saw Hill’s baggage at Culpeper, and learned from the master of transportation that it was en route from Staunton. I heard General Stuart say that the Federal forces at Winchester would be captured as soon as the Shenandoah River became passable. I also learned from his general order book that Jones had been ordered to march to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and destroy certain trestle-work on that road. I am tired of fighting, and wish to take the oath of allegiance and retire into Ohio. I have always stood high with General Stuart, enjoyed his confidence, and, when at his headquarters, ate at his table.

Milroy concludes in this report:
The above statement is strongly corroborated by other circumstances and information. I recommend that Heintzelman be directed to ascertain the truth of the above statement, so far as it refers to Fitzhugh Lees and Trimbles forces and their locality. R. H. MILROY, Major-General. – Letter to Maj. General Robert C. Schenck from Maj. General R. H. Milroy. pp. 252-253.

Author French recaps:
They’re taken to Winchester and put in the Clarke County jail. While in that jail, one of Milroy’s citizen spies named Michael Graham from Woodstock, Virginia, talks to Leopold and finds out what he wants. Leopold wants to either join the Union Army or be allowed to get out of jail and go to Ohio. In return he will tell Milroy who the scouts and spies are in the lower Shenandoah Valley. He will meet with Milroy, and Milroy will listen to all this, but Leopold plays his hand too fast, and tells Milroy what he needs to know beforehand. So Milroy won’t agree to give him his freedom or allow him to switch sides and join the Union Army, but he will pack him to the prison at Fort McHenry.

Fort McHenry, MD – Leopold is not trusted, is tried after much delay and hanged:

French continues:

So Milroy won’t agree to give him his freedom or allow him to switch sides and join the Union Army, but he will pack him to the prison at Fort McHenry.

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Captain Joel Baker, the guard, comments that most of the prisoners of the group – there’s about eight or nine in the guard room – most of the prisoners are cultured gentlemen, but not Leopold. Baker would write that Leopold is not trusted by the other prisoners. They think he would sell them out for just a few cents.

Leopold is held in prison until mid-December, 1863, when he is put on trial by a military tribunal. He’s charged with a number of crimes, of being a guerrilla, murderer, violating an act of war, and being a spy. The tribunal is led by Col. W. W. Bates of the 8th New York heavy artillery. The Judge Advocate is Lieutenant Roderick Baldwin. Leopold will represent himself, but he will have the help of a local, Baltimore attorney, Milton Whitney Esq. who was well-known in Baltimore for many years.

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Author French continues:
The trial opens up. A lot of local residents come from here to Fort McHenry to testify, including Daniel Rentch, Luther Entler, Samuel Jones, other men from Shepherdstown and also General Milroy will appear. The trial will go – on and off – for probably three, almost four, weeks. They break for Christmas a while; they break for different witnesses to arrive. Finally, two charges are dropped, but he is still charged with being a guerrilla and murderer, both capital offences.

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His defense rests on that he wasn’t a guerilla, that he was a Confederate soldier, especially dispatched into this area by J.E.B. Stuart. Also, he refused to admit that he had murdered Charles Entler. He said he didn’t have anything more to do with the murder of that young boy than any of the judges on the tribunal; and, he said the shooting of Cookus was just part of a local skirmish. So he denied being a guerrilla; he denied being a murderer.

In his summation, Lt. Baldwin, the Judge Advocate, would say: we owe something to the people of the border who have been hounded from their home, who have been murdered at their doorstep. We need to protect them.

The verdict comes back. He is convicted of murder: the murder of Entler, the murder of Cookus – and he is convicted of being a guerilla. Afterwards, the verdict and the results of the trial – goes up through the chain of command. Finally, they reach that April, Judge Advocate Joseph Holt. Holt reviews all capital cases for Abraham Lincoln. In a four-page review, Holt will say this man has been convicted of these crimes and he deserves the death penalty. In late April, 1864, Abraham Lincoln will sign off on that.

French continues:
At that time, Leopold is taken from the guard room, shackled. He’s put in a cell, still in the inner fort, but not with the rest of the men on death row. During that month, there is a big escape from the guard room at Fort McHenry. William Boyd Compton leads the rest of the men in the escape and they all eventually get back to the Confederate lines.

On the evening of April the 22nd, Leopold will be informed by his chaplain, Doctor Reese, that his execution will be the next morning. He will meet with Reese that evening for prayer and communion. During the winter, Leopold would become a committed Christian. He studied the Bible frequently. He had another small book that he would study. They had prayer. Reese left for a while.

images1


About, five-thirty (AM), he would return. Once again, they would talk of the afterlife. Then he (Leopold) would go out under guard, get on the wagon atop his coffin, and he would ride to the execution site right outside the walls.

Robert_W_Baylor


Captain Robert Baylor of Charlestown was also a prisoner at Fort McHenry at the time. He was out on the grounds of the fort and as he passed Baylor, Leopold would wave to Baylor and said: “Tell the boys I remain true to the cause.” As they neared the execution site, he could see the soldiers of the fort lined up on three sides of the gallows. The gallows there could have four executions at the time.

Lew_Wallace_Laypole_executed


(Federal) Major General Lew Wallace was there, later on the author of “Ben Hur.” He was the commander-in-chief of the Eighth Corps Middle Department, and Brig. General W. W. Morris, the sixty-six year old commander of Fort McHenry was also there.

W_W_Morris_Named
Wirz_hanging_4_enhanced



He was helped off the wagon. The reporter for “The Baltimore American” said that “Leopold went up the steps firm and undaunted.” Once atop the scaffold, he was asked for any last words and Leopold pointed to Gen. Morris and said: “Old man, you’re the reason I’m here. But I’ll forgive and I’ll meet you in Heaven.” After that, he stepped back. The hood was put on his neck by Private Elijah Brown, and then the rope put around his neck.

Wirz_hanging_6_enhanced


Just afterwards, Morris gave the signal, and then – Leopold dropped into eternity. He would hang there for about twenty minutes before the soldiers took him down. There were friends there in Baltimore, some of Leopold’s friends. They brought him back to Sharpsburg, where he was prepared for burial. A few days later, he was going to be brought to Shepherdstown to bury in the Soldier’s Cemetery. His plot will be right beside Redmond Burke, his old Captain. But he’s going to be brought across here by the undertaker, (with) of course his mother and sisters are with that group.

Ravine-1024x576


They’re going to ride up this hill. At the Entler Hotel, there is a group of Unionists shouting at the undertaker to go back. Beforehand these same people had (gone) to the cemetery and warned the over four hundred mourners there to leave, but they ignored them. They go to the cemetery – once again – there’s a big crowd there. Lots of girls crying and so on. He is buried.

French continues:
Although maybe a year before, Leopold had been a hated person by most Confederates in this area because they heard that he was going to switch sides. By this time, he totally redeemed himself. His conversion to Christianity, his bravery on the scaffold had turned him into a local hero. Later on, that same day, the Unionists would strike. They would come back and would steal the undertaker’s hearse and his horses and ride away with them. Whether he was really guilty of every crime that he was accused is questionable. He wasn’t a guerilla. He was a member of the regular Confederate Cavalry and there’s some question, on the murder of Entler that it might have O’Brien did the shooting.

DHS.Harpers.Sept.72.women.weary.p.512


Mary Louise Entler who lived her life from rebel wild cat to 92-year old wise woman in Shepherdstown at the time she died there March 27, 1932 who carried mail with Leopold and tried to save him, wrote: “His fault was recklessness. He did not stop to consider what might be his fate if caught in the Union lines, and he had run the gauntlet so often without being caught that he became heedless of danger.”

Leopold_Stone

References:

French, Steve. (2012). “Rebel Chronicles: Raiders, Scouts and Train Robbers of the Upper Potomac.” New Horizons Publishing Company. Print. info-sfrench52@yahoo.com

Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.” Richmond, VA: B. F. Johnson Publishing. Print.

Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011. pp. 131-134.

Beach, William H. (1902). “The First New York (Lincoln) Cavalry From April 19, 1861 to July 7, 1865.” New York, NY: The New York Cavalry Association. Print.

Beach, William H. (1902). “The First New York (Lincoln) Cavalry From April 19, 1861 to July 7, 1865.”
Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011.

On the afternoon of April 21, a scouting party went out with Captain Bailey in command. There were forty men detailed from several companies. Lieutenant Wyckoff was in the lead. The route was toward Millwood ferry; then around toward the right; then the party followed the narrow roads until it became dark and they were near to the river again. Here was a brief halt and the men were told to eat anything they had. As they had not expected to be out long and had not brought anything with them, this part of the service was omitted. After a short rest they moved on up the river road, being told to make as little noise as possible. A short ride and another halt. Wyckoff came to the front and asked for a volunteer to cross the river with him in a small row boat. Corporal Anthony Fiala of Company E responded. The night was very dark. The two went down to the boat. The lieutenant told Fiala to go into the front of the boat and lie down with his carbine ready to fire at a moment’s notice, he himself taking the oars. Nearing the opposite side, Fiala was told to catch hold of a limb of a tree that hung over the water. Wyckoff asked in a low voice: ”Are you there, Sam?” And Sam answered : “Yes, master, I’m here. Everything is all right, and I want to see you.” A few minutes’ low talk and the boat recrossed the river. The men mounted their horses, and dividing into two parties, forded the river and crossed the Blue Ridge. Precaution had been taken to avoid any surprise in case the colored man proved unreliable, or his scheme was discovered by the enemy. Artillery and infantry were to protect the crossing. The two parties, making a detour, surrounded the house to which they had been directed by the colored man. They wrapped at the door. There was some commotion within. The inmates were directed to open the door, and warned that the house would be burned if any shots were fired. The notorious Captain Leopold and seven of his partisan rangers who were staying there for the night, were taken captives. – pp. 218-219.

References to Samuel Barnhart and Elias Baker
Kenamond, A. D. “Prominent Men of Shepherdstown 1862-1962.” A Jefferson County Historical Society Publication. 1963.

Title: The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. ; Series 1 – Volume 25 (Part II); Author: United States. War Dept., John Sheldon Moody, Calvin Duvall Cowles, Frederick Caryton Ainsworth, Robert N. Scott, Henry Martyn Lazelle, George Breckenridge Davis, Leslie J. Perry, Joseph William Kirkley.

Major-General SCHENCK, WINCHESTER, VA., April 25, 1863. Baltimore, Md.: Rebel [Andrew T.] Leopole, the last two days in irons, hoping for leniency, makes this statement:

Residence, Sharpsburg, Md. Enlisted in Confederate service two years ago, as ensign First Regiment Virginia (rebel) Cavalry, and remained in that regiment until Stuart’s appointment as brigadier, about a month after the first battle of Manassas, when I became ensign of his brigade, which I continued to be until last May, when I was transferred to the Virginia Cavalry as third lieutenant. I continued in that regiment until after the battle of Sharpsburg, in September last, when I was promoted to first lieutenant of Company D, same regiment, in which regiment I served until November 24 last, when I was captured at Shepherdstown. I remained a prisoner until January 6 last, when I was exchanged, and reported, as ordered, to General Stuart, at his headquarters, where I remained until January 13, acting as his couriers. On January 14, as ordered by him, I left for Castlemans Ferry, in command of 70 men, where I remained until last Tuesday, when, with 6 of my men, I was captured. My business there was to observe the movements of Federal forces, . . .

NOTE: At this point Leopold appears to be divulging intelligence on Confederate positions to Milroy in hope of leniency – JS:
and report to General Fitzhugh Lee, who is now between Markham Station and Manassas Gap Railroad and the Shenandoah River, about 2 miles east of the Blue Ridge, with the First, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, and Tenth Virginia Cavalry and two batteries. Regiments average about 350 men each. The locality of these troops is about 16 miles from Castlemans Ferry and 10 miles from Berrys Ferry. General Trimble, with three infantry brigades, is near Orleans, in Fauquier County. Lee’s and Trimble’s forces moved at the same time from Culpeper Court-House to their present position, where they arrived about two days before my capture. There are two other brigades one from Louisiana and the other from Virginia encamped between Sperryville and Little Washington. They belong to Trimble’s division. With each brigade is a battery, and a battalion of artillery besides, attached to the division. The brigades, I think, will average 1,900 men each. The two brigades near Sperryville came that far with the other brigades, and halted there. I saw Geueral Stuart on the 17th of this month between Salem and Jefferson, and learned from him that A. P. Hill, with a portion of his command, had left for the Valley by way of Hanover Junction, Charlottesville, and Staunton. I saw Hill’s baggage at Culpeper, and learned from the master of transportation that it was en route from Staunton. I heard General Stuart say that the Federal forces at Winchester would be captured as soon as the Shenandoah River became passable. I also learned from his general order book that Jones had been ordered to march to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and destroy certain trestle-work on that road. I am tired of fighting, and wish to take the oath of allegiance and retire into Ohio. I have always stood high with General Stuart, enjoyed his confidence, and, when at his headquarters, ate at his table.

Milroy concludes in this report:
The above statement is strongly corroborated by other circumstances and information. I recommend that Heintzelman be directed to ascertain the truth of the above statement, so far as it refers to Fitzhugh Lees and Trimbles forces and their locality. H. H. MILROY, Major-General. – Letter to Maj. General Robert C. Schenck from Maj. General R. H. Milroy
ebooks.library.cornell.edu 19 July 2011 Web. 20 June 2014. pp. 252-253.

List_of_weapons_in_the_American_Civil_War
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

Image Credits:

Jacob Hudson born 1842 – apprentice carpenter in Walters (carpenter) household in Hainesville
NARA M653. Eighth Census of the United States, 1860 population schedules.
Roll: 1335
State: Virginia
County: Berkeley
Minor Civil Division: [Blank]
Page: 60.
footnote.com(fold3.com) 21 October 2010 Web. 20 May 2014.

Samuel Hudson (carpenter) In SamuelBarnhat’s residence, next to Anne Warner, (age 16) house on Princess Street, north, and Jacob Crow house, Charles Lambert a butcher
NARA M653. Eighth Census of the United States, 1860 population schedules.
Roll: 1355
State: Virginia
County: Jefferson
Minor Civil Division: Shepherdstown
Page: 100.
footnote.com(fold3.com) 21 October 2010 Web. 20 May 2014.

[Map of the northern part of Virginia and West Virginia, between the Blue Ridge and the Alleghany Front, south of the Potomac River and north of New Market]. by Jedediah Hotchkiss.
memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.
tiff size map.

Foraging Party
Harpers Weekly April 1, 1865
sonofthesouth.net start date unavailable Web. 20 June 2014.

Bummers (Foragers) by Edwin Forbes – The Library of Congress [between 1862 and 1864] | 1 drawing. | Forbes, Edwin, 1839-1895 DRWG/US – Forbes, no. 257 (A size) [P&P] | LC-DIG-ppmsca-21787 (digital file from original item) –
memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.
See more . . .

Shepherdstown, Va. 1862
This photograph was taken looking across the Potomac River at Shepherdstown, West Virginia from Ferry Hill plantation on the Maryland side. At various times before and after the Battle of Antietam both Confederate and Union troops had camped at Ferry Hill, which is situated three miles southwest of the town of Sharpsburg, Maryland.

At the bottom of the hill is a group of buildings known as Bridgeport and Lock 38 of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. Across the river (background) is the town of Shepherdstown. Extending across the river are the abutments of the bridge that once connected the two states. Burned in 1861, the bridge was not replaced for 10 years, during which time once again a ferry served the crossing. The gentleman standing on the hillside (foreground) is not identified, but may be the Reverend Robert Douglas, owner of Ferry Hill plantation at the time of the Civil War.

Ferry Hill was built by John Blackford c. 1813 and was a working farm until the 20th century. The large white house was used as a hotel, while down at the lock there was a feed store that was later converted into a bath house before it was destroyed in the 1936 flood. ID: wcco006; Creator: Bachrach, David
Original at the Library of Congress.
Notes: The image and description were provided by Maryland Digital Cultural Heritage
whilbr.org 4 October 2003 Web. 20 June 2014.

Jedediah Hotchkiss map [Northwest, or no. 1 sheet of preliminary map of Antietam (Sharpsburg) battlefield].
memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

Title: [Sharpsburg, Md. Principal street]
Creator(s): Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882, photographer
Date Created/Published: 1862 September.
Medium: 1 negative : glass, stereograph, wet collodion ; 4 x 10 in.
Summary: Photograph from the main eastern theater of the war, Battle of Antietam, September-October 1862.
memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

Map of the battle-fields of Harper’s Ferry and Sharpsburg
Title Map of the battle-fields of Harper’s Ferry and Sharpsburg
Creator Brown, S. Howell
Publication Info Washington : Government Printing Office
digitalcollections.baylor.edu 18 February 2012 Web. 20June 2014.

Sharpsburg Map – District No. 1 – 1877.
whilbr.org 4 October 2003 Web. 20 June 2014.

Milton Whitney
wiki.whitneygen.org 29 May 2007 Web. 20 June 2014.

Title: [Washington, D.C. Adjusting the rope for the execution of Wirz]
Creator(s): Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882, photographer
Date Created/Published: [1865 November 10]
memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

Robert_H._Milroy
Library of Congress description: “Gen. Milroy”
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

Two women (semblance of Mary Entler)
Crayon, Porte (Strother, D. H.). “The Mountains, Pt. V.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, Volume 45, Issue: 268, September 1872, pp. 502-516. Print.

Crayon, Porte. (September 1872). “The Mountains, Pt. V.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014. – See more . . .
p. 512.

Not used:

The ferry that operated between Shepherdstown and Bridgeport was first built and owned by Thomas Swearingen sometime before 1765. John Blackford married Thomas Swearingen’s daughter Sarah and purchased the ferry along with land around Bridgeport from the Swearingen family. The ferry was reinstated in the 1930s after the third toll bridge was destroyed by the 1936 flood and was in operation until the new James Rumsey Bridge was erected in 1939, which itself was replaced in 2004.

This photo appears to be from the time between the razing of the first toll bridge during the Civil War and the construction of the second toll bridge in 1871.
whilbr.org 4 October 2003 Web. 20 June 2014.

Not used:

Lt. Col. Willard W. Bates
8th Heavy Artillery – Civil War
dmna.ny.gov 30 January 2012 Web. 20 June 2014.

Not used:

Lock 38 Area
This photograph provides an excellent view of the downstream end of a bypass flume that carried water past the lock. To keep the current as minimal as possible, canals are built on a series of levels with locks serving to raise and lower boats where the canal level is changed. However, it is still necessary to maintain a steady supply of water to all parts of the canal and the bypass flumes serve this purpose. Typically located on the berm side (i.e. land vs. river side) of most locks, the flumes carried water past the lock, helping to maintain the water level even if one of the lock gates was closed. While some bypass flumes had sluice gates to facilitate the regulation of water flowing through the flumes, others had slots into which locktenders could place beams to completely or partially close them off.
whilbr.org 4 October 2003 Web. 20 June 2014.

Not used:

George W. Brantner 2nd Va. Infantry Co. B
NARA M324. Compiled service records of Confederate soldiers from Virginia units, labeled with each soldier’s name, rank, and unit, with links to revealing documents about each soldier. Roll: 0373; Military Unit: Second Infantry; Given Name: George W. Surname: Brantner; Age: 34; Year: 1861;
footnote.com(fold3.com) 21 October 2010 Web. 20 May 2014.

Not used:

Sharpsburg, Md. View with Episcopal church in distance
About This Item Obtaining Copies Access to Original
Title: [Sharpsburg, Md. View with Episcopal church in distance]
Creator(s): Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882, photographer
Date Created/Published: 1862 September.
memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

Not used:

Map of the state of Virginia containing the counties, principal towns, railroads, rivers, canals & all other internal improvements. Other Title: New map of Virginia, 1864
Contributor Names; West & Johnston; Created / Published
Richmond, Va. : West & Johnston, c1862, [1864]
memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

Reference Credits from the Leopold VIDEOs No. 2 & 3 not cited in image credits for this POST:

Goodhart, Briscoe. (1896).“History of the Independent Loudoun Virginia rangers. U.S. vol. cav. (scouts) 1862-65.” Washington, D.C.: Press of McGill & Wallace. Print.

Goodhart, Briscoe. (1896). “History of the Independent Loudoun Virginia rangers. U.S. vol. cav. (scouts) 1862-65.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011.

Stevenson, James H. (1879). “”Boots and saddles.” A history of the first volunteer cavalry of the war, known as the First New York (Lincoln) Cavalry, and also as the Sabre regiment. Its organization, campaigns and battles.” Harrisburg, PA: Patriot publishing company. Print.

Stevenson, James H. (1879). “”Boots and saddles.” A history of the first volunteer cavalry of the war, known as the First New York (Lincoln) Cavalry, and also as the Sabre regiment. Its organization, campaigns and battles.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011.
pp. 165-166.

p. 84. – April 22, Capt. Means, with twenty of the Rangers, accompanied by Lieut. Wykoff, ist New York Cavalry, and Lieut. Powell, with forty men of the 12th West Virginia Infantry, crossed the Shenandoah River at Snicker’s Ferry, and attacked a camp of Confederate cavalry, capturing Capt. Leopold and six men, and took them to Winchester.

p. 225. – Samuel C. Means mustered in at Harpers Ferry June 20, 1862, resigned on account of wounds.

Hotchkiss no. 43 – (1864) [Map of Loudoun County and part of Clarke County, Va., Jefferson County and part of Berkeley County, W. Va., and parts of Montgomery and Frederick counties, Md.]. memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

[Hawkins Zouaves; New York; General Dix; Colonel Hawkins; Herald]
Date: Thursday, May 7, 1863. Paper: Alexandria Gazette (Alexandria, VA) Page: 2.
This entire product and/or portions thereof are copyrighted by NewsBank and/or the American Antiquarian Society. 2004.
genealogybank.com. 11 October 2008 Web. 20 September 2014.

Date: Monday, December 1, 1862. Paper: Evening Star (Washington (DC), DC) Page: 2. genealogybank.com.
This entire product and/or portions thereof are copyrighted by NewsBank and/or the American Antiquarian Society. 2004.
genealogybank.com. 11 October 2008 Web. 20 September 2014.

Date: Thursday, May 26, 1864. Paper: Lowell Daily Citizen and News (Lowell, MA) Volume: XIV Issue: 2475 Page: 2
This entire product and/or portions thereof are copyrighted by NewsBank and/or the American Antiquarian Society. 2004.
genealogybank.com. 11 October 2008 Web. 20 September 2014.

Date: Saturday, May 28, 1864. Paper: New York Tribune (New York, NY) Volume: XXIV Issue: 7222 Page: 4
This entire product and/or portions thereof are copyrighted by NewsBank and/or the American Antiquarian Society. 2004.
genealogybank.com. 11 October 2008 Web. 20 September 2014.

Image Credits from the VIDEO not cited in image credits for this POST:

Brig. Gen.John Dunlap Stevenson
americancivilwar.com 21 January 1998 Web. 20 September 2014.

Strother, David Hunter; 1847 (W1995.030.387pg25a)
West Virginia Historical Art Collection
images.lib.wvu.edu 6 August 2004 Web. 20 September 2014.

Image Credits from Leopold VIDEO 3:

Judge_Joseph_Holt
Mathew Brady (1822–1896) Link back to Creator infobox template wikidata:Q187850
Brady National Photographic Art Gallery (Washington, D.C.) (1858 – ?), Photographer (NARA record: 1135962)
Record creator War Department. Office of the Chief Signal Officer. (08/01/1866 – 09/18/1947)
Date ca. 1860 – ca. 1865.

John Brown Riding on His Coffin to the Place of Execution. Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, December 17, 1859.
Periodicals Collection, West Virginia State Archives
wvculture.org 2 March 2000 Web. 1 Oct. 2011.

The Hanging of Hazlett and Stevens.
Boyd B. Stutler Collection, West Virginia State Archives
wvculture.org 2 March 2000 Web. 1 Oct. 2011.

[Fredericksburg, Va. Burial of Union soldiers]
Date Created/Published: 1864 May [19 or 20].
Medium: 1 negative (2 plates) : glass, stereograph, wet collodion.
Summary: Photograph from the main eastern theater of war, Grant’s Wilderness Campaign, May-June 1864. memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

Map of the city and county of Baltimore, Maryland. From actual surveys by Robert Taylor. Lith by Hunckel & Son. Taylor, Robert (Surveyor). CREATED/PUBLISHED
Baltimore, c1857.
memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

A Typical Court-Martial
9thbattalion.org 21 June 2011 Web. 20 September, 2014.

Title: [Washington, D.C. Reading the death warrant to Wirz on the scaffold]
Creator(s): Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882, photographer
Date Created/Published: [1865 November 10]
memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

Title: [Washington, D.C. Hooded body of Captain Wirz hanging from the scaffold]
Creator(s): Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882, photographer
Date Created/Published: [1865 November 10]. memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

Chaplain in the Woods
Miller, Francis Trevelyan. (1912). “The photographic history of the civil war in ten volumes.” Vol. 7. New York, NY: The Review of Reviews Co. Print.

Miller, Francis Trevelyan. (1912). “The photographic history of the civil war in ten volumes.” Vol. 7. Perseus Digital Library at Tufts University. 10 May 2008. Web. 16 Feb. 2011.
More. .

The Song of Mary Entler Herrington by Jim Surkamp.

8275 words

https://web.archive.org/web/20190710014458/https://civilwarscholars.com/2014/07/the-song-of-mary-entler-herrington-by-jim-surkamp/

The Song of Mary Louise Entler Herrington (1840-1932)

Relevant Links:

VIDEO – The Song of Mary Louise Entler by Jim Surkamp. (Part 1). Click Here. TRT:9:24

VIDEO – The Song of Mary Entler – Conclusion: “Rebel Mary” Carries the Secret Mail & a Surprising Turn of Fate by Jim Surkamp. (Part 2). Click Here. TRT: 15:28.

CHAPTERETTES
Prelude
Flag Dangerous:
Carry the Secret Mail:
The Sad Fate of the Great Western:
A Wartime Shepherdstown Each Day:
A Sidetracked Mission:
“Fraternizing” With the Enemy:
Peacetime – Eternal Tide of Memories:
The Eyes of Age:

About the end of the heydays of a great inn; about the innkeeper’s feisty, adventurous – amorous – young daughter during the Civil War who lived to tell about it and see her family’s inn perish.

PRELUDE:

Great_Western_Entelr


The 1850s in Shepherdstown: Good Times for Joseph and Mary Entler

The Great_Western_Hotel_Map_1852


The Entlers boarded travelers and stabled their teams by the score in their Great Western Inn on Shepherdstown’s German Street.

As Mary Louise Entler Herrington (hereafter “MLH”) told it:
After my father bought it in 1809, he hung a large sign swung across the pavement at the east corner of the house. A heavy post at the curb supported one side and the other side was fastened to the house. In the middle of the sign in large letters that were plainly visible for squares up and down the street was the word, “INN”, and just below that, ‘JOS. ENTLER”.

Inn_Jos_Entler_TITLE_FINAL


For many years it was a welcome abode to the weary traveler, for then all traveling was by wagon and carriage from Ohio and Kentucky to Baltimore and Washington, where their produce was sold and groceries and other commodities were taken back. All these white-covered wagons were placed in the large grounds and the weary horses were comfortably bedded down and fed in the large stone stables by good trusty colored men.

The house was a quaint, 52-foot-long weatherboard house with massive stone steps to both front doors and stone trimmings and steps to the front cellars and long massive stone stiles or (carriage stepping stones).

The dining room was 34-feet-long. The ice house was under the dining room and was filled every winter with twenty-five, four-horse wagon loads of ice, which lasted until fall. The ice was from the Potomac River.

cook


The large fireplace was in the kitchen that also had the cranes and pothooks and hangers.

Seventeen rooms were in the house and many also had large old-fashioned fireplaces and were finished with high-paneled mantelpieces.

In the 1850s children remembered the fancy carriages, with many horses pulling, making the smart, sharp turn from the main street to the lane leading to the rear stables.

DHS.August.1855.horse.eating.p.293


All circuses stopped at this inn and pitched their tents in the large lot arranging the cages of wild animals around the circle inside and all other wagons outside the tent.

Joseph Entler moved his family to Wingert (Wingerd Cottage) in 1858 and leased out the Great Western. Then that all ended – and, so did the Great Western.

FLAG DANGEROUS:

Flag_Dangerous_TITLE


Twenty-one-year-old Mary Louise Entler – in an act of defiance – and several friends sat in chairs in the big hall of Wingerd Cottage sewing . . and sewing – ripping stars from an American flag mailed to them from New Orleans, that once waved from a ship of Rezin Davis Shepherd’s, as he perhaps thought such a flag might be more trouble to have in New Orleans, as the new war boiled over and Louisiana seceded from the Union in early 1861.

Mary Licklider, a niece, recalled how Mary Entler Herrington retold her past before dying in 1932:

dhs.mts6_.p803.majorspartner


A U.S. flag, probably made of wool bunting fabric was given to four or five young girls (young girls at the time), by Mr.

33_my dear, old, and devoted friend, Rezin Davis Shepherd copy


Rezin Shepherd who lived in New Orleans. In the summer he lived at Wild Goose Farm. The flag was one from one of his vessels. It was sent to us by Mr. James Shepherd and was to be converted into a Confederate flag, a work that was dangerous at the time, being in disputed territory. We could work only when our men were in the lines and had to be very cautious then.

Wingerd_Cottage


My father Joseph Entler owned and lived at Wingert (Wingerd Cottage) during the war and there the flag was made. The location off from town and the large wide hall were ideal places for the work, which took many anxious weeks to complete.

Women_sewing


It was very tedious to rip every seam of the stripes in such a way as not to ravel the bunting.

Flag_Change_Fewer_Stars


Every star was ripped from the blue field, and then to sew all the red together and all the white to form the bars red, white, and red.

Flag_ADD_Red_stripes_1
Flag_ADD_red_stripes_2
Flag_ADD_red_stripes_FINAL

Of course we had a surplus of stars as the Confederacy was young.

After many weeks of work, the flag was finished and a beautiful Confederate flag was ready to be sent through the line to Company B. It was hidden away awaiting a safe transfer. (Mary’s brother – Cato Moore Entler – was with Company B of the 2nd Virginia Infantry).

MLH recalled an investigation in the fall of 1861:
I heard the tramp of cavalry and clank of swords and sabers. I looked out the window and saw the cottage was surrounded by “Yankee” cavalry.

horses.behind.B&L.1.p600


Oh, the flag, what was to be done with it? I heard the officer read orders to my father to search his premises thoroughly for contraband goods. My father seemed to be protesting against the search. But that gave me a little time to take the flag from its hiding place in a chest. The house was surrounded. I could not get out to hide it.

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I pulled a dress from the wall and put the flag in it and threw the dress carelessly across the back of a chair. Skirts were very wide with deep facings upon them. I put the little flags that we wore on our dresses and letters under the carpet.

My door was pushed open by Capt. Horner of Col. Coles’ Cavalry and the search began. Every bureau drawer and closet was searched, even the grandfather clock where reposed letters to go through the lines. But they were too deep in the bottom of the old clock to be detected. Everything was handled but the blue-striped dress hovering over its precious treasure. It was too insignificant to attract their notice and they gave up the search, but rather in a bad humor. The flag was safe and sent to Company B. That flag would be readily recognized by its many seams and its homemade marks. Now what became of that flag is a mystery.

Due to confusion created by units carrying different flags after 1st Manassas, the 30th of October 1861 saw Governor Letcher present every Virginia regiment with a bunting flag. Another private group in Charles Town had had a regimental flag made for the 2nd Virginia infantry regiment that the unit reportedly carried into battle at First Manassas/Bull Run, but was smuggled back to the Rutherfords in Charles Town.

CARRY THE SECRET MAIL:

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March, 1862

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MLH recalled:
We collected all letters and concealed them by carefully sewing them between the ruching and dress. It required neatness and patience to make the work look innocent of anything contraband. We started on our march one bright beautiful morning but the roads being soft and muddy and we being not yet accustomed to marching could not get over much ground as rapidly as Stonewall Jackson’s men. The first night was spent at the home of Mr. Foley where another mail was collected. Another bright morning blessed our errand and when the purple shades of evening were gathering in the west we entered Charles Town as leisurely and passed the Union soldiers as indifferently as though we were out for an evening stroll. What a triumph it would have been for them to have secured that mail; how they would have gloated over every sacred sentence in those letters. My heart thrilled with fear at the thought although apparently so indifferent to their presence.

THE SAD FATE OF THE GREAT WESTERN HOTEL:

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December 26, 1862: The 12th Pennsylvania cavalry – The Bull Run Racers – crossed over the river ford into town and the (Federal-sympathcizing) refugees all came back from Maryland with a fire in their eyes and revenge for Mort Cookus’ blood (who was shot and killed by Andrew Leopold near Dam No. 4 on November 19th. (The refugees) declared that every Southern man’s house should be burned down. – Gallaher in “The Shepherdstown Register.”

MLH:
The property was a hotel (in market for rent at the time). It was taken possession of and occupied by a Pennsylvania Cavalry Company. The extensive grounds in which were apple trees and vegetables were trampled and all the fencing destroyed.

WARTIME SHEPHERDSTOWN EACH DAY:

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MLH recalled:
1863 still finds our town disputed territory and a veritable “deserted village” – old men, women, and children with a very few Union men . . . In time of war when both armies have fallen back, a town presents a most desolate and forlorn appearance-the old people, women and children have no definite plans. They stand about in groups writing and talking of the latest battle or the expected skirmishes. Their homes are places to retire from inclement weather rather than to adorn – the table to satisfy hunger rather than the delightful board where sweet companionship mingled with health-giving food.

No systematic housekeeping, no aim, no object in performing any household duties. All energy was concentrated in doing for the soldiers. “When our boys come home we will do thus and so” was the oft repeated phrase. Sometimes at the dead of night the report of a pistol shot would warn us that the rebels were in town. But when daylight came we saw only the blue coats patrolling the streets, and they would leave as mysteriously as the rebels.

THE SIDETRACKED MISSION:

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May – 1863 – Mary Entler’s Dangerous Mission Gets Sidetracked

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NOTE Raider Andrew Leopold, whose sister, Sally Zittle, was a friend of Mary Entler, had been captured in late April, 1863 near Berryville and taken to a jail, awaiting trial for murder and other crimes.- JS

MLH:
A beautiful May morning, balmy air waiting the perfume of flowers over the country submerged in war. Sparkling dew drops resting in the bosom of such blossoms like tiny tear drops-weeping for the sad hearts made sad by war. God sends beautiful days in war as well as peace- we must remember that.

A young prepossessing girl introduced herself to me on this May morning as a sister of Andrew Leopold. She told me her brother had been captured by the Yankees and was confined in Fort McHenry, MD, and that the entreaties of her widowed mother had induced her to try to get through the Federal lines to have an interview with (Confederate) General J.E.B. Stuart in regard to having her brother exchanged as a prisoner of war. . . She had been sent to me by a southern woman who knew I had carried letters through to Charles Town and thought I would accompany the young lady to that place, and acquaint her with friends who would assist her through the lines. I hesitated a moment and she said with tears that his mother had a message from Baltimore that if some powerful influence was not brought to bear immediately that her brother would be executed as a guerilla. That decided the matter.

We started off in a one horse carriage for Charles Town. She as a traveler was attired in a brown suit with a cape to match trimmed with quilling around it and a brown straw hat with a veil. I was to spend the day only and was dressed in a blue “Dolly Varden” pattern dress, blue silk bonnet with wide turn over cuffs and concealed in the lining of these cuffs were slips of paper with names of prominent Southern sympathizers who we were to call upon for any assistance. Before starting we concluded it would be better to go under fictitious names – she as Lucy Hamilton, and I as Louise Hamilton, her cousin. And with hearts filled with hope we started off that bright May morning on our errand of mercy.

Charles Town was reached in good time. We stopped where we were directed at Mrs. L’s and urged for safety to stay all night here-Lucy to start next morning southward and I to return home would arouse no suspicion. The next morning was quite as beautiful and arrangements were completed when I found she was getting timid about starting off alone. She entreated me to go just as far as Berryville and then she thought she would feel brave enough to travel alone. It was a big undertaking for two young girls as the country was then all excitement and confusion. I finally agreed to go to Berryville. We knew exactly where to stop and whom to see. All was planned before starting from home. I will never forget how beautiful Berryville looked the morning we drove up to the hotel. It was a village embowered in beautiful green trees, blooming flowers. The bees humming in the nectar-laden flowers produced that lazy, peaceful quiet that is so soothing to tired nerves. We made our arrangements with the proprietor and took a stroll through the pretty, cool looking streets.

We met Union soldiers and plenty of them but we did not feel any fear of our plans failing. In the evening we called upon the family next to the hotel and had music until late that night. Next morning while arranging to separate we were visited by a Yankee officer saying he wished to know here were were going, and that we must take the oath. At first we refused to take the oath but when we consented to take it he would not let us, but placed us under arrest. What a frustrating of all our plans. How my heart ached for that poor girl. How she had built her hopes on securing the release of her brother on this venture.

Under arrest by the Federals, Gen. Milroy flabbergasted:

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MLH:
Winchester reached, we were taken to the head-quarters of General Milroy where we found women, young and old, proud and defiant, now arguing their claims and proclaiming their grievances. One delicate, forlorn-looking widow relating to the General how his men, the Yankees, had taken her cows, her only means of support for her children. He turned from her quickly to my friend and me – if there had been the least disposition on my part to be humble – his exclamation put that feeling to flight and aroused a very rebellious state of mind. “What in the devil are you doing here? If it were not for the women running around the country we would not have so much trouble.” My companion started up with surprise. “General, we did not want to come here. We did not start for this place. Your officers brought us here.” He ran fingers through his mass of snow white hair already standing straight up like the quills of a porcupine and out of the audience chamber he strode without another word. He presented a fine physique, tall, well-proportioned, erect in carriage, a wealth of snow-white hair which suggested from its stand-up appearance that his fingers had a fashion of roaming there when troubles were to be, and plans and problems of great magnitude to be wrought out.

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FRATERNIZING WITH THE ENEMY:

June – 1863:

We were soon before the Provost Marshall at Martinsburg awaiting his orders. Next morning we were taken to General Kelly at Harper’s Ferry to await further orders. We were assigned to the best boarding house in the town adjoining the General’s headquarters where a great many of the officers boarded. We had a guard to watch our movements and prevent our escape if we thought of anything of the kind. We were allowed to walk around the town accompanied by the guard and sometimes were invited by officers, to whom we were introduced, to attend concerts and places of amusements but the guard invariably followed behind to the disgust of our gallants. Lucy and I ignored the guard altogether. We did not care how tired he became running over the old hills of Harper’s Ferry after us and many were the taunts and comments we overheard about “secesh” (Confederate-sympathizing) prisoners.

“Miranda!” and the voice startled us – for it came from under the ground – a cottage, vine-clad and embowered in trees and bushes right under our feet on the slope of a hill. (The voice then said: “Here comes the two ‘secesh’ prisoners again trailing that poor tired guard after them as unusual. He looks like he is ready to drop. Much I would follow behind them over these hills.” She lived there under the hill with her beautiful daughter. She had lots and lots of beautiful flowers but not one would she give us after we humbled ourselves to ask for one because we were rebels.

At Harper’s Ferry with your five mountains, your bright Potomac, your smiling languid Shenandoah, your historic Jefferson’s Rock and romantic stone steps leading to the temple of God – St. Peter’s Church. In the yard of this church, high above the streets and houses of Harper’s Ferry, the Fifth New York Regiment Band discoursed sweet music every Sunday evening of the six weeks Lucy and I were prisoners. The sweet strains of the “Mocking Bird” as only Henry Frunkenfield could render them, echoed from Loudoun Heights across the great Shenandoah over the beautiful rock-ribbed Potomac of Maryland Heights, back again the mountain breezes wafted them though the streets and windows as if a hundred mocking birds were trilling their soul-felt song.

As a piece of fun, we were dressed in fantastic costumes, slipped down a stairway, of which the General had no knowledge to the kitchen, to dance for the cook and her black “Topsy”. The guard was told that we were about to make our escape. He hunted the house over for his prisoners and when he found us he did not recognize us for some time, our disguise was so complete. Two guards questioned us until they were finally convinced that we were not attempting an escape.

Sabbath days and week days were all the same at Harper’s Ferry during the war. The soldiers and citizens would promenade the streets. The crowds would send forth their martial airs, dignified and soul-stirring also their merry dance tunes. But this one Sabbath day seemed so different from all others that we had spent at that place. The day was declining and from the description of an Italian sunset, I think the sunset of this evening far surpassed any such Italian scene. The golden rays touched the tree tops and they looked like burnished gold. The strains of music came from the high rocks where St. Peter’s Church rests peacefully. Darts and streaks of gold tips of trees on the mountain tops – the birds twitter and call to their mates in low tones. There is a hush as if all nature were bowed in silent prayer as the twilight settles over the valley. The beauty of this Sabbath will never fade from my memory. It was my last one there as a prisoner. The stillness was soon changed to wild confusion and excitement.

Mary Entler Jumps Sides:

MLH:
I took the oath of allegiance to the United States in June, 1863 in Baltimore, Maryland to Col. Fish who was in command there at the time. I have passed from Gen’l Lockwood commander at H. Ferry 1863 also from Gen’l Stevenson.

MLH:
late August, 1864 – afterwards Company H., 116 Ohio Infantry, Capt. Peters and Col. Washburns Regiment occupied it, and every partition in the front bedrooms were destroyed. Every mantel piece (they were colonial) all but two were burned. The floor in the garrett of the back building was also destroyed. Enough of new window sash and door frames for a house was stored too. cistern and well floors destroyed and cistern filled with bee hives and rubbish. A fine dressed stable with 25 partitioned off, with board partitions-upper story divided off for grain and sleeping quarters for oster. All was torn out and this weakened the roof so that when a snow came it collapsed. A brick carriage house met the same fate. My father Joseph Entler was an old man at the time, and was never after that financially able to put back what was destroyed by the United States soldiers.

PEACETIME – ETERNAL TIDE OF MEMORIES:

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MLH married on February 15, 1865 in Frederick, Maryland Walter L. Herrington, a ticket-agent on the B&O Railroad at Harper’s Ferry.

1870:
They lived in her parents’ home of Wingerd Cottage, her parents having been forcibly retired from inn-keeping. Mary’s husband worked as a photographer then, that same year, died an untimely death.

1910: MLH had a dry goods and milliners shop on the south side of German Street.

1914: Mary Herrington paid in trust to George Beltzhoover the remaining western half of the lot of the once Great Western Hotel for $400, a sum to be paid to Nellie M. Entler. – December 5, 1914, Deed Book 111, p. 505. – Jefferson County Clerk.

1920:
Mary Herrington was seventy-nine years old, living in Shepherdstown with her seventy-two-year-old-sister, Julia M. Miller, and brother, sixty-nine-year-old Lewis Little.

On June 20th MLH sold the dual-lot Great Western Inn to relative Harry T. Licklider on the condition that she could still live in the inn her natural life with her brother, “the said Home to consist of four rooms of the first floor and five rooms, including a summer kitchen and garden.” Two years later Licklider fell in arrears with the Swift Corporation and was sued and forced to sell the Great Western lands to pay off the debts. So the inn was gone from the family but MLH could live there, literally, on borrowed time.

She recalled:
Only the walls of the stables remain today in ruins, covered with Virginia Creeper to screen the ugly scars of the Civil War.

1930:
Mary L. Herrington was listed as eighty-nine years old but with her brother, Lewis Little, now listed as head of their house of the south side of German Street between King and Princess Streets near the center of the block, assessed at about $4,000. Mary A. Licklider & Mary Herrington 1930 Census with her interviewer Mary A. Licklider living next door at the home of Edward Licklider, Mary’s father.

1932:
Mary Louise Herrington died March 27, 1932, having given much of these recollections to Mary A. Licklider, a descendant of Mary’s brother, Cato Moore Entler. Her marker is in Elmwood Cemetery. That summer, the new owner of the Great Western began massive alterations and reductions.

References:

Matthew M. Neely was U.S.Senator from West Virginia, from 1922-1928, then from 1931 to and thru the year Mary Entler Herrington died in 1932.
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

Letter to Senator Neely of WV
from Mary Louise Entler Herrington; Concerning Damages to Property During the Civil War

Hon. Neely,
I wish you to put before Congress a claim for damages to property by U.S. soldiers during the Civil War. The property was a hotel (in market for rent at the time). It was taken possession of and occupied by a Pennsylvania Cavalry Company. The extensive grounds in which were apple trees and vegetables were trampled and all the fencing destroyed; afterwards Company H., 116 Ohio Infantry, Capt. Peters and Col. Washburns Regiment occupied it, and every partition in the front bedrooms were destroyed. Every mantel piece (they were colonial) all but two were burned. The floor in the garrett of the back building was also destroyed. Enough of new window sash and door frames for a house was stored too. cistern and well floors destroyed and cistern filled with bee hives and rubbish. A fine dressed stable with 25 partitioned off, with board partitions-upper story divided off for grain and sleeping quarters for oster. All was torn out and this weakened the roof so that when a snow came it collapsed. A brick carriage house met the same fate. My father Joseph ENTLER was an old man at the time, and was never after that financially able to put back what was destroyed by the United States soldiers. I am sole survivor and think it but just and right that the United States Government should pay me an old woman now to repair it. (Signed) Mary L. ENTLER HERRINGTON. (A postscript was added): I took the oath of allegiance to the United States in Jun 1863 in Baltimore, Maryland to Col. Fish who was in command there at the time. I have passed from Gen’l Lockwood commander at H. Ferry 1863 also from Gen’l Stevenson. My grandfather, Philip ENTLER was a Revolutionary soldier, my father Joseph ENTLER was a soldier in the War of 1812 and helped defend Baltimore and Washington. My husband, Walter HERRINGTON was a Royal Arch Mason and United States Assistant Revenue Assessor under President Johnson for some time. If these facts have any weight in this matter I am glad.

Description of House

An Ancient Landmark Being Changed August, 1932 – The Shepherdstown Register (undated)
Joseph ENTLER (my father) conducted it as an inn. The house is a quaint 52′ long weather board house with massive stone steps to both front doors and stone trimmings and steps to the front cellars and long massive stone stiles or carriage stepping stones as were used in ancient days. The dining room is 34 feet long. Seventeen rooms in the house and large old fashioned fireplaces in many of the rooms and finished with high paneled mantelpieces. The large fireplace in the kitchen which was used for cooking and had the cranes and pothooks and hangers. The ice house was under the dining room and was filled every winter with twenty-five four horse wagon loads of ice, which lasted until fall. The ice was from the Potomac River. After Joseph ENTLER bought it in 1809, he opened it as an inn. a large sign swung across the pavement at the east corner of the house. A heavy post at the curb supported one side and the other side was fastened to the house. In the middle of the sign in large letters that were plainly visible for squares up and down the street was the word, “INN”, and just below that, ‘Jos. ENTLER”. For many years it was a welcome abode to the weary traveler, for then all traveling was by wagon and carriage from Ohio and Kentucky to Baltimore and Washington, where their produce was sold and groceries and other commodities were taken back to the states and intermediate points. All these white covered wagons were placed in the large grounds and the weary tired horses were comfortably bedded down and fed in the large stone stables by good trusty colored men.

All circuses stopped at this inn and pitched their tents in the large lot arranging the cages of wild animals around the circle inside and all other wagons outside the tent. Seventeen rooms in the house and large old fashioned fireplaces in many of the rooms and finished with high paneled mantelpieces. All were destroyed but two during the Civil War, when occupied by Union Troops. The bedrooms above are still numbered as in the days when the late the large fireplace in the kitchen which was used for cooking before cook stoves were introduced has still the cranes and pothooks and hangers as the good old cooks used to handle. The ice house is under the dining room and was filled every winter with twenty-five four horse wagon loads of ice, which lasted until fall. The ice was from the Potomac River. This house and ground adjoining on the east extended to within a few feet from the corner below Trinity Episcopal Church all was the property of Cornelius Wynkoop, who sold it to Levi Gooding, 17 Oct 1801. Charles Harper had an interest in it. Joseph ENTLER (my father), bought Harper’s interest Jun 22nd., 1809. The 17th. of Feb 1812 the interest in the property was deeded to Joseph ENTLER from Levi Gooding, which has been the family over 100 years. Philip ENTLER, Joseph ENTLER’S father was a soldier in the Revolutionary War and told his son the building was a barracks in that war, and all ground which extended on the east beyond the Episcopal Church was used by Revolutionary soldiers as drilling and practice grounds and was used also in the War of 1812-14. After Joseph ENTLER bought it in 1809, he opened it as an inn. a large sign swung across the pavement at the east corner of the house. A heavy post at the curb supported one side and the other side was fastened to the house. In the middle of the sign in large letters that were plainly visible for squares up and down the street was the word, “INN”, and just below that, ‘Jos. ENTLER”. For many years it was a welcome abode to the weary traveler, for then all traveling was by wagon and carriage from Ohio and Kentucky to Baltimore and Washington, where their produce was sold and groceries and other commodities were taken back to the states and intermediate points. All these white covered wagons were placed in the large grounds and the weary tired horses were comfortably bedded down and fed in the large stone stables by good trusty colored men. Only the walls of the stables remain today in ruins, covered with Virginia Creeper to screen the ugly scars of the Civil War. All circuses stopped at this inn and pitched their tents in the large lot arranging the cages of wild animals around the circle inside and all other wagons outside the tent. On one occasion an elephant died and left a baby elephant. Years after the occurrence, the same circus came to town, and the baby remembered the place where its mother died and was buried in the lot and it’s grief was pitiful site.
entlerd originally shared this, 14 Apr 2010 story at ancestry.com
trees.ancestry.ca 4 March 2006 Web. 1 July 2014. (Subscription membership required for access).
reocities.com 18 October 2000 Web. 1 July 2014.

History of Confederate Flag made in Shepherdstown by Mary Louise Entler Herrington:
Copied from the original by Mary A. LICKLIDER, 16 Feb 1938
It may be interesting to the Shepherdstown Chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy and others also to know the facts about a flag that was made and sent through the line in 1861 to our own Company B.

A U.S. flag was given to four or five young girls (young girls at the time), by Mr. Rezin Shepherd who lived in New Orleans. In the summer he lived at Wild Goose Farm. The flag was one from one of his vessels. It was sent to us by Mr. James (Hervey) Shepherd and was to be converted into a Confederate flag, a work that was dangerous at the time, being in disputed territory. We could work only when our men were in the lines and had to be very cautious then. My father Joseph ENTLER owned and lived at Wingerd Cottage during the war and there the flag was made. The location off from town and the large wide hall were ideal places for the work, which took many anxious weeks to complete. It was very tedious to rip every seam of the stripes in such a way as not to ravel the bunting. Every star was ripped from the blue field and then to sew all the red together and all the white to form the bars red, white, and red. Of course we had a surplus of stars as the Confederacy was young. After many weeks of work the flag was finished and a beautiful Confederate flag was ready to be sent through the line to Company B. It was hidden away awaiting a safe transfer. I heard the tramp of cavalry and clank of swords and sabers. I looked out the window and saw the cottage was surrounded by Yankee Cavalry. Oh, the flag, what was to be done with it? I heard the officer read orders to my father to search his premises thoroughly for contraband goods. My father seemed to be protesting against the search. But that gave me a little time to take the flag from its hiding place in a chest. The house was surrounded. I could not get out to hide it. I pulled a dress from the wall and put the flag in it and threw the dress carelessly across the back of a chair. Skirts were very wide and deep facings upon them. I put the little flags that we wore on our dresses and letters under the carpet. When my door was pushed open by Capt. Horner of Col. Coles’ Cavalry and the search began. Every bureau drawer and closet was searched, even the grandfather clock where reposed letters to go through the lines. But they were too deep in the bottom of the old clock to be detected. Everything was handled but the blue striped dress hovering over its precious treasure. It was too insignificant to attract their notice and they gave up the search, but rather in a bad humor. The flag was safe and sent to Company B, but all inquires after the war failed to locate it. There was an exchange of flags several years ago. That flag would be readily recognized by its many seams and its homemade marks. Now what became of that flag is a mystery. It went through the lines and was received by the company. I believe I am the only one living who helped to make the flag and saved it from being captured by Capt. Horner, its first Yankee assailant.
– entlerd originally shared this to Deron’s Original Family Tree
trees.ancestry.ca 4 March 2006 Web. 1 July 2014.

“CEOS told of Early Stories of Shepherdstown by Jim Price” – Spirit of Jefferson Farmer’s Advocate – Jun 8, 2000, p. 7.
The Great Western Hotel had nineteen rooms and was owned by Joseph Entler, and was more like a truck stop where drovers and drivers and passengers of Conestoga wagons stayed. In 1858 Joseph Entler moved his family to Wingerd Cottage (the home of Cindy and Bob Keller) and leased the hotel out.
news.google.com 25 March 2002 Web. 1 July 2014.

Born in Shepherdstown, Jefferson, Virginia, USA on 24 Aug 1821 to Joseph Entler and Mary Ellen Rickard. Cato Moore married Mary Ellen Bowen and had 9 children. He passed away on 6 Apr 1902 in Shepherdstown, Jefferson, Virginia, USA.
records.ancestry.com 22 January 2009 Web. July 1, 2014.

1st Maryland Cavalry, U.S.A. (Originally organized as the 1st Potomac Home Brigade Cavalry, “Cole’s Cavalry” was formed under the guidance of Henry A. Cole (from Frederick, Maryland). Company C was recruited primarily from Emmitsburg, Maryland and Gettysburg, Pennsylvania and was commanded by Capt. John Horner;
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

Due to confusion created by units carrying different flags after 1st Manassas the 30th October 1861 saw Governor Letcher present every Virginia regiment with a bunting flag. Another private group in Charles Town had a regimental flag made for the 2nd Virginia Infantry regiemnt that they reportedly carried into batle at First Manassas/BullRun
2ndvirginiacsa.tripod.com 16 May 2013 Web 1 July 2014.

Gallaher, D.C. (December, 1996). “Fragments of a Diary of Shepherdstown Events During the War 1861-1865.” Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society, vol. LXII. Print.

Mary Entler’s brother:
ENTLER, CATO MOORE: b. 1822. Confectioner. enl. 6/18/61 at Winchester in Co. B as Pvt. sick at Manassas Hosp. 10/21/61. To Chimborazo #5, 1/13/61; diarrhea. To Gen. Hosp. Farmville, 5/7/62; torpor of liver. Returned to duty 7/16/62; however, last official entry shows him absent sick 6/30-10/31 1862. – Frye, Dennis “2nd Virginia Infantry Regiment,” Lynchburg, Va: H. E. Howard. Print. More . . .

Mary L. Herrington was listed as eighty-nine years old but with her brother, Lewis Little, now listed as head of their house of the south side of German Street between King and Princess Streets near the center of the block, assessed at about $4,000. Mary A. Licklider & Mary Harrington 1930 Census with her interviewer Mary A. Licklider living next door at the home of Edward Licklider, Mary’s father.
NARA T626. Fifteenth Census of the United States, 1930.
Roll: 2536
State: West Virginia
County: JEFFERSON
Browse Description: SHEPHERDSTOWN TOWN
Enumeration District: 19-9
Description: SHEPHERDSTOWN TOWN
Sheet Number: 4b
fold3.com footnote.com(fold3.com) 21 October 2010 Web. 20 May 2014.

116th Ohio Infantry
The most likely time in which the 116th Ohio visited the Great Western Inn was during late August, 1864:
Left Ohio for Parkersburg, Va., October 16; then moved to Clarksburg and Buckhannon. Moved to New Creek November 9, and to Moorefield December 12. Duty at Moorefield, Va., December 15, 1862 to January 10, 1863. Moorefield January 3. At Romney until March 17. Near Romney February 16. At Winchester, Va., until June. Operations in Shenandoah Valley April 20–29. Scout toward Wardensville and Strasburg April 20. Scout to Strasburg April 25–29. Bunker Hill June 13 (Companies A and I). Battle of Winchester June 13–15. Retreat to Harper’s Ferry, W. Va., June 15–16, 1863; then to Washington, D.C., July 1–4, and joined Army of the Potomac at Frederick, Md., July 5. Pursuit of Lee to Manassas Gap, Va., July 5–24. Wapping Heights, Va., July 23. At Martinsburg, W. Va., August 4, 1863 to April 29, 1864. Skirmish at Hedgesville October 16, 1863 (detachment). Sigel’s Expedition from Martinsburg to New Market April 29-May 16, 1864. Battle of New Market May 15. Advance on Staunton May 24-June 6. Piedmont June 5. Occupation of Staunton June 6. Hunter’s raid on Lynchburg June 10-July 1. Lynchburg June 17–18. ***Ordered to the Shenandoah Valley July. Battle of Kernstown-Winchester, July 24. Sheridan’s Shenandoah Valley Campaign August 7-November 28, 1864. Charlestown August 21, 22, and 29. Berryville September 3, Battle of Winchester, Opaquan Creek September 19, 1864. Fisher’s Hill September 22. Cedar Creek October 13, Battle of Cedar Creek October 19. Duty at Opequan Crossing November 18 to December 19. Moved to Washington, D.C., December 19; then to Aiken’s Landing, Va. Siege of Petersburg and Richmond December 27, 1864 to April 2, 1865. Appomattox Campaign March 28-April 9, Hatcher’s Run March 29-April 1. Fall of Petersburg April 2. Pursuit of Lee April 3–9. Rice’s Station April 6. Appomattox Court House April 9. Surrender of Lee and his army. Duty at Richmond, Va., until June.
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

Baldau, Catherine. “House Arrest: Mary Entler’s Adventure in Harpers Ferry.” in “The Harpers Ferry Anthology – Civil War-era Stories by Park Rangers and Volunteers.” (2011). Harpers Ferry, WV: The Harpers Ferry Historical Assocation. Print.

Joseph Entler household 1870 Census p. 506.
United States. Bureau of the Census; United States. National Archives and Records Service. (1965). “Population schedules of the ninth census of the United States, 1870, West Virginia [microform] (Volume Reel 1689 – 1870 West Virginia Federal Population Census Schedules – Jackson and Jefferson Counties).” Washington, D.C.: Gov’t Printing Office. Print.

United States. Bureau of the Census; United States. National Archives and Records Service. (1965). “Population schedules of the ninth census of the United States, 1870, West Virginia [microform] (Volume Reel 1689 – 1870 West Virginia Federal Population Census Schedules – Jackson and Jefferson Counties).” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 10 Sept. 2010.
More . . .

Joseph Entler, Jr. household with MLH, Potomac District p. 26
United States. Bureau of the Census; United States. National Archives and Records Service. (197-). 10th census, 1880, West Virginia [microform] (Volume Reel 1405 – 1880 West Virginia Federal “Population Census Schedules – Jefferson (cont’d: ED 4, sheet 23-end) and Kanawha (part: EDs 1-61, sheet 26) Counties).” Washington, D.C.: Gov’t Printing Office. Print.

United States. Bureau of the Census; United States. National Archives and Records Service. (197-). 10th census, 1880, West Virginia [microform] (Volume Reel 1405 – 1880 West Virginia Federal “Population Census Schedules – Jefferson (cont’d: ED 4, sheet 23-end) and Kanawha (part: EDs 1-61, sheet 26) Counties).” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 10 Sept. 2010.

1900 United States Federal Census about Mary L Herrington
Name: Mary L Herrington
Age: 60
Birth Date: May 1840
Birthplace: West Virginia
Home in 1900: Shepherdstown, Jefferson, West Virginia
Race: White
Gender: Female
Relation to Head of House: Sister
Marital Status: Widowed
Father’s Birthplace: Pennsylvania
Mother’s Birthplace: West Virginia
Mother: number of living children: 0
Mother: How many children: 0
Name Age
Joseph Entler, Jr 72
Annie E Entler 65
Mary L Herrington 60
Julia M Miller 53
Maurice Miller 16
Source Citation: Year: 1900; Census Place: Shepherdstown, Jefferson, West Virginia; Roll: 1761; Page: 5A; Enumeration District: 0048; FHL microfilm: 1241761
search.ancestry.com 10 July 1998 Web. 1 July 2014.

Mary Herrington was seventy-nine years old, living in Shepherdstown with her seventy-two-year-old-sister, Julia M. Miller and brother, sixty-nine-year-old Lewis Little.
1920 United States Federal Census about Mary L Herrington
Name: Mary L Herrington
[Mary L Herington]
Age: 79
Birth Year: abt 1841
Birthplace: West Virginia
Home in 1920: Shepherdstown, Jefferson, West Virginia
Race: White
Gender: Female
Relation to Head of House: Head
Marital Status: Widowed
[Widow]
Father’s Birthplace: Pennsylvania
Mother’s Birthplace: West Virginia
Household Members:
Name Age
Mary L Herrington: 79
Julia M Miller 72
Lewis J Little 69
Source Citation: Year: 1920; Census Place: Shepherdstown, Jefferson, West Virginia; Roll: T625_1952; Page: 9A; Enumeration District: 74; Image: 555.
search.ancestry.com 10 July 1998 Web. 1 July 2014.

Suit in favor of Swift & Company against H. T. Licklider, in which Licklider sold to discharge and pay off said decree: ”The certain house and land on the east side of Princess Street in Shepherdstown . . . designated on the plat of said town as the north west corner of Lot No. 127, said lot fronting on said street 40 feet by 98 feet deep on said alley and known as the site of the business of “The Licklider Corporation.” Also, two certain adjoining parcels of real estate of which the late Joseph Entler died seized and possessed and situate on the south side of German Street in Shepherdstown, designated on the Plat of said town as Lot No. 14 and bounded as follows: No. 1 consisting of a vacant lot of land fronting on said street 33 feet by about 206 feet deep to a public alley in the rear, No. 2 consisting of the adjoining lot of land and the large weather-boarded dwelling thereon, the said lot fronting on said street about 60 feet more or less by about 206 feet to a public alley in the rear, subject to a life estate of Mary L. Herrington in part of same and being the same real estate conveyed to Harry T. Licklider by deed from Mary L. Herrington and others by deed dated June 29, 1920. – Lis Pendens, October 14, 1922, Deed Book 122, Page 140, – Jefferson County, WV Clerk. (NOTE: The life estate deed states that Mary Herrington sold the two adjacent lots to Licklider on the condition that she and, as long as Herrington approves, Licklider to allow, provide and maintain free of any charge and expense to her said “Dwelling for and during her natural life: the said Home to consist of four rooms of the first floor and five rooms, including a summer kitchen and garden.” – July 6, 1920, Deed Book 119, Page 82, Jefferson County Clerk.

“Historically, milliners, typically female shopkeepers, produced or imported an inventory of garments for men, women, and children, including hats, shirts, cloaks, shifts, caps, neckerchiefs, and undergarments, and sold these garments in their millinery shop.” wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

116th Ohio Infantry – compiled by Larry Stevens. References for this Unit
ohiocivilwar.com 17 August 2000 Web. 1 July 2014.

Mary L. Herrington was listed as eighty-nine years old but with her brother, Lewis Little, now listed as head of their house of the south side of German Street between King and Princess Streets near the center of the block, assessed at about $4,000. Mary A. Licklider & Mary Harrington 1930 Census with her interviewer Mary A. Licklider living next door at the home of Edward Licklider, Mary’s father.
NARA T626. Fifteenth Census of the United States, 1930.
Roll: 2536
State: West Virginia
County: JEFFERSON
Browse Description: SHEPHERDSTOWN TOWN
Enumeration District: 19-9
Description: SHEPHERDSTOWN TOWN
Sheet Number: 4b
fold3.com. footnote.com(fold3.com) 21 October 2010 Web. 20 May 2014.

“In the Realms of Rest: M. L. Herrington,“ The Shepherdstown Register,” March 31, 1932.

Image Credits:

Montage of images of people in Shepherdstown during the Civil War – Historic Shepherdtown Commission.

Harper’s Weekly September 6, 1862, p. 569
sonofthesouth.net start date unavailable Web. 1 July 2014.

The first flag of the 11th Pennsylvania Reserves

detail of woman sewing flag
etsy.com 18 May 2001 Web. 1 July 2014.

Battle flag of the 28th North Carolina Infantry.

Stuart’s Horse Artillery Flag
jeffctywvmuseum.org 9 November 2004 Web. 1 July 2014.

The 33rd Indiana Volunteer Infantry
33rdindiana.org 20 June 2011 Web. 1 July 2014.

Remains of U.S. Infantry colors from President Lincoln’s box on the night he was assassinated. medicalmuseum.mil 2 June 2012 Web. 1 July 2014.

Flag of the type carried by the Treasury Guard and other infantry regiments during the Civil War. medicalmuseum.mil 2 June 2012 Web. 1 July 2014.

Ohio Department of the Adjutant General, “National Colors of the Black Brigade of Cincinnati,” in Ohio Civil War 150 | Collections & Exhibits, Item #1490. ohiocivilwar150.org/omeka 25 September 2009 Web. 1 July 2014.

Ohio Department of the Adjutant General, “Guidon of the 27th U.S.C.T.,” in Ohio Civil War 150 | Collections & Exhibits, Item #1489. ohiocivilwar150.org/omeka 25 September 2009 Web. 1 July 2014.

Flag of the Rockbridge Rifles
Original Author: W. H. Horstmann & Sons of Philadelphia
Created: ca. 1860
Medium: Silk flag with oil-painted seal
Courtesy of The Museum of the Confederacy
encyclopediavirginia.org 8 November 2006 Web. 1 July 2014.

Alfred Lee : Dolly Varden
Dolly Varden / words by Frank W. Green ; music by Alfred Lee
Philadelphia : Lee & Walker, between 1872 and 1875
Plate no.: 131819.4
Color: Portrait of a young woman in a Dolly Varden dress / T. Sinclair & Son Lith.
Box 25, no. 7. library.upenn.edu/collections 7 March 2003 Web. 1 July 2014.

Hotchkiss, Jedediah, “[Map of Loudoun County and part of Clarke County, Va., Jefferson County and part of Berkeley County, W. Va., and parts of Montgomery and Frederick counties, Md.]..”
memory.loc.gov/ammem/ 14 October 2004 Web. 1 July 2014.

One-horse buggy
David Hunter Strother, “At Hancock Depot, Aug. 1st, 1857. West Virginia and Regional History Collection. Act, No.:P.95.30.387pg26c

Dicken’s Dolly Varden by William Frith.
Owner/Location: Victoria and Albert Museum – London (United Kingdom – London)
Dates: 1842
Artist age: Approximately 23 years old.
Dimensions: Unknown
Medium: Painting – oil on canvas
Entered by: Member Irene on 22 December 2013.
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 1 July 2014.

Shepherdstown and Charles Town, Va.
Brown, Howell S. “Map of Jefferson County, Virginia From Actual Surveys With Farm Limits, 1852.” Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society Vol. XLV. (1979): pp. 1-7. Print.

Brown, S. Howell. (1852). “Map of Jefferson County, Virginia from actual survey with the farm limits.” United States. The Library of Congress: American Memory. “Maps Collection.” 27 Oct. 2009 Web. 10 Sept. 2010.

Andrew T. Leopold – Courtesy Horace Mewborn, Jr.

Robert_H._Milroy
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

Woman pouring from watering can
Marmion, Annie P. (1959) “Under Fire: An Experience in the Civil War.” William Vincent Marmion, Jr. ed.

Rezin Shepherd-Shepherd University

Elderly woman
Crayon, Porte (Strother, D. H.). “The Mountains. Pt. VI.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, Volume 45, Issue: 270, November 1872, pp. 801-816. Print.

Crayon, Porte. (November, 1872). “The Mountains. Pt. VI.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014. p. 803.

Gate to farm house
Strother, David H. “Rural Pictures.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 20, Issue: 116, January, 1860. pp. 166-180. Print.

Strother, David H., (Jan., 1860). “Rural Pictures.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014. p. 166.

Ring on woman’s finger
Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 13, Issue: 75, (Aug., 1856). pp. 303-323. Print.

Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014. p. 323.

Cook in kitchen
Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 12, Issue: 68, (Jan., 1856). pp. 158-179. Print.

Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014. p. 177.

Horses in stable eating hay
Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 11, Issue: 63, (Aug., 1855). pp. 289-311. Print.

Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014. p. 293.

Federal cavalry standstill
“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 1.” (1887). Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co. Print.

“Battles and Leaders Vol. 1.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010. p. 600.

Searching for Arms. Drawing by Adalbert John Volck, circa 1890-1896, glc00493.05. (Image: Gilder Lehrman Collection) civilwar.org 15 May 1998 Web. 1 July 2014.

Additionsal Image Credits for the Videos:

Young Woman at a Piano by George Goodwin Kilburne, 1880.

Detail The Effect of the Rebellion of the Homes of Virginia – Harper’s Weekly, 24 December, 1864. pp. 824-825.

William Stebbins Fish – Maryland Historical Society. Maryland Historical Magazine, (Summer, 1999). Vol. 94. p. 132.

Polish stables in Gdansk
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 25 October 2014.

The Homecoming by E.L. Henry

Title: [Civil War envelope showing soldier standing at attention in camp with message “Our Union defenders”]. Date Created/Published: [between 1861 and 1865]. memory.loc.gov/ammem/index.html 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

mantels colonial
research.history.org 23 March 2006 Web. 25 October 2014.

Pen and Ink by Edwin Graves Champney. Image courtesy of the Outer Banks History Center.
obxentertainment.com 8 April 2009 Web. 25 October 2014.

Matthew_M._Neely
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 25 October 2014.

Headpiece for ‘Good for the Soul’ – Howard Pyle
wikiart.org 30 May 2008 Web. 25 October 2014.

Christmas Boxes in Camp Christmas 1861: Published Harpers Weekly January 4, 1862. (Not used)
hoocher.com 4 April 2009 Web. 25 October 2014.

Sunday Morning in Virginia: 1887 Winslow Homer
hoocher.com 4 April 2009 Web. 25 October 2014.

Girl in the Orchard: 1874 by Winslow Homer
hoocher.com 4 April 2009 Web. 25 October 2014.

The Reaper: 1878 by Winslow Homer
hoocher.com 4 April 2009 Web. 25 October 2014.

porcupine
awf.org 19 June 1998 Web. 25 October 2014.

Union officers eating during the Civil War. (Library of Congress photo)
blog.timesunion.com 10 December 2005 Web. 25 October 2014.

Strother, David H., “The Mountains. Pt. IV.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 44, Issue: 267, (Aug, 1872). pp. 347-366. Print.

Strother, David H., “The Mountains. Pt. IV.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine.
7 May 2008. Web. 29 May. 2011.
ebooks.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=ha…

hanged silhouette
Harper’s New Monthly Magazine Volume 0019 Issue 109 (June 1859)
Title: Artist’s Excursion. Illustrated By Porte Crayon [pp. 1-19],

document oath of allegiance
spotsylvaniamemory.blogspot.com 21 January 2013 Web. 25 October 2014.

Henry_Hayes_Lockwood
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 25 October 2014.

Death Record of W. L. Harrington in 1874
wvculture.org 2 March 2000 Web. 25 October 2014.

Mary Entler 1920 Census, West Virginia, Jefferson County
archive.org 9 August 2002 Web. 25 October 2014.

(Not used) Foraging was resorted to, to a considerable extent. Turkeys, Geese, Chickens were taken whenever found; corn-cakes, bread, ham, and smoked sides with butter, apple butter, and in fact everything that was eatable was procured, sometimes by paying cash and at other times by promises to pay when change could not be made. (Courtesy Bradley Forbush)
13thmass.org 29 May 2002 Web. 25 October 2014.

 The Most “Civil Warred” Home – Unburned – in Jefferson County (1) – J. Surkamp.

5987 words

https://web.archive.org/web/20190710015149/https://civilwarscholars.com/2014/07/the-most-civil-warred-home-unburned-in-jefferson-county-1-j-surkamp/

Flickr Set – Click Here. 18 images.

The Dandridges at The Bower and The Rutherfords at their Charlestown home had Civil War generals and intrigues come right to their doorstep and even into their parlors, sleeping areas and barns; stories piled high.

Visitors_Carriage_Inn_1861_1864_FINAL


But what Confederate Generals J.E.B. Stuart, Stonewall Jackson had in common with Federal commanding General Ulysses S. Grant; General Philip Sheridan, and General Nathaniel Banks – are the first floor rooms of Thomas and Mary Rutherford’s home on Washington Street in Charles Town, WV, today the Carriage Inn. They all spent time there, having fun or plotting.

This is the story of The Rutherford House/Carriage Inn during the Civil War seen through the eyes mainly of Richard Duffield Rutherford, a ten-year-old in 1860, who got around quite a bit, mirroring the rhythms and terrors of daily life in Charlestown during The Troubles.

Summary:

Carriage_Inn_Family_TITLE


Thomas and Mary Rutherford and their eight children – alongside the war’s flailing claws – had a flag made for Stonewall Jackson to take into battle in 1861 at First Manassas/Bull Run; entertained at dinner Federal General Nathaniel Banks with Stonewall’s returned flag precariously hidden away in an upstairs hearth; enjoyed Sam Sweeney’s banjo as he sat beside Gen J.E.B. Stuart who was visiting and sharing momentos with the family of his ride around Gen. McClellan’s army in October, 1862. They cared for wounded in late 1862, one who died and they buried. Daughter Mary dodged a bullet fired at her upstairs window, all while our callow narrator, Richard, nosed around town, saw things, and above all daily milked their two cows, that he often had to roam to find, bribing thankful Federal pickets with pie.

Then the most historic two hours at Rutherford House/Carriage Inn was the meeting of Federal Generals Grant and Sheridan (almost two years to the day after the terrible Antietam/Sharpsburg battle), having surrounded the Rutherford home with a huge security cordon, and used new information smuggled into them by an African-American named Thomas Laws – correctly convincing them the time was propitious to attack Confederate General Jubal Early on the Opequon Creek.

A lasting memory after the war was, for Richard, – one night sky’s hideous glow in all directions from the burning barns and, in some cases, homes torched as part of General Sheridan’s punitive campaign through the Valley, the one where his orders from Grant were curt and cruel – so that, to periphrase, a crow flying overhead would have to carry its own rations.

Meantime the Rutherfords ate, starved, baked, sheltered, hid, entertained and prayed for the end – the real and final end – to this war that left their town changed forever, with a past obliterated and eclipsed.

Chapterettes:
1. Tom and Mary Rutherford thrive on political connections and railroad subsidies.
2. The Fissure Opens – John Brown nails the issue and is hanged.
3. July, 1861: The flag from “The Ladies of Jefferson County” & first time, face-to-face with Federals
4. Future Federal General Francis Barlow bemoans Charlestown.
5. A Rutherford relative teases the Federal pickets.
6. Sister Virginia recounts how the gift flag comes back to the Rutherfords.
7. February 27-28, 1862 Federal General Nathaniel Banks crossed the Potomac with 30,000 men.
8. A misunderstanding about “church” music at the Charlestown Presbyterian church
9. Tempers flash over stolen pigs, poultry and cows.
10.Young Richard Rutherford had much better luck with the Rutherford’s cows thanks to food bribes.
11.Gen. Banks dines with the Rutherfords.
12.“We don’t want him!” said the Confederates.

  1. Tom and Mary Rutherford thrive on political connections and railroad subsidies:
Duffields_Depot_TITLE_FINAL


In 1860 Thomas Rutherford had $36,000 in real estate and $6,000 in personal property, largely from the estate left his wife, Mary, by her father, Richard Duffield, who first built and leased the train depot near his home in 1839 to the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, that still stands in 2014. Their wealth was often in the form of United States dollars in the payments from the Baltimore and Ohio. Because their wealth was not in Virginia lands, enslaved persons or Confederate paper; the family still had about half their reported wealth ten years later in 1870. Their son-in-law, Cleon Moore, in fact, would build next door, becoming a lawyer for the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad after the war.

1859:

2. The Fissure Opens – John Brown nails the issue and is hanged

Richard Rutherford wrote of that day:
John Brown was hanged on December 2, 1859 in the morning. I was sitting on a wall fence back of the Episcopal Church. The rope was arranged, the black cap adjusted. The sheriff came down the steps of the scaffold. The signal was given, the rope cut, the body swung and in a few moments, it was all over. Everything was done quietly. In a few minutes he was pronounced dead. – Rutherford, p. 21.

1861:

3. July, 1861: The flag from “The Ladies of Jefferson County” & first time, face-to-face with Federals

Rutherford recalled:
My sister (Virginia) had raised money and presented to the Second Virginia regiment of that Brigade a handsome Virginia State Flag. (On the back side there was a banner “from the Ladies of Jefferson County”). This was their Brigade flag in this battle. – Rutherford, p. 24.

Bull_Run_Flag_FINAL_5_TITLE copy


In 1920 Mrs. Virginia Rutherford McMechem, Richard’s sister, wrote down the colorful history of the flag/banner:
The flag, which was ordered and made in Richmond for the 2nd Virginia Infantry of local enlistees, arrived in Winchester, Va. on the 17th July, just as the Brigade was about to leave for Manassas Junction on the 18th of July. The 1st (Stonewall) Brigade marched out of Winchester with the flag flying at the head of the Second Virginia Regiment. The purchase money was given me by Thomas Rutherford of Charles Town and several of his friends as a gift to the Regiment. Thomas Rutherford did not desire to appear so prominent in the matter, so it was allowed to go as from the Ladies of Jefferson County. On the 21st of July, date of 1st Manassas, this was the only flag carried into the battle by the First Brigade and the only Virginia flag in Jackson’s command, other troops being put under his command after he arrived on the field. – Virginia Rutherford McMecham, letter 1920.

Richard Rutherford’s first encounter with Federal soldiers:

Carriage_Inn_Yankees_12th_NY_6_FINAL_TITLE copy


On July 17, 1861 – I was frightened never having seen a Yankee soldier before and thinking of them as some sort of desperate creature who would kill us all. (But) The Yankees rode into town but did not seem to disturb anyone. . .My father said it was just a scouting party. Shortly after (Federal) General Robert Patterson did advance with his army and camped around the town. They stayed with us for some time. Many of them came to the house for water and often asked for something to eat, which we always gave if we had anything left! I got pretty well acquainted with many of them. . .(One of Patterson’s staff officers stayed with the Rutherfords-JS): a Captain Phillips asked if he could have a room at our house, so we gave him a room. The next day he brought a soldier with him and gave orders to allow no one to trespass or disturb the property. We fixed a bed for the guard in the wash house in the yard. – Rutherford, pp. 24-25.

David Hunter Strother wrote:

Carriage_Inn_7_TITLE_FINAL


July 17 – Wednesday: west of Charles Town: At the ruin of the old Episcopal Church – the first built in the valley – the main column halted and detachments were sent forward to the right and left to inclose the town and capture the militia, which were reported to be assembled there. The army entered Charlestown with drums beating, colors flying, and all the pomp of a grand review. The streets were silent and deserted, the houses generally closed, and only a few negroes and children appeared to witness the “grand entree.” As the column passed, a Confederate flag was displayed from the upper window of a storehouse. The doors were instantly crushed in and the offensive emblem replaced by the Stars and Stripes. Otherwise everything was quiet. The sentiment of the army was conciliatory, while, from terror or sullen-ness, very few of the inhabitants showed themselves on the streets. – Strother, p. 156.
More . . .

4. Future Federal Major General Francis Barlow bemoans Charlestown:

Federal officer Francis Channing Barlow of the 12th New York militia arrived and stayed in Charlestown in July, 1861 and did not fight at First Manassas/Bull Run:
We are encamped close to the field where they say John Brown was hung, they point out the spot where his gallows was erected. I went into the Court house where John Brown was tried this morning. This town is like all Virginia towns, . . . slovenly, with occasionally some large and pleasant looking places. Last night, we had no supper. . .(This morning) we foraged about to four or five houses for breakfast without success; they saying that they were eaten out, stolen out by those who preceeded us. They are openly Secessionists here almost entirely, the women talk openly, freely, but good humoredly. – Barlow, p. 14.

Carriage_Inn_9_FINAL_TITLE

Barlow describes many men bathing in the Evetts Run near town:

(I) wiped my hands on my head, the brook which runs by our encampment being so dirtied, riled by the thousands quartered higher up that it dirties one more. . .Yet thousands of naked forms can be at this moment seen washing in it. Carlton Richards and I started for town. At the town pump in the most frequented part of town, close to the Courthouse, we took off our coats, shirts and stood entirely naked except trousers, stockings and shoes, washed and cleaned ourselves in the face of the multitude among soldiers of all climes. (Barlow to his brother Edward, from Charlestown, Va, July 18, 1861).- Barlow, p. 14.

5. A Rutherford relative teases the Federal pickets:

dt.common.streams.StreamServer.cls


The Yankees had a patrol that marched up and down the streets every night. No lights were to be allowed after ten o’clock. My Aunt Nancy Douglass from St. Louis was staying with us at the time. One night the lamp was burning in her room when the patrol passed. They called. “Lights out!” So Aunt Nancy picked up the lamp and held it outside the window at them. They all laughed and told us to turn it out. “Well,” she said, “you told me: ’Lights out’ so I thought you wanted it outside.” . . . – Rutherford, p. 25.

The night of July 21st was rather exciting as the First Battle of Bull Run was fought that day. Captain Phillips told my father of their defeat at Bull Run and that the Rebs were moving on Washington. It was a desolate looking country that we looked over the next morning – the large army of troops leaving, it looked quite dilapidated. Fences were all burned and trash heaped everywhere. – Rutherford, p. 25.

Rutherford wrote that the town undertaker found the body of a local man killed at the battle, named Frank Butler, awaiting him at his business.

6. Sister Virginia recounts how the gift flag comes back to the Rutherfords:

Carriage_Inn_10_FINAL_TITLE


October 30, 1861 – Due to confusion created by units carrying different flags after 1st Manassas the 30th October 1861 saw Governor Letcher present every Virginia regiment with a bunting flag. Colonel Allen returned the 2nd Virginia’s Flag to Charles Town for safe keeping. One afternoon in late 1861, Brigadier General Torbett of the U.S. Army was encamped around

Torbert_Staff_loc_gov_Close


Charles Town with his Cavalry command. His Staff officers had pitched their tents in the beautiful grounds surrounding the Rutherford home and were lying all about on the grass. A little bare-footed colored girl came into the yard and wound her way among them, carrying a small package wrapped in a newspaper. Coming to a side door she handed the package to a member of the family saying, “Give this to Miss Ginny Rutherford”, and darted away. The Family never learned who the child was. Thomas Rutherford wrapped the flag carefully and put it under an iron hearth in the bed-room where it remained until after the close of the war. It would have been to them ample reason to the Federals for reducing the home to ashes. – Virginia Rutherford McMecham, letter 1920.

1862:

7. February 27-28, 1862 Federal General Nathaniel Banks crossed the Potomac with 30,000 men:

Nathaniel_Banks_lov_gov

8. A misunderstanding about “church” music at the Charlestown Presbyterian church:

Wrote Edwin Bryant of the 3rd Wisconsin Infantry Regiment:
Our sojourn in Charlestown was exceedingly disagreeable to the inhabitants. It annoyed them to have their churches occupied by Yankee soldiers; and the little organ was kept in full blast in one of the churches occupied by a part of the Third, while a hundred or more stout lungs vented the song, then new and expressive of the northern feeling: “John Brown’s body lies a-mouldering in the grave, But his soul is marching on.’

The boys of the regiment determined to keep that song going constantly during our stay in Charlestown; and though we staid there several days they came near keeping good the resolve. The song and the throats of the singers were rather worn-out and ragged for sometime after. It is to be feared that the organ was a little wheezy, too. – Bryant, pp. 40-41.

Federal officer David Hunter Strother (who knew the locals well) describes the minister’s grief:

Carriage_Inn_11_FINAL_TITLE


I saw Mr. Dutton flying along the street and hailed him. He greeted me and said he was going to see about the occupation of his church. I went with him and found Colonel [Thomas H.] Ruger’s Wisconsin men in occupation and taking up the carpets. The preacher was for getting out the pulpit furniture, Bibles, and candelabras. Presently looking toward the organ he saw a platoon of rugged-looking fellows around the organ and fumbling with the music books of the choir. He looked in agony at the prospective destruction and desecration. A moment after, the books were all open and fifty accordant voices rose in a thrilling anthem that filled the church with solemn music. The alarmed clergyman paused a moment. His face became calm and solemn. He turned to the officer in command: “You need not move the furniture from the pulpit, Sir. It will be safe, I feel assured. . . .” (The Reverend W. B. Dutton was the Presbyterian minister at Charles Town from 1849 to 1874).
Strother, p. 5.

9. Tempers flash over stolen pigs, poultry and cows:

hog.knock_.over_.man_


While here, the commanders were besieged with complaints from the citizens. Their geese, turkeys and chickens disappeared. They murmured that “private property was not respected.” The orders were strict enough; and officers did not countenance their violation. But so it was, everywhere that soldiers marched a great mortality prevailed among poultry, pigs and sheep. The women were most indignant and most outspoken. They took such revenge as bitter tongues and prayers that we might be exterminated could afford them. One well-to-do farmer protested against his corn and grain being taken as he had a large number of negroes dependent on him for support. In a week he was doing his own chores, milking with his own hands his last cow, and as woe-begone a secessionist as could be found anywhere. His slaves had left him; and his stock and poultry had joined the Union side, too. – Bryant, pp. 40-41 in Charlestown with Gen. Banks; spring, 1862.

The amount of pig and chicken stealing was very considerable and all the way from the Ferry I saw soldiers with slaughtered sheep and hogs, carrying their whole quarters upon their bayonets. There was a good deal of fence burning (but) there was no wanton acts of destruction. – Strother diaries, p. 6.

10. Young Richard Rutherford had much better luck with the Rutherford’s cows thanks to food bribes:

Carriage_Inn_1_Milking_Cows


He wrote: We kept two cows during the war and I did the milking. I would turn them out every day and as there were no fences left, they would get pasture all round the town. It was my job to find them in the evening and bring them home. The pickets were on Hunter’s Hill and at first refused to let me go after them, but I soon found a way to bribe them. My mother would fix up a plate of cornbread or pie or almost anything in the eating line, and armed with food and a crock of clabber, I would march up to the pickets and while they were eating I would get the cows. One of them told me to bring them some more of that feed and I could go anywhere I wanted. – Rutherford, p. 32.

We could get nothing in the way of clothing except gray cloth made by the factories in the county, so everyone dressed in gray. No one who did not actually live in or around Charlestown can realize the trying times we suffered during the four years of war. – Rutherford, p. 33.

Federal General Nathaniel Banks with a large army, takes up residence nearby:

Gen. Banks made his headquarters also at Mr. Hunter’s house and one of his staff, Captain Shriver (Captain Robert C. Shriber of the 39th New York Infantry Regiment-JS), had a room at our house. He also sent a soldier, Jack White, to guard the property. A very nice and decent fellow, so he had his meals with the family and stayed with us even after the army advance to Winchester. – Rutherford, p. 27.

11. Gen. Banks dines with Rutherfords:

On March 10, 1862 (Monday)
Gen. Banks, the day he left, sent his headquarters wagons off early in the morning, expecting to leave soon himself, but being delayed until night, my father told Captain Shriver to invite the General and his staff over to supper with us. The invitation was accepted and very much appreciated by them if judged by the way they ate and their thanks afterward. They left about nine o’clock. – Rutherford, p. 27.

In late May, 1862, General Stonewall Jackson, hoping to culminate his victorious Valley Campaign against Gen. Banks by capturing Harper’s Ferry, failed to do so and retreated back through Charlestown, with a funny incident at the Rutherford house:

12. “We don’t want him!” said the Confederates:
In late May, 1862, Federal soldier Jack White (possibly “John White,” a private in the 39th New York Infantry Regiment under Captain Robert Shriber-JS) re-visited the Rutherfords as Confederate General Stonewall Jackson was driving White’s Federal army under Gen. Banks northward out of the Valley into Maryland. White got ensnared when arriving soldiers under Jackson happened to “look in on” the Rutherford household. Jackson’s men stayed in the area briefly, then leaving upon getting orders of Federal armies forming further south.

Richard Rutherford recalled:
One morning we were all sitting at the breakfast table and suddenly heard shooting on skirmish lines getting closer and closer. Poor Jack White was about through and got up and started to go – but my father told him to finish. In a few minutes men of Jackson’s line, came around the house. Some looked in the window and called out: “Hello there, Yank!” We went to the door and my father spoke to them, telling how White had taken care of the property for some months and could have easily gotten away, but that he (father Thomas Rutherford) had made him stay for breakfast. They said at once: “We don’t want him. . .” So White got on his horse and rode away unmolested. – Rutherford, pp. 27-28.

References:

Interview with descendant Don Amoroso, Shepherdstown, WV July 9, 2014.

General Grant to Gen. Halleck – order stating “a crow would have to carry its own provender” on July 14, 1864:
OFFICIAL RECORDS: Series 1, vol 40, Part 3 (Richmond, Petersburg); Chapter LII. CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. – UNION.
If the enemy has left Maryland, as I suppose he has, he should have upon his heels veterans, militiamen, men on horseback, and everything that can be got to follow to eat out Virginia clear and clean as far as they go, so that crows flying over it for the balance of this season will have to carry their provender with them. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014. p. 223.

1. Tom and Mary Rutherford thrive on political connections and railroad subsidies:

Richard Duffield was paid $2500 in compensation for the railroad’s right-of-way through his land. Duffield used the money to build the depot with the railroad’s blessing, as the railroad preferred to use its capital for the line and to make use of such private depots wherever it could. The depot housed the B&O station master’s living and working quarters. –
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

Source Citation: Year: 1860; Census Place: Charlestown, Jefferson, Virginia; Roll: M653_1355; Page: 797; Image: 147; Family History Library Film: 805355.
Source Information: Ancestry.com. 1860 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2009. Images reproduced by FamilySearch.
Original data: 1860 U.S. census, population schedule. NARA microfilm publication M653, 1,438 rolls. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.

1860 United States Federal Census about Thomas Rutherford
Name: Thomas Rutherford
$36,000 real estate; $6,000 personal property
Age in 1860: 53
Birth Year: abt 1807
Birthplace: Virginia
Home in 1860: Charlestown, Jefferson, Virginia
Gender: Male
Household Members:
Name Age
Thomas Rutherford 53
Mary E Rutherford 45
Ellen D Rutherford 19
Virginia Rutherford 16
Mary Rutherford 12
Drusilla Rutherford 5
Thomas Rutherford 11
Richard Rutherford 10
search.ancestry.com 10 July 1998 Web. 20 June 2014.
search.ancestry.com

Source Citation: Year: 1870; Census Place: Grant, Jefferson, West Virginia; Roll: M593_1689; Page: 555B; Image: 536; Family History Library Film: 553188.
Source Information: Ancestry.com. 1870 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2009. Images reproduced by FamilySearch.
Original data: 1870 U.S. census, population schedules. NARA microfilm publication M593, 1,761 rolls. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.

1870 United States Federal Census about Thomas Rutherford
Name: Thomas Rutherford
$15,000 real estate; $3,000 personal property
Age in 1870: 63
Birth Year: abt 1807
Birthplace: West Virginia
Home in 1870: Grant, Jefferson, West Virginia
Race: White
Gender: Male
Post Office: Charles Town
Household Members:
Name Age
Thomas Rutherford 63
Mary E Rutherford 55
Thomas Rutherford 20
Richard Rutherford 19
Drucilla D Rutherford 15
Madison Taylor 30
Mary Ford 20
Maggie Dickson 20
search.ancestry.com 10 July 1998 Web. 20 June 2014.

2. The Fissure Opens – John Brown nails the issue and is hanged.

Recollections of Richard D. Rutherford. (December, 1993). “The Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society.” Volume LIX. Edited by Cecil D. Eby. Charles Town, WV: Jefferson County Historical Society. Print. pp. 17-41.

3. July, 1861: The flag from “The Ladies of Jefferson County” & First time face-to_face With Federals:

Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 33, Issue: 194, July, 1866. pp. 137-160. Print.

Strother, David H. (July, 1866). “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harpers Magazine. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014.
More . . .

Virginia Rutherford McMechem’s account in 1920 of the flag they made for Stonewall Jackson:
This flag was made in Richmond, Virginia by George C. Ruskeil Manufacturers for the 2nd Virginia Regiment in the Spring of 1861 under the direction of Daniel B. Lucas of Charles Town. The companies composing the Second Regiment mostly belonged to Jefferson and Clark Counties. The flag arrived in Winchester, Va. on the 17th July, just as the Brigade was about to leave for Manassas Junction on 18th of July. The 1st (Stonewall) Brigade marched out of Winchester with the flag flying at the head of the Second Virginia Regiment. The purchase money was given me by Thomas Rutherford of Charles Town and several of his friends as a gift to the Regiment. Thomas Rutherford did not desire to appear so prominent in the matter, so it was allowed to go as from the Ladies of Jefferson County. On the 21st of July, date of 1st Manassas, this was the only flag carried into the battle by the First Brigade and the only Virginia flag in Jackson’s command, other troops being put under his command after he arrived on the field. Soon after 1st Manassas Thomas J. Jackson was appointed Major General and took command of the First Division of the Army of Northern Virginia; the Stonewall Brigade still holding its own, as the First Brigade of the Division. Colonel James Walkinson Allen succeeded Jackson as its commander and not long afterward was killed at Gaines Mill on the 27th June 1862. Due to confusion created by units carrying different flags after 1st Manassas the 30th October 1861 saw Governor Letcher present every Virginia regiment with a bunting flag. Colonel Allen returned the 2nd Virginia’s Flag to Charles Town for safe keeping. Latter one afternoon in late 1861, Brigadier General Torbett of the U.S.Army was encamped around Charles Town with his Cavalry command. His Staff officers had pitched their tents in the beautiful grounds surrounding the Rutherford home and were lying all about on the grass. A little bare footed colored girl came into the yard and wound her way among them, carrying a small package wrapped in a newspaper. Coming to a side door she handed the package to a member of the family saying, “Give this to Miss Ginny Rutherford”, and darted away. The Family never learned who the child was. Thomas Rutherford wrapped the flag carefully and put it under an iron hearth in the bed-room where it remained until after the close of the war. There were other treasures there also, which if they had been found by U.S.Soldiers, would have been to them ample reason for reducing the home to ashes. In 1920 Mrs. Virginia Rutherford McMechen wrote down the colourful history of the banner. Subsequently the flag came into possession of her niece, Miss Emily T. Rutherford of Baltimore, Md, who presented it to the Virginia Military Institute in January 1959. In 1976 this historic flag came into the care of Mrs. June Cunningham, VMI Museum Director. The museum has provided it with a climate-controlled atmosphere while awaiting funds for professional restoration. In 1985 Mrs. Lise Putnam Liddell of Houston, Texas generously provided the funds for restoration. It was restored by Ms. Becky Sudsbury of the Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts in Winston Salem, North Carolina. A proper case has been constructed for the flag and it is held proudly at the VMI Museum. 2ndvirginiacsa.tripiod.com 16 May 2013 Web 20 June 2014.

4. Future Federal General Francis Barlow bemoans Charlestown:

Barlow, Francis C. (2004) “Fear Was Not In Him: The Civil War Letters of Major General Francis C. Barlow, U.S.A.,” ed. Christian G. Samito. New York, NY: Fordham University Press. Print.

The sources of the following chapterettes are already-mentioned:
5. A Rutherford relative teases the Federal pickets;
6. Sister Virginia recounts how the gift flag comes back to the Rutherfords;
7. February 27-28, 1862 Federal General Nathaniel Banks crossed the Potomac with 30,000 men.

8. A misunderstanding about “church” music at the Charlestown Presbyterian church

Bryant, Edwin E. (1891). “History of the Third regiment of Wisconsin veteran volunteer infantry 1861-1865.” Cleveland, OH: Arthur H. Clark company. Print.

Bryant, Edwin E. (1891). “History of the Third regiment of Wisconsin veteran volunteer infantry 1861-1865.” Internet Archives archive.org 9 August 2002 Web. 20 April 2014.

Our sojourn in Charlestown was exceedingly disagreeable to the inhabitants. It annoyed them to have their churches occupied by Yankee soldiers; and the little organ was kept in full blast in one of the churches occupied by a part of the Third, while a hundred or more stout lungs vented the song, then new and expressive of the northern feeling: “John Brown’s body lies a-mouldering in the grave, But his soul is marching on.’

The boys of the regiment determined to keep that song going constantly during our stay in Charlestown; and though we staid there several days they came near keeping good the resolve. The song and the throats of the singers were rather worn-out and ragged for sometime after. It is to be feared that the organ was a little wheezy, too.

While here, the commanders were besieged with complaints from the citizens. Their geese, turkeys and chickens disappeared. They murmured that “private property was not respected.” The orders were strict enough; and officers did not countenance their violation. But so it was, everywhere that soldiers marched a great mortality prevailed among poultry, pigs and sheep. The women were most indignant and most outspoken. They took such revenge as bitter tongues and prayers that we might be exterminated could afford them. One well-to-do farmer protested against his corn and grain being taken as he had a large number of negroes dependent on him for support. In a week he was doing his own chores, milking with his own hands his last cow, and as woe-begone a secessionist as could be found anywhere. His slaves had left him; and his stock and poultry had joined the Union side, too. – Bryant, pp. 40-41 in Charles Town with Gen. Banks; spring, 1862.

Thomas H.Ruger
Thomas H. Ruger, had graduated with honors at West Point, in 1854, and served as lieutenant of engineers, entrusted with important work under Beauregard, while that officef was in the United States army. He had resigned the service six years before. – wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

A VIRGINIA YANKEE IN THE CIVIL WAR THE DIARIES OF DAVID HUNTER STROTHER (1961). Edited with an Introduction by Cecil D. Eby, Jr. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. Print.

A VIRGINIA YANKEE IN THE CIVIL WAR THE DIARIES OF DAVID HUNTER STROTHER (1961). Edited with an Introduction by Cecil D. Eby, Jr. Internet Archives archive.org 9 August 2002 Web. 20 April 2014.

February 28, 1862: I left the staff at General Banks’ request and returned to Charles Town. I saw Mr. Dutton flying along the street and hailed him. He greeted me and said he was going to see about the occupation of his church. I went with him and found Colonel [Thomas H.] Ruger’s Wisconsin men in occupation and taking up the carpets. The preacher was for getting out the pulpit furniture, Bibles, and candelabras. Presently looking toward the organ he saw a platoon of rugged-looking fellows around the organ and fumbling with the music books of the choir. He looked in agony at the prospective destruction and desecration. A moment after, the books were all open and fifty accordant voices rose in a thrilling anthem that filled the church with solemn music. The alarmed clergyman paused a moment. His face became calm and solemn. He turned to the officer in command: “You need not move the furniture from the pulpit, Sir. It will be safe, I feel assured. . . .” (The Reverend W. B. Dutton was the Presbyterian minister at Charles Town from 1849 to 1874).
Strother, p. 5.

In 1851 the congregation moved to the current location on East Washington Street. The present sanctuary was built and soon thereafter the manse was built next door for the Pastor and his family. ctpres.org 21 December 1999 Web. 20 June 2014.

The sources of the following chapterettes are already-mentioned:
9. Tempers flash over stolen pigs, poultry and cows;
10.Young Richard Rutherford had much better luck with the Rutherford’s cows thanks to food bribes;
11.Gen. Banks dines with the Rutherfords;
12.“We don’t want him!” said the Confederates.

Image Credits:

Images of Thomas Rutherford and group image of Mary E., and sons Thomas and Richard, circa 1870s – courtesy Don Amoroso.

The Execution of John Brown; John Brown
David Hunter Strother Collection West Virginia Historical Art Collection West Virginia Regional History Collection WVU Library.
wvu.edu 20 November 1999 Web. 25 May 2014.

a. Strother, David Hunter; Charleston, Va. The Execution of John Brown, December 2nd 1859 (W1995.030.374)
images.lib.wvu.edu 20 November 1999 Web. 25 May 2014.

b. Strother, David Hunter; John Brown (W1995.030.394pg20b)
images.lib.wvu.edu 20 November 1999 Web. 25 May 2014.

“Virginia Rutherford McMecham” (semblance)
David Hunter Strother Collection West Virginia Historical Art Collection West Virginia Regional History Collection WVU Library.
wvu.edu 20 November 1999 Web. 25 May 2013.

St. George’s Chapel 1862
Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 33, Issue: 194, July, 1866. Print.

Strother, David H. (July, 1866). “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harpers Magazine. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014.
p. 137.
More. . .

Flags
2ndvirginiacsa.tripod.com 16 May 2013 Web 1 July 2014.

Soldiers bathing, North Anna River, Va.–ruins of railroad bridge in background
Creator(s): O’Sullivan, Timothy H., 1840-1882, photographer
Date Created/Published: 1864 May.
memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

detail of photos of men in the 12th New York militia that encamped outside Charlestown, Va. in July, 1861, including Francis Barlow and Carlton Richards.
dmna.ny.gov 30 January 2012 Web 10 May 2014.

Portrait of Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, officer of the Federal Army
Creator(s): Brady National Photographic Art Gallery (Washington, D.C.), photographer
Date Created/Published: [Between 1860 and 1865]
memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

Gen. Phil Sheridan and Staff
Date Created/Published: [Jan. 3, 1865]
Medium: 1 negative : glass, wet collodion.
Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-cwpbh-03133 (digital file from original neg.)
memory.loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

General Jackson’s “Chancellorsville” Portrait, taken at a Spotsylvania County farm on April 26, 1863, seven days before his mortal wounding at the Battle of Chancellorsville.
Date 26 April 1863
Source Derivative (crop) of: File:Photograph of General Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson – NARA – 526067.tif
Author Unknown
commons.wikimedia.org 15 September 2004 Web. 20 April 2014.

J.E.B.Stuart
civilwardailygazette.com 11 November 2010 Web. 10 July 2014.

The Battle Flag of the Army of Northern Virginia
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

U.S. 35 Stars (1863-1864) flags
theflagshop.net 24 May 2000 Web. 10 July 2014.

detail from photo – courtesy Ann Cross and Don Amoroso of Mary E. Rutherford and her two sons Richard and Thomas in the 1870s.

“Mary E. (Mrs. Thomas) Rutherford” circa 1840s (semblance)
David Hunter Strother Collection West Virginia Historical Art Collection West Virginia Regional History Collection WVU Library.
wvu.edu 20 November 1999 Web. 25 May 2013.

Strother, David Hunter; 1845. Winchester. Va (W1995.030.388pg7)
Date January 1857
Title 1845. Winchester. Va
Collection West Virginia Historical Art Collection
Type Drawing
Identifier W1995.030.388pg7
Nationality American 1816-1888
Medium Pen and ink wash, some white and brown highlights, some pencil
wvu.edu 1999 Web. 25 May 2014.

Duffields Station Today
National Register Nomination
West Virginia Archives & History
wvculture.org 2 March 2000 Web. 1 Oct. 2011.

“Richard D. Rutherford” (boy holding goose)(semblance)
David Hunter Strother Collection West Virginia Historical Art Collection West Virginia Regional History Collection WVU Library.
wvu.edu 20 November 1999 Web. 25 May 2013.

Strother, David Hunter; Berkeley Springs, 1846 (W1995.030.388pg12)
Collection West Virginia Historical Art Collection
Type Drawing
Identifier W1995.030.388pg12
Nationality American 1816-1888
Medium Pen and ink, some pencil, some white highlights
wvu.edu 1999 Web. 25 May 2014.

First Battle of Bull Run Kurz & Allison Public Domain
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

scared boys in the bushes
Crayon, Porte (Strother, D. H.). “The Mountains. Pt. IV.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 44, Issue: 267, August, 1872. p. 362. Print.

Crayon, Porte.. (August, 1872). “The Mountains. Pt. IV.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014.
p. 347.
More . . .

Drawing Charles Town, Va.
Brown, Howell S. “Map of Jefferson County, Virginia From Actual Surveys With Farm Limits, 1852.” Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society Vol. XLV. (1979): pp. 1-7. Print.

Brown, S. Howell. (1852). “Map of Jefferson County, Virginia from actual survey with the farm limits.” United States. The Library of Congress: American Memory. “Maps Collection.” 27 Oct. 2009 Web. 10 Sept. 2010.

Francis_C._Barlow
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

Original-john-brown-words-george-kimball-1890 Public Domain
James E. Greenleaf, C. S. Hall, C. B. Marsh – Cornell University Library Making of America Collection. The original publication of the text of the “John Brown Song”, “From an Original in the Possession of Mr. Abram E. Cutter of Charlestown”, according to George Kimball and as re-published in George Kimball, “Origin of the John Brown Song”, New England Magazine, new series 1 (1890):374.
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

Charles Town Presbyterian Church, exterior, sanctuary, organ loft in 2014. – by Jim Surkamp.

Rev. Warren B. Dutton, DD of the Presbyterian Church from 1842-1866 – courtesy of the Charles Town Presbyterian Church.

(Library of Congress photograph cropped from a three-image photo) Thos. H. Ruger. CREATED/PUBLISHED [between 1860 and 1870] NOTES Title from unverified information on negative sleeve. Annotation from negative, scratched on emulsion: 1673. Forms part of Civil War glass negative collection (Library of Congress). SUBJECTS United States–History–Civil War, 1861-1865. Portrait photographs–1860-1870. Glass negatives–1860-1870. MEDIUM 1 negative : glass, wet collodion. CALL NUMBER LC-B814- 1673 REPRODUCTION NUMBER LC-DIG-cwpb-04479 DLC (digital file from original neg.) SPECIAL TERMS OF USE No known restrictions on publication.
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

Mary Rutherford (1847-1937)
Owner/Source Mary H. Tayloe
File name Rutherford_Mary#0252A – 2000-07-07 at 16-15-34.jpg
File Size 2.68m
Dimensions 1263 x 1806
Caption Mary Rutherford b. 1847 d. 1937 m. Archibald H. Asquith Submitted by Mary H. Tayloe
wmstrother.org 12 December 1998 Web. 20 June 2014.

Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 35, Issue: 210, November, 1867. Print.

Strother, David H. (November, 1867). “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harpers Magazine. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014.
p. 708.

More. . .

The Most “Civil-Warred” Home – Unburned – in Jefferson County (2) by Jim Surkamp

7272 words

https://web.archive.org/web/20190710015427/https://civilwarscholars.com/2014/07/the-most-civil-warred-home-unburned-home-in-jefferson-county-2-by-jim-surkamp/

Flickr Images. 18 images. https://www.flickr.com/photos/jimsurkamp/sets/72157645932550985/

Summary:

Thomas and Mary Rutherford and their eight children – alongside the war’s flailing claws – had a flag made for Stonewall Jackson to take into battle in 1861 at First Manassas/Bull Run; entertained at dinner Federal General Nathaniel Banks with Stonewall’s returned flag precariously hidden away in an upstairs hearth; enjoyed Sam Sweeney’s banjo as he sat beside Gen J.E.B. Stuart who was visiting and sharing momentos with the family of his ride around Gen. McClellan’s army in October, 1862. They cared for wounded in late 1862, one who died and they buried. Daughter Mary dodged a bullet fired at her upstairs window, all while our callow narrator, Richard, nosed around town, saw things, and above all daily milked their two cows, that he often had to roam to find, bribing thankful Federal pickets with pie.Then the most historic two hours at Rutherford House/Carriage Inn was the meeting of Federal Generals Grant and Sheridan (almost two years to the day after the terrible Antietam/Sharpsburg battle), having surrounded the Rutherford home with a huge security cordon, and used new information smuggled into them by an African-American named Thomas Laws – correctly convincing them the time was propitious to attack Confederate General Jubal Early on the Opequon Creek. A lasting memory after the war was, for Richard, – one night sky’s hideous glow in all directions from the burning barns and, in some cases, homes torched as part of General Sheridan’s punitive campaign through the Valley, the one where his orders from Grant were curt and cruel – so that, to periphrase, a crow flying overhead would have to carry its own rations. Part Two here is about events affecting the Rutherfords in 1862, 1863 and the second half of 1864.

Chapterettes:

1. September, 1862: A Gift of sweets to Stonewall before battle

2. Sept.-Oct., 1862: A wounded man dies, even though Richard tries.

3. Monday, October 6, 1862: Stonewall writes his thanks.

4. Tuesday, October 7, 1862: Ellen, and Ginny Rutherford likely go to the Ball at the Bower.

5. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart brings his banjo-man to the Rutherfords’.

6. October 16-17, 1862: The Rutherfords save a hospital attendant and a wounded Confederate officer at their home from arrest by Federals.

7. We only wonder what sorrow the next day might bring.

8. Sunday, October 18, 1863 – Sleeping Mary Rutherford gets a bullet through her window during a rout.

9. Young Robert W. Baylor, Jr. takes a mad, galloping gamble:

10.Sunday, July 17, 1864: General David Hunter’s order is carried out to burn the home of Andrew Hunter, his cousin, near the Rutherfords’.

11.Tuesday, November 29, 1864 – Young Robert Baylor is killed east of Charlestown. On the Eve of the Battles of Antietam and Harper’s Ferry:

1. A Gift of sweets to Stonewall before battleCarriagae_Inn_2_1_Stonewall_Treats_TITLE_1 September 12-15, 1862, Harper’s Ferry and environs: In position for attacking, surrounding and capturing Harper’s Ferry east of Halltown on Schoolhouse Ridge, Gen. Jackson was pleased to accept some delectables sent to him by Mrs. Rutherford, three miles to the west. After the Antietam Battle, the Confederate Army moves into Virginia and along the Opequon, with Gen. Stuart at the home of the Dandridge family, called The Bower in Jefferson County. Gen. Jackson’s men, and briefly General Robert E. Lee, encamped to the west in the vicinity of Bunker Hill, Va. (now West Virginia).

2. Sept-Oct., 1862: A wounded man dies, even though Richard tries.Carriage_Inn_2_2_FINAL_TITLE Thousands of wounded from the fighting filled homes across the County, including the Rutherfords in Charlestown. Richard Rutherford recalls what must have been a maturing experience helping a dying man – “Captain Keels” – from South Carolina.A Captain Keels from South Carolina was brought to our home very badly wounded and lived but a day or two. My mother left him to me to look after, as she and my sister were caring for others who filled the house. She and others of the family came at times to see how I was getting on. On the second day, I think it was, I noticed a change to his breathing and so called my mother. She came in just as he breathed his last. We came out and closed the door and then I returned with two soldier nurses and prepared his body for burial. – Rutherford, p. 34. (Keels was buried with a short service by Rev. Dutton in Edge Hill cemetery, along with many others.-JS)

3. Monday, October 6, 1862 – Confederate General Stonewall Jackson writes his thanks to Mrs. Rutherford:Carriage_Inn_2_3_FINAL_TITLE My dear Mrs. Rutherford, Your delicious present and kind note reached me when I was near Halltown (September 14-15th-JS) and I much regret not being able to call and see you and return my thanks in person, but at this late day I beg you to accept them.I hope sometime to have the pleasure of again visiting your house & meeting you & yours. Please remember me very kindly to Mr. R and the family. Your much attached friend – T. J. Jackson

4. Tuesday, October 7, 1862: Ellen, and Ginny Rutherford likely go to the Ball at the Dandridge’s Bower: Carriage_Inn_2_4_Ball_TITLE_FINAL Young women from Charlestown and Shepherdstown were invited to this grand ball and fetched by van. The following day Gen. Stuart was ordered to cross the Potomac above Williamsport with 1,200 or 1,500 cavalry (NOTE: 1800, in Stuart’s report.-JS), and endeavor to ascertain the position and designs of the enemy. Being friends of Gen. Stuart who arranged the event, 22-year-old Ellen and 18-year- old Virginia (“Ginny”) Rutherford certainly were invited and it is hard to imagine anything that could keep them from going. (“Eighteen” was not too young for a woman to attend. 18-year-old Netta Edmonia Lee from Shepherdstown attended.-JS)

The Bower and the Grand Ball’s Music Program: Grand Overture – Orchestra Cottage By The Sea – Sweeney. Lilly, Dear – Sweeney. When The Swallows Homeward Fly sung by Stuart Looka Thar Now by Capt. Tiernan Brien Going Down To Town played by Sweeney I Ain’t Got No Time To Tarry Evelyn Lively Piece Soldier’s Dream Ever of Thee Money Musk Old Grey Horse

The Dandridge family and many of the people who were living of visiting The Bower in October, 1862:Bower.Map_.LookalikeBower.25.Perfect.Days_Bower.Then_.Now_ASDII.SCDAlexSDEPD.NDLPD.ASDIIISPD.SCDJEB.StuartFL.RL_.WH_3HVB.JEC_.WB_JBF.LTB.WAMJP.TR.RCPMM.SS_CD.NRF_.HBM_1Bob.Gilbert.Wm_CF.DD_FoxesTuesday evening, October 7 – Sweeney’s “orchestra” at The Bower as described by William Blackford:

We had at headquarters a capital band of singers who were accompanied by Sweeney on his banjo; Bob, The General’s mulatto servant, on the bones, and occasionally, by a violin, and other instruments. But the main standby was Sweeney and his banjo, and every evening at The Bower this formed a part of the entertainment. – Blackford, pp 161-162.

Gen. Stuart’s adjutant, Heros Von Borcke, gives his own first-hand account of his October 7th masquerade in which he – with his massive frame – and fellow cavalryman, Tiernan Brien, convinced everyone – for a while – that he was the “blushing” spouse of “The Pennsylvania Farmer:”On the 7th, a grand ball was to take place at The Bower, to which Mr D. had invited families from Martinsburg, Shepherdstown, and Charlestown, and in the success of which we all felt a great interest. As an exceptional bit of fun, Colonel Brien and I had secretly prepared a little pantomime, ‘The Pennsylvania Farmer and his Wife,’ in which the Colonel was to personate the farmer and I the spouse. Accordingly, when the guests had all assembled and the ball was quite en train, the immense couple entered the brilliantly lighted apartment – Brien enveloped in an ample greatcoat, which had been stuffed with pillows until the form of the wearer had assumed the most enormous proportions; I dressed in an old white ball-dress of Mrs D.’s that had been enlarged in every direction, and sweetly ornamented with half-a-bushel of artificial flowers in my hair. Our success greatly outran our expectations. Stuart, exploding with laughter, scrutinized me closely on all sides, scarcely crediting the fact that within that tall bundle of feminine habiliments dwelt the soul of his Chief of Staff. Again and again we were made to repeat our little play in dumb show, until, getting tired of it and wishing to put a stop to it, I gracefully fainted away and was carried from the room by Brien and three or four assistants, amid the wild applause of the company, who insisted on a repetition of the fainting scene. When, in a few moments, I made my appearance in uniform, the laughter and applause recommenced, and Stuart, throwing his arms around my neck in a burlesque of pathos, said, ‘My dear old Von, if I could ever forget you as I know you on the field of battle, your appearance as a woman would never fade from my memory.’ So the joyous night went on with dancing and merriment, until the sun stole in at the windows, and the reveille sounding from camp reminded us that the hour of separation had arrived. – Von Borcke, pp. 293-294.

Cavalryman William Blackford also wrote of that memorable night:

Von Borcke and Brien were taken secretly upstairs for preparations under the the Dandridge’s care. Von Borcke was transformed into a blushing maiden weighing two hundred and fifty pounds and six feet, two and a half inches tall; a riding skirt of one of the girls, supplemented by numerous dainty underskirts and extended by enormous hoops according to the fashion then in vogue, hung in graceful folds to conceal the huge cavalry boots the huge damsel wore. Her naturally ample bosom palpitated under skillfully arranged pillows, and was gorgeously decorated with the Dandridge family jewelry and ribbons; while ‘a love of a bonnet,’ long braids of hair, and quantities of powder and rouge completed her toilet, and in her hand she flirted coquettishly with a fan of huge dimensions. When there was an invited company and the parlors were all full, Von Borcke and Brien gave us another capital performance. When they made their appearance in the ballroom the surprise was complete. Both acted their parts to perfection. Paddy entertained the fair girl on his arm with loud and humorous remarks as they sauntered around the room, to which she replied with simpering affectation that was irresistibly ludicrous. No one had the faintest conception as to who they were, so perfect was the disguise. Before the company recovered from the surprise of their appearance the music struck up a lively waltz, and ’round and ’round the couple went, faster, and faster went the music, and faster and faster flew the strangers. It was not until in the fury of the whirling dance with hoop skirts flying horizontally, that twinkling amid the white drapery beneath, the well-known boots of Von Borcke betrayed the first suspicion of who the lady was. – Blackford, pp. 158-159.

5. Late October, 1862 – Gen. J.E.B. Stuart brings his banjo-man to the Rutherfords’.Carriage_Inn_2_5_FINAL_TITLE Rutherford recalled Gen. J.E.B. Stuart’s visit to the Rutherford home after his cavalrymen entered Pennsylvania from the Bower via Williamsport, MD and rode around the entire Federal army commanded by Gen. George McClellan, returning safely to the Bower on October 14th:Rutherford wrote: Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, after his raid on Chambersburg, camped at The Bower, the home of the Dandridges, a few miles from Charlestown, to rest his command, and, as was his custom when near to us, he came to visit us. He told us many things about his trip around the Yankee army. While there (at the Rutherford home), he took from his pocket a large oak leaf, pinned it in a floral album on the table and wrote: “This leaf was plucked by me in the Blue Ridge Pass on my return from the raid around General McClellan’s army,” with the date and other comments. Jeb Stuart often brought his aide, Sweeney, who was a famous banjo-picker, and used to sit on one side of the sofa with Sweeney on the other, telling him what to play. – Rutherford, p. 42.

6. October 16-17, 1862: The Rutherfords save a hospital attendant and a wounded Confederate officer at their home from arrest by Federals:Federal General Winfield Hancock’s official report and Richard Rutherford’s recollections both depict an artillery exchange east of Charlestown, eventually won by the Federals, that left one Confederate artillerist, Captain Benjamin H. Smith, badly wounded in the foot. He was carried to the Rutherford’s house with help from a soldier just called “Red.Events.1862.21 Richard Rutherford wrote: The Union commander at Harper’s Ferry finally sent out several very large scouting parties, in all some four or five thousand men – infantry, cavalry and artillery. One, I remember, was under General Hancock and another under General Geary. The Confederates in number resisted, and they clashed hard on the hill just below our house. We all had to take to the cellar, and stay there until nearly all day, as shells and balls were thick and fast. After the clash, my brother and I picked up six or seven shells that had fallen in the next yard, in line with, but a bit short of our house. – Rutherford, pp. 29-30.Federal commander Winfield Hancock wrote of the same events in his report: On the 16th instant, in obedience to instructions, I marched toward Charlestown, Va., with my division and 1,500 men of other divisions, under command of Col. W.(illiam) R.(aymond) Lee, Twentieth Massachusetts Volunteers, and a force of cavalry, with a battery of four guns (horse artillery), Colonel Devin being in command thereof. . . . The advance of our column encountered the enemy’s pickets beyond Halltown, drove them in, and pursued until, when within short artillery range of the high ground this side of Charlestown, the enemy was found posted. He opened fire upon us with artillery. Our horse artillery battery, supported by Capt. M. A. Reno’s First Cavalry, then engaged the enemy, who opened fire from five guns, and deployed dismounted cavalry as skirmishers on their front and flanks. The town was at once taken possession of and the troops suitably disposed for defense. Toward evening our infantry advanced and occupied the heights surrounding the town, within artillery range. . . The command remained in Charlestown until about 2 pm. The next day (October 17th), when we received orders to return. . . Richard Rutherford wrote of their wounded Captain and his care-giver: Carriage_Inn_2_6_Smith In one of these battles Captain B. H. Smith (Benjamin H. Smith-JS), one of the Richmond Howitzer outfit, had his foot shot nearly off, and was brought into our house. As the Confederates were falling back, he was left with us. One of his men, by the name of “Red,” was left to nurse him. Dr. Mason and Dr. Cordell operated on his foot on our dining room table the same day, taking off a little more of his foot. “Red” was taking a basin of water into the operation for the doctors when the Yankees saw him on the porch and started to take him away. My mother rushed out and explained to them that the man was nursing his captain and they must not take him. One of them said: “But suppose he gets away?” My mother replied: “Then you can take me” – so they let him stay. Captain Smith and “Red” stayed with us until he was able to get around on crutches, when he returned to his home in Richmond. – Rutherford, pp. 29-30. Federal General Hancock found a hundred officers like Captain Smith in Charlestown, but couldn’t arrest them all because many were badly wounded: Col_J_R_Brooke_Named_Comment While in Charlestown I appointed Col. J. R. Brooke, of the Fifty-third Pennsylvania Volunteers, military governor, the better to preserve order. About 100 officers and soldiers of the Confederate Army were found in the town, consisting entirely, it is believed, of surgeons, hospital attendants, convalescents, and sick. Twenty-six were sent to the provost-marshal at Harper’s Ferry, and 38 wounded and unable to be removed, were paroled. Time did not permit the paroling of all who were severely wounded, as they were scattered throughout the town, requiring more time than we had for the purpose, to find them. – W. HANCOCK, Chapter XIX, Official Record, Series I, Part 2, Vol. 19. pp. 91-92. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014.

Spring, 1863: 7. We only wonder what sorrow the next day might bring. Carriage_Inn_2_7_FINAL_TITLE No one who did not actually live in or around Charlestown can realize the trying times we suffered during the four years of war. We could only wonder what trouble and sorrow the next day might bring to some of us. Often when a battle was in progress, our people would gather on the hills outside of town where we could hear the roar of cannon, and often even volleys of musketry . . .Very often we could not locate exactly where (the heavy fighting was in progress), but in the next day or two some of our boys would come in wounded or bring home the dead. – Rutherford, p. 33.dhs.2.womancab.150 We could get nothing in the way of clothing except gray cloth made by the factories in the county, so everyone dressed in gray. The ladies, dressed also in gray, made belts with pockets hanging to them under their skirts. When the cry went up: “Here come the Yankees,” my mother and sisters would run and fill these pockets with silverware and other valuables and what money my father might have at the time. They often carried this weight with them all day long, and at night would put the belts under their pillows. – Rutherford, p. 33.Carriage_Inn_2_7_Newspapers_TITLE_FINAL My brother and I, almost every day, would go into the country to some farmer’s house along the Baltimore and Ohio railroad and get newspapers which the trainmen would throw off as the train passed. This was the only way we got newspapers for a long time. Richmond papers were at a premium and we only got them when some of our own boys came home and brought them along. No matter what we were doing, when the papers came all work would stop as we rushed to hear the latest news. – Rutherford, p. 41.

8. Sunday, October 18, 1863 – Sleeping Mary Rutherford gets a bullet through her window during a rout.She (Mary Aisquith) narrowly escaped being shot on one occasion. General Imboden and his men shelled the courthouse in Charles Town and the Federal Col. B.L. Simpson, 9th Maryland Infantry Regiment had to surrender. Aisquith recalled: Carriage_Inn_2_8_Mary_TITLE_FINAL His (Simpson’s) officers fled before the enemy, leaving their men to shift for themselves. These officers ran down the railroad near our house. I was in bed at the time. All at once I heard something whizz over me and strike the wall on the other side of the room. A shot had been fired into the room.” – Mary Rutherford Aisquith, The Farmer’s Advocate, September 8, 1934.Confederate Gen. John Imboden reports on shelling the Courthouse, capturing the soldiers of the 9th Maryland Infantry and their flight past the Rutherfords en route to Harper’s Ferry, who claimed they were being fired upon from homes, including the Rutherford’s:Carriage_Inn_2_8_Imboden_TITLE_FINAL I found the enemy occupying the court-house, jail, and some contiguous buildings in the heart of the town, all loop-holed for musketry, and the court-house yard inclosed by a heavy wall of oak timber. To my demand for a surrender Colonel Simpson requested an hour for consideration. I offered him five minutes, to which he replied, “Take us if you can.” I immediately opened on the buildings with artillery at less than 200 yards, and with half a dozen shells drove out the enemy into the streets, when he formed and fled toward Harpers Ferry. – J. IMBODEN (Commander of Confederate force), Chapter XLI, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 29, pp. 490-492. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014.

1864:9. Young Robert W. Baylor, Jr. takes a mad, galloping gamble:Carriage_Inn_2_9_Baylor_Chase_TITLE_FINAL Another time I saw R. W. Baylor, Jr., a cousin of mine . . . and though he did not belong to the army, and lived at home with his mother and younger members of his family, he always carried a revolver. He was on his way into town one day and had ridden down under the stone bridge (Evitt’s Run under Washington Street-JS) to give his horse some water. He saw five Yankees turn the corner from the Berryville Pike going to Harper’s Ferry. One was leading an extra horse and (Baylor) was only a block from them. Baylor drew his revolver and with a Rebel yell, he took after them. They bolted pell mell through the town with Tud (as we called him) after them. He caught the Yankee who was leading the extra horse on Hunter’s Hill and returned with the prisoner and two horses. He turned the man loose, but took the two horses home with him. With his own horse and the other two he put out a crop of wheat for the home folks – then took his horse and went off into the army. – Rutherford, p. 37.

10. Sunday, July 17, 1864: Federal General David Hunter’s order is carried out to burn the home of Andrew Hunter, his cousin, near the Rutherford’s. Andrew Hunter’s family took refuge at the Rutherfords:Carriage_Inn_2_10_Hunter_TITLE_FINAL One Sunday morning, we were all at church, except my father, who had stayed home. Some ten or fifteen of Baylor’s boys had come into town, and as all seemed quiet and peaceful, some of them had ventured to attend church. The minister was in the midst of his sermon when we were startled by several shouts out in front. All made a rush to get the soldiers out first. A squad of Yankees had passed, shooting at some of our boys who were visiting at their homes, but who had fled at the first alarm of their picket. Those at church had their horses tied behind the church and so succeeded in getting away over the fence in the rear before the main body of the Yankees got as far as the church. One of our men, a friend of my father’s – Newton Sadler, had left his porch talking when the Yankees dashed by. My father put him up in the attic right under a slate roof, and as it was very warm weather, he almost roasted to death. My sister took him ice water often through the day, which enabled him to survive the imprisonment. These Yankees had orders from General Hunter to burn Mr. Andrew Hunter’s house. They were first cousins. Andrew Hunter was home, but they caught him and brought him to our house, where his daughters were; so now we were in a tight place with Mr. Hunter and Yankee officers downstairs and Nate Sadler hid up in the attic! – Rutherford, p. 38.My mother talked with the officer in command (Captain William Franklin Martindale of the 1st New York Cavalry-JS) and tried to persuade them not to burn the Hunter house, but to give her time to go to Harper’s Ferry to see General Kelley, who was of no use. The men carried great armfuls of hay into each room and put it all to the match. The beautiful home was soon in flames. Nothing was saved, but the clothes the family wore. My mother and I, with the help of an old Irishman who lived with us, dragged the piano to the door and would have gotten it out had the soldiers not made us let it alone. When I saw that beautiful home in ruins, I thought no punishment was too great for General Hunter. – Rutherford, p. 39.

11. Tuesday, November 29, 1864 – Young Robert Baylor is killed east of Charlestown: Carriage_Inn_2_11_Baylor_TITLE_FINAL Stealthily moving on, the sleeping camp was entered, and the occupants awoke to find themselves prisoners. There was sudden confusion and scampering among the enemy. Some twenty of their number, lodged in a stone house nearby, opened fire on us. Recognizing the gravity of the situation, we rushed upon the house, and, seizing the doors and windows, poured several volleys into the building. Just as George Creaton (Crayton), my brother Robert W. Baylor, Jr. (a boy of seventeen) and myself entered the door, several shots were fired by the inmates, one mortally injuring my brother and another severely injuring Creaton. After a few minutes the cry of surrender came from the group huddled together in the building, and the firing ceased. My brother and Creaton were removed to the house of Dr. Mason, who had been for years our family physician, and where I knew they would be well cared for. My brother died in a few hours, but Creaton rallied for a while and died soon after the close of the war. Baylor, pp. 265-266.Carriage_Inn_2_11_Baylor_BoysReferences:

1. A Gift of sweets to Stonewall before battle – letter courtesy Don Amoroso.

2. Sept-Oct., 1862: A wounded man dies, even though Richard tries.

– Rutherford, p. 34. from Recollections of Richard D. Rutherford. (December, 1993). “The Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society.” Volume LIX. Edited by Cecil D. Eby. Charles Town, WV: Jefferson County Historical Society. Print. pp. 17-41.

3. Monday, October 6, 1862 – Confederate General Stonewall Jackson writes his thanks to Mrs. Rutherford:

Letter from Stonewall Jackson to Mary Rutherford – courtesy Don Amoroso.

4. Tuesday, October 7, 1862: Ellen, and Ginny Rutherford likely go to the Ball at the Dandridge’s Bower:

The Bower and the Grand Ball’s Music Program – Peggy Vogtsberger. “This Fine Music.”
(NOTE: This program first appeared in an article in Volume 10, No. 4 of The Cannoneer. Sources: Burke Davis, “The Swinging Sweeneys,” The Iron Worker, Autumn, 1969, contributed by Wes Rine. Bob Trout confirmed the dates and information).
gallantpelham.org 3 February 2006 Web. 20 June 2014.

Blackford, William W. (1945). “War Years with Jeb Stuart.” New York, NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons. Print.

Blackford, William W. (1945). “War Years with Jeb Stuart.” Google Books. 19 July 2008. Web. 24 Dec. 2010.
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Von Borcke, Heros. (1867). “Memoirs of the Confederate war for independence.” Philadelphia. PA: J. B. Lippincott & Co. Print.

Von Borcke, Heros. (1867). “Memoirs of the Confederate war for independence.” Internet Archives archive.org 9 August 2002 Web. 20 April 2014. pp. 293-294.
More. . .

5. Late October, 1862 – Gen. J.E.B. Stuart brings his banjo-man to the Rutherfords’.
– Rutherford, p. 42.

6. October 16-17, 1862: The Rutherfords save a hospital attendant and a wounded Confederate officer at their home from arrest by Federals.

Report – W. HANCOCK, Chapter XIX, Official Record, Series I, Part 2, Vol. 19. pp. 91-92.
Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014.

Rutherford, pp. 29-30.

Roger Preston Chew wrote of the October, 1862 battle, mentioning Capt. B. H. Smith:
Artillery Duel at Old Fair Grounds Near Charles Town.

Chew, Roger P. (1911) “Military Operations in Jefferson County, Virginia (and West Va.) 1861-1865.” [s.l.] : Charles Town, WV: published by authority of Jefferson County Camp, U.C.V. [by] Farmers Advocate Printing. Print.

Chew, Roger P. (1911) “Military Operations in Jefferson County, Virginia (and West Va.) 1861-1865.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 24 Dec. 2010.31 Dec. 2010.
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After the battle of Sharpsburg, McClellan remained north of the Potomac for about thirty days, when he crossed below Harpers Ferry with his artillery on October 16, 1863. To screen that movement he sent Hancock with a large force of infantry, cavalry and artillery to make a reconnaissance in the direction of Charles Town. Our cavalry under the command of General T. T. Munford retired before this force until they reached a point about half a mile below Charles Town, known as the Old Fair Grounds. Here a section of Chew’s Battery under Lieutenant J. W. Carter and two guns of the Richmond Howitsers, third company under Captain B. H. Smith were placed in position, and opened on the enemy, who had planted their batteries on the hill about three quarters of a mile below, known as Butler’s Hill.

A severe engagement between the artillery on either side took place at this point, although the enemy were greatly superior in number and guns. The Confederate guns soon got the range and inflicted serious damage upon the enemy. The resistance on their part was so bold and determined that the Federals were delayed for several hours, and after the retirement of the guns they occupied Charles Town until the next day when they retired to Harpers Ferry. Lieutenant J. W. Carter, who was greatly distinguished as an artillery officer and a man of superb courage and daring, was noticed in Official Report by General Munford, and recommended for promotion. Our forces retired towards Berryville undisturbed by the enemy. pp. 36-37.

7. We only wonder what sorrow the next day might bring. – Rutherford, pp. 33 & 41.

8. Sunday, October 18, 1863 – Sleeping Mary Rutherford gets a bullet through her window.

She (Mary Aisquith) narrowly escaped being shot on one occasion. General Imboden and his men were in Charles Town and the (Federal) general had to surrender. His officers – “I call it cowardice,” she interjected – fled before the enemy, leaving their men to shift for themselves. “These officers ran down the railroad near our house,” she said. “I was in bed at the time. All at once I heard something whizz over me and strike the wall on the other side of the room. A shot had been fired into the room. That bullet-hole remained in the wall until the house was sold.” – Mary Rutherford Aisquith, The Farmer’s Advocate, September 8, 1934.

Report, J. IMBODEN (Commander of Confederate force), Chapter XLI, Official Record, Series I, Part 1, Volume 29, pp. 490-492. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014.

Account of the event by Charlestown resident and Confederate artillerist, Roger Preston Chew:

Chew, Roger P. (1911) “Military Operations in Jefferson County, Virginia (and West Va.) 1861-1865.” [s.l.] : Charles Town, WV: published by authority of Jefferson County Camp, U.C.V. [by] Farmers Advocate Printing. Print.

Chew, Roger P. (1911) “Military Operations in Jefferson County, Virginia (and West Va.) 1861-1865.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 24 Dec. 2010.31 Dec. 2010.
More. . .

On October 18, 1863, Gen. John D. Imboden marched to the vicinity of Charles Town for the purpose of capturing the enemy, who were posted there in large force. The 9th Maryland Regiment of Infantry and Capt, Summer’s Cavalry Company were quartered, the first in the Court House, and the latter in the Jail.

Imboden formed a line of battle on the Ranson farm west of the town, and extending his line to the east to the Kabletown road. He located a battery near the house of Robert Brown but found, after firing a few shots, he could not reach the Court House. He then extended his line across the Harpers Ferry road to the farm of James M. Ranson, and placing his gun on the hill north of town fired several shots through the Court House. The enemy immediately evacuated the Court House and attempted a retreat towards Harpers Ferry but were intercepted by the Confederates and the entire command captured, excepting Summers’ company which effected its escape towards Leetown. He then commenced to retreat by the pike to Berryville. He (Imboden) was pursued by a large force of the enemy and had a number of engagements between that point and Rippon. Here he formed in line to check the advance of the enemy and a serious engagement took place in which a number of men on both sides were killed and wounded. The enemy discontinued their pursuit at that point and Imboden retreated unmolested with his prisoners and captures. – Chew, pp. 30-32.
More . .

“‘They Are Coming!’: Testimony at the Court of Inquiry on Imboden’s Capture of Charles Town,” in “Jefferson County Historical Magazine,” LIV, Dec. 1988, Paul E. Barr, Jr., and Michael P. Musick, eds.

Battle_of_Charlestown
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

9. Young Robert W. Baylor, Jr. takes a mad, galloping gamble:

Rutherford, p. 37.

10. Sunday, July 17, 1864: Federal General David Hunter’s order is carried out to burn the home of Andrew Hunter, his cousin, near the Rutherford’s. – (BOTH) Rutherford, pp. 37-39.

11. Tuesday, November 29, 1864 – Young Robert Baylor is killed east of Charlestown:

Robert W. Baylor household
National Archives Catalog Title: Population Schedules for the 1860 Census, compiled 1860 – 1860. Record Group: 29; Short Description: NARA M653. Eighth Census of the United States, 1860 population schedules. Roll: 1355; State: Virginia; County: Jefferson; Minor Civil Division: [Blank]; Page: 136. fold3.com (footnote.com) January 2007 Web. 20 June 2014.

Account of the Charlestown skirmish in which eighteen-year-old Robert W. Baylor, Jr. was killed:

Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.” Richmond, VA: B. F. Johnson Publishing. Print.

Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.”Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011.

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Confederate commander George W. Baylor described the November 29th event:
On the night of the 29th of November, 1864, with 30 men of Company B, we attacked the camp of the Twelfth Pennsylvania Cavalry at Charles Town. Passing through the enemy’s picket line, through a hollow just east of town, under cover of a fog such as usually hangs on autumn nights over the little valleys near the river and unobserved by the sentry on the adjacent hills, we reached in safety the north side of the town and the rear of the enemy’s camp, and rode quietly to a point near the block house, about twenty yards from the camp. Here the men dismounted, leaving the horses in charge of the fourth man in each file of fours, and noiselessly gained the block house. Steathily moving on, the sleeping camp was entered, and the occupants awoke to find themselves prisoners. There was sudden confusion and scampering among the enemy. Some twenty of their number, lodged in a stone house nearby, opened fire on us. Recognizing the gravity of the situation, we rushed upon the house, and, seizing the doors and windows, poured several volleys into the building. Just as George Crayton, my brother Robert W. Baylor, Jr. (a boy of seventeen) and myself entered the door, several shots were fired by the inmates, one mortally injuring my brother and another severely injuring Crayton. After a few minutes the cry of surrender came from the group huddled together in the building, and the firing ceased. My brother and Crayton were removed to the house of Dr. Mason, who had been for years our family physician, and where I knew they would be well cared for. My brother died in a few hours, but Crayton rallied for a while and died soon after the close of the war. The loss of these two gallant soldiers was deeply deplored by their comrades, and especially by myself. In this engagement we killed and wounded 11 of the enemy, captured 27 prisoners and 37 horses – and equipments. – Baylor, pp. 265-266.
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Federal General John Stevenson reported on the November 29th event:
The camp of the Twelfth Pennsylvania Cavalry was attacked last night about 12 oclock. The attacking force are a part of a Virginia regiment acting with Mosby and camped on this side the mountains. They were finally repulsed, but killed 2 of our men, wounded 1, and captured 5, also 19 horses. The enemy lost 1 killed and several wounded. The force at the camp is only a camp guard of forty men. Anticipating that the attack would be made, I directed the commanding officer to call on Heine’s infantry for assistance. He did so, but they sent him no help. Will you order him to send 100 men of his command to the camp until the regiment returns. – STEVENSON, Chapter LV, Official Record, Volume 43, Series I, Part 2, p. 711. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014.

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NOTE: Richard Channing Baylor, Robert W.’s older brother, was killed a year to the day earlier November 29, 1863 at Parker’s Store near Fredericksburg, Va. – p. 408.
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Image Credits:

1. A Gift of sweets to Stonewall before battle

Map of the battle-fields of Harper’s Ferry and Sharpsburg
Title Map of the battle-fields of Harper’s Ferry and Sharpsburg
Creator Brown, S. Howell
Publication Info Washington : Government Printing Office
baylor.edu 9 May 1997 Web. 20 June 2014.

Baking a pie
Strother, David H., “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 10, Issue: 55, (Dec., 1854). pp. 1-25. Print.

Strother, David H. (Dec., 1854). “Virginia Illustrated.” Harper’s Magazine. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014. p. 7.
More. . .

Stonewall_Jackson
Stonewall Jackson by Routzahn, 1862Public Domainview terms
Nathaniel Routzahn (1822 – 1908), Winchester, Virginia – Valentine Richmond History Center, Cook Collection
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

2. Sept.-Oct., 1862: A wounded man dies, even though Richard tries.

detail from “Burying the Dead at Hospital in Fredericksburg, Va.” (title from print). Title from Civil War caption book(?): “Fredericksburg, Virginia. Burial of Federal dead.” Shows four African American men digging graves; a bearded white man can be seen looking on, arms crossed, in the distance. (Same scene as LC-B8184-B-473, but from a different angle)
Reproduction number: LC-DIG-cwpb-01844 (b&w copy scan of left half of glass negative) , LC-DIG-cwpb-01843 (b&w copy scan of right half of glass negative) , LC-DIG-cwpb-01845 (b&w copy scan of variant)
Call number: LC-B811-2506 (glass negative); LOT 4168 (print). loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

Aerial view today (2014) of Carriage Inn lot and Edge Hill Cemetery (where Captain Keels was buried) – Apple Maps.

Hallway at Carriage Inn – today (2014).

Image of Captain Keels’ stone in Edge Hill Cemetery
Captain Keels Headstone, Edge Hill Cemetery
Created by: stars&bars
Record added: May 06, 2007
Find A Grave Memorial# 19257579
findagrave.com 5 December 1998 Web. 20 June 2014.

wounded man
Strother, David H., “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 34, Issue: 204, May, 1867. Print.

Strother, David H. (May, 1867). “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harpers Magazine. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014. – p. 725.

More. . .

3. Monday, October 6, 1862 – Confederate General Stonewall Jackson writes his thanks to Mrs. Rutherford:

Image of the original letter courtesy Don Amoroso & Ann Cross

Edgewood_Manor_-_Bunker_Hill,_WV
commons.wikimedia.org 15 September 2004 Web. 20 April 2014.

Stonewall_Jackson
commons.wikimedia.org 15 September 2004 Web. 20 April 2014.

4. Tuesday, October 7, 1862: Ellen, and Ginny Rutherford likely go to the Ball at the Dandridge’s Bower:

25 “Perfect” Days at the Bower. civilwarscholars.com 25 June 2011 Web. 20 June 2014.

Winslow Homer Great Russian Ball at the New York Academy of Music – Harper’s Weekly – November 21, 1863, p. 744. sonofthesouth.net Start date unavailable Web. 20 June 2014.

5. Late October, 1862 – Gen. J.E.B. Stuart brings his banjo-man to the Rutherfords’.

Series: I. Civil War drawings
NOTE: All drawings are by Frank Vizetelly unless stated otherwise. Most drawings have pencilled annotations by Vizetelly on verso (occasionally also on recto) and sometimes include changes to the original text made by his editors. Titles of drawing were taken from the Vizetelly text exactly as annotated on verso. Quotation marks included in titles are Vizetelly’s. Often the published titles, as well as the drawings, vary from the originial. (1) “Barbarous” treatment of the Negro in the Confederate Camp, nights by the pine wood fire. [Virginia, 1862 Oct.-Nov.]. 1 drawing : pencil and watercolor on buff paper ; 18 x 23 cm. AMs inscription on verso. Unsigned. Subject: Campfire scene with tent next to fire at center of scene. Dancing Negro near campfire, banjo player inside tent. These subjects surrounded by standing soldiers viewing entertainment. Forest in background. Engraved in ILN, 1863 Jan. 10.
oasis.lib.harvard.edu 29 August 2007 Web. 20 June 2014.

The Banjo Lesson, ca. 1893, by Mary Cassatt
Mary Cassatt
The Banjo Lesson, ca. 1893
National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.
nga.gov 8 May 2013 Web. 20 June 2014.

Front – The Carriage Inn – Charles Town, WV
jeffersonhistoricalwv.org 22 October 2007 Web. 20 June 2014.

6. October 16-17, 1862: The Rutherfords save a hospital attendant and a wounded Confederate officer at their home from arrest by Federals.

Chisholm, J. J. (1864). “A Manual of Military Surgery, for the use of surgeons in the Confederate States army; with explanatory plates of all useful operations.” Richmond, VA: Columbia, Evans and Cogswell. Print.

Chisholm, J. J. (1864). “A Manual of Military Surgery, for the use of surgeons in the Confederate States army; with explanatory plates of all useful operations.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 16 Feb. 2011. pp. 569-570.
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detail of soldier with amputated foot
Wounded soldiers at rest near Marye’s Heights, Fredericksburg, Virginia. After the battle of Spotsylvania, in 1864. (Mathew Brady/NARA).
theatlantic.com 16 November 1996 Web. 20 June 2014.

Nurse Anne Bell tending to wounded soldiers in a Union hospital, ca. 1863. (U.S. Army Center of Military History)
theatlantic.com 16 November 1996 Web. 20 June 2014.

7. We only wonder what sorrow the next day might bring.

Duffields Depot
West Virginia Archives & History
wvculture.org 2 March 2000 Web. 1 Oct. 2011.

Man reading a newspaper at table, detail from The Village Tavern by John Lewis Krimmel. Courtesy of Toledo Museum of Art
Owner/Location: Toledo Museum of Art (Ohio) (United States – Toledo, OH)
Dates: 1813-1814
Artist age: Approximately 27 years old.
Dimensions: Height: 42.86 cm (16.88 in.), Width: 57.15 cm (22.5 in.)
Medium: Painting – oil on canvas
the-athenaeum.org 23 May 2002 Web. 20 June 2014.

Richmond Enquirer – 1865 – Virginia State Library Archives

8. Sunday, October 18, 1863 – Sleeping Mary Rutherford gets a bullet through her window.

Bedroom – Courtesy Carriage Inn

Federal firing 1851 Navy Colt revolver
imfdb.org 1 April 2011 Web. 20 June 2014.

Mary Rutherford (1847-1937)
Owner/Source Mary H. Tayloe
File name Rutherford_Mary#0252A – 2000-07-07 at 16-15-34.jpg
File Size 2.68m
Dimensions 1263 x 1806
Caption Mary Rutherford b. 1847 d. 1937 m. Archibald H. Asquith Submitted by Mary H. Tayloe
wmstrother.org 12 December 1998 Web. 20 June 2014.

Three cartridges are what original Colt Conversions of all types were chambered for. From left are .38 Rimfire, .38 Colt (long version) and .44 Colt.
americanhandgunner.com 19 August 1999 Web. 20 June 2014.

Colonel B.L. Simpson and Officers of 9th Maryland Volunteers
Item ID: CSPH 337
Creator: Unknown
Description: Gift of Mrs. Ethel Flannagan.
Date of Original: ca. 1863
Collection: Cased Photographs Collection; Special Collections Department
Type/Size: Image; Physical object
mdhs.org 1 December 1998 Web. 20 June 2014.

John Imboden
wikipedia.org 27 July 2001 Web. 20 May 2014.

9. Young Robert W. Baylor, Jr. takes a mad, galloping gamble:

Robert W. Baylor, Jr.
Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.” Richmond, VA: B. F. Johnson Publishing. Print.

Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.”Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011. p. 41.

“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 1.” (1887). Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co. Print.

“Battles and Leaders Vol. 1.” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010. p. 126.

More. . .

Charlestown, Va. Washington Street, 1852
Brown, Howell S. “Map of Jefferson County, Virginia From Actual Surveys With Farm Limits, 1852.” Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society Vol. XLV. (1979): pp. 1-7. Print.

Brown, S. Howell. (1852). “Map of Jefferson County, Virginia from actual survey with the farm limits.” United States. The Library of Congress: American Memory. “Maps Collection.” 27 Oct. 2009 Web. 10 Sept. 2010.

More. . .

10. Sunday, July 17, 1864: General David Hunter’s order is carried out to burn the home of Andrew Hunter, his cousin, near the Rutherford’s.

Title: Maj. Gen. Hunter / Brady’s National Portrait Galleries, New York & Washington.
Creator(s): Brady’s National Photographic Portrait Galleries, photographer
Date Created/Published: [between 1860 and 1863]
loc.gov 4 May 1999 Web. 20 May 2014.

Andrew Hunter
West Virginia Archives & History
wvculture.org 2 March 2000 Web. 1 Oct. 2011.

11. Tuesday, November 29, 1864 – Young Robert Baylor is killed east of Charlestown:

Robert W. Baylor, Jr. (1846-1864)
Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.” Richmond, VA: B. F. Johnson Publishing. Print.

Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.”Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011. p. 41.

George Creaton
Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.” Richmond, VA: B. F. Johnson Publishing. Print.

Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.”Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011. p. 106.

Richard Channing Baylor (1839-1863)
Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.” Richmond, VA: B. F. Johnson Publishing. Print.

Baylor, George. (1900).”Bull Run to Bull Run: Four years in the army of northern Virginia.”Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 March 2011. p. 29.

General John D. Stevenson
mydunlap.net 9 February 2009 Web. 20 June 2014.

George W. Baylor (1843-1902)
archives.dickinson.edu 9 September 2012 Web. 20 June 2014.

“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 3″. (1887). Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel (Ed.). New York, NY: Century Co. Print.

“Battles and Leaders. Vol. 3” Internet Archives: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music, and Wayback Machine. 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2010. p. 114.
More. . .

Thy Will Be Done – Chapter 1 – 1850s – The Days That Never End – But That Did – The Day of the Horses – The Ring Tournament in Leeland Field by Jim Surkamp

1783 words

https://web.archive.org/web/20190710015027/https://civilwarscholars.com/2014/12/thy-will-be-done-1-1850s-the-days-that-never-end-but-that-did/

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The wheat harvest was gathered, and the heats of midsummer were beginning to drive all who had means and leisure to congregate about famous springs and cool places in the mountains.

It was really the discovery of printing that killed chivalry, soul and body. Then the power that comes of knowledge passed over to the unarmed people. The unlettered prince could no longer delegate the writing and reading of his letters to a hired valet.

Tuesday August 4th, 1857, Shepherdstown, Va.:

The Day of the Horses – The Ring Tournament in Leeland Field.

On Tuesday last, a large assemblage of people, consisting of the youth and beauty of Jefferson, and Berkeley counties, Va., and Washington County, Md. collected at Leeland, near this place to witness the exciting scenes of a Tournament that came off there. – (1).

The tournament lists were staked out on a long level of evenly mowed turf some four hundred yards in length, guarded on either side by a railing of rope, and spanned near the further extremity by an arch of evergreen boughs, from the centre of which the ring was suspended. Outside of these lines were double rows of light wagons and carriages, regularly packed and filled with eager spectators. Near the centre were several extensive pavilions, made of wagon covers, bolting-cloths, or more agreeably thatched with fresh green boughs, shading rows of rough plank seats already occupied by the elite of the company – rustic dames whose silks and ribbons, or maidens whose delicate cheeks, shunned the scorching sunshine. Between this dress circle and the rope harrier the space was crowded with the undistinguished multitude of leather-faced mountaineers, squatting or lounging upon the grass, of lint-headed, bare-legged children, and negroes full of eager hilarity and vociferous expectation. Behind all, barns, stables, sheds, fodder-racks, fence corners, and umbrageous thickets afforded shelter for the four-footed chivalry who were to play the leading part in the amusements of the day. – (2)

Prior to the tilting the Gallant Knights were addressed by the President, Mr. Henry K. Douglas, of Ferry Hill, Md. in the following neat and appropriate speech. His delivery was bold, clear and impressive for one so young:

Gallant Knights – You have assembled here today not for the purpose of provoking Iron Mars, but that you may exhibit your devotion to the fair daughters of Eve, and given them assurances that as you now make known your consciousness of their charms, so you will ever consider it your greatest duty and supreme pleasure, to protest those charms though death alone be your reward.

You need no allusion to Knights of ancient days to increase your valor, nor stories of bleeding champions and fainting ladies to arouse your gallantry. You possess that generous spirit which would welcome the sword as readily as the harmless lance, did the cause of love require it. But even if you did not, you have before you a picture of loveliness that could change the hermit to a sprightly courtier, make the tottering sire forget his hoary hairs, and straightway as a boy again. And the merry hearts of these fair ladies are beating in unison with yours, for as your fleet steeds pursue their swift course, and you hasten towards the fatal ring, they wait an anxious sympathizing expectation and hail your success with a smile or announce your failure with a sigh. Knowing that you feel doubly inspired by the beautiful scene before you, and bearing on your banner the motto: “Cupid and the Ladies,” I bid your charge and may the God of Love grant you success and your reward the smiles of the fair with crowns of rosy garlands. – (3)

The hour had come, the trumpet call had sounded. The enlisted knights were already mustered behind the barn. The chief marshal of the tournament a handsome fellow, superbly mounted, with peaked beard and flowing locks cultivated expressly for the role, bobbing with plumes and fluttering with rosettes, with an air of egregious importance, was galloping to and fro, posting his guards, heralds, and pursuivants at their proper stations.

The ladies were lightly and gracefully dismounted, and their horses led away. Choice seats had been reserved in the green pavilion, and a sweep of the chiefs broadsword removed the rope barriers from their path. As (one lady) ascended the steps all the men and boys within range jostled each other and stretched their necks to catch a glimpse, while all the rosy cheeks turned pale with curious envy. The music ceased, the vocal murmurs died away. The orator and knights remounted to join the muster behind the barn.

Again the signal bugle was blown, and a troop of horsemen burst into the lists at full gallop. They were received with a storm of drums, trumpets, brass-bands, cheers, and waving of handkerchiefs and banners. Charging through the whole length of the course, they executed some pretty military maneuvers, and wheeling, galloped back to their starting-place. The parade resembled the grand entree at a circus, or, perhaps, a fancy ball on horseback. The knights were attired variously, according to their whims and pretensions, each wearing some token – a glove, a handkerchief, a ribbon, or bouquet from the lady in whose honor he proposed to risk his neck and exhibit his skill. Two or three were masked, and wore no favors by which they might be distinguished unknown, perhaps, except to their lady-loves, with whom there had been a secret understanding.

At length all the preliminary ceremonies were concluded, and the game commenced. Then the judges were posted beside the arch where the ring hung suspended. Heralds to proclaim the count, grooms and attendants to replace the ring when taken off and to assist any cavalier in case of an accident. Others along the line kept back the eager and excited crowd with drawn sabres, while at the lower end the chief marshal called a roll of the knights, who took their places in line in order as they were named. – (4).

We never before saw such an array of female beauty and chivalry, as was there assembled:

The following are the names of the officers and Knights:

President – Henry K. Douglas
Heralds – James L. Towner, Samuel Moore
Judges – R. Davis Shepherd, Jr., Samuel B. Neil
George H. Murphy – Knight of Ivanhoe
Thomas Chapline – Hotspur
R. T. Berry Harvy Percy
E. G. Lee – Knight of Alhambra
George R. Bedinger – Saladin
Joseph T. Hess – Rienzi
Daniel Morgan – Long Star
Dr. P. Grove – Knight of Woodburry

(In a previous tournament held at Shannondale Springs, the president had been Col. John F. Hamtramck of Shepherdstown; R. D. Shepherd, Jr. won three consecutive contests, allowing him to award the Queen of Love and Beauty to Miss Rosa Parran of Shepherdstown). – (5).

The riding at Leeland was very graceful and well done, exiting and animating, evidencing great proficiency in Equestrianism and abundantly showing that the chivalry of the Old Dominion is still in keeping with the world-wide reputation she has won in days of yore.

After three alternate charges by each Knight, R. T. Berry, George H. Murphy, and Dr. P. Grove, were declared the victors; after which the Knights were again marshalled in front of that array of beauty and love that could be with the many colors of the rainbow, when the coronation took place as follows: – R. T. Berry crowned Miss Julia J. Hays, of Sharpsburg, MD., Queen of Love and beauty; George H. Murphy selected Miss Mary Abbott of Georgetown, D.C., First Maid of Honor; Dr. P. Grove selected Miss Lillie Parran, Second Maid of Honor.

The coronation was performed by the President in a graceful and becoming manner and each was prefaced by a neat speech in the most beautiful language.

At night the exercises of the day were wound up by a magnificent Cotillion.

After the selection, the company repaired to the hotel where a most sumptuous feast was spread there with the flow of champagne and the exchange of toasts consumed the afternoon. Every one then retired to their rooms to prepare for the fancy ball. At about half past eight o’clock, the spacious ballroom was thronged with spectators awaiting entrance of the Queen and her Champion and cortege and attendants.

At the sound of music, the folding doors at the upper end of the room were suddenly opened, and the Queen and her Champion, richly dressed in fancy costumes, the same wreath of such freshness . . . resting on his brow, appeared followed by the Knight and Maids of Honor and a long train of attendants all fancifully attired. They proceeded to the far end of the room and took their stand when the crowds made their obeisance. Then the Queen and her Champion and three Knights and Maids of Honor took hands, formed and danced a cotillion, and the ball was opened for the evening. I have been to many balls and have seen much in this way, but have never seen one so bright and beautiful as this.
The many characters represented every nation, and flitted before you in such rapid succession that it was impossible to identify. A few, however, were very conspicuous.

There were some others whom we noticed were magically attracting much attention, and there was one, “the gayest in the revel, the lightest in the dance,” who “Like a fairy on a festival morning, She tripped in the merry quadrille, Bright blushes her features adorning, She conquered the crowd at her will.”

The dancing was kept up until the “wee hours of morning admonished them to part. And this ended a gala day long to be remembered by all.”- (6).

At an earlier ring tournament at Shannondale Springs in the County, an older generation prevailed. “The president of the day, one Henry Bedinger addressed them in such eloquent tones and elevated and inspired sentiments that the dullest bosum was roused to the highest daring and the true spirit of ancient chivalry was revived. . . The speech of Mr. Bedinger was most appropriate and beautiful. When he had concluded, the knights repaired to the place of starting. Then began the most splendid contention that I ever witnessed. It is impossible to give a detailed account of it, but the horses catching the spirit of the rider, flew like the wind and their flashing eyes and foaming mouths betrayed the high excitement . . . Mr. Lewis Washington, as the English hunter of the 15th century, so superbly he filled the character so to very life, and Mr. John Pendleton Kennedy in the court dress of Louis the 14th looked remarkably striking and handsome.” – (7).

NEXT: Chapterette 2. Click Here.

Thy Will Be Done – Chapter 2 Working Jefferson County’s Peaceful, Fertile Lands by Jim Surkamp.

556 words

https://web.archive.org/web/20190710015856/https://civilwarscholars.com/2014/12/thy-will-2-working-jefferson-countys-peaceful-fertile-lands/

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Hay_Stearnes_Washington_At_Mt_Vernon

The highly profitable wheat fell to the scythe at The Bower where young tall, wiry Adam Stephen Dandridge took place in the line along with enslaved African-Americans John Pinco and “Levin.” – (1) (2).

Harvest crews helped from farm-to-farm.

If the neighbors had not finished their harvest, the force was allowed to go and help them out, receiving for themselves the usual wages. In all the fields of corn, the outside rows were planted in a broomcorn for the Negroes’ use and they spent the long winter evenings in making brooms, baskets, hampers and split-bottom chairs all of which found a ready sale in the country stores. The chairs were of all sizes from the large porch chairs down to low, sewing chairs and chairs for children. They managed to make them very comfortable and they were substantial and lasted a lifetime. – (3).

The “cultural Congressman,” Alexander Boteler may have not been on the crew but the young men born of Philip and Hannah Thornton swung their scythes in unison at Fountain Rock farm near Shepherdstown and when possible were part of Hugh Nelson Pendleton’s crew, farm and home at Westwood in the southern end of the County, even after ten of the African-American Thorntons in Jefferson County, opted, with support, to take passage on the barque “Cora” in May, 1855 and they sailed to Cape Palmas, Liberia Africa to start anew. – (4) (5).

Wheat was coming off Edmund and Henrietta Lee’s Oak Hill Farm on the Philadelphia Waggon Road opposite and to the immediate west of Boteler’s Fountain Rock, relying on Nace and others to harvest and get the shocks of wheat in to the barn.

September would bring more indoor work for the County’s farms.

In September, the cloth and yarn for winter work were brought home from the factory along the river and the work of making up began and was only finished at Christmas.

In every household there was a woman who could cut out the garments and all the younger girls had been taught how to sew and knit. During the year, all the girls in clean frocks assembled in some room in the great house every morning and the class of sewers and knitters was presided over by some bespectacled old Negro woman whose word was law to the girls. The work of making up the clothing and knitting yarn socks went on under her supervision, and at Christmas every man and woman on the place appeared in new clothes and new shoes and warm woolen stockings.

Every man had an overcoat every four years and a flannel hack jacket called by the Negroes the “warmus” to wear under his waistcoat in cold weather.

Tobacco was issued to each worker once a week. Sometimes it was bought in kegs of about 100 pounds and was called black-strap and one strap, sometimes two, was the ration. Some people chewed it and some of them smoked in their corncob pipes. This was before the days of fertilizers when tobacco was raised on virgin soil. Every year a farmer would clear a small patch of ground sufficient for the wants of his farm and plant it in tobacco. The fragrance of the Negroes’ corncob pipe was notorious and was due to the fact that no fertilizer had been used in growing his tobacco. – (6).

NEXT: Chapterette 3. Click Here.

Thy Will Be Done – Chapter 3 Henry Bedinger & Alec Boteler – The Creative Congressmen by Jim Surkamp

1838 words

https://web.archive.org/web/20190710014655/https://civilwarscholars.com/2014/12/thy-will-3-henry-bedinger-alec-boteler-the-creative-congressmen/

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Henry_Bedinger3

Alexander “Alec” Boteler who had inherited Fountain Rock, married Helen Stockton and they had Helen (“Tippie”), Charlotte (“Lottie”), Elizabeth (“Lizzie”), and Alec Junior.

Preceding Boteler as the area’s Congressman in Washington, was Henry Bedinger who met Caroline (“Carrie”) Lawrence, the daughter of a fellow Congressmen who, only after he found the forces of love unstoppable, consented to the pact. Before the Bedingers accepted the honorable adventure of setting sail for Denmark and Bedinger being our first ambassador there for most of the 1850s, the two young fathers and husbands were friends, both young lawyers with families. Each also had a strong penchant for art – for Henry poetry, for Alec drawing and painting. – (1).

Alec’s love of drawing and art is not surprising given he was the great-grandson on his mother’s side to Charles Willson Peale, the leading portrait painter in early America, who painted General Washington.

Boteler himself would write:
Drawing is my great delight. If I could have my way. I would have been an artist. But my father threatened to whip me if he ever saw me painting anything. I was descended from a family of painters and my father wanted me to stick to something more material. When my house was burned down during the war it contained some excellent specimens of the Peales, which were heirlooms there. Among other paintings was one representing the artist, to whom my great-grandmother’s picture is being shown on the easel by my grandmother, while she also seeks to steal away the painter’s brush.

While a student at Princeton Boteler’s passion for drawing surfaced in fantastic irrepressible ways.

His daughter, Tippie Boteler much later wrote:

While his future wife was en route to Princeton in a carriage she heard of this Alec Boteler. The story she heard of her (future) husband was that he had thrown a farmer into the water to copy his expression of terror and that the man accidentally drowned; and the young student never recovering from his remorse, had become a gloomy, morose and changed man! One afternoon soon after his arrival at college, in passing a large brick house, he noticed outlined against the window the profile of a beautiful girl who was evidently intent upon reading. He quickly drew out his pencil and sketchbook and made rapid outlines. On getting back to the college, he finished it and showed it to a fellow student in triumph as the prettiest girl he had ever seen. “Why, that is Miss Helen Stockton!” exclaimed his friend, who was A. S. Dandridge, who lived in Jefferson County and would own the Bower. “If you think she is up to your standard, I’ll take you to see her tomorrow night!”

But Alec Boteler’s meeting Helen Stockton inspired him out of the gloom his absurd behavior had wrought.

Once married and with responsibilities settling on their dreamy shoulders, Alec would love getting together with his creative friend and forever treasure their times together with the wives and children elsewhere.

Henry Bedinger was home at his ancestral home at Bedford nearby and just outside Shepherdstown around 1851 when he tossed off a limerick to his neighbor over the hill at Fountain Rock. The invitation, inspired by his recent readings of Robert Burns, went:

My wife’s awa;’ my wife’s awa’,
Na mair she can me tease;
She’s gan til her father an’ mither an’ a’,
And I can do as I please.

So if you’re in for a night of joy,
And gin grat fun ye wad see,
Just don your plaidie my merry boy,
And o’er the meadow to me.

A wee bit room in eastern wing,
A ceiling so love and snug,
A cheerfu’ bleeze in the chimney neuk
And ablains a bit of a jug.

A bit of jug wi’ the barley bree,
A jest and merry sang,
And twa, thra friends what helping me
To push the hours along.

The wind may roar an’ the rain may fa’,
My wife’s awa’, my wife’s awa’;
Na mair she can me tease,
She’s gan til her father an’ mither an’ a’,
An’ we can do as we please.

After serving in Congress for four years, Henry Bedinger left with his family for Denmark. Boteler, a self-admitted novice at business who pleaded with his uncle to not be given the responsibility of running his father’s prosperous cement mill along the river upon his father’s death, had a costly miscalculation. In 1852, a business calamity overtook Alexander Boteler in the failure of Willoughby R. Webb, a merchant of Shepherdstown, who built his woolen mill on the site of today’s Blue Moon Cafe with thirty employees and upon whose notes he had placed his name because of his friendship for Mr. Webb. He was thus called upon to pay nearly twenty thousand dollars, a large part of it his wife’s money, her father having left her considerable property. – (2).

That woe may have propelled him into the field of elected office with a steady salary, serving in Bedinger’s old Congressional seat from early 1859 until just before war broke out. In 1856, Congress had voted its first annual salary of $3,000.

Artist/Congressman Boteler created a cartoon of Charles Harper’s home and apothecary shop, still looking much the same adjacent on the eastern side of McMurran Hall on German Street. Sensing dark times ahead, Boteler added as its caption, the ominous words from Shakespeare’s Henry VI: “Heavy looks foretell some dreadful story hanging on thy tongue.” – (3).

In November, 1858, Ambassador Henry Bedinger finally returned home to Carrie and their three children who came back from Denmark two years earlier. Carrie disliked the card-playing of even the Episcopalian priest in Denmark. Henry was a favorite to King Frederick VII and many a late evening an excessively homely and sensitive man would materialize from the shadows looking for Henry for a chess game: Hans Christian Anderson, the famed children’s writer.

Carrie and the children marveled that the widespread Christmas custom they brought back from Europe – a decorated tree – was a completely new notion both in Long Island and Shepherdstown. The custom “caught on” in Europe when Prince Albert and Queen Victoria had one.

Fighting his homesickness, Henry wrote a long Shepherdstown-smitten poem to John Boroff, a blacksmith with a shop at the Washington and Princess Street intersection:

“To My Good Old Friend, Mr. John Boroff, of Shepherdstown, Virginia by the Exile.

I am walking on a Sandy Shore, hard by the Sound Sea,
And, to save me, John, I cannot tell why I should think of thee.
And yet, throughout this lengthened day, thy friendly face will come
To fill my soul with memories of happier hours and HOME.

Go where I will, do what I may, I cannot fail to hear
The roaring of thy furnace and thy hammer ringing clear.
What art thou forging now, John, that echoes such as those
Should cross the broad Atlantic from the thunder of thy blows?

My mind has run away, John, and all that I can do
Cannot coax it to come back again from Shepherdstown and you.
It is playing with those marbles, it is spinning the same top.
That often in your absence, John, I’ve spun within your shop.

Does the coulter of the plowman demand the glowing fire,
Or do thy sturdy strokes descend upon the wagon’s tire?
Art thou forming for the woodman’s axe an edge of perfect proof?
Or striking from the solid anvil strong shoes for horse’s hoof?

I know not and I cannot guess, but this I say to thee,
I would give a very pretty gift could I be there to see.
For I must confess the honest truth – my mind has run away
As limber legged Bill Russell did from you one sunny day.

It is wrestling with your prentice boy and tripping up his heels,
And shouting with a merry shout to find how cheap he feels.
It is moulding bullets at your forge, and yet with watchful eyes.
Lest your too sudden entrance should take it by surprise.

And when, with ears all wide awake, it hears your heavy stride.
Although the door is much too near, the window opens wide,
And with a bound away it goes, still leaving you to guess
What evil spirit could have left your tools in such a mess.

Homecoming, then tragedy:

In November, 1858, Henry Bedinger had indeed come home to Shepherdstown and his family to great joy. His daughter, Mary, watched from a window from their home at the southwest corner of Princess and German Street. In the center of the street that November night in 1858 was a huge bonfire, and her father’s joyous speechifying face shone in the hot blaze making them cheer more and more. Then, eight-year-old Mary noticed the adults in their house had become silent, huddled. Their father came home and, a great blow – suddenly was “called home.” Pneumonia took him. And Carrie sold Henry’s share of his ancestral home of Bedford back to his sister, Henrietta and her husband Edmund Lee, (a first cousin of the general, Robert E. Lee). Carrie then used the money to build a new, more modest home near town Carrie named Poplar Grove.

Carrie purchased the farm from Daniel Morgan with a brick house in the middle of a grove of great oaks and poplars. She built an addition to the old house with woodwork of black walnut so common in those days, and there she took her young family just before the storm of the war between the states took over their land. – (4).

The Bedingers’ writing genes continued to create through Henry and Carrie’s children.

Henry’s gifted youngest daughter, Caroline Bedinger, nicknamed “Danske,” was already a prodigious writing talent and even shared editing preferences in her poems with Mr. Boteler. Danske’s daughter, Serena, wrote in later years:

The Bedinger children seemed to have taken to writing books as ducks like to water. They all complained that paper was too scarce and too “hard to write on,” but they utilized every scrap that came to them. Danske’s foil was poetry with a few romantic stories for good measure. Mary’s (nicknamed “Minnie:), I’m told, was fairy tales, with which she could enthrall her younger brother and sister.

Of little Danske it can be said “the ink was in the baby. she was born to write a book” and she was. It was not long out of the cradle before she began to wield her pen. As she presented a book of original poetry, “A Present” to Hon. A. R. Boteler with a note in the book saying that he must excuse the writing, as the paper was hard to write on, and compared to Shakespeare and Milton were not so good either – another note calls attention to the fact that the “thee”‘s and “thou”‘s are customarily used instead of “you”‘s in poetry, and apologizes for a few “you’s that had slipped in. – (5).

NEXT: Chapterette 4. Click Here.

Thy Will Be Done – Chapter 4 The War Storm Gathers; Boteler Goes For The “South”by Jim Surkamp

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https://web.archive.org/web/20191004120624/https://civilwarscholars.com/2014/12/thy-will-4-the-war-storm-gathers-boteler-goes-for-the-south/

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Alexander Boteler lived at Fountain Rock in Shepherdstown, WV – was Congressman before the War; Designed the Confederate Seal; In the Confederate Government; His Home was burned for his mis-deeds

Alex Boteler took his seat for the first time in the U.S. Congress the same month John Brown and four of his raiders were hanged in Charlestown, Va., after they tried to capture the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry and hoped to inspire a wholesale rebellion by those enslaved. They did succeed in igniting the enslavement issue.

With John Brown’s blow against slavery and the hangings of Brown’s raiders in Charles Town (“Charlestown” in 1860-JS) following convictions in a state court, a chasm of difference was made obvious to both Northerners and Southerners. Four candidates ran in the ensuing months for the Presidency, instead of the usual two because of the volatile political season, electing the Midwesterner, Abraham Lincoln.

Seeing they had lost the upper-hand in Washington, most deep South states seceded at once on the tragically mistaken assumption that Lincoln would not go to war to retain them. Moreover, the United States Army was small and the powers of the President as commander-in-chief were scarcely defined in the text of the Constitution. Little did they anticipate that Lincoln would simply create those powers in the void.

Boteler was bitterly opposed to the disruption of the Union, but, when Virginia seceded, he resigned from Congress and threw his lot with the Confederacy. He was a member of its Provisional Congress and later served in the first regular Congress of the Confederate States. He was chairman of the House committee which designed the Confederate flag, and, he himself combined suggestions from many and added his own to make the final seal. He offered the successful Joint Resolution 13 on April 30, 1863, making the seal official. The seal consisted of a picture of Washington on horseback, surrounded by a wreath composed of the South’s agricultural products. Boteler had an artist draw a sketch of the statue of George Washington located in the capitol grounds at Richmond. This reproduction was then sent to England, where it was made into a seal. – (1).

NEXT: Chapterette 5. Click Here.

Thy Will Be Done – Chapter 5 April, 1861 Drumbeats by Jim Surkamp

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https://web.archive.org/web/20191004114609/https://civilwarscholars.com/2014/12/thy-will-5-april-1861-drumbeats/

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James Walkenshaw Allen
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The elders in the Lee, Boteler, Bedinger, Dandridge, Allen, Douglas, Pendleton & Morgan households watch their men enlist. Many opposed secession but enlisted in the Confederate units when the Federals called out for thousands of volunteers. The Bedingers at Poplar Grove and Pendletons at Westwood were so deeply opposed to enslavement that they either didn’t do it or, at Westwood, gave the choice of freedom to the large number of those they had enslaved.

The act of provocation by Confederate forces at Fort Sumter in South Carolina gave President Abraham Lincoln the legal justification for calling for 75,000 volunteers to forcibly bring back those seceding states and their people. And the war would, it first appeared, start right in Jefferson County, where the strategic Baltimore & Ohio dipped briefly into Virginia, that had just acted to join a foreign country.

April 18, 1861 – On that fateful night after Virginia’s conditioned vote to secede from the United States, many local militiamen were already en route to Harper’s Ferry to take control of the federal arsenal, basing their action on a word-of-mouth understanding that their action was legal and officially sanctioned.

The acting militia commander, a 31-year-old, professionally-trained officer from Summit Point named James Allen, was confronted and cautioned by locally born but ardent Unionist, David Hunter Strother. – (1)

As the local militia moved towards Harper’s Ferry at the urgings of Turner Ashby on the night of April 18th, Strother, a lifelong friend of those present, intervened arguing that no formal, written order had been produced to authorize the militias to move on the Federal arsenal in the lower town and capture its estimated 16,000 weapons and weapons-making equipment. (In fact, the vote by the popularly-elected Virginia Secession Convention had occurred the previous day in Richmond voting 85-55 to secede, BUT only after the results were known of a referendum scheduled for the following month).

Just as Col. Allen was taking Strother’s point to heart and ordered his militia only so far east as Halltown pending the substantiation of his orders, when there erupted from the lower town out of their line-of-sight:

. . . flashes and detonations . . . several times repeated; then a steadier flame was seen rising from two distinct points silently and rapidly increasing in volume until each rock and tree on the Loudoun and Maryland Heights were distinctly visible and the now over-clouded sky was ruddy with the sinister glare. This occurred I think between nine and ten o’clock. Some thought they heard artillery. But the more skillful presently guessed the truth and concluded that the officer in command had set fire to the arsenals and abandoned the town.

With the ashes of the arsenal cooling, Strother perceived in the light of the next day, the enormity of the events:
I must confess that I felt this morning like a man wandering in a maze. . . . So it seemed that the sudden gust of emotion, excited by the lowering of our starry flag, had swept away the mists of speculation and revealed in its depth and breadth the abyss of degradation opened by secession. Yesterday I was a citizen of the great American republic. My country spanned a continent. Her northern border neared the frigid zone while her southern limit touched the tropics. Her eastern and her western shores were washed by the two great oceans of the globe. Her commerce covering the most remote seas, her flag honored in every land. The strongest nation acknowledged her power, and the most enlightened honored her attainments in art, science, and literature. Her political system, the cherished ideal toward whose realization the noblest aspirations and efforts of mankind have been directed for ages. The great experiment which the pure and wise of all nations are watching with trembling solicitude and imperishable hope. It was something to belong to such a nationality. This was yesterday. To-day, what am I? A citizen of Virginia. Virginia, a petty commonwealth with scarcely a million of white inhabitants. What could she ever hope to be but a worthless fragment of the broken vase? A fallen and splintered column of the once glorious temple. But I will not dwell longer on the humiliating contrast. Come harness up the buggy and let us get out of this or I shall suffocate. – (2).

Jefferson County’s fighting age male Union sympathizers, threatened with arrest for treason against the newly forming Confederacy, left the County and as the gravitational forces of solidarity brought most of the remaining white young men to enlistment points for the Confederacy – their “destiny was with Virginia” as Logan Osburn of Kabletown so famously concluded. Their wives and mothers began feverishly making havelocks and clothing for their young men. Roughly nine hundred men from Jefferson County would fight for the Confederacy in thirteen different units during the war. At least 130 Jefferson County-born, African-Americans fought in the United States Colored Troops and a smaller number of white Countians enlisted in a variety of scattered Federal units. – (3).

Eight thousand enlistees would flock to Bolivar Heights by May 23rd from as far away as Mississippi, joined soon by a mercurial West Point-graduated professor from Virginia Military Institute named Thomas Jonathan Jackson who quickly put them through their paces and drilled them so relentlessly that notions of war as a grand, brief lark were dashed and some complained that the exercises were meant to kill them sooner than a fired bullet. – (4).

James Allen was there, while his wife, Julia Pendleton Allen and their young son, Hugh Pendleton Allen, were at home on their County farm.

George Rust Bedinger, Henry Bedinger’s son by a previous marriage, and who rode in the ring tournament a few years prior on his horse “Saladin” was there with Alexander Boteler, Junior. The former was confident, encouraging, skillful; the latter, often angry to distraction because Bedinger mocked him mercilessly, for he suffered from a stutter. – (5).

William Fitzhugh Lee, a career army officer was raised, in part, by the Shepherdstown Lees after his father died in Alexandria. By the time of the war, he had graduated from Virginia Military Institute, had married Lillie Parran of Shepherdstown, and fathered their daughter, Laura. In April, 1861, he arrived to help in the instruction of the ever-increasing numbers of hungry recruits at Bolivar Heights all thinking they would defend Harper’s Ferry against invasion. His family were at their home on the northeast corner of German and Mill Streets, with Lillie’s re-married mother, Laura Parran Towner. – (6)

Edwin Grey Lee, who once dressed up as the “Knight of Alhambra” at the erstwhile tournament – the eldest son of Edmund and Henrietta Lee – likewise came “to camp” and was soon Jackson’s aide-to-camp. The Lees tried to visit him at Camp Jackson and Bolivar Heights near Harper’s Ferry while drilling was underway. – (7)

Henrietta Lee wrote her eldest daughter, Ida Rust:

Your Papa took Virginia (George Bedinger’s sister, also called “Diddie”-JS) and me up to see them last week. We met with our usual luck; broke down twice, and after various delays and accidents got there at half-past three, stayed half an hour, and jolted home, which we reached at ten o’clock at night, being eleven hours in the spring wagon.

Their horse Jimminy-Crimminy, had become skittish and refused to cross a small stream as they neared the noisy encampment. They were therefore compelled to borrow another horse to get them home.

Lee continued to Ida about their relative in Connecticut, Susan Cornwall:
I am sorry to say she has joined her voice to the baying and barking of the Northern bloodhounds, and seems crazy upon the subject of the Flag, Union and Constitution. . . Oh, at times I am so sick of noise and wrangling and contest that I long for the wings of a dove to flee away.- (8).

Henry Kyd Douglas, the 23-year-old, one time president of that ring tournament from a few years before, who lived with his family at Ferry Hill overlooking the Potomac from the Maryland side – arrived at the camp, come what may. His father, Rev. Robert Douglas was part-owner of the valuable covered, wooden bridge at river’s edge.

Henry Kyd Douglas later reflected on the issues of the Civil War and his place in it:

Personally I had no feeling of resentment against the people of the north because of their desire for the emancipation of the enslaved, for I believed Negro slavery was a curse to the people of the Middle States. As a boy I had determined never to own any one.

When on the 17th April, 1861 the Virginia Convention passed the Ordinance of Secession, I had no doubt of my duty. In a week I was back on the Potomac. When I found my mother sewing on heavy shirts – with a heart doubtless heavier than I knew – I suspected for what and whom they were being made. In a few days I was at Harper’s Ferry, a private in the Shepherdstown Company, Company “B”, Second Virginia Infantry. – (9).

On June 13, 1861, General Joseph Johnston, who replaced the less experienced Jackson, won the argument to not stay and defend Harper’s Ferry and ordered his force to evacuate Harper’s Ferry taking different directions. Some moved up the river, another larger force towards Charlestown. They would reunite in Berkeley County, make their way, some using rail, towards Bull Run/Manassas and fight in the first major battle of the war. Meantime the federal army under General Robert Patterson was, basically duped into remaining in the local region, not detecting the hurried movement of Johnston’s men to the Manassas battle location.

Douglas wrote: When Federal General Robert Patterson began to demonstrate from Hagerstown to cross the Potomac at Williamsport, General Johnston determined to evacuate Harper’s Ferry. I was with the regiment that marched to Shepherdstown to destroy the bridge over the Potomac at that point.

I was with the company that set fire to it, and when, in the glare of the burning timbers, I saw the glowing windows in my home on the hill beyond the river and knew my father was a stockholder in the property that I was helping to destroy, I realized that war had begun. I knew that I was severing all connection between me and my family and understood the sensation of one, who, sitting aloft on the limb of a tree, cuts it off between himself and the trunk, and awaits results.

Not long after I saw the heavens lighted up over in Maryland one dark night and knew that the gorgeous bonfire was made from the material and contents of my father’s barn, I saw that I was advancing rapidly in a knowledge of the meaning of war; and my soul was killed with revengeful bitterness. – (10)

As the armies inched closer to clashing, more men in Jefferson County enlisted – or at least tried to:

At Westwood near Summit Point, Hugh Nelson Pendleton’s son, Dudley Digges Pendleton, a half-brother to Col. Allen’s wife, Julia, was a graduate of Washington College. He had not yet realized his future wife “Tippie” Boteler. He enlisted June 19th into the First Rockbridge Artillery at Winchester, as war began to unfold. – (11).

At the Bower farm, sixteen-year-old Adam Stephen Dandridge wanted to enlist but was prevented by his concerned parents. On July 2nd, 1861, as the first area battle erupted in Berkeley County at Falling Waters, the cannon could be heard across the Valley with a different, strange effect on each individual who met the blasts. Wrote Dandridge’s daughter, Serena Dandridge, much later:

It was a piping hot July day, the first day of harvest in the long Terrapin Neck bottom, along the creek. The wheat was standing tall and fine that year, a heavy crop. Father was swinging the first cradle, and the colored cradlers were strung out in a long line beside him. He was only sixteen, but over six feet tall and wiry and tough. As the cradling went on, the sun’s heat beat down more and more fiercely. Suddenly the booming of cannon was heard from over the hills in the direction of Martinsburg.

Like an electric shock, the words – “The war has begun!” – ran through the field. Father said he saw one of the cradlers, a big strong colored man, give a yell and jump straight up in the air and fall down dead with sunstroke (It may be assumed that it was a heart condition. -JS). In the field, all was in confusion. Father flung his cradle down, and he and some of the boys got on horses and went off to join the battle. The dead man was carried home. The boys and horses were eventually corralled and brought back, the easier because the battle, which was only a skirmish, was over before they arrived. This was only the FIRST time Steve ran off to join the army.

When father was a young boy, The Bower was a busy and peaceful spot. He had learned to swim by being tossed into the flooded creek from the foot bridge by one of the older cousins, Phillip Pendleton Cooke, with orders to “swim you little devil.” The manly art of self defense was not neglected, and papa was a match for the best, black or white, but he says their bouts were always friendly. As the time of the Civil War drew near, excitement was in the air, and the boys made themselves bows and arrows and staged sham battles. One well-remembered day Steve dared the others to shoot at him, and one of the neighbor boys stepped up drew a bead on him quoting: “For Phillip’s right eye!” The arrow landed in father’s right eye. Of course the pain was terrible. Finally a cataract formed over the eye, and he was often in severe pain during the war. – (12).

NEXT: Chapterette 6. Click Here.